8,285 results for Massey University

  • An examination of value and growth based investment strategies in the Australian equities market : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Business Studies in Finance at Massey University

    Urquhart, Robert (2000)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Numerous studies have found that value-based investment strategies yield higher returns than growth-based investment strategies. However, controversy surrounds the interpretation of why value-based yield the higher returns. There is not consensus among researchers as to whether value stocks are fundamentally riskier than growth stocks, or whether psychological biases of investors result in an irrational pricing of stocks, and higher returns to the value stock portfolios. To add to the evidence of this debate, this thesis examines value, and growth-based investment strategies in the Australian equities market from 1990 to 2000. Value portfolios are formed by selecting stocks that have a strong past financial performance, and are expected to have a relatively poor future financial performance as gauged by financial variables. Growth portfolios are formed by selecting stocks that have a poor past financial performance, and are expected to have a relatively strong future financial performance as measured by financial variables. The financial variables used to classify stocks into the growth and value stock portfolios are the earnings-to-price, cash flow-to-price, book-to-market, and growth in sales variables. Examining one and two-year buy-and-hold returns, value stock portfolios are on average, found to yield higher returns than growth stock portfolios. The superiority of the value portfolio returns are also found to be invariant to the monthly calendar initiation date of the investment strategies. As far as an interpretation of the discrepancy in value and growth stock portfolio returns goes, the Capital Asset pricing Model (CAPM) measure of risk, β, is found to be misspecified. It is however, not clear whether the superior value portfolio returns are a consequence of investor irrationality, or value stock investments being riskier than growth stock investments. It seems as if the industry classification may be responsible for growth and value portfolio returns, and this may have an impact on the interpretation of the relationships between financial variables and stock returns. To interpret the relationships between the financial variables and stock returns, a multivariate linear regression model is applied to stock returns. Multicollinearity between the earnings-to-price and cash flow-to-price ratios is found, and when controlled for, the book-to-market variable is the only variable that is linearly related to stock returns.

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  • An evaluation of the ecology and riparian management of the south branch of the Whareroa Stream, Paekakariki : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Applied Science in Natural Resource Management at Massey University

    Palmer, Karen Thelma (2008)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Whareroa Farm, Mackays Crossing, Paekakariki, was bought by the Department of Conservation in 2005. The goal was to effect the restoration of a corridor for flora and fauna from the Akatarawa Forest in the east to Queen Elizabeth Park and the sea in the west. The south branch of the Whareroa Stream, which arises as a series of tributaries from a ridge 272m above sea level, traverses Whareroa Farm and the adjacent Queen Elizabeth Park. It was thought likely that the stream had been severely affected ecologically during a century of cattle and sheep farming, though the degree to which the ecological degradation had occurred was unknown. Obvious deforestation and land use changes suggested that, in concert with many other New Zealand hill country farms, the ecological changes would be significant. To establish and quantify the degree of degradation, the Auckland Regional Council (ARC) Stream Environment Valuation (SEV) protocol was applied to the Whareroa Stream and its tributaries. Five sites were selected for valuation, varying from open pasture to bush covered and open parkland. The resulting SEV scores showed losses of ecological value ranging from 32% to 46% across the sites. The Macroinvertebrate Community Index (MCI) and the fish Index of Biological Integrity (IBI) were measured at each site. Results indicated that aquatic habitats were unable to sustain adequate assemblages at four of the five sites. The valuations of the riparian zones at each site used the River Environment Classification (REC) and Riparian Management Classification (RMC) protocols. The results indicated that current riparian characteristics showed poor to absent effective riparian zones from the headwaters to the sea at all sites. Riparian zones are pivotal to the provision of stream ecological integrity and are responsible for maintaining the longitudinal, lateral and vertical connectivity between a stream, its network and its surrounding land. The loss of in-stream organic matter from lack of riparian vegetation together with the loss of effective temperature control from lack of shade, impacts negatively on the habitats for macroinvertebrates and fish. This was highlighted in the Whareroa Stream network. While the SEV and RMC evaluations showed that, with best practice management plans, there was great potential for improvement of the Whareroa Stream ecology, any riparian restoration would require sympathetic and improved fencing, withdrawal of stock from stream access and the retirement of headwater land from pastoral use. The loss of ecological integrity that occurs as a result of prolonged land use changes from forest to agriculture is well illustrated by the situation in the south branch of the Whareroa Stream and its tributaries.

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  • Evaluation of Massey twist tester for textural assessment of fruits and vegetables : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Applied Science in Agricultural Engineering at Massey University

    Tautakitaki, Tevita Pasinamu (2000)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The Massey Twist Tester is an instrument developed to assess the texture of fresh fruit and vegetables rapidly. Since its original development in 1990, the Twist Tester has been modified extensively and numerous prototypes have been developed. In principle a small rectangular flat blade is rotated inside the fruit, and the torque required is measured. The current version incorporates a motor driven unit rotating inside a set of needles which hold the fruit firmly. Although measurements of fruit properties have been reported in previous studies, these have all been based on earlier designs, and no data on the new version of the Twist Tester have yet been published. The main aim of this study is to evaluate the performance of the new version of the Twist Tester by comparing it to the standard penetrometer, which has been widely used in many parts of the world for several years. Samples of fruit and vegetables were stored in different conditions to vary the level of firmness in order to expose how well each instrument performed in detecting the changes of textural properties. Generally, both Twist Tester and Penetrometer readings declined with storage time. In the testing of Braeburn apples, the Twist Tester has highly correlated with storage time as compared to penetrometer, The Twist Tester and Texture Analyser produced results for the Royal Gala apples which were highly correlated with those obtained from the penetrometer, suggesting that this test could be used, as it is more reliable for determining the maturity of apples. For plums, the correlation of the Twister with storage time at three storage conditions were high (r =0.92, 0.95 and 0.92), compared to the correlated of penetrometer with storage time which was (r = 0.83, 0.44 and 0.77). The penetrometer has a slightly higher degree of correlation with storage time for pears, compared to the Twist Tester. Pears declined in crushing strength and penetrometer readings with storage time, but over the last 7 days the value of firmness increased. The literature review showed that when water loss from the fruit is extreme, it forms a rubbery texture, produces a higher degree of firmness. Further research work would need to be done to obtain a more reliable result. The Twist Tester performed well in predicting the changes of textural properties of nashi, which showed a stronger correlation with storage time than the penetrometer relationship with storage time. During storage of kiwifruit, the penetrometer could not detect any changes after 14 days, while Twist Tester obtained a reliable result. This showed that penetrometer could not test the firmness of texture of any soft fruits. The relationship between the crushing strength and storage time produced a high coefficient in all three storage conditions (r = 0.91, 0.89, 0.80) while the penetrometer readings showed the following correlations with storage time (r =0.77, 0.76, 0.44). Thus the Twist Tester can determine the maturity of kiwifruit as well as any soft tissue products. Changes in the textural properties of potatoes also were well detected by the Twist Tester, which showed a stronger correlation with storage time than did the penetrometer. Firmness and crispness as measured by both the Twist Tester and penetrometer readings were highly correlated, while other variables showed only a poor relationship with instrumental measurement. Further research is needed to improve these results by using a well-trained taste panel. Changing the speed of Twist Test has no significant effects on the crushing strength of fruit and vegetables within the range of 5-10 rpm. The Twist Tester is more accurate, easy to operate and may be used to determine the quality and maturity of a wider range of products than penetrometer.

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  • An evaluation of a methadone treatment programme : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Psychology at Massey University

    Clark, Jahna (1987)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The evaluation of a methadone treatment programme was the main focus of this study. A posttest-only design, with a nonequivalent comparison group was used to evaluate both summative and formative aspects of the programme. Participants were 21 opiate abusers (methadone group) and 22 alcohol and polydrug abusers (alcohol and polydrug group) who completed a questionnaire designed to assess demographic and treatment variables, alcohol and drug usage, employment, criminal activity, health, and interpersonal relationships, in the before, during, and after treatment periods. The outcome measures revealed that the methadone programme was effective in reducing opiate, nonopiate analgesic, tranquillizer and stimulant use; decreasing high alcohol consumption to a level considered nonabusive, and decreasing the number of marijuana related criminal convictions. Unanticipated findings were a deterioration in rating of health and no change in the number of days spent sick in bed, friendship satisfaction, or number of friends out of the drug scene. No predictors of treatment outcomes were established, and there were no major differences between the methadone group, and the alcohol and polydrug group in terms of treatment effects. Recommendations for the methadone programme included detailed and procedural steps of how to cope when withdrawing from methadone treatment; health and nutrition education; and social skills and assertiveness training. These are considered essential if the philosophy and goals of the programme are to be attained.

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  • Evolution or revolution? : the impact of the 1991 Gulf War on United States Air Force doctrine : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in History at Massey University

    Wairau, Warren (1998)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    One of mankind's greatest accomplishments this century has been the realisation of powered flight. Aviation has significantly changed the way that humans think, live and, for better or worse, wage war. The advent of airpower has revolutionised the conduct of warfare during the twentieth century as the development of platforms with the ability to project military power while operating above the earth's surface has opened a third dimension to armed conflict. Technological advances has made man's ascent into the air possible and it has progressively become the most important sphere of modern warfare. Airpower entails the use of the air not just as a medium for transit, as in the case of a projectile, but also for manoeuvre, deployment and surprise which includes aircraft, non-ballistic cruise missiles and more increasingly, space assets. Constrained by geography and the physical environment to a much lesser extent than surface forces, airpower enjoys speed, reach, responsiveness and perspective far exceeding those of land or seapower. Today, aircraft are able to fly unlimited distances and deliver a variety of weapons upon targets with unprecedented destructive capacity. As well as applying direct firepower, aircraft are able to protect and enhance the combat power of all other friendly forces, regardless of their operational spheres. Indeed, the versatility, range, speed, precision and lethality of contemporary airpower have made it such an integral component of modern warfare that no major military operation can be efficiently conducted without it. In many instances, airpower has demonstrated that it can be the dominant form of military power.

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  • How are babies made? : discourses of foetal "persons" and pregnant "mothers" in news media and health education texts : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Women's Studies at Massey University

    Parker, Christy Susan (2007)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Adopting a social constructionist perspective this research asks how are babies made? This question destabilises the local reproductive context asking how foetuses and their mothers have come to matter. I have analysed "everyday" texts broadly circulated in this context addressing matters related to pregnancy. These include health education posters intended to communicate health information to pregnant women, and news media articles from daily newspapers throughout Aotearoa New Zealand. Using a discourse analytic method, I have identified a strong discursive practice of subjectifying foetuses as entities separate from pregnant women with distinct identities: foetal persons. While foetal subjects take various forms, the dominant construction is the "unborn baby," a vulnerable infant who must be protected from harm and emerges as the central subject of pregnancy. The construction of pregnant subjects in these texts relates to the construction of foetal subjects. Pregnant women (and potentially pregnant women) arc reduced to their bodies' reproductive role as "maternal environments," ones which pose risks to the foetus. However, they are also constructed as maternal subjects. As "mothers," pregnant women are individually responsible for ensuring the health and wellbeing of foetuses. The "good mother" will of course do anything she can for her "child" by self-regulating her potentially harmful behaviour. The "acquiescent mother" acquiesces to biomedical interventions on behalf of the foetus. Pregnant subjects who do not self-regulate their behaviour and acquiesce to biomedical interventions are "bad" maternal subjects who harm their "children." The discourses of biomedicine (and biomedical sciences) and public health, particularly those of risk, emerge as dominant in constructing and naturalising of these reproductive subjects. I consider the implications of these subjects for social practices around reproduction, and for midwifery practice.

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  • Implementation of solid waste policy objectives in New Zealand : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Environmental Planning at Massey University

    Mayes, Kathryn Ann (1995)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The purpose of this thesis is to evaluate various instruments available for implementing waste policy, in order to determine the most suitable set of policy instruments for achieving solid waste policy objectives in New Zealand. The thesis will also examine the Government's current waste policy before proceeding with the evaluation of the implementation instruments. "Waste" and related terms have not been adequately defined in New Zealand policy or legislation making it difficult to define the boundaries of the issue. Definitions of "waste" and "solid waste" are therefore proposed. The Government's waste policy is critiqued and amended to provide a policy basis for this thesis and a suggested policy for the Government to adopt. The current policy is considered to be lacking in that it does not clearly set out intended goals and objectives. A new objective is proposed of ensuring that policy and action is focused on areas of highest risk and/or impact through the collection of reliable data on all types of waste. Data on various waste streams are currently sorely lacking. As a result, the Government's waste policy has focused on domestic waste and packaging, as two areas with the highest profile and most reliable data, without determining whether this is the most appropriate action to take. Aspects of the waste policy framework are reviewed, namely: current legislation, development of the current waste policy and the current policy work carried out by the Ministry for the Environment. It is found that the focus of waste policy in the 1970s moved from addressing issues of packaging and limited landfill space, to considering waste as a misplaced resource in the mid-1980s. The change in focus was largely due to the economic climate although it coincided with moves to collect data about waste streams, raising awareness of waste streams which had previously been largely ignored. The Resource Management Act 1991 again altered the focus of waste policy with the emphasis on the "effects" of activities. The risk and/or impact of materials on the environment is now particularly relevant, highlighting the need for adequate information regarding these effects. Although base-line data is necessary, a warning is given to the Ministry for the Environment that this should not lead policy back to "end-of-pipe" solutions. This approach would be inappropriate given the approach of the Resource Management Act 1991 and the inclusion of the waste hierarchy in the Government's waste policy. Each party's perception of their role and responsibility and the roles of the other parties in waste policy decisions were determined by conducting interviews with members of industry and central and local government, and by holding three discussion groups with members of the public of differing ages. From these discussions a national postal survey of householders was undertaken. The survey aimed to identify attitudes and behaviour relating to packaging and resulting waste in New Zealand. Packaging and packaging waste were chosen as the topics of the discussion groups and subsequent survey owing to the amount of resources that has been directed by Government at this segment of the waste stream and the perception that packaging is considered by the public to cause one of the biggest problems in the waste stream. This thesis primarily studies instruments to implement waste policy objectives as it is considered that this aspect is currently not being adequately addressed by the Government's waste policy, the decision-making environment and by the parties involved in waste policy decisions. Implementation instruments for waste policy fall broadly into four groups: Regulation, Economic Instruments, Voluntary Initiatives, and Education and Information. Those instruments that are used most often around the world arc critiqued and their potential application to New Zealand is evaluated. The instruments examined in detail are subsidies, deposit-refund schemes, product charges, user charges, purchasing policies, waste reduction targets, environmental labelling schemes and cleaner production programmes. A number of other instruments are reviewed in less detail. The evaluation of specific instruments' potential application to New Zealand is carried out against the steps of the internationally recognised waste hierarchy, the hierarchy being: Reduce, Reuse, Recycle, Recover, Residual Management, as this is an accepted objective of the waste policy. This evaluation enables a review of the actions currently being undertaken by central and local government, industry and the public in this area. Instruments which have the potential to most greatly affect the level of achievement of waste policy in New Zealand are considered to include: i) Regulation clarifying the desired outcomes, objectives and implementation instruments of the waste policy; ii) Regulation defining more of the roles and responsibilities of the parties involved in waste policy decisions; iii) Existing subsidies directed towards cleaner production programmes and 'Waste Analysis Protocol' 1 Ministry for the Environment, Waste Analysis Protocol. Wellington: Ministry for the Environment, December 1992. landfill surveys; iv) User charges for all waste collection, treatment and disposal services; v) Negotiated targets with industry sectors to reduce the amount of waste produced and disposed of; vi) Education and information to ensure that the philosophy of the waste hierarchy is practiced by individuals and organisations. Using a range of instruments covered in this thesis to implement the waste hierarchy will result in a significant move towards the achievement of the accepted goal of the waste policy, that of maximising net benefits to New Zealand.

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  • The Independent Newspapers Limited study: an investigation into occupational overuse syndrome within the newspaper industry : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    Pirie, Ross (1993)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    An investigation was undertaken into occupational overuse injuries. Overuse injuries are commonly associated with repetitive movements, sustained or constrained postures, and forceful movements. Other factors, such as work environment, amount of keyboard use, and the ergonomic status of the work area, have been identified as elements in the development of overuse injuries. These perspectives were used to provide research objectives in studying a sample of subjects working in the newspaper industry. Five hundred and seventy five respondents completed a questionnaire, which included a measure of the incidence and severity of overuse injuries, and questions aimed at discovering the effectiveness of different types of treatment and intervention strategies. Using a combination of descriptive and bivariate statistics, this data was analyzed. The analysis revealed low levels of reported muscular aches and pains. Of those subjects who did report some form of ache or pain, the majority answered that the level of their aches and pains had remained the same. As well, the image of the aetiology of overuse injuries which emerged, was in contradiction to much of the proceeding research in this area. The analysis also demonstrated that the treatment and intervention strategies being employed were ineffective. This was despite the fact that subjects often reported that they considered a particular strategy to be productive in managing their overuse injury. In the discussion section, the limitations of the questionnaire as a survey technique in this area of research was considered, and the possible effects these limitations have on the present study. This point has special relevance to the application of clinical models of overuse injury. It was concluded that the results demonstrated a need for research into effectively manipulating working conditions to counter-act the development, incidence and severity of overuse injuries. Such strategies as job enlargement and job rotation were suggested.

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  • Distribution and ecology of the Banks Peninsula tree weta, Hemideina ricta : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Ecology at Massey University

    Townsend, Jacqueline Anne (1995)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Comparative morphology. Hemideina ricta and H.femorata were assessed for their morphological similarity. H. ricta adults were found to have significantly longer and wider heads in both sexes and longer cerci in adult males. The tibial length of adult female H. femorata was significantly longer than in H. ricta. Thorax width, thorax length and ovipositor length did not differ significantly between the two species. Habitat and distribution. H. ricta and H.femorata are predominantly allopatric on Banks Peninsula, with H. ricta being found on the outer eastern portion of Banks Peninsula and on the inner Akaroa Harbour while H. femorata is located on the inner Akaroa Harbour and westward from here. The two species overlapped altitudinally, but H. femorata was not found above 450 m asl whereas H. ricta was discovered from 20 m to 806 m asl. H. femorata showed a strong preference for kanuka habitat whilst H. ricta had a broader preference for kanuka, mixed broadleaved hardwoods, fallen totara and broadleaf logs and old fenceposts. Refuge occupation. The refuges where H. ricta and H.femorata rested during the day were assessed for their similarity. Both species preferred galleries formed by beetle larvae as these probably offered the greatest protection from predators. Weta were also found in splits, under the bark of trees, in rotten logs and in the forks of trees. Significantly more galleries were occupied by H. ricta adults, compared to juveniles, that occupied areas under bark and in splits. There was no significant difference in the refuges occupied by adult and juvenile H.femorata. Behaviour. The nocturnal behaviour of H. ricta in captivity and in the field was investigated. Their activity in captivity was significantly greater. H. ricta were observed moulting, ovipositing, mating and fighting in captivity whereas in the field none or only a few of these activities were recorded. H. ricta in captivity also spent more time perching on logs and foliage compared to field situations. It is probable that temperature influenced this result because H. ricta showed elevated activity and a greater variety of activity with increased temperature in the field. Feeding preferences. The comparative feeding preferences of H. ricta and H. femorata were assessed on five commonly located mixed broadleaved hardwood tree species. H. ricta and H. femorata consumed significantly different amounts of the selected plants as did juvenile and adult weta. More Parsonsia was eaten by H. ricta and more Pittosporum was eaten by H. femorata. In addition, significantly more Parsonsia was consumed by adult male H. ricta compared to juvenile males. There was no significant difference between preferred plant between the sexes.

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  • The influence of bank loan officers attitudes on funding decisions : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    Duff, Shirley Moana (1998)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    A conflicting body of evidence surrounds womens claims that they are discriminated against when it comes to obtaining business loans. Fay and Williams (1991) found that when identical loan applications were submitted by men and women, women were less likely to be granted a loan. It was proposed in this study that gender discrimination could be occurring as a result of bank loan officers attitudes about women as successful business owners. Seventy bank loan officers from North Island branches of the ANZ, ASB and WestpacTrust banks filled in questionnaires assessing their attitudes towards women, men and successful business owners (Buttner & Rosen, 1988). Bank loan officers also read a mock loan application (Fay & Williams, 1991) and indicated whether they would grant the loan. Results showed that bank loan officers did not differentially approve bank loans on the basis of the applicants gender (male or female) or level of education (Highschool or University). Loan approval was harder for male applicants to obtain as 'type of business entering' and 'lease agreement' were considered more important for males than females. Attitudes of bank loan officers indicated that they perceived women, compared to men, to be least like successful business owners. These results were discussed in relation to bank loan officers and prospective business owners. Limitations of the study included the possibility of response bias, participants being aware of the purpose of the study and the fact that the loan application was limited to one scenario and within the context of a hypothetical situation. Suggestions for future research include investigating other sources of funding for small business owners and the occurrence and effect of occupational sex-typing.

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  • The impact of the closure and decommissioning of the Wainuiomata Waste Water Treatment Plant on the water quality of the Wainuiomata River : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Water Quality at Massey University

    De Silva, Josephine (2004)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The quality of the Wainuiomata River (particularly downstream of the Wainuiomata Waste Water Treatment Plant) has been affected over the years (e.g. eutrophication) by a number of contaminants, such as nutrients and faecal bacteria. The main source of these contaminants has been the treated effluent discharged into the river from the Wainuiomata Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP). The WWTP has been discharging treated effluent into the river since the 1950's. This sewage treatment plant was decommissioned in November 2001 and is now used solely as a pumping station. Sewage from Wainuiomata is now piped over to the new sewage treatment plant in Seaview. This research project aimed to examine the impact of the WWTP closure on the water quality of the Wainuiomata River. Water samples were collected from a number of selected sites over a period of three months: January 2003 to March 2003, above and below the WWTP site. For this particular study, the microbiological, chemical (nutrients) and biological parameters were assessed as follows: Escherichia coli and total coliforms (microbiological) dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP), nitrate nitrogen and ammoniacal nitrogen (chemical) and periphyton (biological) for biomass and taxa identification. The results for each of the above parameters sites were compared with historical data obtained from Greater Wellington Regional Council (2003). Overall this research has shown that the closure of the WWTP has impacted on the J5 site (Golf Course), which is downstream of the WWTP, in a number of ways. The chemical indicator levels (NO3-N, NH4-N and DRP) have dropped significantly; periphyton was still in abundance at site J5 (no real improvement seen) and the median level of the microbiological indicator, E.coli has reduced. However, site J5 on a number of occasions, did not comply with the Microbiological Water Quality Guidelines for Marine and Freshwater Recreational Areas (2003). Sites sampled upstream of the WWTP, particularly the tributary sites (Black Creek and Wainuiomata Stream), also did not comply with the guidelines on a number of occasions. This is a concern, as the public are known to swim near where these tributaries enter the Wainuiomata River. The effects of storm water or land runoff may have affected the results on two occasions (when there had been rainfall) however, on all other occasions where high E.coli levels were observed, the effects of storm water and runoff would have been minimal, as there had been very little rain. The Wainuiomata River is used for recreational activities such as swimming, canoeing and fishing; therefore an important resource. Any water quality concerns (namely, E.coli levels and periphyton proliferation), therefore need to be monitored by the Greater Wellington Regional Council and actions taken to eliminate these concerns.

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  • An evaluation of action research methods in developing a national instructor induction package for a Private Training Establishment : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Education in Adult Education at Massey University

    Gray, Yvonne (2009)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The provision of appropriate, needs based workplace induction training programmes is recognised as an important step for new staff in many industries. This thesis investigates the way in which action research processes can be used to enhance the induction of new instructors within a Private Training Establishment (PTE). The research was conducted within an educational workplace context where action research methods were applied in practice and where the action research group developed a new instructor induction resource by working together collaboratively to identify and solve their problems. Evaluative action research processes were used to assess the effectiveness of the team approach. Data was gathered during three collaborative action research cycles (plan, act, observe and reflect) over a period of 12 months. Information was obtained from collaborating group workshops which included review discussions, reflective practice and evaluations, verbal and written feedback from new instructors and other key people, and researcher autobiographical journal notes. The data was analysed using spreadsheets and group discussions of recorded information. The results show how an increased level of member participation and collaboration can inform the research methods and direction as well as benefit induction processes and professional development outcomes. Working together collaboratively helped the group to find new ways of addressing their specific induction issues, primarily through better understanding and appreciation of each other's knowledge, ideas and views. A range of factors both influenced and enabled the participating group to solve their problems in a way previously not articulated. Notably these included discussions, academic readings, group collaboration, and increased group trust, sharing and openness. The time between group meetings was identified as being the major constraint. The findings demonstrate the positive contribution that action research methods can make to effective problem solving, particularly when managers of educational organisations wish to proactively improve their business and educational standards.

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  • An evaluation of two alcohol education courses in a military setting : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    Raven, John Michael (1984)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    An evaluation of two alcohol education courses conducted in a military setting for a supposedly "high risk" group in terms of alcohol related problems, formed the basis of the present study. The two courses differed in length (3 x 2 hour lessons, 2 x 2 hour lessons), and comprized a combination of lecture, film, question-answer and discussion group instructional methods. Pre and post questionnaire responses of the two groups of course participants (n = 28,26) and of a control group (n = 28) were analysed. In addition a follow-up measure was taken of one group of participants four months after programme completion. Results indicated a significant gain in the course participants' knowledge as a result of the programme, but no change in attitudes, or skills-related responses. Despite a small positive post course reaction to the programme, the subjects self-reported alcohol consumption remained unaffected by the course, and on average placed the sample in the top 35% of the New Zealand population in terms of self-reported alcohol consumption. These results were considered to be reflective of the theoretical and practical distances between the concepts and processes of education, prevention and evaluation, by the present author.

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  • An evaluation and comparison of the Horowhenua and Tararua Community Alcohol Action Programmes (CAAP) : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    Rickards, Gina (1996)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    In New Zealand, Community Alcohol Action Programmes (CAAP) have emerged to address the high number of alcohol-related road injuries and fatalities. The present study is an evaluation and comparison of the Horowhenua and Tararua CAAP programmes. Subjects (n=175) from several different groups within these communities were interviewed and observational studies of licensed premises (n=36) were used to collect data. Statistical analysis (chi-square) was conducted to see whether one programme had been more successful in meeting its aims and objectives than the other. Few statistically significant differences were found indicating that the programmes were on the whole similar. However, prior to the commencement of this piece of research, a number of potential problems concerning the evaluations were identified. These relate mainly to the fact that the evaluation of the programmes had not been planned for before they were implemented. It was concluded that the citizens involved in community action programmes often have little awareness of research design and evaluation. This can limit the utility of such programmes and make it difficult to draw valid or reliable conclusions concerning their efficacy.

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  • The health seeking behaviours of ageing Niuean women in Central Auckland : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Nursing at Massey University

    Arapai, Doreen Minnie (2002)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This qualitative study encompasses several features in its design. It is exploratory, emergent and the realms of discovery and description are informed by Max van Manen's (1990) human science approach. Van Manen's approach has enabled analysis of the data. Human science is comprised of phenomenology, hermeneutics and language and when coupled with the data collection method of focus groups makes for interesting outcomes. Time is needed to develop the narrative texts as phenomenological interpretation is never complete. There will always be levels of understanding waiting to be discovered. As a New Zealand bom Niuean woman, I have provided a preliminary account of the health seeking behaviours of ageing Niuean women (Matua fifine) in Auckland. The context of health seeking behaviour cannot be realized until there is an understanding of the participant's perceptions of health and illness. Understanding peoples perceptions of health and illness may give insights into the reasons for the decisions that the Matua fifine make when choosing to engage or not engage primary and or secondary health services. This also includes traditional medicine and complementary therapies. The assumption is that people make a direct move to seek a healthcare provider when well and unwell. What is not appreciated are the choices that are also available such as self management or a wait and see approach. Equally important is the role of spirituality, which encompasses Christian beliefs and traditional beliefs. Background information of history and the Niuean way of life, sets the context for this study. Consultation within the Niuean community is an ethical consideration that has paved the way for support for this study. This study will enable the voice of the Matua fifine Niue to be heard so that health services will be able to respond to and preserve their dignity and individuality which are foundational for good health and positive ageing.

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  • Household labour allocation on small dairy farms in eastern Java, Indonesia : implications for gender roles : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Applied Science in Rural Development at Massey University

    Utami, Hari Dwi (1999)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The study was carried out in Andonosari village, East Java, Indonesia to investigate the household labour pattern of small-scale dairy farmers. The objectives were to: (a) investigate the pattern of the household labour allocation; (b) examine the earning contribution of dairy fanning to the total of household income; and (c) quantify the role of gender in dairy farming activities. Time use patterns for household labour were computed as the time spent on work (dairy farming and non-dairy farming, including on- and off-farm activities). Interviews were conducted separately with the husband, wife, and family members aged 15-64 years for 50 households. Households were classified into three strata based on the number of dairy cattle farmed: strata 1 (with fewer than 3 animal units (AUs)), n=16; strata 2 (with 3 to 5 AUs, n=18); and strata 3 (with more than 5 AUs, n=16). Descriptive, univariate, bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed using SAS package. Results showed that household labour for income generating activities was allocated more to dairy farming compared to the farm and non-farm work. Females allocated one third of total time to income generating activities, with most of the time devoted to dairy farming activities, while males tended to allocate more time to non-dairy farming activities. The household labour requirement in dairy farming per animal unit decreased as herd size increased, thereby allowing more time for non-dairy activities. Female participation was most evident in feed preparation and feeding, whereas the predominant male activity was forage collection for the dairy cattle. The size of the landholding had no impact on household labour allocation to dairy farming activities. An increase in household income and dependency ratio had a minor impact on household labour requirement in dairy farming. Non-dairy farming activities contributed about two-thirds to household income, the majority from apple farming. The income of household labour per animal unit tended to decrease with an increase in herd size. Variable costs accounted for 74% of the total expenditure in dairy farming, with majority purchases being concentrates. Fixed costs were 26% of total costs, and the major item was depreciation (8%). It is suggested that farmers, including both men and women, should be trained to be more efficient in allocating household labour to dairy farming activities, and in managing the feeding of dairy cattle to achieve high productivity and income. There is substantial scope to increase herd size and increase labour efficiency in dairy farming. Key words : Household labour, gender, dairy farming, non-dairy farming. Title : "Household Labour Allocation on Small dairy Farms in Eastern Java, Indonesia: Implication for Gender Roles." Author : Hari Dwi Utami Degree : Master of Applied Science (Rural Development)

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  • An evaluation of Qol-Steps : idiographic assessment of quality of life for patients in palliative care : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    Jardine, Andrew (1999)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate an assessment tool that would enable patients in palliative care to communicate their individual quality of life(QoL) concerns. An examination of existing QoL assessment instruments suggested that most were based upon assumptions more appropriate for research on groups of patients. Such assessment can be classified as standard needs measures. While useful for comparing patients at the aggregate level, standard needs approaches to assessing QoL may not be useful in clinical situations. Instead, an idiographic approach to the assessment of QoL was adopted and it is the development of a particular instrument, called QoL-Steps, which forms the basis for this study. QoL-Steps used a graphical procedure that enabled patients to nominate their important personal aspects of quality of life, rank these aspects in order of importance, and rate the current and ideal levels of each aspect in two different time periods. The data from a sample of 42 out-patients of a hospice programme, highlighted the variability that would be expected from an idiographic approach to the assessment of individual patients. Results from Qol-Steps suggest that the instrument is a viable tool. QoL-Steps provided a wide range of variability for patients, in terms of content, difference scores, rankings and patterns of change. Importantly, many patients saw QoL-Steps as a means of communicating their unique needs within an individual context.

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  • An excellent preparation for marriage and families of their own : Karitane nursing in New Zealand, 1959-1979 : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in History at Massey University

    Courtney, Lesley (2001)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The Karitane baby nurse is qualified to undertake the care of young children and babies. Before qualification she has had sixteen months of intensive instruction and practical experience in a Karitane Hospital under the eye of the visiting physicians and the matron and sisters. In addition she has had four months' practical work in private homes under the supervision of the Plunket nurse and bureau secretary. The Karitane nurse will do everything possible to ensure the highest standard of health and happiness for the child under her care......She is not a general-trained nurse and should not be asked to carry the responsibility of a child who is not well. The aim of the Karitane nurse is to help the mother to accept full care of her child with competence and confidence....The Karitane nurse will be there to help the mother and to guide and support her with the problems of mothercraft. A close and understanding relationship between the mother and the Karitane nurse is an essential foundation for an efficient service....The Society would like mothers to understand that the Karitane nurse holds a responsible position, and that her status in the household should be that of a trained children's nurse. Karitane nursing is an arduous profession....It is in the interests of the parents to ensure that the nurse's health and strength is safeguarded and that she is not overloaded with household duties In this way the Karitane nursing service will remain a popular one.1 1 The Royal New Zealand Society for the Health of Women and Children (RNZSHWC), 'Rules for Karitane Nurses, Scope and Duties', circa 1960s, DU:HO, AG-145-27 By the time these 'Rules' were issued, the training of Karitane nurses was already under threat. They illustrate, however, the key characteristics of the Karitane nurse: she was not trained to deal with sick children, and although trained in an institution, her final place of work was in family homes, but she was not to be mistaken for a domestic servant.

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  • Imperial bonds and public debt management in New Zealand between the wars : an analytic study of public policy subject files : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements of the degree of Master of Arts in Politics at Massey University

    Boyce, Simon A (2002)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis examines the role of New Zealand's public borrowing in the London money market, between 1925 and 1939. The study focuses on the issue of long term government stock as 'trustee securities', with the trustee status indicating that the conditions of the 1900 Colonial Stock Act were being observed. Public and private trusts in Britain could invest in New Zealand government securities, knowing that the securities were 'gilt-edged', and had the lowest possible risk. The gilt-edged nature of colonial stock was only attained by agreeing to three conditions imposed by the British Government, which permitted British bondholders to secure their investment through a court order, in the event of default on loan repayments. The conditions also included the right of reservation on the colony's Parliament, or a 'power of disallowance', which meant that the British Parliament could force changes to a colony's own legislation. The constitutional aspects of the Colonial Stock Act were significant in the 1930s, as the passing of the Statute of Westminster for New Zealand would mean the option of borrowing in London would be altered. The economic significance of the Colonial Stock Act emerged in 1932 when New Zealand faced loan default in London, and an inability to transfer funds to pay interest. The Bank of England had lent sterling exchange in London, and the trading banks also provided cash in New Zealand. The problems with exchange emphasised the weakness in the system of public finance. Though there was a strict form of accounting maintained by the Audit Office, public works programmes had to be re-funded from annual London loans, as the Treasury found it increasingly difficult to maintain cash balances for spending programmes and debt commitments in London. When exchange rates were devalued the fiscal problem worsened, even with the central bank that had been promoted by Treasury. The Reserve Bank's role in local banking situations did not ease the management of the sterling exchange reserves needed for debt repayment. New Zealand once again faced default under the Colonial Stock Act in 1939. The thesis indicates how this was avoided, due to the imperial political underpinning the interests of London bondholders. Imperial bonds helped ensure national solvency and domestic public works programmes continued. But at the same time as a national currency was secured, the altered banking system also had implications for debt management, ending the elaborate system of statutory accounts.

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  • Hospitality degrees in New Zealand : exploratory research : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Education in Adult Education at Massey University

    Harkison, Tracy-Lesley (2004)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Recent years have seen a huge increase in the number of hospitality qualifications offered in New Zealand, after the first degree becoming available in 1993. There are now six providers of hospitality degrees. These recent developments raise the issue of whether industry and providers considered the ramifications of introducing degree qualifications. This thesis explores the place hospitality degrees have here in New Zealand. It takes into consideration the perspectives of students, providers and the industry on hospitality degrees and looks at what the future may hold for hospitality degrees in New Zealand. The views of students, industry and providers were collected via questionnaires and interviews. The research findings from all the sectors suggest a number of important points. Industry feels that the degree is not enough to enter the work force without an amount of work experience and is very sceptical of what level of management a graduate should apply for. Providers felt that it was industry, which had pushed for this level of qualification although nothing had been done to make the qualification more acceptable to industry by introducing a bench marking system for qualifications for positions within the hospitality industry. Students felt that the degree was a way to formalise the experience they had already gained in the industry to obtain a recognised qualification.

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