9,550 results for 1900

  • Variation in the grain properties of maize hybrids with different grain hardness characteristics and their response to nitrogen fertilizer in terms of milling quality : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Agricultural Science in Plant Science (Seed Technology) at Massey University

    Patwary, A.N.M. Mahbubur Rahman (1995)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The proportion of grits and flour produced during the dry milling of maize (Zea mays L.) grain is related to the ratio of hard to soft endosperm. The quality standards required vary widely with different end uses, and for dry milling a hybrid with a 'hard' endosperm will usually yield the highest proportion of grits. The texture of the maize endosperm is variable and depends on the maize hybrid and agronomic conditions. In general the available literature showed protein concentration of the grain can be improved by nitrogen fertilizer application, and as the protein content increases, the amount of hard endosperm increases along with value to the miller. A field trial to investigate the effect of nitrogen fertilizer on grain yield and quality, especially grain protein content and hardness, was carried out at the Frewens block, Massey University in the 1994/95 season. Three maize hybrids (P3751, P3787 and A82-8 xNZ84) with three different endosperm textures (soft, intermediate and hard) were grown at two sowings (October and November) with three different nitrogen levels (0, 250, 500kg urea/ha). Urea fertilizer was applied as a side dressing and split into three application times, i.e. at the three leaf stage, at canopy closure and at the 50% silking stage. Plant growth and development were measured by counting the leaf number and leaf appearance rate, formation of the black layer and grain moisture dry down for each hybrid. Grain yields and yield components were measured for different nitrogen treatments at both sowings. Grain protein content was measured from total nitrogen percentage as determined by the Macro Kjeldhal method. Grain hardness was measured by a Stenvert Hardness Tester, while bulk density and grain moisture content were measured by a grain analysis computer. The total number of leaves per plant was greater in hybrid A82-8xNZ84 than hybrids P3787 and P3751 at both sowings, but rate of leaf appearance was faster for the November sowing than the October sowing. Formation of the 'black layer' (i.e physiological maturity) and moisture dry down rate was faster in hybrid P3787 than in hybrids P3751 and A82-8xNZ84 at both sowings. Grain yield was significantly increased at both sowings by the application of 250kg/ha urea, but not by the 500kg urea/ha treatment. Hybrid A82-8xNZ84 gave the highest yield and P3787 gave the lowest. The main yield components which differed between hybrids were number of grains per cob and 100-grain weight. Grain protein content increased progressively in response to the applied nitrogen fertilizer. Protein percentage increased from 8.81% in the control to 10.13% for 500kg urea/ha in the October sowing, and 8.72% in the control to 10.13% for 500kg urea/ha in the November sowing. At both sowings all three hybrids contained the highest amount of protein at the highest urea treatment i.e. 500kg urea/ha. Increased nitrogen application improved grain hardness. For those grains grown under higher nitrogen levels grinding resistance time, energy required for grinding and milling duration time were higher than grains grown when no urea was applied. Grain bulk density (test weight) increased as nitrogen increased. Hybrids A82-8xNZ84 and P3787 had higher grain hardness under the high nitrogen treatment than hybrid P3751. There was a strong, positive relationship between grain protein content and Stenvert Hardness Test parameters at both sowings. When nitrogen was applied grain contained a higher amount of protein (which presumably made grain harder) than the no applied nitrogen treatment. Inherent endosperm texture was not changed by the increased protein percentage as the soft endosperm hybrid did not show an improved hardness, but the intermediate and hard endosperm hybrids showed an improvement in this regard. Results from both sowings indicated grain yield, protein and hardness quality can be improved by applying nitrogen fertilizer. This has implications for dry milling, where hard grain is a necessity for higher grits recovery.

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  • The significance of gender and sexuality : a study of discrimination and equal employment opportunities policy in the state sector : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Social Work at Massey University

    Raven, Anthea (1991)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The purposes of this study are twofold. The first is to look at the experiences of lesbian social workers in order to describe the themes and patterns characteristic of discrimination within the context of their professional and employment status in the state sector. The second is to examine whether the policy of Equal Employment Opportunities for women in the Department Of Social Welfare adequately addresses discrimination against lesbians, and the extent to which the needs of lesbians can be met within the existing framework of the policy. It has been proposed in this study that discrimination against lesbians in the workplace is a real and tangible source of oppression termed 'heterosexism'. Lesbian social workers' employment experiences indicate that these are qualitatively different from those of heterosexual women. Analysis of these experiences relies upon an understanding of the historical social, sexual and economic dynamic of male power over women. Heterosexuality has been emphasised as the only acceptable sexuality and therefore, an institutionalised form of control over all women's lives. One of the consequences of this control is the denial of the existence of lesbianism. This is because lesbianism represents an independent and alternative lifestyle and family structure. While this threatens the traditional male defined nuclear family relations it also challenges the view that women should be treated as economically dependent upon a man. There is strong evidence to suggest that gender is a significant determinant of employment opportunities. Thus, there is a clear basis for recognising women as a target group for special attention under an Equal Employment Opportunities policy. However, this study challenges the assumption that the needs of all women can be adequately addressed within the context of a hetero-relational model. For example, it is argued here that the underlying criteria for access to employment opportunities is based on conformity to traditional gender roles and stereotypes. This reinforces women's economic dependency on a man and a male controlled labour market. The view that women's equality should depend on their social, sexual and economic relations with men is therefore questioned. In contrast it is argued that lesbians should be able to benefit from their social, sexual and economic independence from a man and that any measure of their employment position in relation to men is a measure for all women. The radical potential for Equal Employment Opportunities policy for all women may well depend upon the inclusion of lesbians and their legal protection from discrimination.

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  • The origin and evolution of urban form in Wanganui East, Gonville and Castlecliff : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Geography at Massey University

    Dickson, Thomas Gordon (1970)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The decision to study the urban form of Wanganui East, Gonville and Castlecliff (Plates 1,2 and 3) was made in 1968 after discussions with Mr. Ross, the then Town Planner for the City of Wanganui. Tho topic was chosen for two reasons. It was felt that the results could provide an insight into the evolution and nuture of the suburbs concerned, which would be of use to the City Planners. In addition it allowed for study in depth of concepts which appeared to be of considerable relevance not only to the geographer, but to the community as a whole. The three suburbs were selected because they alone within the present Borough of Wanganui had once existed as separate towns (see AppendixA), and it was thought that because of this they might exhibit distinctive characteristics in their physical form. This hypothesis appeared to be supported by a preliminary investigation of the material available. Concomitant with this assumption and resultant hypothesis was the belief that it was in any case important to examine and identify the elements of form in urban areas. It was felt that these, if investigated properly, could be helpful in correcting some of the problems inherent in the suburbs, and in New Zealand towns in general.

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  • The seasonal and spatial dynamics in the phytomacrofaunal communities of Lake Henley, Mastert : a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Ecology at Massey Universityon

    Miller, Rosemary Jean (1995)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Spatial and seasonal dynamics of macrophyte beds in Lake Henley, a shallow artificial lake in Masterton, were examined between June 1993 and June 1994. Observed fluctuations in macrophyte biomass were linked with changes in filamentous algae associated with the weed beds. Invertebrate communities associated with submerged macrophytes were also examined at multiple sites between June 1993 and June 1994. Overall community composition was related more to seasonal influences than differences between sites within the lake. However, species richness and abundance did differ spatially. Recommendations for the ongoing management of Lake Henley, including management of the macrophyte beds and the maintenance of water quality and quantity, are made with respect to the ecological characteristics of the lake. The influence of trophic status on macrophyte invertebrate communities was also explored with a survey conducted in May 1994 of 13 other lakes in the North Island. Nutrient enriched lakes were characterised by phytomacrofaunal communities with high abundance and higher numerical dominance, whereas nutrient poor lake phytomacrofaunal communities were characterised by lower abundances but higher diversity of some taxonomic groups, particularly insects.

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  • Christa Wolf, Kein Ort, nirgends : an analysis : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in German at Massey University

    Byers, Greg (1984)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Some German throughout.

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  • The social and psychological effects of the Ruapehu eruptions within the Ohakune community : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    Millar, Marian (1998)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Page 7 is missing.

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  • Geographie und Utopie : die Suche nach dem Ort in Günter Eichs Lyrik : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in German at Massey University

    Jackson, Irene Charlotte (1980)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis probes the rôle and significance of Geography and Utopia in Günter Eich's poetry. Throughout his four main volumes of poetry a clear pattern of geographical contraction and expansion becomes apparent. In essence, the very wide and indefinite geographical concepts (such as the world, the wind, the clouds etc.) of his first snail volume 'Gedichte' contracts into the more specific, definite and localized names of individual places throughout Germany in tha first of his major volumes 'Abgelegene Gehöfte'. With the confinement theme of his 'imprisonment poems' the geographical contraction reaches its climax in an 'epicentre' pinpointed in a very small area around the Rhine. This geographical contraction interestingly closely parallels the poet's own personal 'contraction' (his physical confinement behind barbed wire) and his emotional-spiritual 'contraction' (withdrawal into a state of utter despair). From this generalized brough the geographical pattern moves back into an expansionary phase. From this point onwards (i.e. throughout the last three volumes) one notices a gradual expansion of geographical names to embrace the whole of Germany, then Europe and finally the wider world. However this movement of geographical names is not paralleled in the emotional-spiritual sphere. Instead it is this time counteracted by Eich's gradual withdrawal into his private world, seeking refuge in a self-created 'ivory tower', as symbolized by the 'Steingarten' in "Anlässe und Steingärten". The geographical expansion culminates notably in the ultimate distintegration of geographic names in his later poems, signifying the depth of Eich's apparent total disregard for and disinterest in this imperfect world. Günter Eich delivers a significant message about the nature and meaning of his poetry in a talk entitled "Der Schriftsteller vor der Realität" ("The writer before Reality"). Included in this is the statement (reproduced in the original German on page 1): "I write poetry to orientate myseif towards the truth. I regard them as trigonometrical points or as buoys which mark the course into an unknown area." Not only does Eich supply us with such a direct statement of his search for the true Reality (i.e. his 'Utopia' perhaps) but he uses geographical terminology to convey his meaning and - within the selected poems - a geographical 'explorer' theme in his unsuccessful attempt to complete it. Not finding this lasting 'Utopia', his true reality, through a dream-like regression into Nature, he goes in pursuit of it into 'this human world'. As his "trigonometrical points or buoys" he initially shows a preference for small isolated places, again indicating Eich's possible expectation of the nature of "the unknown area" he is relentlessly and almost obsessively seeking. Perhaps predictably, it is neither here nor anywhere else in 'this world' that he is able to find his Utopia, which presumably only death ultimately can reveal to him. 'This world', therefore, localized and pinpointed in terms of geographical places, presents itself more and more as a modern 'locus terribilis' - a reality in ruins, in contrast to the longed-for harmonious and united Utopia. Günter Eich comes closest to his Utopia through an apparent transcendence of the world through natural geographical heights and finally in his (self-created) 'ivory tower' world (symbolized by the very artificial and barren 'Steingarten', which at the same time is a reflection of what the world has become to him). Ironically it took a world-wide search (geographically-speaking) to enable him to come across these Japanese Stonegardens, again re-emphasizing the primary role of Geography and its link with Utopia in his poetry. The developed pattern of geographical names and places thus becomes a symbol of Eich's search for the 'actual Truth' the Utopia, which increasingly reveals itself as a 'U-topos', namely (and significantly) a place which does not exist here on earth. In fact this is startlingly illustrated by the final explicit disintegration of the geographical names he uses. Another inter-related observation is quite fascinating. Graphically represented, the geographical pattern of contraction and expansion can be seen in terms of a 'V'-formation. This structural form appears to symbolize 'the free flight of birds' (which parallels the notion of omniscience behind Eich's 'ornithological motif') and maps out a trigonometrical entity which again stresses the rôle and importance of Geography and its relationship to Utopia in the poetry of this ever-searching explorer-poet.

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  • A viscometric study of rheological interaction between selected commercial dairy proteins and selected gums in aqueous solution : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Technology in Food Technology at Massey University

    Kotaratititam, Wichai (1991)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Rheological interaction between solutions of four selected gum (locust bean gum (LB), sodium carboxymethycellutose (CMC), lambda-carrageenan (CR), xanthan gum (XN)) and solutions of four dairy proteins (sodium caseinate (SC), whey protein concentrate (WPC), coprecipitate (TMP), whey protein isolate (WPI)) were studied by steady shear viscometry using a Bohlin VOR Rheometer at 25°C, natural pH and natural ionic strength. The rheological properties of mixed solutions were greatly influenced by presence of gum, gum concentration and gum type. Rheological synergism, with no obvious shear rate dependence, occurred between LB and SC, LB and WPC, LB and TMP, CMC and all dairy proteins, CR and WPC, CR and TMP, and XN and WPC. The degree of synergism, which was determined in a new way, was relatively much greater with TMP. The results are discussed in terms of Ca2+ bridging for TMP synergism and in terms of electrostatic and molecular space occupancy effects for SC, WPC and WPI synergism. No significant interaction occured between LB and WPI or between CR and SC or between CR and WPI or between XN and SC or between XN and TMP or between XN and WPI. Quantitative measures of synergism in mixed solutions prepared from 0.5% gum solution and 6.0% dairy protein solution were in close agreement with similar measures of synergism in mixed solutions prepared from 1.2% gum, 10.0% daily protein and distilled water. Rheogical synergism was found to be unrelated to phase separation in the mixed solutions provided the phases remained intimately mixed. The relevance of this work to the use of the gum-dairy protein mixtures as rheologically-functional food ingredients is discussed.

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  • The thin end of the wedge : the 1970 South African tour controversy

    McKegg, William Amos (1990)

    Other thesis
    University of Otago

    In 1981 as a bewildered third former I marched up Queen Street in Auckland to protest against the Springbok tour. At the time I knew it was for the better good, yet the next day at rugby practise I had trouble explaining why. Sporting contacts with South Africa has been a source of curiosity ever since, hence my reason for choosing a South African tour debate. 1970 was chosen for the simple reason that other major controversial tours have been done and, as it happened the 1970 issue turned out to be a crucial year for New Zealand and South African sporting relations. [Extract from Preface]

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  • The inter-country diffusion of pharmaceutical products

    Cullen, Ross (1981)

    Post-doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    A major debate has raged over the existence and causes of a phenomenon known as "drug lag". Protagonists in the debate have argued that the U.S.A. is typically late to receive new pharmaceutical products because of the very lengthy delays imposed by F.D.A. regulations before new products can be launched on the U.S. market. Supporters of the. F.D.A. have denied the U.S.A. suffers from a drug lag while proposing alternative explanations for its existence. In this thesis attempt is made to resolve the debate by investigating the pattern of inter-country diffusion of pharmaceutical products. Hypotheses are postulated and tested in an attempt to provide answers to four fundamental questions posed about inter-country diffusion. These questions are: 1. What factors determine the speed of diffusion of pharmaceutical products? 2. What factors determine the extent of diffusion of pharmaceutical products? 3. What factors determine when pharmaceutical products are launched in each country? 4. What factors determine how many pharmaceutical products are launched in each country? A survey of the relevant literature on diffusion of innovations reveals that profit-related variables are consistently useful explanators of diffusion patterns. The tenor of the hypotheses postulated for testing in this thesis is that firms in this industry strive to launch products in a manner designed to maximize their contributions to profits. The diffusion patterns between 18 countries, of 190 products first launched on to the world's markets between 1956 and 1976 are examined to test the hypotheses and thus provide answers to the four questions listed above. Statistical analysis is undertaken to test the hypotheses. There appears to be relatively little evidence to support many of the hypotheses tested about speed and extent of diffusion. However there is considerable evidence that the speed of diffusion of products, after their first launch, has increased steadily throughout the period studied. Deeper investigation suggests the typical time between discovery of products useful properties, and their typical times of availability on the worlds markets may have remained almost constant throughout the twenty one year period studied. Pharmaceutical companies may have acted to compensate for increasingly lengthy delays before products are first launched, by more rapid subsequent launch of products. The number of products which are launched in a country and the magnitude of the delay before they are launched in each country appear to be relatively predictable. Both of these parameters appear to be strongly influenced by countries levels of development. Countries with high health expenditures per capita, appear to receive more produces, more rapidly, than do lower expenditure countries. Interest ultimately focuses on the question of drug lags and the affects of regulations. Drug lags are shown to exist for the U.S.A., Japan and some other countries. When the period studied is divided into two sub-periods relatively strong correlations are shown to exist between ratings of regulatory tightness in markets; and changes in the numbers of products diffusing to markets and changes in mean times before products are launched in markets. Regulations do appear to exert considerable influence on the patterns of inter-country diffusion of pharmaceuticals in the latter part of the period studied.

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  • 'Black Diamond City' a history of Kaitangata mines, miners and community 1860-1913

    Bamford, Tony (1982)

    Honours Dissertation thesis
    University of Otago

    Coal mining is an industry about which people have held and still hold a number of misconceptions. Much of this fact lies purely in lack of understanding for it seems coal mines have always been shunned by the wider community. Isolation however is perhaps an aid to historical analysis for curiosity often prompted investigation even if many of the views expressed were still prejudiced. Similarly, miners, as a group, tended to operate outside the normal social realms of neighbouring societies. But although similarities existed between coal mining communities in a number of areas such as occupational patterns and basic institutions associated with the industry, these settlements cannot be lumped into one basket. Coal mining towns were as different from one another as any non-mining settlements were different from others. This thesis is concerned with such differences. It is concerned also with the pattern of development of such a town. The community, industry and group of people under observation is that of a small town of Kaitangata.[…] Kaitangata was one of the earliest mining settlements in New Zealand, and developed into Otago and Southlands largest coal mine. It had become firmly established by 1880 as a major industry, so that by the turn of the century Kaitangata had become a very permanent settlement, exhibiting quite ‘normal’ demographic characteristics.[…] [Extract from Introduction]

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  • Response of kiwi to a range of baits and lures used for pest control in New Zealand : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Ecology at Massey University

    Ward-Smith, Tamsin Elizabeth (1998)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The primary aim of this thesis was to assess the palatability to North Island brown kiwi (Apteryx australis mantelli) of a range of non-toxic baits and flavours used to lure baits. During the wild bait trials incubation patterns of nesting male kiwi, chick behaviour and the presence of predators at the nesting burrow were recorded. A new 'improved' ground laid 1080 paste was also tested on a range of non-target bird species. All ten captive kiwi fed at least once on at least one bait type (i.e. carrot, No.7, RS5, apple pulp, and paste) but did not prefer any to their usual artificial diet. Wild kiwi did not feed on any bait type placed outside the nest entrance, but may have ingested apple pulp, or paste when they probed these baits. Results indicate that cereal-based baits are the safest bait type to sow aerially in kiwi habitat, while apple pulp baits are highly acceptable to kiwi. Cinnamon, aniseed, orange and clove flavours did not significantly attract or deter captive kiwi from feeding on portions of their usual diet. Insufficient flavoured cereal No.7 baits were eaten to determine whether any bait and flavour combination affected kiwi response to these baits. No wild kiwi fed on any cinnamon or orange flavoured No.7 cereal baits placed outside the nesting burrow, but kiwi did probe these baits. Incubating male kiwi left the nest once each night, except for two kiwi which sometimes left the nest twice in a night. One of these sometimes made three trips from the nest in a night. The active period of kiwi did not appear to be influenced by the number of times they emerged in a night. Male kiwi tended to spend less time away from the nest when chicks were due to hatch, following which they increased the time spent away. Possums, rats and mice regularly visited kiwi nests, but did not deter males from incubating, or harm kiwi eggs or chicks. Five species - robin, saddleback, blackbird, pukeko and weka, fed on a non-toxic cinnamon-lured form of 1080 paste. Species other than those mentioned rarely landed on the ground and therefore encountered paste infrequently. Captive weka found the paste highly palatable, while 24% of robins and possibly half of a pukeko family fed on the paste. All bird visits to the paste baits declined after the first day of exposure. Recommendations are made on the safe laying of paste baits in areas where robin, saddleback, weka or pukeko are present.

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  • Response of cow's milk composition to changes in environmental temperature : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Agricultural Science at Massey University

    Bandaranayaka, Dennister Dias (1971)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The need for greater production of animal proteins in the developing countries stems from two factors. Protein deficiency among growing populations due to a wide gap between production and consumption and the continuing demand for the conventional proteins despite the availability of synthetic substitutes French 1970. Studies with regard to the nutritional properties of dairy products Henry 1957; McGillivray and Porter 1960. McGillivray and Gregory 1962 showed that the (protein) fraction of milk was well balanced in the essential amino acids enchancing their nutritive value. Milk production at the desired levels has not been possible in humid and arid regions of the world due to a variety of technical problems chief of which have been the choice of dairy breeds and the availability of good quality pasture, Payne 1957. Cattle breeds indigenous to these regions are poor milk producers. They are slow developing, late maturing animals with short lactatious, long dry periods and poor milk let down; factors which probably contribute to their higher heat tolerance, a character incompatible with high milk yields Mahadevan and Marples 1961. In the United States of America Red Sindhi and Brahman breeds were used in cross breeding programmes aimed at evolving a heat tolerant high producing dairy breed for the gulf coast areas. The first generation Jersey Sindhi and Jersey Brahman crosses not only produced less milk than their contemporary pure Jerseys, but also lacked persistency and a suitable dairy temperament; which were in fact heritable. Brandon McDowell and Brown 1966. These observations do not preclude however the advantages of cross breeding for higher milk production in the tropics Legates 1966; Salazar 1968. Although early ventures using temperate breeds of cattle for milk production in the tropics have shown results of a disappointing nature Payne 1957, given near temperate conditions found in tropical uplands these breeds could respond well. Trail 1968; Yung Chen Chia 1966.

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  • Some aspects of molybdenum halide chemistry

    Gainsford, G.J. (1969)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Chemical and X-ray crystallographic studies of molybdenum(II) halides, which are based on the well-known (Mo₆C1₈)⁴⁺ cluster, have been carried out. Contrary to previous reports, the reactions of 2,2'-bipyridyl with the halides (Mo₆C1₈)C1₄ and (Mo₆C1₈)I₄ yield, even under mild conditions, bipyridylium salts of chloromolybdic(II) and iodomolybdic(II) acids respectively: (BipyH)₂((Mo₆C1₈)X₆) where X = C1, I and Bipy = 2,2'-bipyridyl. The reactions are complicated by the formation of mixtures of products, which are mainly various crystalline forms of the bipyridylium salts. An amorphous product may be a true mono-bipyridyl complex. An unusual oxidation occurs during the reactions of triphenylphosphine (Ph₃P) and triphenylarsine (Ph₃As) with (Mo₆C1₈)C1₄ and (Mo₆C1₈)I₄. Infra-red spectral and X-ray powder photographic studies show that the oxidized ligand complexes, (Mo₆C1₈)x₄(Ph₃Z0)₂ (X = Cl, I; Z = As,P), are formed except under conditions in which both molecular and chemically-bound oxygen is rigorously excluded. The conditions required to coordinate more than two neutral unidentate ligands to the (Mo₆C1₈)⁴⁺ cluster have been examined. It proved possible to obtain new ionic complexes under a range of conditions. The six-fold coordination of the (Mo₆C1₈)⁴⁺ cluster is maintained in these compounds (e.g. ((Mo₆C1₈)I₃(triphenylphosphine oxide)₂(pyridine))⁺I⁻) by the ionization of one or more of the terminal halogen atoms in the molybdenum(II) halide starting material (e.g.(Mo₆C1₈)I₄). The X-ray single crystal structures of two isomorphous salts, (BipyH)₂(( (Mo₆C1₈)X₆) (X = C1,I), have been solved using the difference Patterson method. To solve another crystalline modification of the chloro-salt, the (Mo₆C1₈) cluster was constrained to its established geometry with its centroid fixed at the origin of the unit cell. This rigid group of atoms was then rotated by the least-squares refinement of the three orientation-defining angles. The three structures contain discrete ((Mo₆C1₈)X₆)²⁻(X = C1,I) and (C₁₀H₉N₂)⁺ (bipyridylium) ions. The anions consist of highly-symmetric (Mo₆C1₈) clusters (Mo-Mo = 2.606, Mo-C1 = 2.48 Ao), with six terminal halogen atoms (X) bound by single covalent bonds to the molybdenum atoms (Mo-Cl = 2.423, Mo-I = 2.737 Ao). The bipyridylium cations are twisted from perfect cis conformations in all three structures. The average dihedral angle between the two rings is 13 degrees. Further details of the geometries of the anion and cation are discussed. The ionic packing in the three crystals is dominated by the bulky anions. These are arranged in expanded "hexagonal close-packed" layers with the cations centred on approximately trigonal holes in this array. The two crystalline modifications of the chloro-salt differ in the orientation of the bipyridylium cations in these layers.

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  • Rotuma, a changing mobility, 1978-1983 : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Geography at Massey University

    Craddock, Christopher Noel (1985)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This work describes the changes in movement of people to and from Rotuma immediately before, and following, the establishment of an airport on the Island in May 1981. A sample survey was carried out during the middle of 1983 to gain field data. The dynamics of movement are investigated and the research examines whether any subsets within the Rotuman community had a higher or lower level of movement, by sex, age, religion, education or occupation during the period 1978-1983.

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  • The population dynamics of Porcellio Scaber, latr (Crustacea Isopoda) in waste grassland in New Zealand : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Zoology at Massey University

    Cox, Roger G. (1971)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The dynamics of an isopod (Porcellio acaber) population in waste grassland are described. Three different generations can be distinguished on the basis of size distributions. A difference in age structure and sex ratio is seen in two areas of the study region. Overall there are more females than males. A cohort of 1000 individuals can produce 6000 young in a year, but only 10% of these survive to become sexually mature. Isopods provide a significant reservoir of calcium in the environment.

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  • The phosphate status of the soils of Riverhead forest in relation to growth of Radiata pine : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Agricultural Science in Soil Science at Massey University

    Ballard, Russell (1968)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Extensive plantations of exotic softwood species in New Zealand have for the major part been restricted to land considered marginal for agricultural and pastoral pursuits. On these marginal lands of relatively low fertility and difficult terrain, forestry can compete economically with agriculture. Radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don), the most important of the exotic softwoods, occupies some 600,000 acres in New Zealand, but, despite its versatility and adaptability, has in some instances been established on sites which are outside the limits of its tolerance. Such is the case at the Riverhead State Forest in the Auckland conservancy. In many sectors of this forest, radiata pine, planted during the period 1926-33 on podzolized gumland clays, manifested symptoms of ill-health and unthriftiness within a short time of establishment. These symptoms gave rise to concern and stimulated a programme of research into the possible causal factors. The fertilizer trial work conducted at Riverhead up till 1958 has been reviewed by Weston (1956, 1958). Conway (1962) discussed aerial application of phosphatic fertilizers at Riverhead, while Will (1965) reported the more recent nutritional work. This nutritional work, which has included tissue analyses and the study of growth responses to phosphatic and zinc fertilizer treatments, has shown quite conclusively that unthrifty trees in the trial areas manifest a considerable response to phosphate, but not to zinc. The degree of response to the application of superphosphate has been shown to be dependent upon the prior condition of the stand and the rate of application. Topdressing at a rate of 5cwt/acre of superphosphate as a standard practice has been tentatively adopted following these trials. Will (1965) has shown that foliar analysis can be a most useful aid in assessing the need for fertilizer and in predicting the likely response to fertilizer treatment.

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  • The responsiveness of the bovine lactoferrin promoter to cytokines and glucocorticoids : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Biochemistry at Massey University

    Allen, Kirsty Ann (1998)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Lactoferrin is an iron-binding protein found in many bodily secretions and in the secondary granules of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. While there are many proposed functions for the lactoferrin protein - e.g. for iron storage, antibacterial properties, or a role in inflammation, the specific function(s) of lactoferrin have yet to be elucidated. Evidence that lactoferrin may be involved in inflammation was observed by Harmon et al. (1976) where after the induction of bovine mammary infections, a significant increase in secreted lactoferrin protein was seen during the early phase of the infection. As this increase was during the period of the acute phase response, this suggested that lactoferrin, as was the case with other proteins induced during this time, may have a role in the inflammatory response. The bovine lactoferrin (bLf) promoter contains many putative binding sites for inflammatory modulators, which suggests that the increases in lactoferrin seen during inflammation may be due to activation of lactoferrin gene transcription by these specifically-induced transcription factors. Substantiation of this suggestion would provide further evidence for a specific role for lactoferrin during inflammation. To investigate the cytokine-responsiveness of the bLf promoter, constructs corresponding to various lengths of the putative bLf promoter were linked to the luciferase reporter gene and introduced, by transient transfection, into RL95-2 human endometrial carcinoma cells. Cytokines, glucocorticoids or expression vectors for transcription factors were added to the cells, or potential 'masking' factors in the media such as phenol red or insulin were removed. The luciferase activity of the transfected cells was monitored for significant variation from the basal levels. The addition of cytokines with or without phenol red or insulin did not cause any significant changes in bLF promoter activity. In phenol red-free media, increases in luciferase reporter gene activity were observed after the co-transfection of an expression vector for NF-IL6, the addition of dexamethasone and also the addition of dexamethasone together with the co-transfection of a glucocorticoid receptor expression vector. These data provided evidence that lactoferrin transcription may be induced by inflammatory factors which support the suggestion that lactoferrin has a role in the inflammation process.

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  • Final report for BOP Fertiliser Ltd. : transportation, marketing, process design and costing for the commercialisation of granular reactive phosphate rock

    Ferris, Tim (1999)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This report was completed to determine the commercial feasibility of granular Reactive Phosphate Rock (RPR) as a fertiliser, and the requirements needed to bring it to market. Recommendations based on this report are as follows: • Redesign the existing Morrinsville plant • Change the name of the final product to something that is not directly associated with RPR, ie Gradual Delivery Phosphate • Convince the sales representatives in the ability of the new granular RPR • Employ a dedicated representative to target the forest and organic markets • Sell granular RPR for $210 per tonne ex works from year one • Consider adding extra nutrients into granular RPR for the Forestry market • Use marketing to current markets extensively • Appoint a Program Director for the implementation of granular RPR • Offer bulk discounts and special deals to bring in customers for the initial sale of RPR.

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  • The mineralogy, geochemistry and origin of Lower Tertiary smectite-mudstones, East Coast deformed belt, New Zealand.

    Fergusson, Linda Jan (1985)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Marine smectite-mudstones of Lower Tertiary age (Teurian to Runangan) occur throughout the East Coast Deformed Belt of New Zealand. In Marlborough, Marl lithofacies of the Amuri Limestone comprise calcareous, siliceous smectite-mudstone alternating with biomicrite. In Wairarapa, the Kandahar Formation consists of calcareous smectite-mudstone, micritic limestone beds and mass-flow greensand beds. Calcareous smectite-mudstone is also a minor interbedded lithology in the Mungaroa Limestone of Wairarapa. The Wanstead Formation in Hawkes Bay comprises uncemented smectite-mudstone with interbedded mass-flow greensands. Lower Tertiary sequences throughout the East Coast Deformed Belt are typically disrupted by thrust faults and associated shear/mélange zones which have developed in the weak smectite-mudstone lithology. Insoluble clay fractions of the smectite-mudstones are composed of well crystallised smectite + illite ± quartz (chert). Both the smectite and illite clays are discrete phases with no interstratification suggestive of post-sedimentary transformation of smectite to illite. From detailed phase analysis, the smectite clay overall is a montmorillonitic species, but with varying interstratification of other dioctahedral smectite species and varying layer charge. No distinct stratigraphic trends in clay fraction mineralogy or smectite mineralogy are apparent. Sand fractions of the mudstones are dominated by authigenic or non-volcanic detrital minerals. Average smectite + illite structural formulas calculated from chemical analyses are commonly non-ideal, with deficiencies in aluminium particularly apparent. The dominant exchangeable cations are calcium in Marlborough mudstones and sodium in Hawkes Bay mudstones. Trace element geochemistry of the smectite-mudstones is similar to that of typical shale and carbonate rocks. Variations in trace element abundances·reflect the lithological character of the mudstones and do not appear to be a useful tool for regional stratigraphic correlation. Combined sedimentological, mineralogical and geochemical features of the smectite-mudstones indicate a non-volcanic origin. They did not form by in-situ alteration of ash-falls and are unlikely to have formed from transported/reworked ash. Previous use of the term 'bentonite' for the smectite-mudstones implies such a mode of genesis and should be discontinued. Hemipelagic sedimentation and/or mass-flow redeposition of detrital or neoformed clay in an open oceanic, relatively deep water environment is proposed as the origin of the smectite-mudstones.

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