9,388 results for 1900

  • From subject to device, history as myth in action : the evolution of event from mythic processes as revealed in Waterfront Dispute fiction

    Matthewson, Claire C. (1986)

    Post-doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    This analysis of selected New Zealand works defends the evolving function of history as fiction-material. It is intended to establish that purpose and treatment alter, as time further separates the writing and the event. The general change is one of development from subject to device properties. In tracing history's evolving role and treatment in fiction, analysis identifies history's eventual source - shown, in fiction, to be mythic and subjectively conceptual.

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  • Stratigraphy, structure and geological history of mid-Cretaceous sedimentary rocks across the Torlesse-like/non Torlesse boundary in the Sawtooth Range-Coverham area, Marlborough.

    Ritchie, D. D. (1986)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis describes the geology of an approximately 100km2 area lying between the Clarence River and Kekerengu. The objectives were to determine the relationship of the "Torlesse-like" sawtooth Group to the late Early Cretaceous Coverham Group; to determine the relationship between the coeval Split Rock and Burnt Creek Formations within the Coverham Group; and to investigate the nature of Cretaceous events which led to the traditional differentiation into older Torlesse type "basement" and younger Cretaceous "cover". Geological mapping indicates the presence of three packets (Glencoe, Pikes and Coverham Blocks) of sedimentary rocks separated by the major Ouse and Pikes Faults. These packets comprise probable submarine fan flysch, massivE? sandstone, massive siltstone, acid tuffs and conglomerate of Sawtooth Group (Torlesse-like Urutawan - Motuan) unconformably overlain by probable slope basin flysch, massive siltstone, Inoceramus shellbed, and conglomerate of Coverham Group (non-Torlesse). The unconformity is most commonly angular but in a few places is a more subtle paraconformity. A further minor unconformity occurs at the base of the Ouse Member within the Split Rock Formation of the Coverham Group and is thought to reflect the presence of the growing Ouse Anticline. The Coverham Group rocks have similar Motuan - Teratan ages on each side of the Ouse Fault. The Split Rock Formation, previously used only for rocks in the middle Clarence Valley, has been extended to the Coverham area and used for rocks west of the Ouse Fault. The partly coeval Burnt Creek Formation east of the Ouse Fault was probably deposited some distance from the Split Rock Formation in a different basin separated by a structural high. They were juxtaposed by low angle reverse movement on the Fault in the Late Cretaceous. structural/deformation characteristics cannot be used as criteria for separating the Torlesse-like rocks from non-Torlesse rocks in the study area. It is dangerous to assume that 'Torlesseness' is a certain and particular state of deformation. Both the Torlesse (Sawtooth) and Coverham Group rocks exhibit a whole spectrum of deformation from 'broken formation' to more or less undisturbed beds. The pattern of deposition and deformation suggests an accretionary prism setting for these rocks. Sawtooth Group rocks are likely to represent 'younger' Pahau Terrane rocks which were deformed by a single intra-Motuan event either tectonic or perhaps a huge submarine slide, creating widespread unconformity between them and the Coverham Group slope deposits. Continuing instability is likely to have led to growing folds and further minor unconformities. The termination of the Rangitata Orogeny occurred in a progressive and evolutionary way representing a mid-Late Cretaceous change from a compressional subduction regime to a tensional rifting regime. Andesitic-rhyolitic volcanism was common in the late Early Cretaceous.

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  • Women's attitudes toward menstruation : a quantitative survey and qualitative interview investigation : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    Fitzgerald, Bridget, M.A. (1990)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Menstruation plays an important role in the psychology of women. There is, however, little information about the nature of women's attitudes toward menstruation. The present study used a quantitative survey followed by a series of qualitative interviews to explore these attitudes in a sample of University women in New Zealand. The Menstrual Attitude Questionnaire (MAO) was used to assess the attitudes and beliefs of 343 women. The psychometric properties of the MAO and its underlying factor structure were examined using a range of factor analytic models. Responses were then used to select a sample of 1O women for interview. Interviews were conducted in order to elaborate upon the attitudes identified by the MAO and to examine in more depth the nature of women's attitudes toward menstruation. Factor analysis of the MAO yielded five orthogonal factors. Results suggested that these university women perceived menstruation as: Marginally causing physical, emotional and intellectual changes, a natural event, an inconvenience and slightly disrupting their usual performance and activities. Subjects accepted the existence of premenstrual tension. Similarly, interviews revealed that attitudes were multidimensional with each subject having an individual configuration of positive, negative and neutral beliefs about menstruation. No consistent pattern among the different beliefs was established. Furthermore, it would appear that attitudes towards menstruation may not be acquired from direct experience but may be learned through social expectations. Directions for future research are indicated, particularly the importance of qualitative research.

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  • The effectiveness and results of the New Zealand official development assistance education and training programme to the Philippines : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Development Studies at Massey University

    Inoncillo, Ninia P (1997)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The role of education in the development of any given society is, beyond doubt, central, and crucial. When developing countries began their drive for social and economic development more than three decades ago, education was perceived as a means not only of raising political and social consciousness, but also of increasing the number of skilled workers and raising the level of trained humanpower. There is nothing new in a developing country seeking help from the developed countries who fund scholarships, trainings and programmes. The effects of these scholarships, trainings and programmes on the developing countries is much an open issue for study. This thesis examines the outcomes and effectiveness of an educational aid programme in the Philippines. Its central purpose is to determine and evaluate the New Zealand Official Development Assistance (NZODA) Education and Training Programme for the Philippines. This entails an examination of the social and private benefits, as well as the costs accrued to the recipients and donor country were also looked at. The NZODA educational aid for the Philippines was further analysed in relation to the general aid objectives of gender bias, rural and urban development, and equal development of private and government institutions. The study found that there are many social, economic and technological benefits that are derived from the programme and that accrue to the recipients and the donor. Further, the programme has brought about many substantial changes both in the social and economic development of the Philippines. The programme has not only increased the number of highly skilled employees but has increased as well the social and private rates of returns. Moreover, it was found that expansion of educational aid in the Philippines would be profitable for both the Philippines and New Zealand. In general, the programme is effective, but, because the results of the programme are faced by many constraints, there are a big number of things that need to be improved.

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  • Lactose hydrolysis by immobilized whole cells of K. lactis CBS 2357 : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Technology in Bioprocess Engineering at Massey University

    Marasabessy, Ahmad (1999)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The application of immobilized yeast for lactose hydrolysis was investigated. The enzyme stability was tested as a function of pretreatment. The stability of K. lactis CBS 2357 cells after treatment with glutaraldehyde (GA) and the β-galactosidase activity of whole cells after immobilization in alginate bead and corn particles were studied. Permeabilization using ethanol and chloroform (10% and 2%, respectively) at 37 °C and 120 rpm for 5 min, followed by stabilization with 10 mM glutaraldehyde at 30 °C for 1 hour with gently shaking deactivated 2.5% of the initial whole cells β-galactosidase activity, tested with the ONPG method. The glutaraldehyde treatment could significantly maintain β-galactosidase activity in phosphate buffer pH 6.5 containing 0.1 mM MnCl2. Manganese and potassium ions in the Mn-Buffer were found to be essential to enhance the activity. The biomass activity of GA stabilized cells in Mn-Buffer can be maintained above 70% during 72 hours of incubation at 30 °C. An increase of incubation temperature from 30 to 37 °C deactivated 10% of biomass activity after 72 hours. Direct stabilization of alginate biocatalyst with glutaraldehyde caused a significant reduction of β-galactosidase activity with the resulting deactivation depending on glutaraldehyde and alginate concentrations. When 40 g of biocatalyst containing 2x109 cells/g alginate was stabilized in 100 ml of 0 to 4 mM glutaraldehyde, the optimum range of glutaraldehyde concentration was between 0.5 to 1.0 mM. When this concentration range was applied to stabilize 2%- to 3%-alginate biocatalyst, the average biocatalyst activity remained within 56-74% of the initial activity. It was shown that the adsorption of K. lactis on corn particles through a "double liquid cultivation stage" followed by permeabilization of biocatalyst gave a higher activity. The activity obtained was 0.84 μmol lactose hydrolyzed /min/g biocatalyst under the conditions tested. This activity was about 5 times higher than the case without permeabilization and about 2 times higher than that of the permeabilized biocatalyst prepared with a "single liquid cultivation stage". When tested in the packed-bed reactor, during the initial stages the degree of hydrolysis (d.h.) was 45% within the operational conditions tested. Free enzyme was detected during the first 5 hours of operation, especially when non-stabilized corn biocatalyst was used. After 5 hours, free enzyme was no longer detected in the reactor outlet, suggesting that direct adsorption might have rendered good cell confinement inside the corn particles.

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  • The learning process of access trainees : an investigation of study motives and strategies : a research report presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Business Studies at Massey University

    Mbanga, Basil Adam (1989)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The study applied Biggs' Study Process Questionnaire to the context of transition education in an investigation of the approaches, motivations to learn and strategies trainees in Access Training Scheme used in their learning. Respondents were also asked information about their age. sex, educational qualification, ethnic origin and how long they had been without a job. Three training centres in Palmerston North city were chosen.The first centre conducted a course in drama, the second, a course in Maori language and culture, and the third, a course in basic computer skills. The Study Process Questionnaire was administered to 33 subjects, 16 males and 17 females. The Study Process Questionnaire is concerned with three main approaches to studying and their three associated motivations and strategies. Surface Appproach is dominated by extrinsic motivations where a learner concern is with obtaining a qualification. The study strategy involves memorising and reproducing when required in a test. Deep Approach is linked to intrinsic motivation dominated by intrinsic interest in the subject or task. Students under this motivation tend to search for meaningful learning and read widely. Achievement Approach is governed by achievement motivation and is associated with a desire to compete and obtain higher grades. Learners predisposed to this approach tend to schedule their time and do homeworks. Trainees studied to express the use of Deep Approach more than Surface or Achievement Approaches. Accordingly they were inclined to be deep motivated and predisposed to adopt deep strategy to surface or achievement strategy in their study. A follow-up interview with 11 trainees tended to confirm the findings of the Study Process Questionnaire. It was concluded that the Access trainees in the sample were likely to adopt deep approach in their study. This suggests that they are inclined to be intrinsically motivated in their learning and may be predisposed to engage in meaningful learning.

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  • Gulliver and other monkeys : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in English Literature at Massey University

    Henman, Jim (1993)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The distinctions between tragedy, satire and comedy, as with the lines severing madness from genius, are blurred and uncertain. The purpose of this essay is to further smudge, and where possible to erase, the artificial divisions within these two sets of notions, and thereby create more confusion. Throughout I shall refer to the life and work of Swift, and in particular Gulliver's Travels, as neat examples of the chaos intrinsic in these diverse, yet related, concepts. As Aristotle exemplified the principle of the tragic, using Sophocles' Oedipus Tyrannos, saving why it is sad or tragic in his opinion, so I hope to say why I feel Gulliver's Travels to be predominantly funny or comic, and attempt to explain the principle of the comic in a like manner, with digression upon other works as has seemed appropriate to the illustration of the subject. Throughout I shall use the term 'comedy' in its broader sense, as referring to the comic, rather than in its technical sense of comic drama.

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  • In defence of behaviourism : a Skinnerian reinterpretation of Stenhouse's ethological theory of intelligence, supported by a Galilean philosophy of science : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Education at Massey University

    Southon, Lawrence David (1977)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis attempts to justify a Skinnerian interpretation of intelligence. The justification has three major themes. Firstly it is argued that Skinnerian behaviourism has the status of scientific knowledge comparable to Newtonian mechanics. Secondly it is argued that Stenhouse's ethological theory of intelligence has a number of defects, so that a behaviourist theory which retains the strengths of the ethological theory while avoiding those defects is to be preferred. Thirdly it is argued that certain widely received accounts of scientific knowledge are mistaken; an alternative account is presented. This venture into philosophy of science underlies the other two themes and is presented first. The supposition that science may be represented in terms of general laws of the form 'All swans are white' is critically examined, following Toulmin's analysis which is illustrated with three exemplars of scientific knowledge. A Galilean ideal of science is then elaborated. The ideal is formulated in terms of scientific knowledge following Toulmin, and illustrated with three exemplars of scientific knowledge. The processes of revolutionary science, normal science, technology, and justification of theories, are interpreted in terms of the ideal alluded to above with further illustrations. Convergences with de Bono's 'lateral thinking' are suggested. Criticisms of statistical 'social science' are noted. The conventional contrast between physical and social science is critically examined. A formulation of Skinnerian behaviourism is presented, to demonstrate that behaviourism conforms to the Galilean ideal of science. Various criticisms of behaviourism are responded to. The proposed criteria for justification of theories are applied to behaviourism. Stenhouse's ethological theory of the nature and evolution of intelligence is criticially examined. The divergent development of ethology and behaviourism from reflexology is outlined. Skinner's critique of Pavlov's concept 'inhibition' is applied to Stenhouse's 'P-factor'. The use of metaphors in science is discussed. De Bono's 'special memory surface' is noted as an alternative to the usual mechanical or electronic storage systems as a metaphor for memory. Skinner's analysis of the nature and evolution of intelligence is elaborated. Stenhouse's factors and especially the P-factor are reinterpreted in behaviourist terms. It is argued that a behaviourist theory of intelligence is preferable to Stenhouse's ethological theory in terms of the Galilean ideal of science. Educational and political implications of various philosophical and theoretical positions are also noted.

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  • Soil water regimes of the Glendhu experimental catchments

    Miller, Blair J. (1994)

    Honours Dissertation thesis
    University of Otago

    The Otago block mountains are important water supply areas with their abundant water yield attributed to conservative water use by narrow-leaved snow tussock (Chionochloa rigida), the dominant vegetation cover of the region. This study looks at three aspects of the soil hydrology of the Glendhu experimental catchments, east Otago, New Zealand: soil water regime changes following afforestation of the tussock grasslands; a comparison of soil water regimes with topographic position in order to identify possible saturated overland flow generation sites; and some characteristics of a peat wetland that is typical of those that occupy gullies in the region. Several sites were set up in the forested and the tussock catchments, and depending on position, contained tensiometer nests, neutron probe access tubes and water table observation wells. Data were collected betw.een 29/3/93 and 19/5/94 and revealed much drier conditions under forest cover, with saturation not occurring in the A horizon throughout the study period. Using tussock catchment sites for topographic comparison, a downslope increase in water content was found on the interfluve, while saturation persisted for longer periods of time at headwall sites where subsurface convergence resulting from the concave planar morphology occurs. Wetland water tables only fluctuated 27.5 cm during the study period, and do not appear to be sustaining the high baseflow that occurs from the catchment.

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  • An evaluation of in-service training : women in management 1978-1980 : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Education at Massey University

    Steele, Jill (1981)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This report is an evaluation of the National In-Service training courses for Women in Education Management, run by the Department of Education from 1978 to 1980. Five courses were held during this time, but the first course had a follow up with the same membership, so for evaluation purposes these first two courses are considered as one. The study used the Stake model for evaluation. This model provides a systematic framework for collecting data about a programme and further suggests how the various sections of data should be matched against the others. Interviews, discussions, a mailed questionnaire, attendance at a Course and observations were methods used to obtain this data. 1975 was International Womens' Year and during this year the Department of Education co-sponsored with the Committee on Women at Victoria University, a conference entitled, "Education and the Equality of the Sexes". Following this Conference interest and awareness of the anomalies and unequal distribution of women in positions of education administration became more widely recognised. An Interim Committee on Women and Education was set up. This body made representation for special courses for women in education management training. In 1979 this committee was recognised as a National body and became inaugurated as the National Committee on Women and Education (NACWE). One way to redress the imbalance of women in education management positions was thought to be to have special women - only management courses to train women in education management skills. Women needed to learn these skills in a supportive atmosphere and because of this, it was felt that an all-women course would be more useful and supportive than one where women had to 'compete' with the men as well as learn their new management skills. The courses had three specific objectives: (1) To train women in specific management skills (2) To study issues particular to women as managers (3) To prepare a group of women to become resource personnel in education management programmes in their own regions and districts. This study examines the rationale for the Women in Management courses, looks at the three course objectives and examines the outcomes of the courses. Discussion of these outcomes follows and recommendations for future development are given.

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  • Gastrointestinal infection in a New Zealand community : a one year study : a thesis presented in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Microbiology at Massey University

    Wright, Jacqueline Margaret (1996)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Diagnostic medical microbiology laboratories detect and identify pathogens in submitted specimens. The techniques used should maximise the detection of pathogens (sensitivity) while minimising the number of tests for their detection (efficiency). To achieve the best compromise between sensitivity and efficiency, it is necessary to have information on both the relative prevalence and clinical importance of various pathogens within the relevant community, and the relative efficiency of various detection techniques. This investigation had three primary objectives: to establish what pathogens were associated with community-acquired gastrointestinal symptoms in the Eastern Bay of Plenty, and the incidence and relative importance of each; to compare the merits of various methods for detecting these pathogens (in those cases where more than one method was available); and to collect data from patients so as to identify potential sources and/or risk factors for infection. 997 faecal specimens from 716 episodes of illness were tested over a one year period. Patients completed a questionnaire on symptoms, and food and environmental exposures. Using one or more standard techniques, the specimens were tested for bacteria and parasites which may cause gastroenteritis. Specimens from young children were also tested for the presence of rotavirus. The incidence rates of the various pathogens, expressed as a rate per 100 000 persons per year, were as follows: Blastocystis hominis, 358; Campylobacter species, 208; Giardia lamblia, 158; Yersinia species, 87; Cryptosporidium parvum, 67; Salmonella species, 62; Aeromonas species, 62; Dientamoeba fragilis, 29; Plesiomonas shigelloides, 21; Escherichia coli (E coli) O157, 4; Vibrio cholerae non-O1, non-O139, 4; and Shigella species < 4. Faecal specimen macroscopic form, microscopic findings, season, and patient age showed little correlation with the presence of specific pathogens. Consequently the tests selected for the detection of pathogens in faeces should not be based on any of the above parameters. Furthermore, the symptoms associated with parasitic and bacterial infections were similar, so it is not possible to select the appropriate tests on this basis. The presence of rotavirus in patients older than five years was not investigated so incidence in the general population can not be calculated. A study of all age groups for the presence of this organism would be appropriate. From the above findings, and an evaluation of the literature, it is recommended that all specimens should be examined for the following organisms and, on the basis of our observations, the most cost-effective method is shown in brackets: Salmonella (selenite enrichment subcultured to xylose lysine desoxycholate agar); Shigella (none were detected, so a cost-effective medium could not be determined), Campylobacter (5% sheep blood agar supplemented with 32 mg/1 cefoperazone); Yersinia (Yersinia selective agar (YSA), plus selenite enrichment subcultured to YSA); Giardia lamblia (detection of antigen); Cryptosporidium parvum (detection of antigen). While routine testing for E coli O157 is not recommended, laboratories should have the capability to test for this pathogen if a patient presents with haemolytic uraemic syndrome, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura or unexplained bloody diarrhoea. Likewise, routine culture for Vibrio species is not recommended; however, laboratories should test specimens using thiosulphate citrate bilesalt sucrose agar if the requesting clinician suspects cholera, or the patient has a recent history of shellfish consumption. A trichome stain for Dientamoeba fragilis is recommended for patients with chronic gastrointestinal symptoms who are to be investigated for neoplastic and other non-infectious conditions. Pathogenic parasites other than those noted above were not detected. However, since such organisms are isolated in New Zealand, usually in association with overseas travel or institutionalisation, it is recommended that a trichrome stain and a faecal concentration technique should be performed on specimens from all cases of gastroenteritis who have recently travelled overseas or who are institutionalised. Close liaison between the laboratory and the clinician is essential to ensure appropriate selective testing for these less common pathogens. The presence of Blastocystis hominis and Aeromonads should be reported, but the report should note that their pathogenicity is uncertain. Dientamoeba fragilis and Plesiomonas shigelloides are probably pathogenic, but further work is needed to clarify this point. Correlation of data from the questionnaires and the laboratory findings identified the following risk factors: (the relative risk, 95% confidence interval and p-value are shown in the brackets). Campylobacter species: consumption of unpasteurised milk (4.67,2.39 - 9.11, p = <0.001); Salmonella species: overseas travel (7.20, 1.67 - 20.9, p = 0.040), eating a barbecued meal (4.55, 1.37 - 15.12, p = 0.026), eating shellfish (3.80, 1.18 - 12.21, p = 0.032); Yersinia species: consumption of water from a home supply (3.46, 1.32 - 9.10, p = 0.016), handling cattle (4.88, 1.73 - 13.76, p = 0.008), handling sheep (14.80. 4.93 - 44.46, p = 0.001); Giardia lamblia: consumption of unpasteurised milk (3.93, 1.63 - 9.46, p = 0.011), attendance at a day care centre (2.70, 1.17 - 6.27, p = 0.033), handling cattle (3.39, 1.59 - 7.22, p = 0.005), handling horses (5.27, 1.85 - 14.97, p = 0.002); Cryptosporidium parvum: consumption of water from a home supply (5.08, 1.88 - 13.71, p = 0.002), consumption of unboiled water from a natural waterway (3.97, 1.29 - 12.24, p = 0.031), attendance at a day care centre (3.30, 1.06 - 10.22, p = 0.054), handling cattle (5.41, 1.88 - 15.58, p = 0.006), owning a cat (4.50,1.02 - 19.91, p = 0.029); Plesiomonas shigelloides: eating shellfish (13.67, 1.44 - 130.13, p = 0.020); and Dientamoeba fragilis: consumption of unboiled water from a natural waterway (7.46, 1.71 - 32.48, p = 0.019). The risk factors suggest the value of the following precautions to prevent gastrointestinal infection: maintaining a high standard of both personal hygiene (particularly in the rural environment) and environmental hygiene in areas that food is prepared; avoiding consumption of untreated water or unpasteurised milk; cooking animal-derived food thoroughly - especially barbecued food and shellfish; and washing hands thoroughly after animal contact. Persons with diarrhoeal symptoms should take particular care with personal hygiene. Those travelling overseas should be conscious of the risk associated with the consumption of food and water which is not properly cooked or treated. These findings should assist New Zealand laboratories to optimise their approach to the detection of faecal pathogens and should also assist in formulating policy for prevention of infection by enteric pathogens.

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  • Evaluation of dry blending for infant formula manufacture : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Technology at Massey University

    Zhao, Zheng (1989)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Blending experiments and storage trials were carried out to assess the feasibility of manufacturing infant formula through dry blending of high fat whey powder (HFWP) with whole milk powder (WMP) or a base powder (BP) made from skim milk, sucrose and corn oil. An indication of cohesiveness of the components of the blends was obtained by measuring compressibility using an Instron testing machine. Compressibility decreased in the following order: BP, wmp, HFWP, lactose and ascorbic acid. Particle size determination using a laser sizer indicated that the particle size increased in the above sequence. Scanning electron microscopy revealed no evidence of an ordered mixture for either whey powder with milk powder or the powders mixed with ascorbic acid. The mixtures did not exhibit complete randomness and segregation. They are thus termed 'pseudorandom mixtures'. HFWP was blended with WMP or BP to achieve a target ratio 50:50 in both an experimental ribbon blender and a pilot ribbon blender. Using Response Surface Methodology, load ratio and mixing time but not rotation speed were found to have significant effects on the homogeneity with the experimental ribbon blender. At load ratio 0.4, the time for reaching a certain homogeneity was shorter than that at load ratio 0.8. The cohesiveness of BP impaired its mixing. A mixing index based on a satisfactory sample standard deviation has an acceptable value of 1. Both powder ratio scores and ascorbic acid level could be mixed below a MI of 1.5 but above 1. As to protein, fat, carbohydrate, the mixtures reached the acceptable MI. The secondary nutritional requirements such as the ratio of whey protein to casein and the ratio of unsaturated fatty acid to saturated fatty acid were above 1 when the powder ratio MIs were higher than 1. After mixing WMP and HFWP for 10 minutes differences of sensory quality could not be detected by the taste panelists even though the MI was still above 1. Unblended and blended samples of WMP and HFWP were tested through a 180 day storage trial at 20°C, 30°C and 40°C. There was no significant difference between unblended and blended samples on the criteria of TBA, PV, HMF, oxidised flavour and caramel flavour at the 5% probability level. Using the Arrhenius approach, at 20°C, the shelf lives of unblended and blended samples were estimated as 1628 days and 1090 days respectively, with an oxidised flavour limit of 3.5 out of 7 points. The shelf lives were 480 days and 466 days based on a PV limit of 2 milliequivalents O2 per kg fat. Dry blending is a feasible technique for manufacturing infant formula, with acceptable homogeneity of the main components of the blended samples and with normal storage stability. The cohesiveness of the components and the design of blender are important factors in improving homogeneity. Further trials are recommended in both experimental and commercial plants.

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  • Frequency of occurrence of novel milk protein variants in a New Zealand dairy cattle study population : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Biochemistry, Massey University

    Burr, Richard Gordon (1996)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Since the discovery of genetic polymorphism within milk protein genes, a considerable volume of research has been published relating milk protein genetic variants and milk production properties. Polymorphism of milk proteins can result in two effects: (a) changes in the biological and physico-chemical properties of systems containing the variant protein, (b) changes in the synthesis level of variant proteins. As a result several studies of milk protein variants have identified phenotypes which may be commercially advantageous for specific products. Currently employed methods to determine milk protein phenotypes are generally limited to electrophoretic techniques. The gel electrophoretic techniques commonly used are able to detect most milk protein variants that differ by their net electrical charge. However single amino acid substitutions that result in a change in net charge account for only 25% of the possible substitutions that could occur. The remaining 75% of potential variants are the result of a neutral residue substituted by another neutral residue - a 'silent' variant. Thus it is likely that some substitutions, and hence genetic variants have gone undetected in the past. The purpose of this study was to develop new methods for determining the phenotype of milk proteins, and to determine the frequency of occurrence of silent or other novel variants in a New Zealand dairy cattle study population. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), free zone capillary electrophoresis (CE), peptide mapping by reverse-phase HPLC and electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) were used in the characterisation of milk proteins purified from 109 individual dairy cows. Three different PAGE systems were used. Alkaline-urea PAGE enabled the detection of α si-casin variants B and C, β-casein variants group A (variants A1, A2 and A3) and B, and K-casein variants A and B in the study population. Beta-casein variants A1, A2 and A3 were subsequently resolved in an acid-urea PAGE system. The whey proteins were very poorly resolved in PAGE systems containing urea. Alpha-lactalbumin A, and β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) variants A and B were resolved in a non-denaturing 'native' PAGE system. The frequencies of the various milk protein variants corresponded closely to figures previously published. A free zone CE method that is able to resolve β-LG variants A, B and C was used to check the phenotype of purified β-LG samples. Three samples previously typed as β-LG BB were subsequently determined to be β-LG CC; one sample typed as β-LG BB was re-assigned as β-LG BC. This highlighted the limitations of PAGE systems for the detection of known variants. Tryptic hydrolysis of purified casein proteins and β-LG, followed by reverse-phase HPLC separation of the resultant peptides was used to create peptide 'maps' of the hydrolysis products. Differences in peptide maps were noted between protein variants. The differences corresponded to peptides containing a substitution site. All samples analysed in this way contained more peptide peaks than expected. Analysis revealed that some were the result of incomplete digestion; others the result of chymotryptic-like cleavages. No aberrant peptide maps, indicative of a silent mutation, were detected. Purified casein proteins and β-LG were subjected to ESI-MS for mass analysis. The mass of each protein species was determined as follows: Protein Average mass Std. dev. as1-CN B-8P 23614.9 Da 1.2 Da as2-CN A-11P 25228.9 Da 1.5 Da β-CN A1-5P 24023.9 Da 3.1 Da β-CN A2-5P 23983.5 Da 1.8 Da β-CN B-5P 24092.6 Da n.d. k-CN A-1P 19038.8 Da 1.5 Da k-CN B-1P 19003.8 Da n.d. β-LG A 18362.6 Da 1.0 Da β-LG B 18277.0 Da 0.9 Da β-LG C 18287.2 Da 0.6 Da In all cases the experimentally determined mass corresponded to the mass calculated from published primary sequences of milk protein variants. In addition to the expected β-LG variant in each mass spectrum, additional species were detected differing from the mass of the β-LG species by increments of approximately 324 Da. Although less pronounced, the +324 Da molecular weight species were also detected in a sample of β-LG purchased from the Sigma Chemical Company. The additional species were also detected in whey prepared by ultra-centrifugation, although at a much lower level. The 324 Da molecular weight adducts observed in ESI-MS spectra of purified β-LG are consistent with an addition of a lactosyl residue to the protein. The observation that these species remain after heat denaturation, reduction and RP-HPLC treatment suggest that the linkage is covalent. Lactulosyl-lysine is known to form in milk products during some processing conditions, particularly during heating. The observation of these glycated species in gently treated, unheated milk suggests that glycation may occur to some extent in the udder of the cow. The association of the 324 Da molecule with β-LG does not alter the charge, molecular weight or hydrophobicity sufficiently to be detected by PAGE. CE or RP-HPLC.

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  • Financial analysis of MAFTech bull beef investment opportunity : a research report presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Business Studies at Massey University

    Cowley, Anna Margaret (1989)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    MAFTech has established an investment opportunity whereby a nonfarming investor can provide the capital required to farm bull beef. The farmer and the investor share the returns from the investment, with the investor having a first charge over the proceeds received from the sale of the beef up to the amount of the initial capital injection. This type of investment scheme differs from more conventional form of investment. However, in order to compare this scheme with the more common forms of investment it is necessary to evaluate it to enable an optimal investment decision to be made. Hence the market for the production of bull beef is appraised. The risk involved in this investment is outlined and a sensitivity analysis to changes in price and weight conducted. Using this risk and return information a comparison with other investments is then made.

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  • Forms and transformations of soil manganese as affected by lime additions to a central yellow-brown earth in the Wairarapa District, New Zealand : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Agricultural Science in Soil Science at Massey University

    Rathakette, Pagarat (1973)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The application of liming materials to New Zealand agricultural soils for the purpose of increasing the productivity of pastures is an important soil ameliorative treatment. Specific benefits accruing from lime additions are thought to include the improvement of soil structure and moisture retention characteristics, increased supply of essential plant nutrients, and increased activity of desirable soil microorganisms. Much attention in New Zealand has focussed on the relationship between lime addition and the resultant increased plant availability of soil Mo. The lime and/or Mo requirement of New Zealand soils have been reviewed by During (1972). Recently, however, it has been suggested (N.D. Grace, pers. comm.) that pastures on certain Wairarapa hill country soils can contain a sufficiently high content of the trace element Mn to impair the health and performance of grazing animals, particularly sheep. Such observations have been reinforced as a result of preliminary field trials indicating improved ewe fertility and growth rates of lambs following the application of lime to these soils. Further, the controlled feeding of supplemental dietary Mn to young sheep has been shown to depress their growth rate. It is well known that the addition of lime to acid soil generally results in decreased availability of soil Mn for plant uptake. However, there is very little information for New Zealand soils on the amounts and forms of native soil Mn and the types of transformations resulting from lime application. The present field experiment was initiated to investigate the chemical forms of soil Mn in a typical unlimed Wairarapa hill country soil ( Purimu silt loam ) and to follow any changes in these forms, for a period of one year, following broadcast application of several rates of lime addition. When possible, bulk herbage samples were collected and analysed in order to assess changes in Mn content resulting from lime application.

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  • A general survey of education on Niue : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Education at Massey University

    Tauevihi, Niuaviu (1977)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The primary purpose of the thesis is to survey the provisions for education which began with the London Missionary Society Schools and eventually in 1952 the Government Administration assumed responsibilities towards developing a full quota of primary education. Secondary education at Niue High School followed in 1956, with a Teachers Training Centre in 1958, both of which constituted provisions for post-primary education, supplemented by higher education made available in New Zealand and other overseas institutions. Niue's educational provisions will continue to become dependent on New Zealand in opportunities for higher education, in educational policies, for financial aid and to a less extent for the vocational courses designed to furnish Niue's manpower requirements. Part II deals with the relationships between education, manpower needs and economic development in which ideas are explored within the Niuean context. This scrutiny indicates that the education provisions are not well related to the manpower needs of Niue as a politically self-governed state. The Government Administration and in general the Niue Public Service are adequately catered for, but not so in economic development and manpower needs. Irrelevancy in education provisions resulted in social disorganisation which is a direct effect of Nuieans emigrating to New Zealand to seek employment, and to a greater extent utilise the skills that were learnt in the classroom. The key ideas in the series of education planning are examined and recommended for the future are proposed with particular respect to Agriculture, School Curriculum, and Adult Education.

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  • Phase manipulation of speech using FIR digital filters

    Stephen, R. D. C. (1987)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Three related investigations involving the fields of FIR digital filters, phase manipulation of speech, and speech coding via bandwidth compression are reported. The first investigation is aimed at providing a means of generating the impulse response coefficients of a non-linear phase FIR digital filter. Existing methods of designing linear-phase filters are discussed and compared from a defined common comparison base. The methods available for designing non-linear phase filters are examined. An existing linear phase design method is extended to the non-linear phase case and shown to be useful. The required impulse response length in the presence of non-linear phase is studied. Particular emphasis is placed on "random phase" filters and their generation because they are required by the second investigation. The second investigation examines in detail the ramifications of phase randomising a speech signal. The analytic zero representation of speech which forms the underlying base on which the discussion, and answers, are based is elucidated. The technique of using a non-linear phase FIR filter is shown to be feasible and as a minimum, offers at least the same level of performance as a very early reported technique. Significant differences in the behaviour of male and female speech is demonstrated. The third and final investigation reports some early and incomplete experiments on a radically different approach to achieving band width compression and expansion of a signal. The technique is referred to as "phase unwrapping". It is based on the application of a linear phase FIR digital filter in an adaptation of the traditional convolution relation. The motivation and validity of the basic idea is outlined and justified via application of the procedure to simple sinusoids and one experiment using real speech. The fundamental problem to be overcome is identified and the basis of a possible means of solution indicated.

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  • Cliff erosion and coastal change, mid Canterbury.

    Flatman, Michael R. (1997)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The mid Canterbury coast has been largely neglected in the coastal research of the South Island's East Coast. This thesis investigates cliff erosion and coastal change in mid Canterbury. The mid Canterbury coast is comprised of mixed sand and gravel beaches with unconsolidated alluvium cliffs landward of the beaches. The average erosion rate of the cliffs is 0.43m.y( 1 • This rate masks spatial and temporal variations in cliff erosion rates. Erosion at the northern section of the study area is 0.7m.y( 1 faster than erosion at the southern end. In the long-term (15 years) cliff height is the major controlling factor on the spatial variations of cliff erosion (r = 0.733). Beach volume controls short-term (1 year) spatial variations of cliff erosion (r = -0.774). Coastal storm frequency significantly controls temporal variations of cliff erosion (r = 0.635). Erosion of the mid Canterbury cliffs yields 228,339m3 .y( 1 to the coast. Longshore sediment transport is predominantly in a northward direction and provides a net sediment quantity of 40,645m3 .y( 1 • The mid Canterbury coast is bisected by two major rivers, the Ashburton and Rangitata. Their specific sediment yields are among the largest in the world. Sediment yields of beach forming material (coarse sands and gravels) are much lower supplying 25,000 and 28,000m3 .yr- 1 of sediment to the coast. The mid Canterbury coast has a sediment budget deficit of 27,500m3 .yr- 1 • Major sources of sediment to the mid Canterbury coast are cliff erosion (70 per cent), river transport (17 per cent) and longshore sediment transport (13 per cent). Major sediment sinks include offshore transport through abrasion (76.8 per cent) and longshore sediment transport (23.2 per cent). The large amount of sediment lost through abrasion suggests that sediment, once it arrives on the coast has a short 'life span' before it is ground up. Total beach sediment volume varies significantly from year to year but is losing 27,500m3 .yr- 1 of sediment on average.

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  • The Provision of Free and Frank Advice to Government

    Voyce, Evan Williams (1996)

    Master of Public Policy thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This paper examines the extent to which New Zealand public servants feel able to offer free and frank advice to the Government through Ministers of the Crown. It seeks to define the nature of constitutional conventions; the importance of the free and frank convention to the preservation of an apolitical, independent public service and how and where this convention is captured in the "rules" governing the behaviour of both public servants and the Ministers they serve.

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  • The Impact of the Official Information Act 1982 on the Policy Development Process

    Poot, Edward H. (1997)

    Master of Public Policy thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The Official Information Act was passed into statute in 1982. Among the purposes of the Act is the enhancement and respect for the law and the promotion of good government. The aim of this paper is to detennine, from a participation perspective, the impact of the Official Information Act 1982 on the core public sector policy process. The paper starts with a background to the Act before reviewing the expected and actual impact of the Act, as outlined in the literature. The policy making process in New Zealand' s core public sector is considered, highlighting opportunities for participation. Participation theory is discussed. The research involves a survey across the core public sector to gain general views of the impact of the Act on the policy development process. The results are used as the basis for three in-depth case studies of core public sector agencies. The conclusions are that while the Act is an important instrument of accountability, the success of the Act in enabling more effective participation is not so clear. While information is more readily obtainable, technocratic officials and Ministers keen to control information impact on the ability of citizens to participate. It is concluded that for the Act to be of maximum benefit education of officials and a loosening on the control of information will be needed.

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