65,737 results for 2000

  • Evaluating the Media’s Role in Public and Political Responses to Human-Shark Interactions in NSW, Australia

    Fraser-Baxter, Sam Ezra (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Of all animals that pose danger to humans in this world, few are more feared than sharks. Human-shark interactions are traumatic, emotional and difficult to rationalize. While rare, human-shark interactions generate a disproportionate amount of media coverage and public debate. The mass media is widely attributed with the continuation of negative discourses of sharks through sensationalized, emotive and graphic documentation of human-shark interactions. During 2015, New South Wales, Australia experienced an unprecedented spike in human-shark interactions, which saw the escalation of public anxieties surrounding water safety and the development of the state’s Shark Management Strategy, announced in late 2015. Of the state’s 14 human-shark interactions that took place, 8 were recorded on the state’s North Coast. An unusual concentrated distribution of sharks in near shore waters was widely reported by surfers, fisherman and pilots. The interactions ignited considerable public debate, which sought to explain the spike in interactions and how to manage the risk of human-shark interaction. The public and political responses to the interactions were documented thoroughly by the media. Previous literature has established an understanding of the way the media communicates human-shark interactions, public perceptions of sharks and the relationships between the media, publics and governments in the development of shark management policy. McCagh et. al (2015) have explored the role of media discourse in the development of shark management policy. The methods used in this study are largely built upon methods carried out by McCagh et. al (2015) and seeks to develop them in terms of scope and depth. The objective of the study was to evaluate the role of the media in the development of shark management policy in NSW. Discourse analysis was used to investigate two newspaper’s reports of human-shark interactions on the North Coast to provide insights into the media’s communication of human-shark interactions, patterns of public and political response to human-shark interactions and the development of shark management policy. The findings of this study show that the discourse used by the media examined is not fear-laden, sensationalized or emotive which previous studies have emphasized. Instead there is an evident tension between anthropocentric and eco-centric values in both the media and the government’s communication of human-shark interactions. Discourse surrounding management solutions offered by the media echoed that of the NSW state government; that management should be non-lethal, trialed and scientifically validated. Analysis of responses to human-shark interactions paints a picture of the intricate political and social processes at play following clusters of human-shark interactions. This study highlights the need for a paradigm shift in shark management that sees the responsibility of water-safety and the onus and responsibility of risk moving away from governments and further towards the public. Based on the efficacy of management solutions offered by the government and the timing of their announcement after human-shark interactions during heightened public anxieties, this study concludes that shark management in NSW was not meaningfully focused on reducing the risk of human and sharks interacting, but instead at placating and calming public fears surrounding water safety.

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  • The Epidemiology of Cervical Cancer in Ghana

    Nartey, Yvonne (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    INTRODUCTION: Cervical cancer is a significant health issue worldwide. It is the fourth most common cancer among women with more than 85% of new cases of the disease occurring in low- and middle-income countries. Cervical cancer is the most common cancer among women in Ghana. Incidence and mortality rates are unknown due to an absence of a national-based population cancer registry. HPV positivity has been shown to be a necessary initiator of cervical cancer but the infection progresses to cancer only in a small number of women. Cofactors associated with the disease progression are not well understood. The study was designed to assess the epidemiology of cervical cancer in Ghana. AIMS: • Estimate the regional cervical cancer incidence and mortality using data from two large referral hospitals in Ghana. • Use results from the above study to estimate national incidence and mortality rates of the disease. • Estimate the 1, 3 and 5 year disease-specific survival rates of Ghanaian women diagnosed with invasive cervical cancer. • Determine the HPV DNA prevalence and prevailing HPV types present in Ghanaian women with and without cervical cancer. • Determine the associations between cofactors and a woman’s risk of developing cervical cancer in Ghana. METHODS: Medical records and other hospital data of women diagnosed with cervical cancer from January 2010 to December 2013 were reviewed at Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, and Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumasi, in Ghana. Telephone interviews were also conducted for patients and relatives to gather further information. To assess the risk factors for cervical cancer in Ghana, a hospital-based case-control study was undertaken. Women aged 18-95 years with a new diagnosis of invasive cervical cancer that had been histologically confirmed were considered for inclusion as cases. Controls were a random selection from the same hospitals as the cases. A structured questionnaire was administered to the women after which a request for a cervical smear was made for the reporting of cytological abnormalities and laboratory detection of HPV DNA to establish the HPV types present. RESULTS: Using the data from review of medical records and telephone interviews, the incidence, mortality and survival rates of women diagnosed with invasive cervical cancer in Ghana were estimated. An increased risk of cervical cancer with age was found. The incidence rate of cervical cancer was highest for women aged 75-79 years and decreased at older ages. Incidence and mortality rates were higher in the Greater Accra and Ashanti regions of Ghana than for other regions. At three years from diagnosis, overall disease-specific survival was 39%. Unsurprisingly, stage at presentation and histological type were strong predictors of cervical cancer survival. Some forms of treatment were also associated with better survival than others. A total of 206 women with incident cervical cancer and 230 controls were recruited for the case-control study to identify possible risk factors and cofactors for cervical cancer in Ghana. The results of the case-control study confirmed many known established risk factors associated with cervical cancer. These included age, an increased number of pregnancies, higher parity and oral contraceptive use. In addition, use of firewood for cooking, use of homemade sanitary towels and having a polygamous husband was associated with an increased risk of cervical cancer in this study after adjustment for the presence of highest oncogenic HPV types. High prevalence of HPV was detected among women with cervical cancer (80.1%). HPV types 45, 16, 18, 35 and 52 were the most common types detected among cases. Knowledge of HPV and cervical cancer was very low overall among women with and without cervical cancer. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to the presence of high-risk oncogenic HPV DNA, parity and oral contraceptive use was associated with an increase risk of cervical cancer in Ghana. The results of the research suggest that the identification of factors associated with the progression of HPV positivity to invasive cervical cancer may help reduce the burden of cervical cancer in Ghana. In addition, the development of a cancer control programme that takes into consideration the social and cultural factors for the prevention, early detection and diagnosis, treatment and palliative aspects of cervical cancer is needed to combat the disease.  

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  • Exploring undergraduate students’ perceptions of factors influencing their engagement and alienation in higher education

    Asare, Samuel (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Student engagement has been identified as having a positive influence on learning and retention. This has attracted much research on how to enhance engagement in higher education. Studies have considered the role of student motivation and various environmental factors that affect engagement. However, these studies are concentrated in Western countries including US, Canada, UK, Australia and New Zealand. The few done in Africa have been in South Africa. Drawing on Mann’s (2001) framework of engagement and alienation, this study explores undergraduate students’ perceptions of factors influencing their engagement and alienation in a public university in Ghana. The study adopted a case study design underpinned by an interpretive approach to provide a broad and in-depth understanding of how student motivation interacts with factors relating to teachers, family and peers to produce engaged and alienated experiences. Three data sources were drawn upon in this study: survey, diary and interview. The survey included 469 Humanities students selected by quota sampling from main campus, city campus and distance learning across all year levels. Of the 469 students surveyed, 225 agreed to keep a diary of their learning experiences for two days and participate in a one-on-one interview. Purposive sampling was used to select 17 students for diaries and interviews by considering both male and females, year of study, mode of study (distance learning, city campus and main campus) as well as respondents’ availability for interviews. This ensured that data were collected from a wide range of perspectives. The analysis was in two forms. First, survey data were analysed with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) to find percentages and means of the responses. In addition, ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) and t-tests were conducted to determine any differences among students’ perceptions at the time of the survey. In some instances, where there were differences, a post hoc test was conducted to determine which groups were different from each other. Second, data from diaries and interviews were analysed using the general inductive approach to develop themes relating to the objectives of the study. The analysis was guided by a framework that highlighted students reported engaged and alienated experiences. The study resulted in a new conceptual framework that brings the various parts of the findings together. This study suggested that students’ need for belonging, competence and autonomy spurred them on to invest more time and effort in their learning. However, autonomy and belonging had different influences depending on the year of study. First year students reported the highest level of influence compared with students of other year levels. Engagement was influenced by students’ desire to achieve goals: to be knowledgeable; for postgraduate study; and to gain a high-paying job. In addition, students reported engaged and alienated experiences resulting from four teacher factors: level of knowledge; teaching approaches; relationships with students; and support. Also, almost all students received support from their family and most of them thought that family support had a lot of influence on their engagement. Engagement was influenced by financial and social support as well as the monitoring of their academic performance by their parents. Interactions with peers influenced engagement in academic and social ways. For instance, students shared learning material such as textbooks, lecture notes and computers. Furthermore, students reported improved self-confidence and a better understanding of their subject by interacting with their peers in formal and informal contexts. Despite the positive influence of peers, a small number of students reported feeling pressured by their peers to spend most of their study time partying, and some members not contributing during group study. The findings add an alternative voice to the growing literature on student engagement by presenting data from a context that has not been explored in this way before. It has shown the usefulness of engagement and alienation as a framework to investigate students’ learning in higher education. The few existing studies that have applied the framework did not analyse data as has been done in this study. Thus, this study has provided new insights. In addition, the findings revealed that students have the desire to work hard to achieve their goals, but these desires will need positive contributions from the environment to achieve much results. Summarising, the implications of the findings include the need for higher education institutions to invest in teacher professional development and to seek ways to collaborate with families of students who may be struggling academically, to enhance their engagement.

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  • The stitchbird (hihi-- Notiomystis cincta) and its habitat : effects on nesting behaviour and reproductive success : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Science in Conservation Biology at Massey University

    Makan, Troy Dahya (2006)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis grew out of a basic problem in the management of a "Nationally Endangered" New Zealand bird species, the stitchbird. Following European colonisation of New Zealand it is hypothesized that predation and severe habitat loss along with disease, extirpated stitchbird from the North Island and reduced the distribution to a single population on Little Barrier Island. Efforts to recover the stitchbird have involved many translocations to other islands. Three of these translocations failed and the remaining three populations only persist due to intensive management by the Department of Conservation, mainly through supplementary feeding and provision of nesting boxes, as a way of artificially enhancing the island habitats. The primary aim of this study was to determine the effect of habitat on stitchbird nesting behaviour and reproductive success. To investigate this, I conducted research that aimed to relate stitchbird parental provisioning, reproductive success and habitat on Little Barrier Island, the single self-sustaining population of stitchbird from where little information was previously available. I then examined these results with similar data from three other stitchbird populations (Kapiti, Tiritiri Matangi and Mokoia Islands) to assess the effects of management enhanced and unmanaged habitats on stitchbird. An in-depth analysis of habitat structure was then conducted in two of the populations (Little Barrier and Kapiti Islands). These data were then analysed with respect to the reproductive success of these populations (with Kapiti's reproductive success being taken during the period when there was little management). When all islands are considered, conservation management, through the provisioning of nest boxes and feeders led to a significant increase in fledging success. This habitat management did not affect paternal behaviour. Although maternal investment was highly variable between individuals, females showed increased visitation rates when their habitat was enhanced through conservation management. In the unmanaged populations habitat complexity and nest tree size were found to be very important to the reproductive success of the stitchbird. Regardless of management and location, habitat quality played an integral part in determining the pattern of parental investment, and significantly affected reproductive success. In the unmanaged populations habitat complexity may provide a proximate assessment of overall habitat quality, while nest tree size may influence the internal microclimate of the nesting cavities. It appears that in lower quality habitats, parent's trade off their own survival against current and future reproduction. Conservation managers have managed to offset the restrictions of low quality habitat by enhancing habitats to a higher quality than natural environments. Now there is a need to find new sites where self- sustaining populations can be established, without the aid of expensive conservation management. I have found that it may be important to consider not only the phenology of the habitat, but also its complexity and the availability of large potential nest trees when considering new translocation sites.

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  • The evaluation of stakeholder relationship marketing information systems : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Business Studies in Marketing at Massey University

    Pescott, Christopher James (2004)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Modern business is evolving, the large profit driven organisations of the past have dissipated and responsible, triple bottom line, sustainability focused organisations are pioneering global business practices. The new goal for modern businesses is to become more transparent to their stakeholders, compile triple bottom line reports, and to become a sustainable organisation. To do this an organisation needs to identify who its stakeholders are. Literature in this stakeholder area is vast and has been traced back to the 1930's. However in order to uncover how organisations may utilize stakeholder management to enhance their business practice, there is a clear definition of what a stakeholder actually is. "those with a vital stake in the organisation without whose sanction and support would cease to exist." (Murphy et al., 2004) Stakeholders can have many different relationships with an organisation so there are multiple perceptions on how an organisation is performing through the eyes of its stakeholders. To gain a true understanding of how to communicate with stakeholders, there must be a suitable classification of stakeholder groups. "It is commonsense to consider the five stakeholder groups as being indispensable in the functioning of a sustainable business. The business is financed by shareholders, is allowed to exist by the community, has suppliers providing materials and services, for employees to create goods and services, which customers purchase in preference to competitors' goods and services." (Murphy et al., 2004)

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  • Shifting cultivation, livelihoods and change : a study of agricultural decisions in Xieng Ngeun District, Lao PDR : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Development Studies at Massey University

    Whittaker, Sarah (2006)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Shifting cultivation has long provided a livelihood for upland farmers in the tropics. However, recent years have seen increasing political, environmental and economic pressure on these farming systems and those who practice them. In the Lao PDR, shifting cultivation is a priority development issue; government policy is to replace it with sedentary forms of agriculture by the year 2010. Alternatives to existing practices are being researched and extended to farmers through both the public and private sector, and farmers are faced with an increasing range of choices for their livelihoods, which remain largely agriculturally-based. Their responses to these new opportunities, and their ability to take advantage of them, will be important to the sustainability of their livelihoods into the future. Recognising that agricultural changes take place in the context of people's livelihoods, this thesis applies a livelihoods approach to the study of household agricultural decisions in the Lao PDR. It investigates farmer responses to introduced forage technologies for the intensification of livestock production in four upland villages of Xieng Ngeun District, in order to explore the relationship between livelihoods and change. Many aspects of people's livelihoods are found to shape their decisions. In particular, access to resources can be important in the ability to take advantage of opportunities. Activities such as livestock raising require an initial cash investment that may preclude poorer households from specialising in them; thus these households are less able to benefit from livestock-related technologies. Households' existing livelihood strategies and the resulting livelihood outcomes also influence their ability and desire to intensify livestock production through managed forages. The wider context within which livelihoods are constructed may both facilitate and constrain change in a particular direction. In addition to those issues commonly identified in livelihoods frameworks, other factors also need to be considered. The importance of farmer perceptions in particular is highlighted and it is suggested that this, along with the characteristics of the technology itself in relation to people's livelihood situation, be included in the framework for application to the study of agricultural change. Finally, the thesis finds the livelihoods approach to be a useful and practical way of focusing attention on issues at the local level and placing rural people at the centre of development-related analysis.

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  • Web-course search engine : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Computer Science at Massey University

    Gong, Xiaohua (2002)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The World Wide Web is an amazing place that people's lives more and more rely on. Especially, for the young generation, they spend a significant amount of their play and study time using the Internet. Many tools have been developed to help the educational users in finding educational resources. These tools include various search engines. Web directories and educational domain gateways. Nevertheless, these systems have many weaknesses that made them unsuitable for the specific search needs of the learners. The research presented in this thesis describes the development of the Web-course search engine, which is a friendly, efficient and accurate helper for the learners to get what they want in the vast Internet ocean. The most attractive feature of this system is that the system uses one universal language, which lets the searchers and the resources "communicate" with each other. Then the learner searchers can find the Web-based educational resources that are most fit to their needs and course providers can provide all necessary information about their courseware. This universal language is one widely acceptable Metadata standard. Following the Metadata standard, the system collects exact information about educational resources, provides adequate search parameters for search and returns evaluative results. By using the Web-course search engine, the learners and the other educational users are able to find useful, valuable and related educational resources more effectively and efficiently. Some improvement suggestions of the search mechanism in the World Wide Web have been brought forward for the future research as a result of this project.

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  • Web-based asynchronous synchronous environment : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Information Science in Computer Science at Massey University

    Yang, Ang (2002)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    In the face of the coming of new information technology era of 21st century, web-based learning has become the major trend of future teaching and learning model. The web-based learning systems are created to simulate the real teaching-learning environment in the classroom using computer software and web-based tools. Learner can study web-based teaching materials according to their individual needs and instructional schedule. Although web-based learning has a lot of advantages over traditional face-to-face learning, the lack of the explanations and interpretation of teaching materials from human teacher in most existing web-based learning system is critical. This project proposed an innovative solution to the problem by combining the benefits of classroom learning in the web-based education. In this project, a prototype Web-based Asynchronous Synchronous Environment (WASE) is developed that not only combines the benefits of tools such as WebCT and AudioGraph, but also integrates lectures given by the human teacher within the system. WASE provides simultaneous low-bandwidth streaming of lecture video and presentation, while facilitating students with presentation annotation facilities, and peer discussion on particular issues related to the topic. The prototype system is built using a three-tier, client-server architecture. The client tier is a set of HTML frames embedded with RealPlayer running in the students' web browsers to provide course contents and navigation guide. The middle tier is an application server which consists of Java Sevlet, JSP engine, and application programs to receive the students' request and send the corresponding course contents and navigation guide information to the client side. The third tier is the relational database for storing the course structure and contents, and for recording the interaction between students and teachers. This project provides a solution where the off-campus students are able to enjoy the explanations and interpretation of course materials from human teacher just as normal on-campus students do in the traditional face-to-face learning environment, while still reaping the benefits of web-based learning.

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  • The sense in humour : a personal exploration of humour in the teaching of adults : some questions and tentative answers : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Education in Adult Education at Massey University

    Watt, Iain J (2007)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis is a personal exploration of the potential applications of humour in the teaching of adults. I have provided some questions and tentative answers about the use of humour in the facilitation of adult learning. Having recognised the value of humour in my own teaching practice, I have examined the ways in which humour, when applied appropriately, can promote creative thinking by enhancing the processes of knowing, perceiving and discovering. Adult learning has been said to be a means of gaining knowledge and skills, a way to satisfy learner needs and a process of critical self-reflection that may lead to transformation. Adult education can involve challenging periods of transformation and students may require assistance to overcome inhibitions, behaviours and beliefs about themselves their culture and learning. In this thesis I have sought to explore how humour, manifesting itself in verbal, written and visual formats, may be a valuable pedagogical tool to address such issues. One of the purposes of this thesis is to contribute to knowledge in teaching practice by demonstrating that the systematic and informed introduction of humour into individual teaching strategics may provide a more people-centred climate which addresses individual and group learning needs from the perspective of teacher and student.

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  • Was it worth it? : evaluating outcomes for students who undertook the Diploma in Supported Employment : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Social Policy at Massey University

    Taylor, John (2005)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis evaluates self-reported outcomes from 12 students who enrolled in the Diploma in Supported Employment during the three intakes funded by the Ministry of Social Development (2001-2002). It explores how the content and delivery of the diploma have met student needs and expectations, and assisted them in their practice as supported employment practitioners. The research is conducted within the environment of disability and the vocational rehabilitation sector of New Zealand, where the focus of endeavour is assisting disabled people with their employment aspirations. The sector is predominantly funded through contribution from central government and is in the process of a paradigm shift. Research indicates that the vocational sector has traditionally operated on the individual or medical understanding of disability, which equates disability with impairment and characterises it as some unfortunate or catastrophic, chance occurrence that has befallen the individual. The emerging paradigm is that disability is socially constructed, having its roots in critical social theory. Supported employment is in keeping with the new paradigm shift and has become a major government strategy in supporting disabled people. The Diploma in Supported Employment was originally conceived as a way to provide the necessary skills to a largely untrained workforce. Its delivery was the first ever attempt at coordinated training across this sector. The Ministry of Social Development, to further their policy objectives, supported existing vocational sector staff to enrol. The thesis therefore represents a timely and pertinent evaluation of the effectiveness of the Diploma in Supported Employment and will assist future planning for work force development in the vocational sector. A qualitative methodology is employed to explore students' lived reality through six individual interviews and a focus group of an additional six past students. The analysis privileges the student voice and key factors that support the student to complete the qualification and to apply their new knowledge in their work are identified. This project has potential public policy implications and makes recommendations for future practice and research.

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  • The wedded soul : mystical marriage in late medieval female mysticism : a thesis presented in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in History at Massey University

    Logan, Jeanne-Marie (2003)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    From its first days in the early Church onwards, mystical marriage between the soul and God was powerful, pervasive and malleable, both as a concept and as a lifestyle and belief system, and was increasingly used and developed by late medieval female mystics as their chosen form of exclusive holy life and individual expression of their own spirituality. At the root of its power and potential in the spiritual life of the mystic was the deep, intimate, unmediated and heightened relationship with God which mystical union encapsulated. This mystical relationship was considered the apex of holy and mystical life and brought with it all the attached privileges of a personal connection to God, mystical experiences and spiritual gifts and power. Mystical marriage or union came under the category of bridal mysticism, the mystical system which took its form and expression from the spiritualised concept of marriage. The range of experiences and nuanccs available through the metaphor of marriage made bridal mysticism a strongly expressive and sensory based alternative to the intellectual mysticism of the medieval Church, which female mystics were virtually cut off from. The expressive and mystical potential of bridal mysticism, and thus mystical marriage, was recognised by late medieval female mystics and brought union with God to the centre of female mysticism, at the same time as female mysticism and religious devotion itself was growing and flourishing (1), and holy life was becoming more publicly practiced and more popular with the laity (2).

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  • A single woman's place : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in English at Massey University

    Bishop, Gailene Paula (2001)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis is a study of selected novels by Anita Brookner and Muriel Spark. It explores the depiction of women as figures of resistance and insurgence in the novels Look At Me and Hotel du Lac by Anita Brookner, and in The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie and The Abbess of Crewe written by Muriel Spark. The study looks first at the way the role of the single woman is structured, and functions as a location of resistance and subversion. The specific characters are Frances Hinton in Look At Me, and Edith Hope in Hotel du Lac and Jean Brodie in The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie, and the Abbess Alexandra in The Abbess of Crewe. The second focus is to determine whether a transfigurative process is enacted, how, and upon what. The women characters are the pivotal location for the transfigurative processes, and their characterisation reveals what is disclosed, and what is transfigured. The proposal is that those transfigurative processes subvert culturally constructed notions, or commonplaces, about how women may see, and be seen, in the social environments presented in the novels. The transfiguration of these nominal commonplaces is revealed in Brookner's work through the processes of change, which are depicted as necessary for the key characters to undergo. Transfiguration abounds in Spark's work as her satire and parody mock all social norms. Finally, this thesis looks specifically at the relation between the consolidated material from the process outlined above and two general strategic approaches to women's writing. The first strategy is the revisionist approach that proposes a re-writing of traditional texts as a method of challenging and subverting the hierarchical constraints found in those texts. The other strategy advocates the appropriation of dominant patriarchal models for women to use in writing about women, and supports effecting change from within those models.

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  • Energy saving potential in the New Zealand agricultural sector with emphasis on the vegetable greenhouse industry : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Applied Science in Natural Resource Management at Massey University

    Wilson, Anna Fay (2005)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    In the last decade, the energy demand of New Zealand's horticultural and agricultural sub sectors has increased as a result of land use conversion, intensity of production, the use of irrigation and an increase in energy intensive horticulture, such as greenhouse vegetable production. This has highlighted the sector's reliance on fossil fuels leaving it susceptible to future shortages, higher prices and the forthcoming carbon charge. As part of a contract with the Energy Efficiency Conservation Authority, which aimed to compile, estimate and analyse information from a wide variety of sources on energy end uses and patterns of energy consumption within the agricultural sub-sectors, available literature on energy demand by fuel type and the various uses to which energy is put in the New Zealand primary production sub-sectors was collated in matrices. Through the compilation of these matrices it was evident that limited energy related research was available relating to the greenhouse sub sector. The New Zealand greenhouse industry is a relatively energy intensive sub-sector of the primary production industry and relies heavily on the use of fossil fuels. The impending carbon charge may result in a cost which growers may be unable to pass on due to competition on the domestic and export markets from non-Kyoto countries. It follows that reducing energy consumption and consequently avoiding the emissions charge would be a means of increased viability for the industry. This part of the research was funded and conducted in conjunction with the New Zealand Vegetable and Potato Grower's Federation Inc. A walk-through energy audit was designed and conducted with 22 greenhouse vegetable growers. This provided an in-depth case study perspective in terms of what technologies and practices are currently used by the New Zealand's protected cropping industry. The findings from the energy audit show that location and the heating system type are significant factors in determining energy use. The main areas identified where potential energy saving could be made were minimising heat loss, through the cladding, the heat distribution system and the flue, and improving heating efficiency, through improved heater maintenance. An energy saving model was designed using Microsoft Excel for the purpose of encouraging the user to think about potential energy savings that could be made within their individual greenhouse operation, and also the potential cost of the carbon charge on to their business. Recommendations from the model were based on best practice and use of energy saving technologies identified through the energy audits, review of current literature and consultation with manufacturers.

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  • Psychological discourses on gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    Patel, Asmita (2001)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The present study was concerned with how the discourses used in cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT), theory and practice construct the identity categories of gender, ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES). This study also focused on whether CBT practitioners view CBT as a psychotherapy that is designed and aimed more toward obtaining individual client change and adaptation to distress than focusing on social causation of client distress and social change awareness. The research aims were executed using both Potter and Wetherell's (1987) approach to discourse analysis and a feminist poststructuralist framework. Ten clinical psychologists, participated. They were interviewed about the identity categories of gender, ethnicity and SES in relation to CBT theory and practice. An open ended unstructured approach to interviewing was undertaken. Transcripts from the interviews were analyzed. Analysis resulted in the identification of three main discourses: the assessment discourse, the individual practitioner discourse and the empowerment advocacy discourse. Overall analysis of the discourses revealed how they acted to construct CBT as a beneficial psychotherapy to use with clients from ethnic minority groups, low socioeconomic groups and for women, despite the overall consensus that CBT is not specifically designed to assess the effect of gender, ethnicity and SES factors. Analysis of transcripts also revealed that participants view CBT as psychotherapy that is designed more toward obtaining individual client change, though participants stated that CBT has the potential to design social change initiatives. The key issues arising from the findings are discussed and some general conclusions are presented. Limitations and future directions for research are also discussed.

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  • I am Supernova

    Soo, Chin-En Keith (2016)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    “I am supernova” is an artistic visualisation of the “The Big Five Personality Test”. The test explores personality of participant with the highly respected Five Factor model (AKA the Big Five). The test result will provide an insight on 5 major dimensions of personality: Openness, Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, Extraversion, and Neuroticism. The numeric indication from the result, score and percentile, will be translated into forms and formations with the help of appropriate assigned colours that best represent the 5 traits.

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  • Place-responsive choreography and activism

    Barbour, Karen (2016)

    Book item
    University of Waikato

    Sensory encounters with place, site and landscape have the potential to stimulate new and deeply felt engagements with local places, and to prompt discussion about the relationships between place, culture and identity. Such sensory encounters may also offer opportunities for critical, reflexive theorising and practice (Pink, 2008, 2009; Stevenson, 2014; Warren, 2012). Within the myriad of potentialities offered in research, a focus on sensory and embodied encounters with local places prompts me to articulate intersections between local issues of social justice and environmental activism and feminist choreography. As a dance artist and researcher, ethnographic research has led me to autoethnographic performance as a specific means to articulate my encounters with place through embodied expression and textual representation.

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  • Physical volcanology of Red Crater, Tongariro

    Bardsley, Candice Joy (2004)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The Tongariro Volcanic Centre (TVC) is New Zealand's most recently active volcanic centre and comprises two large active andesitic cones, Ruapehu and Tongariro. Tongariro is a dominantly andesitic cone complex, yet located at its centre is Red Crater, a basaltic andesite vent with an eruptive nature in striking contrast to the rest of Tongariro. The main aim of this research was to reconstruct the eruption history of this vent and provide the basis to model the impact of a range of future eruption scenarios from Tongariro. The Red Crater basaltic andesite vent occupies a small scoria cone (~ 0.3 km³) which has also erupted eleven lava flows including the single largest preserved lava flow on Tongariro, with a length of ~ 7 km and a volume of ~ 0.3 km³. This flow was erupted between 9.7 ka and 3.4 ka, providing a maximum age for the vent. A distinctive feature of this vent is the exposed drained dike in the eastern wall. Clast density (vesicularity), SEM, grain size, and petrographic analysis were undertaken on the deposits erupted from Red Crater, and used to constrain the timing of the lava flows in relation to the construction of the scoria cone. Average vesicularities for the Red Crater scoria deposits, exposed in the eastern and southern crater walls in particular, range from 51.5% to 76.8%, while the range of individual clasts is from 30.5% to 82.1 %. These values classify Red Crater scoria as highly vesicular. This scoria section is ~ 60 metres thick and possibly erupted within a 48 hour period. The five lava flows erupted prior to this scoria cone construction (pre 1.85ka Taupo eruption) are andesitic blocky flows, with lengths up to ~ 7 km and thicknesses up to ~ 50 metres. Five basaltic andesite aa flows were erupted post 1.85ka and coincided with the construction of the scoria cone. Maximum thicknesses are ~ 5 metres with lengths up to 0.98 km. The change in composition of the lava flows at this time is reflected by a change in the eruptive processes. Effusive activity dominated pre 1.85 ka while strombolian style eruptions producing discrete gas bursts dominated during the scoria cone construction post 1.85 ka. Two dikes are intruded into the scoria cone; one is the eastern wall and the other in the western wall. The eruptive history of Red Crater can be divided into three phases. Phase one was probably initiated with a violent phreatic eruption caused by the interaction of an intruding dike with groundwater. The loss of volatiles during this phreatic eruption and through the permeable country rock lead to sustained effusive activity which produced the five andesite flows into Oturere Valley. Phase two began when more basaltic magma was injected into the system, with strombolian eruptions rapidly building the scoria cone and erupting the remaining six basaltic andesite lava flows. The basaltic andesite flow (flow 9) into Central Crater has the most mafic composition of any lava flow from the entire Tongariro cone complex. Phase three began when the withdrawal of magma from the dike caused a series of phreatic explosions originating from the deeper section of the NE-SW orientated dike, which violently excavated the NE trending Emerald Lakes explosion pits, the northern section of the scoria cone and the explosion pit on the south face of the cone. Minor ash and steam eruptions have been observed at the end of the last century, but it is the active fumaroles surrounding the vent which reveal Red Crater's currently active state, and potential for future eruptions.

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  • Internationally Qualified Nurses’ Perceptions of Patient Safety: New Zealand Case Studies

    Kane, Annie (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Twenty five percent of the current New Zealand nursing workforce comprises internationally qualified nurses (IQNs). For a significant proportion of IQNs, English is an additional language and the social, cultural and historical context of the health systems from their country of origin differs significantly to that of New Zealand. International studies have found that despite many of these IQNs having extensive nursing experience prior to entering a new country, the challenges involved with transition can have implications for patient safety. This study aimed to investigate IQNs’ perceptions of the competencies that pertain to patient safety. The study was informed by an interpretive-constructivist approach that acknowledges these perceptions are constructed within a social, cultural, and historical context. A qualitative multiple case study design was used with the Communities of Practice (CoP) theory as the conceptual framework. The primary data source was semi-structured interviews with four IQNs while they attended a Competency Assessment Programme (CAP) to obtain New Zealand nursing registration. The IQNs’ email reflections and programme documents were used as additional data. Thematic analysis of the individual cases followed by cross-case analysis revealed similar perceptions concerning patient safety across the four cases. Exposure to Nursing Council of New Zealand’s (NCNZ) competencies for safe nursing practice during the CAP course did not notably change the participants’ initial perceptions. The most significant finding of this study was that the social, cultural, and historical context of the health system and nursing role mediates how maintaining patient safety will be perceived and enacted in practice. The findings also highlighted the importance of engaging with participant perspectives in order to identify specific areas required for learning and transfer of information. These findings had important implications for further development of educational and healthcare agency support for IQN transition.

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  • Healthcare-seeking behaviour for sexually transmitted infection testing in New Zealand: A mixed methods study

    Denison, Hayley (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are a global public health problem. Sequelae for infected individuals can be serious and STIs impose a substantial financial burden on healthcare systems. Duration of infection is one factor influencing transmission rates, and is modifiable through secondary prevention methods, namely ‘test and treat’. For this approach to be effective, at-risk individuals must choose to present for testing. New Zealand provides a useful case-study to investigate healthcare-seeking behaviour for STI testing, as incidence rates of common STIs are especially high. The aims of this thesis were to quantify healthcare-seeking behaviour for STI symptoms and assess the risk of transmission in this period, to identify the barriers to STI testing, to understand the personal drivers for getting an STI test, to examine how STI knowledge is associated with testing behaviour, and finally, to collate and critically evaluate the published evidence regarding the incidence of a lesser known sequela of STI, reactive arthritis. This thesis took a mixed method approach, employing both qualitative and quantitative methods to address the research aims. The results showed that delays in healthcare-seeking for STI symptoms were common among patients attending an inner-city Sexual Health Clinic (SHC). Almost half of people with symptoms waited longer than seven days to seek healthcare, although there were no identified predictors of delayed healthcare-seeking. Around a third of people with symptoms continued to have sex after they first thought they may need to seek healthcare. Among these individuals, infrequent condom use was reported more by those who had sex with existing sexual partners than by those who had sex with new partners. Having sex while symptomatic was statistically significantly associated with delaying seeking healthcare for more than seven days (odds ratio (OR) = 3.25, 95% CI 1.225 – 8.623, p = 0.018). Analysis of qualitative interview data revealed three types of barriers to testing. These were personal (underestimating risk, perceiving STIs as not serious, fear of invasive procedure, self-consciousness in genital examination and being too busy), structural (financial cost of test and clinician attributes and attitude) and social (concern of being stigmatised). This work also revealed several drivers for testing including crisis, partners, clinicians, routines, and previous knowledge. Knowledge of the incidence, asymptomatic nature and sequelae of STIs featured prominently in the explanations of those who undertook routine testing. However, at the same time, many of the participants felt they did not have a good knowledge base and that their school-based sex education had been lacking. STI knowledge was investigated further using quantitative methodology. Levels of STI knowledge were generally good and did not differ between a Student Health Service population and an SHC population. Individuals who had tested before had significantly better knowledge than those who were attending for testing for the first time (U = 10089.500, Z = -4.684, p < 0.001). In addition, total knowledge score was an independent predictor of having had a previous test (OR = 1.436, 95% CI 1.217-1.694, p < 0.001). Reactive arthritis can be triggered by STI, thus STI screening patients who present with reactive arthritis has the potential to identify undiagnosed infection. This thesis provides the first assessment of the international literature regarding the incidence of reactive arthritis after STI. The systematic review found only three published studies which had prospectively examined the incidence of reactive arthritis after STI. The studies reported an incidence of reactive arthritis after STI of 3.0% to 8.1% and were found to be of low to moderate quality. In conclusion, this thesis provides healthcare service providers, policy makers and clinicians with data to inform practice and public health interventions aimed at improving healthcare-seeking behaviour for STI testing. It illustrates that delayed healthcare-seeking for STI symptoms is a common behaviour in New Zealand and could potentially be contributing to STI transmission and downstream burden on the health system. This work provides evidence of the drivers of STI testing that can be promoted, and the barriers that need to be removed. Specifically, improving STI knowledge may positively impact on testing rates. Lastly, this research indicates that there is a need for more studies assessing the incidence of reactive arthritis after an STI.

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  • Under the Mountain - how a volcanic peak has influenced the culture, ecology and landscape history of Taranaki, New Zealand

    Davies, Renee; Lambert, R. E. (2017-05-10T05:37:12Z)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    Mount Taranaki/Egmont occupies a central place in the history and culture of Taranaki people – Maori and European. The mystical qualities of the volcanic mountain have influenced the culture, ecology and landscape history of the area and illustrate that cultural landscapes are often predominantly associative (having powerful spiritual, artistic or cultural associations with a natural element) and broad-reaching in their manifestation within a diversity of cultures. Our human need for a sense of identity and belonging is strongly linked to landscape and place. As Taylor notes [1] ‗Landscape therefore is not simply what we see, but a way of seeing: we see it with our eye but interpret it with our mind and ascribe values to landscape for intangible – spiritual – reasons‘. The mountain itself and the circular ring of protected forest surrounding the mountain– which forms the Egmont National park is a strong example of an associative cultural landscape that embodies both tangible and intangible values. The circle of fertile ring-plain contains and protects the original forest of the mountain which was one of the earliest of New Zealand‘s ecological reserves to be protected and surveyed off from settlement. This circle frames the wilderness of indigenous native forest within the taming grid of a farming culture. The heritage of New Zealand surveying, settlement and forest destruction is poignantly captured in this physical landscape feature and its mystery and symbolism is illustrated in the spiritual beliefs, artistic history and economic products of the inhabitants that live under it. To the indigenous people of Taranaki - Maori, the mountain (Te Maunga) has deeply cultural and spiritual signficance. To Mana Whenua (those with geneological and local tribal authority over the land) the mountain is part of the landscape and an ancestor, it is a reference point and the names and physical features have particular significance as symbols of the people that provide meaning, order and stability. European settlers arrived in the region in 1841 and profound cultural and landscape change resulted. Throughout this time, the mountain appears in imagery and marketing for the area and the conical peak with an idyllic farming scene in the foreground has featured as a regional and national icon represented in art, advertising and symbolism. This paper explores the Maori and European connections to Mount Taranaki as a case study of an associative cultural landscape that has shaped the social and landscape history of an entire region and that continues to influence the future of this special volcanic landscape.

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