5,938 results for Victoria University of Wellington

  • Spending Time: An investigation of the relationship between emotions, time and spending

    Liebenberg, Brett (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The significance of exchange within our daily lives encompasses not only the economic exchange of physical commodities but more abstract entities such as knowledge, skills and beliefs. This research investigation developed from a desire to understand my personal engagement with money and the design of money, through the exploration of shopping and spending habits. The activity of spending and everyday provisioning is one which has come to form a large component of our everyday lives and is partly informed by the non-economic aspects of exchange described above. This has led researchers, such as Daniel Miller (1998), to investigate the cultural phenomenon of consumerism. As our ability to consume has expanded to an almost unlimited wealth of products to choose from, a consumer has been able to form an imagined relationship with their purchases and may even regard it as a physical manifestation of various emotions. This level of constant spending and provisioning demands further examination, as the systems designed to enable us to consume are the same which have capitalised on our emotions. By making use of ethnographic methods of investigation (specifically interviews and qualitative survey tools), this research explores how an increased level of monetary literacy could be developed towards a consumers everyday spending. Through the design of a research tool, The Spending Map, a process of critical reflection is encouraged where it is possible to exhibit a dialogue that can capture, catalogue and critique the emotional engagement a consumer has towards their spending.

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  • Using Structural Geology and Cosmogenic Nuclide Dating to Infer the Slip Rate and Frictional Strength of the Active Mai’iu Low-Angle Normal Fault, Eastern Papua New Guinea

    Webber, Samuel (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Low-angle normal faults (LANFs) have induced debate due to their apparent non -Andersonian behaviour and lack of significant seismicity associated with slip. Dipping 21°/N, the Mai’iu Fault, located in the Woodlark Rift, Eastern Papua New Guinea is an active LANF that occupies a position at the transition between continental extension and seafloor spreading. Surface geomorphology indicates that the Mai’iu Fault scarp is not significantly eroded despite high rainfall and ~2900 m of relief. Based on modelling of regional campaign GPS data (Wallace et al., 2014) the Mai’iu Fault is thought to accommodate rapid (7–9 mm/yr) horizontal extension; however the slip rate of the Mai’iu Fault has not been directly validated. I use a range of methodologies, including field mapping, cosmogenic exposure dating, cosmogenic burial dating, and Mohr-Coulomb modelling, in order to provide new constraints on LANF strength and slip behaviour. I analyse the structure of conglomeratic strata within a back -rotated rider block atop the Mai’iu Fault surface. The Gwoira rider block is a large fault-bounded sedimentary rock slice comprising the Gwoira Conglomerate, located within a large synformal megamullion in the Mai’iu Fault surface. The Gwoira Conglomerate was originally deposited on the Mai’iu Fault hanging wall concurrent with extension, and has since been buried to a maximum depth of ~2 km (evidenced by modelling of vitrinite reflectance data, and structural analysis), back-tilted, and synformally folded. The Mai’iu Fault is also overlain by a large fault slice (the Gwoira rider block), that has been transferred from the previous LANF hanging wall to the current footwall by the initiation of the younger Gwoira Fault. Both the Gwoira Conglomerate (former hanging wall) and mylonitic foliation (footwall) of the Mai’iu Fault have been shortened ~E-W, perpendicular to the extension direction. I show that N-S trending synformal folding of the Gwoira Conglomerate was concurrent with on-going sedimentation and extension on the Mai’iu Fault. Structurally shallower Gwoira Conglomerate strata are folded less than deeper strata, indicating that folding was progressively accrued concurrent with ~N -S extension. I also show that abandonment of the inactive strand of the Mai’iu Fault in favour of the Gwoira Fault, which resulted in formation of the Gwoira rider block, occurred in response to progressive megamullion amplification and resultant misorientation of the inactive strand of the Mai’iu Fault. I attribute N-S trending synformal folding to extension-perpendicular constriction. This is consistent with numerous observations of outcrop-scale conjugate strike-slip faults that deform the footwall and hanging wall of the Mai’iu Fault (Little et al., 2015), and accommodate E-W shortening. Constrictional folding remains active in the near-surface as evidenced by synformal tilting of inferred Late Quaternary fluvial terraces atop the Gwoira rider block. In order to date this sequence of progressive constrictional folding, I have processed ten ²⁶Al/¹⁰Be terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide burial samples obtained from the Gwoira Conglomerate; unfortunately these data were not yet available at the time of printing, due to reasons outside of my control. I also present terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide (TCN) exposure ages for ten rock samples obtained from the lowermost Mai’iu Fault scarp at Biniguni Falls, in order to determine the Holocene slip-rate and style using cosmogenic ¹⁰Be in quartz. I model exposure age data after the approach of Schlagenhauf et al. (2011), using a Monte-Carlo simulation in which fault slip rate, the period of last slip on the fault, and local erosion rate are allowed to vary. Modelling evidences that the Mai’iu Fault at Biniguni Falls is active and slipping at 13.9±4.0 mm/yr (1σ), resolved over the last 13.2±2.7 ka (1σ). Modelling constrains the time of last slip to 2.9±1.4 ka (1σ); this is consistent with a seismic event at that time, followed by non-slip on the Mai’iu Fault until the present day. Finally, because rider block formation records abandonment of the uppermost part of a LANF, Coulomb fault mechanical analysis can be applied to field observations to provide an upper limit on LANF frictional strength (µf). Calculations are made in terms of Mohr-Coulomb mechanics, after the framework of Choi and Buck (2012). The lock-up (abandonment) orientation at any particular position on the Mai’iu Fault is principally a function of fault friction (µf), crustal friction (µc), fault cohesion (Cf), crustal cohesion (Cc), depth, fault orientation, fluid pressure, and the orientation of the greatest principle stress. Model results suggest that fault friction for the active Gwoira-Mai’iu Fault surface is 0.128≤μf≤0.265 for Cf<1.8 MPa. This suggests that past slip on the inactive Mai’iu Fault, and continued slip on the active Gwoira-Mai’iu Fault, were enabled by low fault frictional strength. I also model the strength of the active Mai’iu Fault at Biniguni Falls; results suggest greater LANF friction (μf≥0.32) than the Gwoira-Mai’iu Fault surface, and inactive Mai’iu Fault. In order to explain active slip on the LANF at Biniguni Falls concurrent with widespread field observations of outcrop-scale faulting of the LANF footwall, I suggest a process whereby overall the LANF remains viable and active, but locally stress conditions exceed the LANF abandonment criteria; this results in highly localised and temporary ‘footwall damage’ where the LANF footwall is locally dissected by outcrop-scale faulting.

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  • Travelling with the Spirit: Pentecostal Migration Religiosity Between Ghana and Australia

    Dennis, Dorcas (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The desire to migrate to foreign lands is widespread within contemporary Ghana. Among the Ghanaians, there is a growing sense that migrating overseas requires spiritual empowerment. Evidence of this development can be seen in the emergence of “passport and visa industries” that depend on the activities of a multitude of religious agents and ritual experts. Correspondingly, Ghanaian religious agents are now constantly generating new strategies designed to meet prospective migrants’ demands. The practice of enlisting the help of religious agents and practices for the purpose of international migration is having a marked effect on the Ghanaian religious landscape in two key ways: first, it has created a demand for religious agents who possess the power to solve migration-related spiritual problems; second, in response to this demand, Ghana's purveyors of spiritual powers have shaped their practices to inspire and enable migration. Using data from extensive fieldwork among members of the Church of Pentecost (CoP) and Power Chapel (PC) in Ghana and Australia, this thesis offers an account of the role of religious narratives and rituals in the experience of Ghanaians migrating abroad, and among Ghanaian migrants in Australia. The thesis argues that the present preoccupation with overseas migration, and its interconnection with religion, is creating a migration religiosity (MR) that inspires and enhances migrations, and which forms the basis for migrants’ extension of Ghanaian religions from the so-called global-South to the global-North. This MR operates in each phase of the migration experience. In the homeland, prospective migrants use MR to facilitate their international travel. On the journey, MR is the source of spiritual protection and safety. MR continues and takes on new roles as migrants use it in meeting new conditions and experiences in their new land. Migrants’ reliance on MR for place-making as they settle into their new lives in the diaspora motivates them to create worshiping Cells. These Cells become the setting in which Ghanaian migrants reformulate their religious traditions, and from which they launch proselytizing practices or reverse missions to the host community.

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  • Community Participation in Education: A Case Study in the Four Remote Primary Schools in Samlot District, Battambang Province, Cambodia

    To, Loeurt (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This study was conducted to investigate the nature of community participation in education in a remote district in Cambodia. A case study approach was used to explore the issue and employed mixed research methods for data collection. Epstein‘s participation and Bray‘s degree of community participation were used as analytical frameworks. The study contributes to a wide body of literature in participation in education, but which is under-researched for rural Cambodia. The study focussed on the forms and processes of participation by parents, community members and education stakeholders in primary schools in remote areas. The study discovered a range of social practices in community participation in education. The degrees of participation varied depending on the types of participation and the participants. Parents had direct participation in their children‘s learning at home, and indirect participation through resource contribution for school development. In addition, the community participated in education through their main representatives, the School Support Committees (SSCs). SSCs were found to possess power in the decision-making processes in school and education development. The most common type of participation was collaborative resource contribution for school development. This practice reflected the traditional culture of participation of Cambodian society but there was also a sign of behavioural change to focus more on children‘s learning. Teachers and School Support Committees were the drivers in bringing community and parents to participate in education. They were the facilitators, communicators, network connectors and mobilizers for school and education development. This case study suggests that a shift in focus (on the part of the government, non-governmental organizations and education stakeholders) to support parental involvement in children‘s learning, rather than the traditional resource mobilisation, may better promote children‘s learning. Further research on parental involvement in children‘s learning could be conducted.

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  • Colonisation and Aboriginal Land Tenure: Taiwan during the Qing Period (1684-1895) and the Japanese Period (1895-1945)

    Ye, Ruiping (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis is concerned with the land rights of the aboriginal peoples of Taiwan. It explores how under the Qing (1684-1895) and Japanese (1895-1945) regimes, laws and policies regarding aboriginal land in Taiwan resulted in aboriginal land tenure changes and loss of land. The thesis also explores how the respective legal systems and legal cultures of the Qing and Japanese states influenced policy-making concerning aboriginal land. The thesis examines the different effects of the Qing and Japanese administrations on aboriginal land tenure in Taiwan. It analyses Qing policies towards land settlement in Taiwan, the extent of the government’s recognition and protection of aboriginal land rights, the changes that the distinctive Qing property law regime, including the Chinese customary land practice, brought to aboriginal land tenure, and the aborigines’ interaction with the government and settlers regarding their land. To a lesser extent and as a comparison, the thesis then discusses the Japanese government’s attitudes towards the aborigines and aboriginal land tenure, and Japan’s reforms of land tenure in Taiwan. The thesis puts the study of Taiwan aboriginal land policies into the wider framework of the administration of Taiwan by two governments whose legal systems were quite different: the Qing government, which in many respects was a traditional Chinese imperial regime, and Japan, which by the time it colonised Taiwan had reformed its law along European lines and which was considered to be a modern and European-style state. Ultimately, this thesis attempts to find out what role the Qing legal system played in shaping the policies and in the transformation of aboriginal land tenure, and how the Japanese legal system, largely westernised after the Meiji Restoration in 1868, influenced Japanese policies regarding aboriginal land in Taiwan. Thus a central concern of the thesis is the connection between law and colonial policy. This thesis concludes that the Qing colonisation of Taiwan was different from the later Japanese colonisation of Taiwan and from Western styles of colonisation. Shaped by its legal culture, constitutional framework, administrative system and property law regime, the Qing government had very little or no intention and took little action to transform aboriginal land tenure. Rather the Qing legal tradition allowed for or enabled Chinese settlers to manipulate aboriginal land tenure and impose Chinese culture on the aborigines, an effect often unintended by the government. In contrast, Japan colonised Taiwan with a specific intention to exploit the resources of the island and thus the government played a strong role in changing aboriginal land tenure in Taiwan.

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  • Là où dialoguent les musées: The Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa at the Musée du Quai Branly

    Phillips, Lily (2014)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The opening of the Musée du quai Branly in 2006 signalled a new approach to the display of Māori and Pacific collections in France and the beginning of a new relationship with the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa. Between 2006 and 2012, the two museums were brought together by two challenging events: the repatriation of toi moko (Māori tattooed heads) from France to New Zealand and the 2011 exhibition Maori: leurs trésors ont une âme at the quai Branly. Through a close study of the repatriation and exhibition, and interviews with participants, this thesis considers the questions these events raise. How can museums with very different approaches to the treatment of artefacts negotiate issues of repatriation and the exhibition of sacred objects? How should colonial-era anthropological collections be exhibited today? What is the place of contemporary indigenous art in the museum? By focusing on the exchanges between two institutions, Te Papa and the quai Branly, this thesis suggests how conversations at an individual level can lead to shifts in the perception and exhibition of museum objects, and how dialogues between museums internationally can contribute to an evolution in the treatment and display of indigenous artefacts and art in museums.

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  • Applying Formal Modelling to the Specification and Testing of SDN Network Functionality

    Stevens, Matt (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Software Defined Networks offers a new paradigm to manage networks, one that favors centralised control over the distributed control used in legacy networks. This brings network operators potential efficiencies in capital investment, operating costs and wider choice in network appliance providers. We explore in this research whether these efficiencies apply to all network functionality by applying formal modelling to create a mathematically rigourous model of a service, a firewall, and using that model to derive tests that are ultimately applied to two SDN firewalls and a legacy stateful firewall. In the process we discover the only publicly available examples of SDN firewalls are not equivalent to legacy stateful firewalls and in fact create a security flaw that may be exploited by an attacker.

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  • Genetic Programming for Automatically Synthesising Robust Image Descriptors with A Small Number of Instances

    Al-Sahaf, Harith (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Image classification is a core task in many applications of computer vision, including object detection and recognition. It aims at analysing the visual content and automatically categorising a set of images into different groups. Performing image classification can largely be affected by the features used to perform this task. Extracting features from images is a challenging task due to the large search space size and practical requirements such as domain knowledge and human intervention. Human intervention is usually needed to identify a good set of keypoints (regions of interest), design a set of features to be extracted from those keypoints such as lines and corners, and develop a way to extract those features. Automating these tasks has great potential to dramatically decrease the time and cost, and may potentially improve the performance of the classification task. There are two well-recognised approaches in the literature to automate the processes of identifying keypoints and extracting image features. Designing a set of domain-independent features is the first approach, where the focus is on dividing the image into a number of predefined regions and extracting features from those regions. The second approach is synthesising a function or a set of functions to form an image descriptor that aims at automatically detecting a set of keypoints such as lines and corners, and performing feature extraction. Although employing image descriptors is more effective and very popular in the literature, designing those descriptors is a difficult task that in most cases requires domain-expert intervention. The overall goal of this thesis is to develop a new domain independent Genetic Programming (GP) approach to image classification by utilising GP to evolve programs that are capable of automatically detecting diverse and informative keypoints, designing a set of features, and performing feature extraction using only a small number of training instances to facilitate image classification, and are robust to different image changes such as illumination and rotation. This thesis focuses on incorporating a variety of simple arithmetic operators and first-order statistics (mid-level features) into the evolutionary process and on representation of GP to evolve programs that are robust to image changes for image classification. This thesis proposes methods for domain-independent binary classification in images using GP to automatically identify regions within an image that have the potential to improve classification while considering the limitation of having a small training set. Experimental results show that in over 67% of cases the new methods significantly outperform the use of existing hand-crafted features and features automatically detected by other methods. This thesis proposes the first GP approach for automatically evolving an illumination-invariant dense image descriptor that detects automatically designed keypoints, and performs feature extraction using only a few instances of each class. The experimental results show improvement of 86% on average compared to two GP-based methods, and can significantly outperform domain-expert hand-crafted descriptors in more than 89% of the cases. This thesis also considers rotation variation of images and proposes a method for automatically evolving rotation-invariant image descriptors through integrating a set of first-order statistics as terminals. Compared to hand-crafted descriptors, the experimental results reveal that the proposed method has significantly better performance in more than 83% of the cases. This thesis proposes a new GP representation that allows the system to automatically choose the length of the feature vector side-by-side with evolving an image descriptor. Automatically determining the length of the feature vector helps to reduce the number of the parameters to be set. The results show that this method has evolved descriptors with a very small feature vector which yet still significantly outperform the competitive methods in more than 91% of the cases. This thesis proposes a method for transfer learning by model in GP, where an image descriptor evolved on instances of a related problem (source domain) is applied directly to solve a problem being tackled (target domain). The results show that the new method evolves image descriptors that have better generalisability compared to hand-crafted image descriptors. Those automatically evolved descriptors show positive influence on classifying the target domain datasets in more than 56% of the cases.

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  • High Ground, Low Ground: Explorations in Topography and Neighbourliness in Coastal Dune Settlement.

    Wallis, Stephanie (2015)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The desire to live close to the ocean often brings about settlement that sprawls along the beachfront, parallel to the coastline. This settlement structure is problematic as it diminishes the importance of community while exposing beachfront housing to coastal hazards. The coastal dune settlements of Waikanae and Paraparaumu, where this research has been undertaken, exhibits this problematic settlement structure. Using these sites as a case study, the research seeks to re-examine the New Zealand coastal land settlement formation. It explores what could happen if the current coastal settlement pattern re-organised as a more social structure? The research is investigating an approach to settlement through re-examining the idea of neighbourhood by looking at its whole relation to the coastal dune topography, ecology, and wider landscape relations. However, not only does this research look at the social potentials of coastal settlement but how disaster planning can become a device to achieve this outcome. Essentially, it aligns itself with the attitude that flooding and coastal hazards should not just be looked at as an engineering problem but an opportunity to alter the way in which we settle coastlines in a way that builds community.

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  • Business Value of ICT for Small Tourism Enterprises: The Case of Sri Lanka

    Abeysekara, U.G.D Lakshila Dilhani Perera (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Researchers and practitioners believe that Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) create business value in organisations. However in practice, organisations often struggle to demonstrate the benefits of ICTs. This difficulty in demonstrating the value of ICTs to organisations is not related to the technology itself, but rather the ways in which technology is used, and how it creates business value. There is an extensive body of literature which focuses on these issues. However, it is predominantly centred on large organisations in the context of developed countries. There is a lack of research on how ICTs create business value in small enterprises particularly in relation to developing countries. Hence, the business value of ICTs remains an important research topic for information systems researchers. The tourism industry is highly information intensive and the use of ICTs in tourism has become so widespread it is almost obligatory. While the benefits that larger tourism organisations gain from ICTs have been well researched, little is known about how ICTs can be utilised to maximise the business value of Small Tourism Enterprises (STEs). Understanding the value of ICTs for STEs is important as they have gained widespread recognition as a major source of employment, income generation and poverty alleviation in developing countries. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to explore how ICTs can contribute to the business value of STEs. Using a combination of Barney’s Resource Based View of the firm (RBV) and an integrated model developed by combining the Business value of IT framework by Melville et al. and the tourism production system by Poon and Alford, this study examines how ICTs contribute to the business value of STEs. A post-positivist qualitative multi-case study was carried out using 35 STEs which represent the major tourist regions of Sri Lanka. Semi-structured interviews were the main method of data collection supported by document and website analysis. Data analysis was guided by template coding. The initial template developed using the dimensions identified from the literature was further analysed by integrating the themes which emerged from the research data. Data was analysed across cases, using a cross tabular design to compare categories and analyse within-group similarities and inter-group differences. The use of technological and human ICT resources alongside complementary resources in key business processes was examined in order to identify how ICTs were being utilised to gain business value for STEs in Sri Lanka. The combination of internal and external factors derived from the focal firm and the external environment proved to have a significant role in determining STEs’ ability to gain business value from ICTs. Further analysis of cases across four major tourism clusters revealed that business motives, strategies, and location were the main reasons for the varying levels of business value gained by small businesses in the country. The findings of this study indicated that ICTs do contribute to the business value of STEs in Sri Lanka by improving organisational performance in terms of both financial and non-financial gains. In accordance with the claims of RBV, the findings further confirmed that in order to gain business value, ICT resources need to be combined with complementary resources. The findings also identified the significance of strategic integration of online travel agents’ resources in order for STEs to gain the optimum business value from their own ICT resources. A key outcome of this study is the development of an integrated model of the business value of ICTs for STEs. In addition, this study contributes to the theoretical understanding of IT business value research in the context of small tourism businesses, particularly in developing countries. It also has implications for business owners and governments in terms of effective utilisation of firm resources, prioritization and allocation of resources to key projects and processes.

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  • A History of Niue

    McDowell, David (1961)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    "In the beginning, this island now called Niue was nothing but coral rock (he punga)... There came a god, an aitu, from the south, a god sailed to and fro on the face of the waters. He looked down here and saw far below on the ocean the white punga rock. He let down his hook and hauled the punga up to the surface, and lo! there stood and island!" - John Lupo. The genesis of Niue remains conjectural. The Polynesian calls in a supernatural agency, an aitu from the south, to explain the emergence of the multiplication of corals and algae from the waters of the mid-Pacific to form an island two-hundred feet high, but the story of the god and his line and hook is a local adaptation of a very ancient and widespread fable, as are in varying degrees other Polynesian versions of the birth of the island, Cook advanced two further possibilities in 1777 when he speculated: "Has this Island been raised by an earthquake? Or has the sea receded from it?"

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  • A Communitys Urban Rejuvenation - The Cabarets Trouper

    Smith, Connie (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The 1990s brought innovation to retail shopping, enabling consumers to begin to shop from the comfort of their own home. Today, Online shopping continues to revolutionise the industry, creating a highly competitive market space while advancing “convenience shopping”. As customers can now purchase anything at their fingertips, those that choose to shop in-store find their desires are also competitively meet. Evolution within the retail industry has meant that many stores have become a part of “big box” developments. These facilities provide customers with readily stocked merchandise and the in-store experience of “convenience shopping”. Online shopping and Big Box stores will continue to lure people away from what once were vibrant urban retail environments posing various adverse effects on our streets, city centres and local businesses. Broadway Avenue, Palmerston North is one of many streets that have fallen victim to these developments creating unpleasant retail experiences for the community. This thesis argues how interior architecture can assist rejuvenating desolate urban environments. It proposes that by applying selected interior principles to an urban street it can create a space that begins to challenge the current programme encouraging the street to adapt for the community. This design based research proposes to create a community space ‘living room’ by treating the street as though it is a residential space within a retail environment. It aims to preserve and maintain a sense of history and diversity within the cityscape. The existing site attributes will be used to create a set of design rules and regulations within the shopping environment to encourage internal and external spaces to feed off one another adapting frequently to cope with the competitive nature of the retail sector.

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  • Television Sharknados and Twitter Storms: Cult Film Fan Practices in the Age of Social Media Branding.

    Hay, Stephen (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis examines the Syfy channel’s broadcast of the television movie Sharknado and the large number of tweets that were sent about it. Sharknado’s audience engaged in cult film viewing practices that can be understood using paracinema theory. Paracinema engagement with cult films has traditionally taken place in midnight screenings in independent movie theatres and private homes. Syfy’s audience was able to engage in paracinematic activity that included making jokes about Sharknado’s low quality of production and interacting with others who were doing the same through the affordances of Twitter. In an age where branding has become increasingly important, Syfy clearly benefited from all the fan activity around its programming. Critical branding theory argues that the value generated by a business’s brand comes from the labour of consumers. Brand management is mostly about encouraging and managing consumer labour. The online shift of fan practices has created new opportunities for brand managers to subsume the activities of consumers. Cult film audience practices often have an emphasis on creatively and collectively engaging in rituals and activities around a text. These are the precise qualities that brands require from their consumers. Sharknado was produced and marketed by Syfy to invoke the cult film subculture as part of Syfy’s branding strategy. This strategy can be understood using the theory of biopolitical marketing. Biopolitical marketing creates brands by encouraging and managing consumer activity on social media. Instead of simply promoting itself, a brand becomes an online platform through which consumers can engage. An active consumer base raises a brand’s profile and puts forward the image of happy, loyal customers. An equally important advantage of biopolitical marketing is that it can mask the marketing aspect of branding. Consumers who are cynical towards marketers may be less defensive towards a group of fellow consumers enjoying a product online. Developing a consumer community around a business where every consumer interaction enhances the brand and there is no semblance of marketer involvement is the end goal of biopolitical marketing. The subculture around cult films not only has brand-friendly practices, but is also positioned as being rebellious, a quality that can be particularly valuable in trying to mask the presence of marketing.

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  • Biodiversity planning for Victoria University of Wellington's Kelburn campus

    Forsyth, Frances Mary Jean (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Urbanisation changes the biotic and abiotic elements of natural environments irrevocably and almost always results in losses of indigenous species and habitats and the creation of new habitats. Humans are attracted to cities for social and economic reasons but put considerable effort into making life in cities more pleasant by creating urban green spaces where they can go, or which they can look at, to re-connect with the natural environment. Historically, large organisations and institutions, including universities, have also created park-like gardens for the benefit of their workers and students. This research concerns the 3.87 ha of garden and wilderness green space areas on the Victoria University of Wellington Kelburn campus (New Zealand). Established on a steep hillside in suburban Wellington in the early 1900s it now lies along the boundary of the Central Business District. Effective management of the grounds has become a priority in order that increasing numbers of students and staff may get more benefit from the services they provide, and the natural capital of both the campus and the city can be enhanced. A management plan incorporating recommendations from this research could guide biodiversity and environmental enhancement of the campus. As well as supporting urban biodiversity, and students and staff, these enhancement actions will strengthen and improve relationships with stakeholders, raising the profile of the university and bring its biodiversity policies in line with local government. For this study I measured tree frequency, density and species diversity on the Kelburn Campus and compared present day tree species richness with historic records for the campus, the Wellington Botanic Garden native forest remnants, and a local bush reserve. I also determined recruitment rates for campus trees. A total of 177 tree and shrub species were identified including plantings of 17 rare indigenous species. The overall diversity score was moderate (Shannon Weiner 3.023), and species richness on the campus had diminished from a high of 146 species in 1990. Without intervention species richness is likely to fall even further given that 81 species are currently represented by four or fewer trees. Recruitment data for weedy non-local species (both introduced and non-local indigenous) showed that there were significant numbers of these species in most size groups from seedling to mature trees. This indicates that greater control of these species is required. In the second part of the study I questioned members of the campus community about how they valued its green space, where they went and why, what they liked about their favourite places, and what they would like to see more or less of in campus green space. The results were, in general, consistent with the literature. Male staff were prepared to travel further than students to get to their favourite places and also showed a preference for exercise over relaxation; females showed slightly more preference than males for warm and sheltered spots, and students preferred relaxation and socialising over exercise as their reason for going to their favourite places. Access and seating were important and a large proportion of respondents wanted more warm sunny places and more birds. Large trees, native plants, flowers and lawns were also popular. These preferences were common to both students and staff. Victoria University expects that the Kelburn campus population could double in size over the next twenty years or so. This will place pressure on campus green space, five percent of which was lost to development in 2015. Through my research I have demonstrated that biodiversity gains could be achieved through effective management of pest plant species and judicious planting. Permanent protection and planned management of campus green space and recognition of it as a capital asset will be important for retaining staff and students, and for improving relationships with neighbours and stakeholders. Specific recommendations include: 1. Research into the food value for birds of Pseudopanax hybrids compared with local Pseudopanax species. 2. Research into the likelihood of local Pseudopanax species being forced into local extinction by hybrid species. 3. Develop a pest plant management plan. 4. Determine which soils in campus green space areas have high biodiversity potential and select plants accordingly. 5. Determine the needs of the multicultural campus community for green space. 6. Promote green space areas to staff and students as destinations and provide explanatory information regarding the natural and other values of particular sites. 7. Enhance natural and infrastructural elements of green spaces with planting, pest control, seating, shelter, and canopy gaps for sunshine. 8. Review access routes for pedestrian comfort, future capacity, connectivity with the surrounding neighbourhood, and accessibility for variously 'abled' people. Give campus roads and pathways names and signage.

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  • An Archaeomagnetic Study of Hangi Stones in New Zealand

    Kinger, Rimpy (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Burnt or fired archaeological artefacts often retain a record of the magnetic field in which they were last heated and cooled. Over the past four years we have collected oriented hangi stones from 10 archaeological sites spread across the North and South Islands of New Zealand. The stones vary in lithology from andesites, originating from the central North Island volcanoes, favoured by Maori for their durability and with remanent magnetization up to 30 A/m, to sandstones and schists from the main axial ranges, with magnetizations as weak as 10-4 A/m. Radiocarbon dating of charcoal fragments retrieved from amongst the stones indicates that the sites span from ca. 1400 AD to the present. In all cases, we have independently oriented and retrieved several stones, and we have made several samples from each stone, either by drilling (standard cylindrical samples) or sawing (pseudo-cubes) in the laboratory. We have calculated site mean palaeomagnetic directions (Dec between 1.5o and 19.6o and Inc between -52.2o and -68.3o) from principal component analysis of thermal demagnetization and alternating field demagnetization data, discarding the data of stones that show evidence of disturbance after cooling. The directions are in good agreement with recently published palaeosecular variation records from lake sediments. We have carried out palaeointensity experiments using the Coe/Thellier method with pTRM and tail checks, and with selection criteria modified to the situation. Palaeointensities range from 50μT to 77μT. Rock magnetic experiments contribute to our understanding of the mineralogy, domain state and blocking temperature spectra. We compare our data with predictions of the global field models ARCH3k and gufm1, and suggest that the addition of our new data will improve these models for the SW Pacific region for the most recent time period. Archaeomagnetic measurements are also used to date hangi sites by matching the palaeo-direction to an established archaeomagnetic dating model, NZPSV1k. Archaeomagnetic dating is used to resolve ambiguities in the calibration of radiocarbon dates, and shows up inconsistencies due to unreliable source material for radiocarbon dating. Archaeomagnetic dating and radiocarbon dating results are combined to give the best estimates of the best age of the hangi sites.

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  • Synthesis and Reactivity of Group 12 β-Diketiminate Coordination Complexes

    Webb, Dylan (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The variable β-diketiminate ligand poses as a suitable chemical environment to explore unknown reactivity and functionality of metal centres. Variants on the β-diketiminate ligand can provide appropriate steric and electronic stabilization to synthesize a range of β-diketiminate group 12 metal complexes. This project aimed to explore various β-diketiminate ligands as appropriate ancillary ligands to derivatise group 12 element complexes and investigate their reactivity. A β-diketiminato-mercury(II) chloride, [o-C₆H₄{C(CH₃)=N-2,6- iPr₂C₆H₃}{NH(2,6- iPr₂C₆H₃)}]HgCl, was synthesized by addition of [o-C₆H₄{C(CH₃)=N-2,6- iPr₂C₆H₃}{NH(2,6- iPr₂C₆H₃)}]Li to mercury dichloride. Attempts to derivatise the β-diketiminato-mercury(II) chloride using salt metathesis reactions were unsuccessful with only β-diketiminate ligand degradation products being observed in the ¹H NMR. A β-diketiminato-cadmium chloride, [CH{(CH₃)CN-2,6-iPr₂C₆H₃}₂]CdCl, was derivatized to a β-diketiminato-cadmium phosphanide, [CH{(CH₃)CN-2,6-iPr₂C₆H₃}₂]Cd P(C₆H₁₁)₂, via a lithium dicyclohexyl phosphanide and a novel β-diketiminato-cadmium hydride, [CH{(CH₃)CN-2,6-iPr₂C₆H₃}₂]CdH, via Super Hydride. Initial reactivity studies of the novel cadmium hydride with various carbodiimides yielded a β-diketiminato-homonuclear cadmium-cadmium dimer, [CH{(CH₃)CN-2,6-iPr₂C₆H₃}₂Cd]₂, which formed via catalytic reduction of the cadmium hydride. Attempts to synthesize an amidinate insertion product via a salt metathesis reaction or a ligand exchange reaction proved unsuccessful but a novel cadmium amidinate, [{CH(N-C₆H₁₁)₂}₂{CH(N-C₆H₁₁)(N(H)-C₆H₁₁)}Cd], was synthesized from addition of dicyclohexyl formamidine to bis-hexamethyldisilazane cadmium. A β-diketiminato-zinc(II) bromide, [o-C₆H₄{C(CH₃)=N-2,6- iPr₂C₆H₃}{NH(2,6- iPr₂C₆H₃)}]ZnBr, was synthesized by addition of [o-C₆H₄{C(CH₃)=N-2,6- iPr₂C₆H₃}{NH(2,6- iPr₂C₆H₃)}]Li to zinc dibromide. The β-diketiminato-zinc(II) bromide was derivatized to a variety of complexes (including amides and phosphanides) by a salt metathesis reaction. Chalcogen addition reactions were performed from [o-C₆H₄{C(CH₃)=N-2,6-iPr₂C₆H₃}{NH(2,6-iPr₂C₆H₃)}ZnP(C₆H₁₁)₂] to produce double addition products from sulfur, selenium and tellurium. Chalcogen addition reactions from [o-C₆H₄{C(CH₃)=N-2,6-iPr₂C₆H₃}{NH(2,6-iPr₂C₆H₃)}ZnP(C₆H₅)₂] produced a double addition product for selenium and a β-diketiminato-zinc(II) tellunoite bridged dimer, [o-C₆H₄{C(CH₃)=N-2,6-iPr₂C₆H₃}{NH(2,6-iPr₂C₆H₃)}Zn]Te, from tellurium. A total of 14 compounds were characterized via X-ray diffraction. Photoluminescence studies of the β-diketiminato-zinc(II) compounds were conducted where it was proposed that an electron transfer from the lone pair on the hetero-atom influenced the quantum yield and fluorescence intensities.

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  • Holocene sediment transport and climate variability of offshore Adélie Land, East Antarctica

    Albot, Anna Borisovna (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Grain size analysis of the terrigenous fraction of a laminated diatom ooze dating back to 11.4 kyr recovered offshore Adélie Land, East Antarctic margin was used to examine variations in sediment transport, depositional environments and Holocene climate variability at the location. Interpretations were assisted by additional proxies of primary productivity (δ¹³CFA, BSi%), glacial meltwater input (δDFA) and subsurface temperature (TEXL₈₆). Three lithologic intervals with distinct grain size distributions were identified. At ~11.4 ka the diatom ooze has a clear glacimarine influence which gradually decreases until ~8.2 ka. During this time interval, coincident with the early Holocene warm period, sediment is inferred to have been delivered by glacial meltwater plumes and ice-bergs in a calving bay environment. It is suggested that the glaciers in Adélie Land had retreated to their present day grounding lines by 8.2 ka, and from then on sediment was delivered to the site primarily via the Antarctic Coastal and Slope Front Currents, largely through a suspended sediment load and erosion of the surrounding banks. Enhanced biogenic mass accumulation rates and primary production at 8.2 ka suggest onset of warmer climatic conditions, coincident with the mid-Holocene Climatic Optimum. At ~4.5 ka, grain size distributions show a rapid increase in mud content coincident with a transient pulse of glacial meltwater and a sudden decrease in biogenic and terrigenous mass accumulation rates. The increased mud content is inferred to have been deposited under a reduced flow regime of the Antarctic Coastal and Slope Front Currents during the Neoglacial period that followed the final stages of deglaciation in the Ross Sea. It is hypothesised here that cessation of glacial retreat in the Ross Sea and the development of the modern day Ross Sea polynya resulted in enhanced Antarctic Surface Water production which led to increased sea ice growth in the Adélie Land region. The presence of sea ice led to reduced primary production and a decrease in the maximum current strength acting to advect coarser-sized terrigenous sediment to the core site during this time. Sedimentation rates appear to have a strong correlation with the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) over the last 8.2 kyr, and are inferred to be related to changing sea ice extent and zonal wind strength. Light laminae counts (biogenic bloom events) appear to decrease in frequency during time intervals dominated by El Niño events. Spectral analysis of the greyscale values of core photographs reveals peaks in the 2-7 year band, known ENSO periods, which increase in frequency in the mid-and-late Holocene. Spectral analyses of the sand percent and natural gamma ray (NGR, a measure of clay mineral input) content of the core reveal peaks in the ~40-60, 200-300, 600, 1200-1600 and 2200-2400 year bands. The most significant of these cycles in the NGR data is in 40-60 year band may be related to internal mass balance dynamics of the Mertz Glacier or to the expansion and contraction of the Antarctic circumpolar vortex. Cycles in the 200-300 and 2200-2400 year bands are related to known periods of solar variability, which have previously been found to regulate primary productivity in Antarctic coastal waters. Cycles in the 590-625 and 1200-1600 year bands have a strong signal through the entire record and are common features of Holocene climatic records, however the origin of these cycles is still under debate between solar forcing and an independent mode of internal ocean oscillation.

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  • Estimating the relationship between skill and overconfidence

    Feld, Jan; Sauermann, Jan; De Grip, Andries (2017)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The Dunning–Kruger effect states that low performers vastly overestimate their performance while high performers more accurately assess their performance. Researchers usually interpret this empirical pattern as evidence that the low skilled are vastly overconfident while the high skilled are more accurate in assessing their skill. However, measurement error alone can lead to a negative relationship between performance and overestimation, even if skill and overconfidence are unrelated. To clarify the role of measurement error, we restate the Dunning–Kruger effect in terms of skill and overconfidence. We show that we can correct for bias caused by measurement error with an instrumental variable approach that uses a second performance as instrument. We then estimate the Dunning–Kruger effect in the context of the exam grade predictions of economics students, using their grade point average as an instrument for their exam grade. Our results show that the unskilled are more overconfident than the skilled. However, as we predict in our methodological discussion, this relationship is significantly weaker than ordinary least squares estimates suggest.

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  • Tiền là Tiên là Phật: Investigating the persistence of corruption in Vietnam

    Vu, Anh Dao (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This research aims to examine the persistence of corruption in the public sector in Vietnam and explain why anti-corruption measures have been unsuccessful. It seeks to capture people’s lived experience of corruption in Vietnamese society and their perception of the failure of anti-corruption measures. It demonstrates what government officials and ordinary citizens think about corrupt practices and how they explain corrupt behaviour. The research also draws a clearer picture of Vietnam’s anti-corruption system, the weaknesses of the Anti-Corruption Law (ACL) and its implementation, from insiders’ perspectives. The research illuminates some factors identified in the literature that need to be better understood when dealing with corruption: historical, cultural, economic, administrative and political factors. This project situated Vietnam’s anti-corruption strategy within Jon Quah’s analytical framework, which identifies elements he argues are needed for an effective anti-corruption strategy in any country. Those elements include a set of formal, legal, and institutional instruments, and the need for political will, especially from governmental leaders. A qualitative approach is applied to examine corruption in the public sector in Vietnam. The main data was gathered by in-depth, semi-structured interviews and from official documents. Different groups of participants - specialists in the anti-corruption field including politicians, high-ranking government officials, journalists, academics, international organisations, and NGOs - were interviewed. Vietnamese citizens also were interviewed; all had experienced corruption in their daily life. The findings suggest an institutional anti-corruption framework, while necessary, cannot adequately deal with the multi-factor causes of corruption in Vietnam. Moreover, “political will” is not only about providing Anti-Corruption Agencies with enough resources, nor about their institutional arrangements, but also about politicians being willing to support the institutions they have created and to reinforce their effectiveness by making hard political decisions. The essential elements of political will in fighting corruption involve not only the institutional framework (the top-down approach) but also society as a whole (the bottom-up approach). The thesis concludes that corruption in the public sector in Vietnam is the product of a complex mix of state institutions, elite political behaviour, social, cultural, economic and management factors. These are at the root of the corruption problem in the country, but they have not been seriously addressed. The current anti-corruption system needs to be reformed if it is to become more effective. Policy attention also needs to shift to the design of effective incentives for the populace to resist succumbing to bribe demands. This “citizen resistance” will, in fact, make governments more accountable for taking effective action against both grand and petty corruption.

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  • Assessment of combined vaccination and immune modulation as an anti-tumour therapy

    Petley, Emma Victoria (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a common and lethal type of brain cancer, with a very poor prognosis. Current therapy consisting of surgical resection, radiation and chemotherapy produces a median survival of only 12-15 months. Therefore, there is a need to develop new therapeutic approaches for the treatment of GBM. This thesis investigates a new series of synthetic cancer vaccines, conjugating tumour-associated antigens (TAAs) to an isomer of ɑ-Galactosylceramide (ɑ-GalCer), a potent invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cell agonist with documented adjuvant activity. Upon antigen encounter, activated iNKT cells are capable of licensing dendritic cells (DCs) through CD40:CD40L interactions and cytokine production. The licensed DCs subsequently stimulate potent CD8⁺ T cell responses, capable of killing cancerous tissue. Conjugation of ɑ-GalCer to the TAA-derived peptide was achieved via an enzymatically cleavable linker sensitive to cathepsin B activity. This strategy allows co-delivery of the active components, with the rationale that the same DC will be able to co-present both ɑ-GalCer for iNKT cell activation, and peptide to induce an enhanced CD8⁺ T cell responses. The conjugate vaccines assessed in this thesis were able to induce iNKT cell activation and produce CD8⁺ T cell cytoxicity. However, this did not correlate with in vivo antitumour activity, as the vaccine that incorporated the TAA survivin, produced minimal cytotoxicity but potent anti-tumour responses against an implantable model of glioma. Enhancing T cell-mediated immune responses has been validated by immune checkpoint inhibition for the treatment of cancer. However, many patients do not respond to the therapy. It is thought that this subset of patients may lack pre-existing T cell responses, which are required for the efficacy of checkpoint inhibition. Therefore, there is considerable interest in whether the use of vaccines that stimulate T cell activation can improve responses to checkpoint blockade and other immune modulating drugs. The survivin vaccine was combined with the immune checkpoint blockade inhibitors ɑ-PD-1, ɑ-CTLA-4 and ɑ-LAG-3, the co-stimulatory agent a-4-1BB, or administered with T regulatory cell (TREG) depletion, to reveal the immunogenicity of the vaccine. This research revealed that combining the survivin vaccine with the immune checkpoint inhibitor ɑ-CTLA-4 improved overall survival of mice, compared to the vaccine alone. This finding suggests that this combined therapy may be a useful immunotherapeutic strategy for the treatment of GBM.

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