9,317 results for 1900

  • Seismic resistant design of base isolated multistorey structures

    Andriono, Takim (1989)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The Base Isolation technique and its benefits in reducing the transmitted earthquake energy into a structure has gained increasing recognition during the last two decades. This recognition is indicated by the application of Base Isolation systems to a large number of bridges, several multistorey buildings and some power plants in countries which have high seismic risk. Unfortunately, the currently available design procedures, especially for multistorey structures, seem inadequate and too restrictive and as a result present practice still relies upon a series of deterministic time history analyses which are not only impractical for design purposes but appear unable to give the designer a clear insight into the seismic behaviour of the multistory structure. This research is carried out to investigate in more detail the effects of various structural parameters and ground motion characteristics on the seismic response of Base Isolated multistorey structures. It also reviews the shortcomings of the current design methods. The results are then used to develop two simplified analysis methods for practical design. The first method which is called the Code-Type approach can be used to accurately estimate the inertia forces, not only at the level of the isolation devices but throughout the height of the multistorey structure. It is recommended for use as a preliminary design tool or even a final design tool for simple Base Isolated multistorey structures. The second procedure which is based on the Component Mode Synthesis method is suggested for final design purposes of more complex Base Isolated multistorey structures. This method enables the designer to evaluate the effects of the isolation devices on the contribution of each mode of vibration to the total response of the structure.

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  • Swaggers and society : a New Zealand experience

    Steven, Graeme D. (1979)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    The aims of this study are two-fold. First, to reach an understanding of the swagger, his lifestyle, and his outlook on life. And second, to investigate the relationships between the swagger and various groups in New Zealand society, in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The North Otago region was chosen as a base for the study because it has traditionally been regarded as one of the main swagger areas in New Zealand. The main town of Oamaru had a population of 4000 to 6000 in the 1890's, and was neither wholly urban or rural. As the service centre for the North Otago hinterland and a road, rail and sea centre, Oamaru had large numbers of itinerants, passing through the town. In the rural hinterland mixed cropping predominated, and this required large numbers of seasonal workers, which were drawn from outside the region. In Chapter One it is argued that rural itinerant workers were integrated into a rural structure that was both labour intensive and seasonal. Chapter Two discusses the characteristics which separate the swagger from other rural itinerants, which I have called, the "swag-carriers". In Chapter Three the conflict between the swagger and a developing bureaucracy, and middle class ideology in the late nineteenth century, is analysed. In Chapters Four and Five, the attitudes of rural and towns people towards the swagger are investigated. A model based on the value system of "reputation" and "respectability is used in Chapter Six to explain the ambivalence of attitudes towards the swagger, and to investigate an important aspect of the swagger psychology - his self esteem and his individuality.

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  • Myth and misunderstanding : The enigma of the Scottish Highland migrant to Otago/Southland, 1870-79

    Wilson, Megan Jane (1999)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    The major concern of this thesis is with the migration and settlement of assisted Scottish Highland migrants to the colony of Otago/Southland during the 1870's, particularly those that arrived under the auspices of the so-called 'Vogel Scheme'. Although the gold rushes of the 1860s had induced a number of immigrants to the region government judged that these individuals were not always of a 'suitable' type, hence Julius Vogel's 'Public Works and Immigration Act, 1870'. This Act, consisting of passenger assisted fares and nomination was instituted in the hope of attracting potential settlers away from the traditional destinations such as America as well as providing a workforce to complete desperately required Public Works. Following the identification of these migrants an attempt is made to trace their movements over subsequent years, thereby providing the reader with at least some sense of how the colony's settler population has been made. Although always a minority group Scottish Highlanders were generally looked upon with disfavour and they carried with them a centuries' old reputation for barbaric and uncouth behaviour. By providing brief biographies on several of those immigrants that were positively identified the thesis aims to provide an understanding of their lives and contributions to the development of the colony. In order to identify these immigrants the Otago/Southland (NZ.) Assisted Passengers 1872-1888 lists were consulted. The Otago Provincial Government Gazettes: Passenger Lists, 1986-1875 proved invaluable as well and fron1 there it was simply a matter of attempting to trace these individuals over the following years. The Postal and Street Directories, marriage registers and electoral rolls of the period provided further information necessary in tracking their subsequent movements. The major obstacle to identifying their whereabouts following arrival in the colony was the fact that many simply disappeared into the larger towns and cities, changed the spelling of their names, or spoke only Gaelic and could not write English; often original settlers were only identified through their children. Obscure local histories for towns such as Waitahuna or Fortrose were of particular interest as they provided insights into the characters of their settlers in the form of amusing stories and local feeling rather than just names and dates. Although there are numerous studies relating to the immigrant experience throughout the world, the plight of the Highlander and the even settlement of Otago, it is hoped that the following will provide some additional insight into one minority group that settled in the area. In a local context John Morris and Rosalind McClean have both tackled Scottish immigration. Both are general overviews of the Scottish phenomenon, however, rather than in depth analyses of a regional migration. It is hoped that although this thesis does not provide any earth-shattering discoveries it at least supports the more general assumptions made regarding the immigration of Scots to New Zealand and perhaps qualifies a number of mistaken beliefs about Scottish Highlanders. These assumptions include a tendency toward dishonesty, a well developed attraction to alcohol and a general disposition toward uncivilised behaviour.

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  • A History of Niue

    McDowell, David (1961)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    "In the beginning, this island now called Niue was nothing but coral rock (he punga)... There came a god, an aitu, from the south, a god sailed to and fro on the face of the waters. He looked down here and saw far below on the ocean the white punga rock. He let down his hook and hauled the punga up to the surface, and lo! there stood and island!" - John Lupo. The genesis of Niue remains conjectural. The Polynesian calls in a supernatural agency, an aitu from the south, to explain the emergence of the multiplication of corals and algae from the waters of the mid-Pacific to form an island two-hundred feet high, but the story of the god and his line and hook is a local adaptation of a very ancient and widespread fable, as are in varying degrees other Polynesian versions of the birth of the island, Cook advanced two further possibilities in 1777 when he speculated: "Has this Island been raised by an earthquake? Or has the sea receded from it?"

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  • Ecology and biology of the banded wrasse, Notolabrus fucicola (Pisces: Labridae) around Kaikoura, New Zealand.

    Denny, Christopher Michael (1998)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Notolabrus fucico/a, a large common labrid inhabiting shallow waters around New Zealand and Southern Australia, were collected monthly (Dec 1996 to Feb 1998) around Kaikoura. They were found to be pelagic synchronous spawners and followed the typical labrid spring-summer seasonal pattern of reproduction (July to December). Compared to other New Zealand labrids that are protogynous hermaphrodites, N. fucico/a was found to be a secondary gonochorist, where individuals change sex before maturation. Although two colour phases are present, they are a monochromatic species with males and females found in all size classes and colour phases (a ratio of females to males 1.6: 1 ). Sexual maturity is attained between 2 - 3 years old and they can live upwards of 25 years. There was no significant difference in numbers across time or depth for N. fucicola but a significant difference was recorded for size with depth. N. fucicola is a generalist predator with seasonal variations in prey items. There were size specific changes in the diet from soft to hard-bodied prey. Seasonal variations were also recorded in gut fullness and condition. They are a territorial species that are likely to defend areas for food or shelter, but not spawning.

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  • The Wellington urban motorway : the parts played by the planning authorities and the Bolton Street Preservation Society

    Miller, Richard Ogilvy (1969)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The inadequacy of our present planning system to accomodate at the critical stage participation of interested citizens in the control of their environment. A case history showing how the negotiations between the various authorities and the Bolton Street Cemetery Preservation Society, the route of the motorway, concerning demonstrates the truth or otherwise of the hypothesis.

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  • The development of amperometric biosensors for the detection of glucose, lactate and ethanol : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment for the degree of Master of Science in Biochemistry at Massey University

    Goh, Leong Peng (1996)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Amperometric biosensors, also commonly known as enzyme sensors or enzyme electrodes, are a growing and very progressive area of research. Biosensors are analytical devices that contain a biological sensing element connected to a physical transducing element. The physical transducer "senses" the change in the biological element as it undergoes a chemical reaction. The physical transducer then converts chemical equivalents from the enzyme reaction in a dependent relationship to electrical equivalents that can be measured. Biosensors combine the power of electrochemistry with the specificity of enzymes to produce sensors that are specific to particular enzyme substrates. Some have wide specificities and others are quite narrow. Considering the wide range of enzymes available, the choice depends on the end use of these sensors. The aim of the current study was to design biosensors for the detection of glucose, lactate and ethanol. The method for attaching enzymes to electrodes was based on the carbodiimide method. The carbodiimide method activates haeme which then is able to be covalently attached to enzymes. Enzyme-haeme conjugates were then allowed to absorb onto platinum electrodes by exploiting the knowledge that haeme can bind irreversibly to platinum by sharing pi-electrons with the d-orbitals of platinum. The enzymes involved were glucose oxidase, lactate dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenase. The use of flow injection analysis for evaluating biosensors was desenbed and was found to be a fast, efficient method and the results were highly reproducible. In testing electrodes, the results of the present study showed it was possible to obtain current response that was dependent on the concentration of substrate when these enzyme electrodes were used. A particularly significant result in this study was the achievement of current responses that were dependent on substrate concentration in the absence of NAD+ for lactate and alcohol dehydrogenases using the substrates lactate and ethanol respectively. There is however much work to be done to improve the success rate of making these enzyme electrodes. Several factors were found to cause variable results whilst making and using these enzyme electrodes, such as the absorption of unbound enzyme to the sensing surface of the electrode that may produce significant current response, the formation of aggregated haeme during the enzyme-haeme conjugation process and most importantly, and the ability to make successful enzyme-haeme conjugates to be absorbed onto the sensing surface of the electrodes.

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  • Bosnian refugees in New Zealand : their stories and life experiences, health status and needs, and the implications for refugee health services and policy : a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the degree of Masters in Business Studies (Health Management), Massey University

    Madjar, Vladimir (1998)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    New Zealand has been accepting refugees for resettlement since the 1940s and currently accepts a quota of up to 750 refugees per year. Although international literature demonstrates that refugees have substantial health needs, little research has been conducted in New Zealand. This study used a semi-structured interview guide containing a list of predetermined themes that were explored through open-ended questions. Twelve refugees from Bosnia, seven male (former concentration camp detainees) and five female refugees were interviewed in the setting of their choosing between April and October 1996. Findings indicate that though severely traumatised by their experiences, the respondents were not assessed for mental health during the comprehensive medical screening process at the Mangere Refugee Reception Centre. As with other aspects of the resettlement process, no follow-up of this group of refugees took place to assess how they were coping and adapting to the new surroundings since the completion of their orientation programme at the Centre. This, in part, may explain their lack of awareness of the service provided by the Refugees as Survivors Centre established some two years after their resettlement in the community. Though unsure of the long-term effect that their experience may have on their health, immediate and most common symptoms reported were headaches, irritability, persistent thoughts of the past, difficulty with sleeping, and nightmares. Believing that they would not be understood by those who had not been through the experience themselves, former concentration camp detainees have come to rely on each other for mutual support rather than other members of their family or any outsider who had not been through the camps. The majority of those interviewed said they had limited contact with the wider community which resulted in a sense of social isolation. Contact with other Bosnians has been retained, although contact with non-Bosnian immigrants from the former Yugoslavia, including those who arrived in New Zealand well before recent conflicts, has been avoided. Despite their ordeal, most of those interviewed seemed to enjoy good physical health. The reported use of General Practitioners and other health services was low. The major reported health need was dental, but dental care was largely not met because of the cost. Language and transport were not identified as major barriers to health care. This may have been mitigated by the availability of interpreters known to the respondents who initially also took them to the health care providers. No other barriers to health care were reported. Mental health services were not seen as a need by those interviewed, in spite of the symptoms reported. The findings of this study highlight the potential difficulties when an established ethnic group, from the country of origin, is selected as a sponsor, especially considering the cultural religious and political complexities of the former Yugoslavia. Greater consultation with the refugees themselves, speedier family reunification, orientation programmes that more closely reflected the character and background of the refugee group, and greater financial assistance, would have facilitated the resettlement process and minimised possible downstream personal, social and financial costs and in the long term, potential health problems. The major conclusion of this study is that refugee health and refugee health policy cannot be isolated from the total refugee experience (the pre-flight period, asylum and resettlement in a distant foreign country). This experience is characterised throughout by loss (of loved ones, homes and homeland), trauma and a lack of choice. An effective refugee resettlement and health policy must take these factors into account.

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  • Case studies in rural co-operatives: three studies of the organisation and management or rural co-operatives providing post-harvest facilities in the kiwifruit industry: a research report submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Agricultural Business and Administration at Massey University

    Beattie, Michael Ian (1983)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The co-operative ownership structure is one that is commonly encountered in New Zealand's agricultural industry. This type of organisation would appear to have a number of natural advantages that should make it very competitive in modern agri-business. However it is apparent at least some co-operatives have not lived up to their members' expectations. This research project has been undertaken to identify some of the problems of co-operative enterprise and to provide some possible strategies to improve their operation. This report examines the management and organisational practices of three co-operative enterprises providing post-harvest facilities in the Kiwifruit industry. The research follows a longitudinal case study approach, with each co-operative described in terms of the six dimensions of history, facilities, shareholding, direction, operation and finance. The material generated by the study is discussed within a framework of central issues, established from evidence of other co-operative activity, both in New Zealand and overseas. The report concludes with a description of some 14 common problems, and a discussion concerning the effectiveness of management and organisational measures that have been implemented as possible solutions. It then goes on to outline 10 general strategies that could be of significance in the improved operation of rural co-operatives.

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  • Continuum: the mixture's moment : presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in English at Massey University

    Goodwin, Anton Peter (1993)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis grew out of a simple observation. This was that in terms of sheer numbers, allusions to the bodily, the sexual and scatological in Continuum outweighed all other references. What is the significance of so much 'body language'? Is a simple 'listing' enough to show anything of interest? Certainly the specific body allusions have several characteristics in common. They often use strong, short and sometimes 'shocking' words; they use the idea of taboo to seek out new meanings; they are often alliterative or punning (and hence literary and conscious); they may often involve pain or release and spillage. This is their emotional or immediate function. We might infer that Curnow wishes to be 'all things to all men,' to have the sort of 'inclusiveness' approved of by a critic like Eric Partridge when he discusses the imagery of Shakespeare's plays. Time after time, critics have insisted on Curnow's willingness to face the 'reality of experience' or have commented that he seizes 'the reality prior to the poem.

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  • The politics of planning : a case study : the Christchurch Master Transportation Plan.

    Eng, Andreas (1968)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The process of amalgamation of the suburban local bodies of the Christchurch metropolitan area with the City ended with the incorporation of Sumner into the City in 1945. A brief account of the circumstances in which amalgamation took place up to 1945 offers an instructive commentary on the problem of local government reorganisation. The boroughs of Sydenham, St. Albans and Linwood amalgamated with the City in 1903 because the advantages of doing so were obvious and immediate. There were simply too many functions of common concern which could not successfully be dealt with except by an amalgamated local body. A high pressure water supply and a comprehensive method of sewage disposal were two such functions almost immediately undertaken by the new City Council. A poll of electors in each of the three relatively under-developed boroughs favoured amalgamation by a margin of better than two to one. Between 1903 and 1945 twelve more suburbs joined the City but the bulk of 'essential' reorganisation was completed with the accession of the suburbs of Bromley and Papanui in 1923.

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  • Comparative analysis of a pressure vessel finite element analysis versus speckle photography : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Technology at Massey University

    Wang, Zuping (1994)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    A detailed explanation and analysis are presented of the Finite Element Method used to solve the stress/strain situation in a small pressure vessel. A pressure vessel was modelled whose displacement characteristics were previously analysed using speckle photography. The Mystro/Lusas finite element software was used on a PC 486 computer system. A linear and static analysis was made. Contour plots of direct stress and shear stress distribution are presented which also show the highest stress areas. A comparison of the results from Finite Element Method and Speckle Photography Method as well as the pressure vessel design formulas are presented. Advantages of the Finite Element Method are discussed.

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  • Being safe & taking risks : how a group of nurses managed children's pain : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Nursing at Massey University

    Coup, Anne (1998)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    A small, grounded theory study was conducted in a children's surgical ward in a large, urban teaching hospital involving registered nurse volunteers. The purpose of the study was to investigate how nurses' deal with children's acute pain. Ten unstructured, but focused in-depth, taped interviews were conducted with five nurses. The constant comparative method as proposed by Glaser and Strauss (1967) and Glaser (1978) was used to generate substantive theoretical categories, a core category and basic social process. Analysis revealed that what nurses may want to do and what they can do when managing children's pain is not necessarily the same thing. A number of structural barriers to prompt and effective pain management were identified, such as doctors not always being available to write prescriptions, under prescribing or doctors even refusing to prescribe opioids for children at times. Lack of equipment for delivering continuous analgesic infusions meant that optimal methods could not always be used. The predominant method used was intermittent incremental intravenous doses of morphine, which appeared to provide poor pain control in many cases. The analgesic protocols the nurses were expected to follow were time consuming and impractical when they had several children needing analgesia at once. The nurses' solution to such dilemmas was to still act to relieve pain even when this involved some risk because the nurses' believed that the risk-taking was done responsibly, and that it was more important to promote the child's wellbeing. The types of risks they took included administering several doses of morphine in quick succession without always monitoring for respiratory depression, and altering prescriptions (but not in writing). Being Safe and Taking Risks emerged as a paradoxical core category, which reflected the pattern for the nurses' pain management decision-making and practice. It also emerged that a moral interest (Being Ethical) appeared to direct and connect the nurse's thinking and practice; they tended to do what they considered was in the child's best interests and believed that the benefits outweighed potential harms.

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  • A case study of the socio-economic development of Tovulailai : a village in Fiji : a thesis presented to the Department of Sociology, Massey University in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts

    Ratumaitavuki, Maciu (1981)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The 'Rural Development' programme in Fiji began about 1969, the eve of our independence, with the principal aim to raise the standard of living in the rural areas, in particular those who live in the villages. Consideration was given to involve the rural people closely and meaningfully with the planning, decision making and implementation of the programme. To date, because the need for development in rural areas is so great and due to the severe lack of skilled manpower, Fiji cannot do everything she requires especially in the areas of feasibility studies and research. This is why most of the works done in this areas were done mainly by expatriates who were in many instances, total strangers to the local scene and who may not have fully understood or appreciated the complex nature and the interwoven intricacies of the Fijian way of life. Compounding this problem is the lack of Fijian scholars who are interested in the areas of social research. The basic aim of this present study is to examine the development of the village people and also to stimulate Fijian scholars to become interested in studying the development of their own people, especially of those who are in the disadvantaged rural sector. This paper presents a case study of the socio-economic development of Tovulailai: a village in rural Fiji. The present study is an attempt to observe and explain the influences of the multiple outside forces, in particular those exerted by change agents and how these village people have responded and adapted to these social forces which are impinging upon them. The needs which the people of Tovulailai felt and expressed were fully identified together with the various problems why these needs were not being fulfilled. People in this village needed to raise their general standard of living; improve their level of education; their health and general sanitation; to facilitate their access to urban markets; need to increase their sources of income; the need for adequate housing; the need for transportation and communication and other infrastructural facilities. But, they cannot easily satisfy these needs because of the problems inherent in the present system. These problems are: the lack of good leadership; lack of education lack of good cultivable land; lack of access to urban markets; lack of good housing; lack of technical skills; lack of goods and services; lack of scientific agricultural techniques and low level of technology in the rural villages. The non-structured intensive interview and observation research methods were used by this study in its attempt to examine and explain how the people of Tovulailai village are responding to the impact of social change agents in their attempt to meeting their pressing needs as expressed above. Furthermore, an attempt is made to determine how change agents themselves achieved results and how the mechanism of change within the client system functioned in diffusing and communicating the process of social change and how clients attain their goals in passing from one social state to another. All these processes are fully discussed in the text. The implications of the study which can be used in other situations in Fiji are discussed in the concluding section of this paper. It is apparent that the central issue which emerged in the study is the very effective interaction between the change agents, the client system and the mechanism of diffusion of social change within the system to achieve the desired objectives in socio-economic development at the village level.

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  • Constructing a female saint : the gendered construction of the cult of Walpurgis, 9th to 14th centuries : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree Master of Arts in History at Massey University

    Merritt, Louise (1999)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    'And so I have written of these signs and wonders so that it may be understood what divine majesty the virgin brings about for the love of God and men through the recent elevation of relics from her tomb. But so far those most famous relics of the dear virgin have been spread out through the whole of kingdom of the Franks, and every day many and quite excellent miracles of glorification are brought about through our Lord Jesus Christ, who is with the Father and the Holy Spirit in eternal glory for ever and ever, Amen.'1 Haec itaque signa et prodigia hic nunc scripto comprehensa, quae Divina majestas in illa novitate sublevationis ex monumento corpusculi, Deo et hominibus amandae Virginis peregit, multum laudanda et admiranda sunt. Sed adhuc in diversis per totum Francorum regnum provinciis, quae ejusdem Virginis reliquiarum pignoribus illustratae constitunt, quotidie plura excellentioraque preaconio digna efficiumtr per Jesum Christum Dominum nostrum, cui est cum Patre et Spiritu sancto perennis gloria in secula seculorum Amen, Vita II S. Walburgis, ed. Godefridus Henschenius, Acta Sanctorum, Februarius Tomus III, 2nd edition, Paris, 1865, ch.20, p.552. [ Vita II] The numbering of the Vitae in this thesis follows the standard set in the Acta Sanctorum. The second Vita Walpurgis, written in the tenth century, testified to the remarkable rise of a female saint to a position of power and popularity. Walpurgis (ca. 710-779) was an Anglo-Saxon nun who joined the eighth-century Boniface mission to Germany and, with the help of her brothers Willibald and Wunibald, co-foundcd and eventually ruled the double monastery of Heidenheim. Her cult had its beginnings in the late ninth century, with the translation of her relics to Eichstätt, and the composition of the first Vita Walpurgis. Less than a century later, the Vita II could paint a picture of Walpurgis as a powerful saint whose relics were spread across Europe and widely venerated as foci of her miraculous powers. In the period of the ninth to the fourteenth centuries, Walpurgis came to posses an extended identity as intercessor and miracle-worker, protecting patron saint, daughter of a king, virginal bride of Christ, nurturer, producer of healing oil. Walpurgis thus cut a striking figure in the medieval landscape: she was a powerful female within a milieu of misogyny. This thesis therefore analyses the development of the cult of Walpurgis, and focuscs on the issue of gender to create an overall picture of the gendered construction of the cult of this female saint.

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  • A comparative study of the phosphorus characteristics of oil palm volcanic soils in Papua New Guinea and New Zealand volcanic soils : a thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Applied Science in Soil Science at Massey University

    Banabas, Murom (1998)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) grown on volcanic ash soils in Papua New Guinea (PNG) generally respond well to N fertilisers but shows a lack of consistent response to inorganic phosphorus (P) fertilisers. This is true even on soils with high phosphate retention (PR) and where Olsen P values highlighted in the preliminary survey of PNGOPRA field trial data are very low (90% to at least 60 cm depth). This study was done to characterise the PNG oil palm growing volcanic soils in relation to P responsiveness, to identify P fractions and their relative amounts, to determine the fate of applied P fertilisers and to compare chemical and mineralogical characteristics of PNG soils with some New Zealand (NZ) equivalent soils. Mineralogical analysis indicates that the PNG soils used in this study are relatively young as evidenced by the presence of very high amounts of readily-weatherable volcanic glass in the sand, silt and clay fractions. Soils at Hoskins, Kapiura and Bialla, all in West New Britain (WNB) Province, contain similar amounts and types of primary and secondary minerals. Soils at Bialla are probably older than those at Hoskins and Kapiura and contain large amounts of secondary amorphous minerals (allophane and ferrihydrite) in the clay fraction. Soils at Popondetta are different from those in WNB with high amounts of hornblende and no augite or hypersthene in the heavy mineral fraction. Allophane levels in the clay fraction are high to very high in soil surface layers at Hoskins and Kapiura and at all depths in Bialla soils. At Popondetta, allophane content is very low at all depths PR in all soils and at all depths was highly correlated with acid oxalate extractable Al (Alo) (r = 0.84*) and iron (Feo) (r = 0.89*). The sources of these 2 extracts (allophane and ferrihydrite) are largely responsible for the high PR in the soils studied. High allophane and ferrihydrite levels at all depths in Bialla soils correspond well with very high PR values ( >90%) to at least 2 m depth. Low levels of these 2 minerals in Popondetta soils correspond well with low PR values (30%). Intermediate PR values (60 - 70%) for Hoskins and Kapiura surface soils correlates well with the occurrence of intermediate levels of allophane and ferrihydrite. In all PNG soils, a P fractionation scheme showed that the major P fractions are organic. At Hoskins, NaOH-Po accounts for 38 to 48% of total P. For Kapiura NaOH-Po accounts for approximately 50% of total P, and Bicarb.-Po accounts for 59% of total bicarbonate-extractable P. For Bialla soils, NaOH-Po and Bicarb.-Po comprise between 74 and 76%, on average, of their respective total extracted P for all depths. At Popondetta, NaOH-Po comprises 62% and Bicarb.-Po 63% of their respective total extractable P contents. P fertiliser accumulation in Hoskins and Kapiura soils occurs mostly in organic forms and within the top 10 cm of soil. At Hoskins, 83% of total added P accumulated in the top 10 cm (53% being NaOH-Po) while 17% was found in the next 10 cm depth (31% being NaOH-Po). At Kapiura, 74% of total accumulated P was found in the top 10 cm of soil (61% being NaOH-Po) and 26% within the 20 - 30 cm layer (81% being NaOH-Po). The presence of amorphous minerals explains much of the behaviour of P in trial soils, with the major P source/sink in PNG soils being as organic forms. In relation to soil mineralogical and chemical characteristics, PNG soils were classified into one of the major 3 groups in terms of responsiveness to P fertilisers; (a) soils with very high PR (>90%) and Olsen P values of less than 4 mg/kg which are considered most likely to respond to inorganic P fertilisers e.g. Bialla soil, (b) soils with medium to high PR (60 - 70%) will likely show inconsistent responses to P fertilisers and P responses are most likely to be secondary to N e.g. Hoskins and Kapiura soils and (c) soils with low PR (30 - 40%) which are unlikely to respond to P fertilisers at least in the foreseeable future e.g. Popondetta soils. This study highlights a future need for further study of the dynamics of P nutrient cycling, specifically the mineralisation rates of organic matter and the release of Pi for plant uptake in PNG oil palm growing soils. Also there is a need to re-establish the leaf critical concentration because in PNG soils though leaf levels are generally less than 0.150% DM, palms do not always respond to P fertilisers. This suggests that the "critical" P concentrations under PNG conditions is probably less than the international standard at 0.150% DM. Mineralogical and P sorption characteristics of young volcanic ash soils in NZ are sufficiently similar to those in PNG to provide useful information about the general behaviour of P fertilisers and P reaction products in oil palm production systems.

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  • Knowledge and action in nursing : a critical approach to the practice worlds of four nurses : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in nursing at Massey University

    Hickson, Patricia (1988)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis provides an interpretive critique of the way in which knowledge is viewed, transmitted and crystallised in the practice worlds experienced by four registered nurses working in acute care hospital settings. The theoretical assumptions of critical social theory underpin both the methodological approach (case study) and the analysis of data. In-depth, unstructured interview, a critically reflexive dialogue between the investigator and participant focussed on the practice world experiences of the nurse, was the principle research method. A brief analysis of documentation was also undertaken. It is argued that previous studies related to nursing practice, and to the social worlds of nursing, have been limited by their failure to take account of the socio-political context in which nursing takes place. There has also been a tendency to treat the transmission of knowledge in nursing and nursing practice as a passive process of information exchange. No account of socially generated constraints on personal and professional agency, or of systematic distortions in communication within the practice setting are therefore given. The analysis of data in this study demonstrates the way in which constraints on personal and professional agency were experienced by each of the four participants. In particular, practice expressing the participants' professional nursing knowledge and values was often denied in the face of shared understandings reflective of the institutional ideology. These shared understandings included a belief in the legitimacy of medical domination over other social actors and the support of doctor, rather than nurse or patient, centred practices. The study demonstrates that the way that nurses and other social actors come to 'know' and interpret their social worlds is dependent on the socio-political context in which that knowledge is produced. It also shows how this knowledge may be treated as though it were 'an object'. This tendency to treat existing social relationships and practices as 'natural', hence unchallengeable masks possibilities for transformative action within the practice of nursing. It is argued that a particular form of knowledge is required if nurses are to overcome the types of constraint experienced by these four nurses. This knowledge, emancipatory knowledge, is that developed in the process of shared, socially critical self-reflection rather than solitary, self-critical reflection.

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  • Developing an integrated internet presence : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Technology at Massey University

    Lusk, Simon John (1996)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis aims to demonstrate a replicable process for creating an integrated internet presence. An integrated internet presence includes the use of the World Wide Web, Email, Email Lists and Newsgroups. Using the web alone is not using the medium either appropriately or to its full advantage. It has a business orientation, due to the fact that no non profit sites have been developed. Several concepts are dealt with in detail, including: What is the Internet? An Integrated Internet Presence Promoting Web Sites A Promotions or Selling Medium? Appropriate Use of the Medium Competitive Advantage A series of case studies designed to support these concepts form the second half of the thesis. The case studies are predominantly based on existing web sites developed by the author in the past year and a half. Those cases not based on developed sites have been chosen as they illustrate several concepts addressed. Due to the speed that technology is moving, a snapshot in time has been taken. The actual date of the chosen point in time, June 1996, is not as important as the sophistication of the browser. For the purposes of this thesis, the most widespread browser in use at the time of writing, Netscape Navigator 2.0 Netscape 2.0 may be found in Appendix 2, and run either from the CDRom or from the machine of the person viewing the CDRom, is the browser used.

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  • The binding of glycosaminoglycans to peptides : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Biochemistry at Massey University

    Taylor, Grant John (1994)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The overall aim this study was to examine the possibility of using immobilised polypeptide chains to fractionate/separate Glycosaminoglycans (GAG's) from mixtures. Initially individual samples of three GAG classes (chondroitin sulphate, dermatan sulphate and heparin) were characterised to establish purity and provide basic information. Once these samples had been characterised the samples were treated as standards. Three short poly-l-lysine (PLL) chains with defined length and orientation were synthesized. As a control a PLL chain with 633 residues was immobilised. The interaction of the GAG standards with these resins did not replicate published solution binding behaviour of longer PLL chains. This suggested a different mode of binding. The interaction of two lengths of PLL (126 and 633 residues) and the K8G peptide with the GAG standards in solution was investigated. These studies demonstrated that the mode of binding of GAG's to short PLL chains was radically different to the earlier reported solution binding studies. β-Strand dominates with the short PLL chains instead of α-helix established in the published solution binding studies. The interaction of two peptides PCI (264-283) and thrombospondin peptide with the GAG standards was studied using circular dichroism spectroscopy. In the case of the PCI peptide, each GAG induced different secondary structures. Chondroitin sulphate and heparin induced an α-helix, whereas dermatan sulphate gave β-strands. Heparin and dermatan sulphate induced double the amount of secondary structure compared to chondroitin sulphate. The strength of the interaction of GAG's with the peptide was also measured by the concentration of salt required to dissociate 50% of the complex. The figures for dermatan sulphate and heparin were found to be 0.1 and 0.3 M salt respectively. The binding of the GAG standards to the thrombospondin peptide did not elicit any detectable change in conformation of the peptide. Critical examination of published material on the interaction of GAG's (principally heparin) with short peptides, prompted the writer to propose two new complementary models. The first model examines binding in terms of the conformation of the peptide induced by binding to the GAG. It is composed of three components, the periodicity of polar and nonpolar residues within the peptide sequence, the spacing of pairs of basic residues and the spacing of pairs of acidic and basic residues. This model is successfully able to rationalise the binding behaviour of a number of GAG/peptide interactions in terms of the dominant secondary structure and the biological activity. The model is able to make a number of specific predictions. The second model examines the strength of the interaction between heparin and peptides containing the proposed consensus sequences for GAG binding sites. A significant correlation between the binding strength and an attribute derived from the sequence of the peptide was found using only one assumption. The assumption was that the peptides in the correlation bound to heparin with significant levels of β-strand. For the first time it is possible to rationalise the behaviour of GAG/peptide interactions in a coherent manner. The design of peptides that are capable of binding to specific GAG's now seems possible.

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  • Bureaucracy and professionalism in an educational organisation : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Education at Massey University

    Shaw, Brian (1971)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The development of human societies has been in essence a development of forms of social organisation. In modern societies, social organisation is complex, diverse, and characterised by conditions of industrialisation, division of labour, urbanisation, and the aggregation of individuals into large organisations with specific purposes. One form of social organisation which has developed to maintain social relationships in such conditions is the bureaucracy. Bureaucracies as structures, or systems of rational procedures deliberately set up to achieve specifically prescribed social ends, affect to some degree the lives of all citizens of modern societies. Educational organisations are bureaucratised to varying degrees, and the rapid and accelerating demand for popular education suggests that bureaucratisation is likely to be a dominating characteristic of education in the future.

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