5,974 results for University of Otago

  • From subject to device, history as myth in action : the evolution of event from mythic processes as revealed in Waterfront Dispute fiction

    Matthewson, Claire C. (1986)

    Post-doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    This analysis of selected New Zealand works defends the evolving function of history as fiction-material. It is intended to establish that purpose and treatment alter, as time further separates the writing and the event. The general change is one of development from subject to device properties. In tracing history's evolving role and treatment in fiction, analysis identifies history's eventual source - shown, in fiction, to be mythic and subjectively conceptual.

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  • Reconstructing Social Prehistory from Genomic Data in the Indo-Pacific Region

    Cox, Murray Paul (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Reconstructing the evolutionary history of our species has traditionally been the purview of archeology and linguistics, but is now increasingly influenced by genetics. However, the information held in our DNA cannot be read like a book, but must instead be extracted using population genetic theory, advanced statistical methods and computational tools that can handle large genome-scale datasets. In this series of published studies, these approaches have been applied to reconstruct human prehistory, with a special focus on the social features of past communities in the Indo-Pacific region. They reveal that marriage between Asian women and Melanesian men was favored during the spread of farming populations in the Neolithic period, that Madagascar was settled by a small number of Indonesian families with close female relatives, and that extremely complex marriage rules continue to define and structure small traditional communities in the Indo-Pacific region even today. These studies are largely unique in moving beyond a traditional emphasis in molecular anthropology of identifying and dating human migrations to instead reveal key aspects of the social rules by which those communities lived.

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  • The role of cross-presenting dendritic cells in tumour progression and immunotherapy

    Gilfillan, Connie Bep (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    The recognition and eradication of cancer cells by the immune system is reliant on dendritic cells (DCs). DCs are professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that are integral for the initiation of an adaptive immune response targeted to eliminate cancer cells. DCs are capable of cross-presentation, a necessary function for priming of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses. Specialised DC subsets are reported to be superior at cross-presenting and have been implicated as crucial cells for CTL responses against tumour progression. However, DCs are often inactive in the presence of immune-suppressive tumours and require stimulation to become activated. Immunotherapy can be utilised to provide stimulatory factors that drive the activation of DCs and subsequent initiation of effective anti-tumour responses. The immunotherapies investigated in this thesis were poly I:C, a toll-like receptor (TLR) 3 ligand; and combination of the danger signal monosodium urate crystals (MSU) and a Mycobacterium (M.smegmatis) that provides pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Peritumoural treatments with immunotherapies were successful at slowing tumour growth and prolonging survival of mice bearing 4T1 murine mammary tumours and B16 melanoma tumours. To investigate the role of cross-presenting DCs in the efficacy of immunotherapies, a mouse model was used whereby specialist cross-presenting DCs can be deleted. CD8α+ and CD103+ cross-presenting DCs express the C-type lectin domain family 9 member A (Clec9A) and through administration of diphtheria toxin (DT) in Clec9A-DTR mice, successful depletion of CD8α+ and CD103+ DCs is achieved. MSU+M.smegmatis immunotherapy was dependent on Clec9A+ DCs for efficacy. Conversely, poly I:C immunotherapy remained successful in the absence of these cells, suggesting an effective T cell response can be induced in mice lacking specialist cross-presenting DCs. The antigen-specific T cell responses generated with poly I:C were investigated in basic leucine zipper ATF-like transcription factor 3 (BATF3) knockout (KO) mice, which are deficient in CD103+ DCs. In the absence of Batf3-dependent DCs, treatment with poly I:C immunotherapy still induced proliferation of antigen-specific CTLs that were capable of producing IFNγ; however, their ability to kill target cells was impaired. To identify DCs involved in the anti-tumour response initiated by poly I:C immunotherapy, DC subsets were examined for the ability to acquire and present antigen. CD8α+, CD103+, triple negative (TN), CD11b+ and monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs) were able to capture cell-associated tumour antigen. Furthermore, these DC subsets were able to acquire soluble ovalbumin (OVA), with CD11b+ DCs demonstrating the greatest uptake. Interestingly, moDCs were unable to induce antigen-specific T cell proliferation ex vivo, whereas the CD11b+ and CD11b- DCs were capable of stimulating T cell expansion. There is considerable interest in combining chemotherapy with immunotherapy, as chemotherapeutic agents are capable of inducing immunogenic cell death. Treatment of 4T1 tumours with doxorubucin successfully reduced tumour growth; however, combination of MSU+M.smegmatis immunotherapy with doxorubicin provided no additional benefit to single treatments. Conversely, combination of poly I:C immunotherapy with doxorubicin enhanced anti-tumour responses compared to either monotherapy. In summary, the findings from this thesis show that MSU+M.smegmatis immunotherapy requires CD8α+ and CD103+ DCs for efficacy, whereas poly I:C immunotherapy remains successful in their absence. This finding also emphasises the ability of multiple DC subsets to acquire and cross-present antigen, leading to successful induction of anti-tumour responses.

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  • Quantifying morphologic changes of a coastal foredune using a low-cost remotely piloted aerial system (RPAS)

    Moloney, Julia (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Mid-latitude sandy coasts are dynamic environments. Monitoring coastal morphodynamics is important for understanding the response of coasts to short-term storm events, for understanding the response of coasts to long-term environmental change, and for managing beach-dune systems. Remotely piloted aerial systems (RPAS) (or drones) present new opportunities for coastal monitoring. This type of platform is inexpensive, efficient, requires minimal expertise, and also provides high resolution aerial imagery. Photogrammetry can be used to derive digital surface models (DSMs) or digital terrain models (DTMs) from RPAS imagery. This thesis assesses the efficacy of low-cost RPAS for describing the morphology and morphodynamics of coastal foredunes. The first objective is to compare DSMs produced by RPAS surveying with DTMs derived using conventional survey methods. Objective two assesses the accuracy and precision of RPAS surveying to quantify morphologic changes of a coastal foredune. The third objective is to examine the influence of vegetation on RPAS-derived DSMs. Comparisons are made between total station, RTK-GPS, terrestrial laser scanner and RPAS surveys conducted on the St. Kilda beach foredune, Dunedin. The surveying methods are compared based on survey efficiency, cost, accuracy of the DTM/DSM, and their sensitivity to atmospheric and environmental limitations. RPAS photogrammetry is used to develop a time series of DSMs, which describe short-term patterns of sedimentation and morphological changes in the lee of this foredune. Vegetation surveys were conducted on the foredune at Mason Bay, Stewart Island, and the areas are classified as uniform and dense, variable, and sparse vegetation, or bare sand. Plots containing each class were surveyed with RPAS and RTK-GPS, to produce a DTM and a DSM that are compared to determine the elevation difference. The RPAS survey was the most efficient method for developing DSMs, even when considering the set-up and data processing time (Objective 1). The RPAS produced the second most precise surface, with a RMSE of 8 cm. The RPAS is more sensitive to environmental and atmospheric conditions; however, this method is very rapid, and undesirable weather conditions can be avoided. The results show there is un-modelled systematic error in the DSM caused by lens distortion, which increases outside the GCP network – areas outside the network were not used for subsequent analysis. Vegetation presence can prevent the derivation of accurate DTMs. The RPAS did not accurately quantify sand deposition due to the presence of vegetation (Objective 2). The sand dampened the vegetation, causing a decrease in elevation in the change model. The sensitivity of the RPAS to vegetation is insignificant in areas with bare or sparse vegetation, or when quantifying large-scale changes (for example, foredune erosion). Vegetation height, vegetation cover/density, GSD, the structural properties of the plant, and the surface spectral properties, were identified as factors causing an elevational offset in the DSM (Objective 3). The elevation of the areas with bare sand were statistically equal in the DTM and DSM, however, the dense, variable and sparsely vegetated areas were statistically different. The elevation difference between the DSM and DTM is the largest in the densely vegetated areas (30 cm). Low-cost RPAS are capable of achieving high-quality morphologic surveys of coastal foredunes. The method affords the advantages of efficiency and flexibility. However, due to the sensitivity of the method to vegetation, low-cost RGB RPAS are more suited to quantifying the morphology of bare sand or sparsely vegetated areas, quantifying large-scale changes, or for long-term morphologic monitoring. Low-cost RPAS are not capable of accurately quantifying small-scale changes in areas with dense vegetation. However, as RPAS platforms develop, it is expected that sensors capable of penetrating vegetation will become more accessible for low-cost platforms.

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  • An Archaeology of Madang Papua New Guinea

    Gaffney, Dylan; Summerhayes, Glenn R. (2017)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

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  • Characterisation of gold mineralisation and geophysical aided geological mapping in the Old Man Range, Central Otago, New Zealand

    Stephens, Samuel (2014)

    Honours Dissertation thesis
    University of Otago

    Six structurally controlled gold deposits are hosted within two different structural blocks in the Old Man Range area. The mineralised lodes are hosted in normal faults which cut steeply across the host schistosity. In the East structural block, mineralised faults and the prominent joint set strike northwest and cut steeply across greenschist facies TZ III Caples Terrane schist. In the West structural block, mineralised faults and prominent joint sets strike eastwest and cut steeply across upper-greenschist facies TZ IV Wanaka lithologic association schist. These structural blocks are separated by the regional scale Old Man Fault. Orientation of hard rock gold deposits is closely linked to the prominent joints in host schist surrounding the deposits. Mineralised lodes formed along -1 m wide normal fault zones. They are discontinuous but can be traced for up to - l 50m, with variable thickness along strike. The lodes comprise brecciated silicified schist and hydrothermal quartz breccia, and minor quartz veins with abundant arsenopyrite. Open cavities with euhedral quartz crystals are common. Euhedral arsenopyrite occurs in quartz and silicified schist clasts within mineralised zones. Gold occurs as micro-particulate blebs in partly oxidised arsenopyrite, and as coarser free grains within quartz, micaceous laminae, micro-faults, and micro-shears within mineralised rock. Hydrothermal alteration is minor, comprises addition of Si, Au and As, and extends only a few centimetres from the mineralised lodes. Mineralisation may have occurred within a few kilometres of the surface during mid-Late Cretaceous extension (-106-lOlMa), with estimated formation temperatures between 200-350°C. The mineralised structures within the Old Man Range area are similar to other shallow level, post-metamorphic Otago gold deposits. Magnetic, magnetite bearing greenschist has a high magnetic response and can be successfully mapped using total magnetic intensity surveys over the Old Man Range area. Electromagnetic (EM) surveys can be used successfully to map post-metamorphic faults within the Old Man Range area, where they show up as linear conductive anomalies. These geophysical surveys are a useful tool for geologic mapping. However, there is no direct link between the geophysical features and gold mineralisation within the Old Man Range.

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  • Investigating a role for Fezf2 in the mature brain

    Clare, Alison Jane (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    The excitatory projection neurons (PNs) of the cortex encode the messages that are critical for mediating higher cognitive function. In the primary motor cortex (M1) PNs integrate signals, which regulate sensory driven and volitional motor behaviours. These PNs are hugely diverse in their function and phenotype and each unit contributes a unique role to the M1 circuitry. Maintaining these distinct identities is essential for the healthy brain. Ascertaining the molecular underpinnings that define unique PNs is essential for understanding how their identity is maintained in the adult brain. Forebrain embryonic zinc finger 2 (FEZF2) is a transcription factor essential to the development of PNs in the cortex. Recent work identified expression of Fezf2 in a diverse group of PN types in the mature M1. In particular, the expression of Fezf2 defines a distinct intratelencephalic (IT)-PN type. When compared to Fezf2-negative IT-PNs these neurons display complex morphology of their apical dendrites and a unique electrophysiological phenotype. These findings allude to a broad role for Fezf2 in maintaining the mature PNs of M1. However, a functional role for Fezf2 in the mature brain is yet to be investigated. The aim of this work was to identify the molecular mechanisms that contribute to maintaining Fezf2-expressing neurons of the mature M1. In order to do this a dual approach was applied; first the molecular profiles of Fezf2-positive and Fezf2-negative IT-PNs of M1 were investigated. Here, a transgenic reporter mouse, expressing GFP under the control of Fezf2 regulatory regions (Fezf2-Gfp) and retrograde labelling of PNs were combined with fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) to identify and isolate the Fezf2-positive and Fezf2-negative IT-PNs. Applying low-input RNA-sequencing methods, transcriptome profiles were generated for both IT-PN types. Analysis revealed 199 differentially expressed genes with further bioinformatics analysis identifying functionally intriguing targets with putative roles for the maintenance of these phenotypically distinct neurons. In particular, an enrichment of protein-encoding mRNAs containing a calcium-binding EF hand domain was found amongst the genes increased in Fezf2-positive IT-PNs, suggesting a need for enhanced calcium handling specifically in these neurons. The second approach aimed to investigate a molecular and functional role for Fezf2 in the mature brain. Lentiviral-mediated delivery of a Fezf2 shRNA was utilised to reduce Fezf2 expression in the mature M1, and this led to the differential expression of 756 genes. Further term enrichment analysis of these Fezf2 regulated genes revealed several putative functional roles for Fezf2 in the mature M1. Intriguingly, the regulation of calcium flux was amongst these functional roles, which overlapped with findings from the molecular profiling of Fezf2-positive IT-PNs. Fezf2 regulated genes also associated with directing locomotory behaviour, implicating Fezf2 in the regulation of adult motor output. This role was explored using Drosophila melanogaster; the conditional knockdown of dfezl (Fezf2 homologue) in adult Drosophila causing significant disruption to their startle-induced climbing behaviour. Together the data presented here demonstrated a clear molecular role for Fezf2 in maintenance of the mature brain. Furthermore, the functional effects of knockdown highlight the importance for such regulatory networks in the mature brain.

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  • The internationalisation of Chinese privately owned SMEs: From network and institutional perspectives

    Xiao He, Cici (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    This thesis examines Chinese SMEs and focuses on their internationalisation. It explains how and why these SMEs internationalise with the influence of both networks and institutions. It contributes to the internationalisation theory by providing an integrated network and institutional approach. It also contextualises this theory, which was mainly developed by studies on developed economies, to the emerging economy of China. Thus, this study investigates the integrative influence of both networks and institutions on Chinese SMEs’ internationalisation. It focuses on the specific patterns of foreign market selection, entry mode, and the pace of these SMEs during internationalisation. It also concentrates on the influence of three types of networks (business, social and mixed) and three dimensions of institutions (regulative, normative and cognitive). This thesis adopts a multiple case study approach based on qualitative data, as this thesis is a theory-building study. The data collection process has been conducted in eight SMEs in China through twenty-five interviews and observation. The research author has interviewed and visited these firms twice during a two-year period. Also, this research takes an ‘abduction’ process in which empirical observations and findings are continuously connected to existing literature to generate explanations. This study found that networks and institutions both influence Chinese SMEs’ internationalisation; specifically, networks are influenced by institutions. In addition, the internationalisation of Chinese SMEs can be explained by the paradoxes that co-exist when networks and institutions are integrated. While networks and institutions can support Chinese SME internationalisation they can also hinder the process. For future research, this study provides an integrative approach to incorporating networks and institutions to explain SMEs’ internationalisation. In addition, adopting the paradoxical view is a promising start to explain international business especially in the context of China. The practical implications are that SMEs can learn how to use different types of networks for success in turbulent transitional institutions. Policymakers could enhance their knowledge of how to facilitate SMEs to internationalise successfully by providing a supportive institutional environment.

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  • Housing, the ‘Great Income Tax Experiment’, and the intergenerational consequences of the lease

    Coleman, Andrew (2017-04)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    This paper provides an analysis of how the New Zealand tax system may be affecting residential property markets. Like most OECD countries, New Zealand does not tax the imputed rent or capital gains from owner-occupied housing. Unlike most OECD countries, since 1989 New Zealand has taxed income placed in retirement savings funds on an income basis, rather than an expenditure basis. The result is likely to be the most distortionary tax policy towards housing in the OECD. Since 1989, these tax distortions have provided incentives that should have lead to significant increases in house prices and the average size of new dwellings, should have reduced owner-occupier rates, and should have led to a worsening of the overseas net asset position. The tax settings are likely to be regressive, and are not intergenerationally neutral, as they impose significant costs on current and future generations of young New Zealanders (and new migrants). Since it does not appear to be politically palatable to tax capital gains or imputed rent, to reduce the distortionary consequences of the tax system on housing markets New Zealand may wish to reconsider how it taxes retirement savings accounts by adopting the standard OECD approach.

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  • Comparing the effectiveness of dietitian delivered nutrition education either as a single intensive session or five short sessions for people with prediabetes

    Aitken, Suzanne (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Prediabetes is a worldwide growing epidemic and a key risk factor for progression onto type 2 diabetes. Interventions targeting prediabetes are required to delay or prevent the onset of diabetes. A pilot study was undertaken involving 11 participants with prediabetes. The participants were randomly assigned to either a single session or multi session (five sessions) dietary education intervention conducted by a single dietitian with an overall contact time of 60 minutes. Outcome measurements were collected in the form of HbA1c, weight, blood lipids and nutrition knowledge score. No significant differences were found between the intervention groups in either metabolic outcomes or nutrition knowledge. The analysis of the small sample size should be interpreted with caution and is for interest purposes only. The small sample size may have contributed to the lack of statistically significant results and a larger sample size would be recommended. Few studies have compared similar methodology of consistent contact time over single or multiple sessions. Further programmes could incorporate a longer contact time which could be used to integrate more behaviour change techniques and individual goal setting which may result in greater improvement in measurements.

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  • 'Place' Matters to Rural Nurses: A Study Located in the Rural Otago Region of New Zealand

    Ross, Jean (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Rural nursing is recognised internationally as a speciality area of nursing practice, situated within the general field of nursing. This specialist area of practice is an underrepresented aspect of nursing in New Zealand, and its professional identity is challenged, misunderstood and does not fit easily within the national imaginings, wider nursing profession and policies governing nursing practice. This thesis explores the social construction of the evolving professional identity, of rural nurses’ between the 1990 and early 2000s. This period of time was associated with two significant national directives impacting on the professional practice of rural nurses and their contribution for the delivery of health care, from the rural Otago region, of the South Island of New Zealand. The first of these national directives in the 1990s was the restructuring of the health care system, driven by the National government, to improve the social determinants of health that shifted the governance of health care from the state to local community control. Parallel to these changes was the motivation from the profession to reposition nursing, with the aim of advancing nurses’ practice so that their full potential could be harnessed, to improve the delivery of health care and reduce health inequalities. Situating this research within the interpretive paradigm embeds this retrospective study within the discipline of nursing and social geography, and engages with the concepts of place and governmentality. Place is considered a concept, in which meaning is made throughout, with the associated concepts of ‘location’, ‘locale’ and ‘sense of place’ revealing how the professional identity of the rural nurse was constructed. Further, engaging with governmentality creates a deeper understanding of rural nurses and their practice and exposes the different levels of governance, including state, discipline and the self, which govern the nurses’ conduct. National key informant and regional rural nurse interviews generated data and were analysed using thematic analysis. Stemming from the analyses, an analytical diagrammatic matrix has been developed which demonstrates rural nursing as a place–based practice governed both from within and beyond location. This analysis further demonstrates how the nurse aligns the self in the rural community as a meaningful provider of health care. In contrast, understanding the rural nurses’ professional identity is acknowledged from beyond the rural community, as a critical component of engaging within the wider nursing profession and is recognised as different to urban nursing. Difference in this context is considered a valuable and positive concept in which to recognise the unique features aligned with rural nursing, meaning that the rural identity is associated with the rural nurses’ relationship with the physical context, community members and specialist scope of practice. The significance of place in relation to rural nurses’ practice is an imperative and noteworthy factor which cannot be an underestimated aspect driving the evolution of this study.

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  • War, Identity, and Inherited Responsibility in Sino-Japanese Relations

    Shibata, Ria (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Groups in conflict develop different and often contesting interpretations of the past, particularly if that history involves a violent injustice. How both perpetrator and victimised groups deal with their past history is critical to the successful resolution of protracted conflicts. When the harm is left unacknowledged and unaddressed, feelings of victimisation, humiliation, and shame emerge and frequently prolong the conflict between the transgressor and transgressed. The perpetrator's acknowledgment of responsibility for immoral acts is therefore an essential pre-requisite in promoting reconciliation. Debates about historical injustices, however, focus on whether guilt and responsibility for past wrongs should be passed on from the original perpetrators to the generational descendants. Seventy years have passed since the end of the Second World War, and yet the memories of the war continue to negatively affect the relations between China and Japan. While Chinese victims and their descendants continue to seek apology and closure, the Japanese public are experiencing 'apology fatigue'—a feeling of frustration that no matter what they do, the victims will never be satisfied. This thesis seeks to examine the extent to which present-day Japanese are willing to accept some degree of inherited responsibility for the acts of aggression committed by their ancestors. Drawing on social identity, basic human needs and reconciliation theories, this research aims to identify the social psychological factors impeding Japanese acceptance of collective responsibility for its past. Using a mixed methods approach, this problem is examined and explored with a sample of 162 Japanese university students representing a generation who were never directly involved in the nation's misdeeds.

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  • Soil water regimes of the Glendhu experimental catchments

    Miller, Blair J. (1994)

    Honours Dissertation thesis
    University of Otago

    The Otago block mountains are important water supply areas with their abundant water yield attributed to conservative water use by narrow-leaved snow tussock (Chionochloa rigida), the dominant vegetation cover of the region. This study looks at three aspects of the soil hydrology of the Glendhu experimental catchments, east Otago, New Zealand: soil water regime changes following afforestation of the tussock grasslands; a comparison of soil water regimes with topographic position in order to identify possible saturated overland flow generation sites; and some characteristics of a peat wetland that is typical of those that occupy gullies in the region. Several sites were set up in the forested and the tussock catchments, and depending on position, contained tensiometer nests, neutron probe access tubes and water table observation wells. Data were collected betw.een 29/3/93 and 19/5/94 and revealed much drier conditions under forest cover, with saturation not occurring in the A horizon throughout the study period. Using tussock catchment sites for topographic comparison, a downslope increase in water content was found on the interfluve, while saturation persisted for longer periods of time at headwall sites where subsurface convergence resulting from the concave planar morphology occurs. Wetland water tables only fluctuated 27.5 cm during the study period, and do not appear to be sustaining the high baseflow that occurs from the catchment.

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  • Does explicit teacher instruction of resilience increase a child's resilience?

    Sanders, Byron Travis (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Resilience is the ability to achieve favourable outcomes in the face of adversity (Condly, 2006). The increased presence of resilience in education has been noted of particular interest recently as schools move towards a more holistic curriculum, where they are not only teaching academic skills, but also social skills that rely on values, competencies, and principles (Hymel, Schonert-Reichl, & Miller, 2006). The present study aimed to measure the impact of teaching resilience on students as it correlated to their performance on tasks that assessed resilience. This study recruited 120 student participants from year one to year eight from an inner-city full primary school in Dunedin, New Zealand. This study used a repeated measure experimental design with a control group to assess the effectiveness of explicitly teaching students about resilience. Students’ resilience was assessed based off their performance on four tasks across three different phases of the study. Students in the experimental condition group were exposed to three linked lessons about resilience, while students in the control condition were not exposed to these lessons until after the assessments had concluded. The results showed no significant difference in resilience between control participants and the experimental group across all measured tasks. The performance of the experimental condition participants on the four resilience tasks was not significantly better than the control condition participants. In some instances there was actually poorer performance by the experimental condition participants on certain tasks. Results from this study suggest that the intervention of teaching children about resilience was not strong enough. Alternatively the measures of resilience were not sensitive enough to the intervention or were not valid. Further research could explore these implications through a more intensive and long-term intervention.

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  • The Dollar-Wall Street Regime and New Zealand: The Political Implications of Financial Market Liberalisation for Macroeconomic Management in New Zealand, 1994 to 2011

    Richards, Byron Anthony James (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    This is a study of New Zealand’s retention and entrenchment of a neoliberal policy regime, focusing on the role played by international finance. The study examines the influence that international private financial markets and institutions exerted over the macroeconomic policy formulation of New Zealand governments during the period from 1994 to 2011. It is argued that the emergence of international private financial markets and New Zealand’s subsequent integration into these markets was instrumental in successive governments retaining and entrenching all of the core features of a neoliberal macroeconomic policy nexus. This includes, most prominently: a monetary policy regime focused on maintaining low, stable inflation; an independently floating foreign exchange regime; and a conservative fiscal policy oriented towards surplus-generation and public debt reduction. The study utilises a sophisticated neopluralist theoretical framework that also draws on neo-Marxist analyses developed in the field of international political economy. Within this theoretical framework, neopluralism identifies the key sources of business power within contemporary liberal democracies. Respectively, neo-Marxist international political economy identifies the major sources of the power of private financial capital within an increasingly inter-connected global economic system. This theoretical approach provides a coherent and empirically-grounded explanation of the crucial role played by international private financial markets in successive New Zealand governments’ retention and entrenchment of all of the key features of the neoliberal macroeconomic policy nexus. A critical realist methodology is used to apply the theoretical framework deployed in this thesis. This entails the use of primarily, but not exclusively, qualitative data -such as historical company reports, official government policy statements, official statistics, and interviews with key actors involved in the process -to develop a robust analysis of the influence that international private financial markets exercised over macroeconomic policy formulation in New Zealand during the period from 1994 to 2011. This analysis highlights the causal significance of the political activities of individual human agents, while also identifying the broader underlying causal mechanisms that were at play. The central finding of this study is that the comprehensive programme of financial market liberalisation and financial sector deregulation implemented by the Fourth Labour Government between 1984 and 1990 effectively served to integrate New Zealand into the Dollar-Wall Street Regime. Comprising the current system governing contemporary international financial relations, the Dollar-Wall Street Regime accords a central role in public macroeconomic management to international private financial markets. The major political effects of New Zealand’s integration into the Dollar-Wall Street Regime during the period from 1994 to 2011 derived from a transformation of the underlying structural relationship between the state and internationally-mobile financial capital. This resulted in a curtailment of the operational autonomy of the state, the ability of citizen voters to exert democratic political influence, and, ultimately, the retention of a neoliberal macroeconomic policy agenda.

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  • Effects of land use on pelagic food webs in a range of Otago Wetlands

    Galbraith, Lisa (2004)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Inputs of nutrients and organic matter to wetlands from catchments influence water quality, which, in turn, determines the potential productivity of a wetland. While there are many studies of the effects of catchment development on water quality and aquatic communities in lakes, few studies include other wetlands. As these other wetlands are likely to be more affected by allochthonous inputs, littoral vegetation and autochthonous generation of organic matter, my aim was to determine the major influences on pelagic communities in a range of wetland systems. Influences of catchment land use on water quality and the pelagic food web were examined in 45 wetlands representative of a range of wetland environments in Otago, including swamps and ponds, shallow lakes, riverine wetlands, estuaries, reservoirs and deep lakes. The pelagic zones of 40 wetland sites were sampled once in February-March 1999 (autumn), 15 were re-sampled in October 1999 (spring), when five additional sites were also sampled. Catchment variables included size and slope, wetland size and the percentage of land in the catchment in bare ground, indigenous forest, inland water, inland wetlands, planted forest, pasture, scrub, tussock, urban or urban open space. Water quality variables, or physicochemical measurements, included total phosphorus, total nitrogen, total dissolved phosphorus, total inorganic nitrogen, dissolved organic carbon, turbidity, Secchi depth, total suspended solids, water colour, chlorophyll a, pH, temperature and conductivity. The pelagic food web was sampled, including biomass, abundance, and identification to genus of phytoplankton, biomasses of picophytoplankton, heterotrophic bacteria and nanoflagellates, biomass and identification to genus or dominant group of ciliates, and abundance and identification to species of crustacean zooplankton. Relationships among catchment variables, water quality variables and the pelagic food web were determined using multivariate analysis and correlation analysis. Increased development of pasture, exotic forestry and urbanisation in a catchment had negative effects on water quality, in comparison to unmodified catchments containing native vegetation communities. In turn, the biomass and composition of the pelagic community related closely to catchment modification, via physicochemical attributes of the wetland. Deep lakes were the most oligotrophic wetlands and swamps and ponds were the most eutrophic. Picophytoplankton and the cladoceran, Bosmina meridionalis were related positively to unmodified catchments, low trophic status of a wetland and deep lakes. Other components of the microbial food web, phytoplankton, copepods and Daphnia carinata were linked hierarchically to more intensive land use in the catchment, higher wetland trophy, swamps and ponds. A ciliate genus, Urocentrum, appeared to be detrimentally affected, and phytoplankton diversity reduced, by wetland catchment development and increases in wetland trophy. Components of the pelagic food web were tightly correlated across adjacent trophic levels. Heterotrophic bacteria appeared to be a resource for heterotrophic nanoflagellates. Picophytoplankton populations might either be suppressed by ciliate grazing, or detrimentally affected by eutrophication. Small ciliates appear to consume other microbial food web components, while larger ciliates may depend more on phytoplankton. Copepods may be relying on consumption of ciliates. Cladocerans did not appear to depend on this resource to the same extent as copepods. Populations of B. meridionalis and Ceriodaphnia dubia were negatively related to the larger cladoceran, D. carinata. Seasonal effects were apparent only at the level of zooplankton, the highest trophic level studied. B. meridionalis and C. dubia were more abundant in autumn than spring, while the reverse was true of D. carinata. This study revealed relationships within pelagic food webs in a range of wetland systems. While resource supply appeared to be the foundation of relationships between aquatic organisms, top-down effects of predation in the food web could not be dismissed. The potential of organisms such as picophytoplankton, ciliates and phytoplankton to be indicators of aquatic ecosystem health has been revealed or strengthened by this study. This research provides evidence of the influence of land use and geographical features on water quality and pelagic communities of wetlands in Otago.

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  • Gone with the Wind: International Migration

    Aburn, Amelia; Wesselbaum, Dennis (2017-04)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    This paper adds to the literature on the determinants of international migration. First, we offer a joint analysis of the driving forces of migration capturing year-to-year variations and long-run effects. Second, we analyze the dynamic response of migration to shocks to its determinants. We start by presenting a theoretical model that allows us to model migration as an augmented gravity equation. We then construct a rich panel data set with 16 destination and 198 origin countries between 1980 and 2014. Most importantly, we find that climate change is a more important driver than income and political freedom together. Our results imply that a large time dimension is key to understand the effects of climate change. We then estimate a panel vectorautoregressive model showing that the dynamic response of migration is very different across shocks to different driving forces. Our findings carry implications for national and international immigration policies.

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  • Catalysis with Carbon-Rich Gold(I) and Palladium(II) 1,2,3-Triazole-based Complexes

    Wright, James Robert (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Homogeneous catalysis, where the catalyst and the substrates are in the same phase, is well established due in part to advancements in organometallic chemistry. Ligand design has played an important role in the development of active catalysts and there is an ongoing industrial and environmental need to design catalysts with high turnover. N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC)-based complexes are powerful catalysts as the ligands possess strong donor properties and the metal-NHC coordination bonds are kinetically stable. Mesoionic carbenes (MICs), in particular 1,3,4-trisubstituted-1,2,3-triazol-5-ylidenes, are a recent addition to this class, and possess stronger donor properties. Moreover, the 1,2,3-triazole precursors are synthesised using copper(I) catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC), and so functionalization of the ligands and therefore design and optimization of the resulting catalysts can be achieved in a very straightforward fashion. Having previously demonstrated that gold(I) triazolylidene complexes are catalytically active, a systematic study was conducted whereby six complexes varying in electronic and steric properties were synthesised, and tested in three gold(I) catalyzed reactions: the 1,6-enyne rearrangement, the alcohol addition to 3,3-cyclopropenes, and the allylic etherification of unactivated alcohols. Improvements in both the enyne rearrangement and the allylic etherification reactions were made solely due to the ancillary 1,2,3-triazolylidene ligand. The most active triazolylidene catalyst was the most sterically bulky of the range tested, indicating that stability of the metal centre was important. Therefore, Au(I) complexes bearing larger triazolylidene ligands may result in more active catalysts. With this in mind, six 1,2,3-triazoles bearing the large polyphenylene moieties hexaphenylbenzene (HPB) and hexa-peri¬-hexabenzocoronene (HBC) were synthesised using an optimized CuAAC “click” chemistry approach. With six novel 1,2,3-triazoles, and taking into account the small number of publications describing the coordination chemistry of HPB and HBC containing ligands, investigations into the palladium(II) coordination chemistry of two of the 1,2,3-triazoles was carried out. The [PdCl2L2] complexes, alongside a phenyl analogue and the commercially available [PdCl2(PPh3)2] were tested in the Suzuki-Miyaura reaction with three different arylhalide substrates. All complexes catalyzed the reaction with the moderately activated 4′-bromoacetophenone substrate, however, less activated substrates 3,5 dimethoxybromobenzene and 4′-chloroacetophenone revealed the HBC and PPh3 catalysts as the most active. Investigations into the donor strength of the ligands reveal that the high activity of the HBC containing complex is unknown, and possible contributions to this activity are discussed. Overall conclusions to the findings of the research are made, and suggestions for improving the catalysts with preliminary findings are described.

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  • Mother Knows Best? The Influence of Maternal Modelling on Preschool Children's Ability to Delay Gratification

    Davis, Kelsey (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Young children’s ability to exhibit self-control has been linked to a wide range of positive outcomes later in life, providing a strong impetus for improving this skill in young children. While previous theorists suggested that self-control can be trained like a muscle, support for this approach is dwindling. We propose that mechanisms for improving self-control should aim to utilise children’s natural resources. The current study investigated how maternal talk and behaviour during the delay-of-gratification maintenance task (i.e., the marshmallow test) influenced pre-schoolers ability to delay gratification. Twenty-six 30- to 36-month-old children participated in two sessions, one in which their mother was encouraged to help them delay gratification (i.e., the Maternal condition) and the other in which the mother was asked not to intervene (i.e., the Control condition). Maternal talk and behaviour was coded as “distraction” or “reward” oriented and correlated with children’s wait times. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed that maternal talk about the reward during the maternal condition was negatively related to children’s wait times in both the maternal and control conditions. In contrast, mothers’ distraction techniques and talk did not significantly influence children’s ability to delay gratification. These findings are discussed in relation to the effects that reward saliency and the development of episodic memory play in young children’s ability exhibit self-control in the presence of tempting stimuli.

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  • Analogues of Leavitt path algebras for higher-rank graphs

    Pangalela, Yosafat Eka Prasetya (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Directed graphs and their higher-rank analogues provide an intuitive framework to study a class of C*-algebras which we call graph algebras. The theory of graph algebras has been developed by a number of researchers and also influenced other branches of mathematics: Leavitt path algebras and Cohn path algebras, to name just two. Leavitt path algebras for directed graphs were developed independently by two groups of mathematicians using different approaches. One group, which consists of Ara, Goodearl and Pardo, was motivated to give an algebraic framework of graph algebras. Meanwhile, the motivation of the other group, which consists of Abrams and Aranda Pino, is to generalise Leavitt's algebras, in which the name Leavitt comes from. Later, Abrams and now with Mesyan introduced the notion of Cohn path algebras for directed graphs. Interestingly, both Leavitt path algebras and Cohn path algebras for directed graphs can be viewed as algebraic analogues of C*-algebras of directed graphs. In 2013, Aranda Pino, J. Clark, an Huef and Raeburn introduced a higher-rank version of Leavitt path algebras which we call Kumjian-Pask algebras. At their first appearance, Kumjian-Pask algebras were only defined for row-finite higher-rank graphs with no sources. Clark, Flynn and an Huef later extended the coverage by also considering locally convex row-finite higher-rank graphs. On the other hand, Cohn path algebras for higher rank graphs still remained a mystery. This thesis has two main goals. The first aim is to introduce Kumjian-Pask algebras for a class of higher-rank graphs called finitely-aligned higher-rank graphs. This type of higher-rank graph covers both row-finite higher-rank graphs with no sources and locally convex row-finite higher-rank graphs. Therefore, we give a generalisation of the existing Kumjian-Pask algebras. We also establish the graded uniqueness theorem and the Cuntz-Krieger uniqueness theorem for Kumjian-Pask algebras of finitely-aligned higher-rank graphs. The second aim is to introduce a higher-rank analogue of Cohn path algebras. We then study the relationship between Kumjian-Pask algebras and Cohn path algebras and use this to investigate properties of Cohn path algebras. Finally, we establish a uniqueness theorem for Cohn path algebras.

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