307 results for Ingham, Jason

  • Investigation of equivalent frame modelling for seismic analysis of unreinforced masonry buildings with flexible diaphragms

    Nakamura, Y; Derakhshan, H; Sheikh, H; Griffith, MC; Ingham, Jason (2016-12-06)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    A case study was conducted to investigate the applicability of equivalent frame modelling for the nonlinear time-history analysis of unreinforced masonry buildings with flexible diaphragms. The dynamic responses calculated from the equivalent frame models were compared against shake table test results of a full-scale two-storey stone masonry building. The investigated modelling approach reflected the simplifications commonly assumed for the global analysis of buildings; namely, considering the diaphragms to behave elastically and neglecting the stiffness and strength contributions of the out-of-plane responding walls. The sensitivity of the analysis to different idealisations of the equivalent frame and diaphragm stiffness values were also investigated. Discussions are provided on the accuracies and limitations of the investigated modelling approach, which may serve as a useful guidance for practical application.

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  • Pull-Out Behavior of Adhesive Connections in Unreinforced Masonry Walls

    Dizhur, Dmytro; Schultz, A; Ingham, Jason (2016-11)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The connections between walls of unreinforced masonry (URM) buildings and flexible timber diaphragms are critical building components that must perform adequately before desirable earthquake response of URM buildings may be achieved. Field observations made during the initial reconnaissance and the subsequent damage surveys of clay brick URM buildings following the 2010/2011 Canterbury, New Zealand, earthquakes revealed numerous cases where anchor connections joining masonry walls or parapets with roof or floor diaphragms appeared to have failed prematurely. These observations were more frequent for adhesive anchor connections than for through-bolt connections (i.e., anchorages having plates on the exterior facade of the masonry walls). Subsequently, an in-field test program was undertaken in an attempt to evaluate the performance of adhesive anchor connections between unreinforced clay brick URM walls and roof or floor diaphragm. The study consisted of a total of almost 400 anchor tests conducted in eleven existing URM buildings located in Christchurch, Whanganui and Auckland. Specific objectives of the study included the identification of failure modes of adhesive anchors in existing URM walls and the influence of the following variables on anchor load-displacement response: adhesive type, strength of the masonry materials (brick and mortar), anchor embedment depth, anchor rod diameter, overburden level, anchor rod type, quality of installation, and the use of metal mesh sleeves. In addition, the comparative performance of bent anchors (installed at an angle of minimum 22.5° to the perpendicular projection from the wall surface) and anchors positioned horizontally was investigated. Observations on the performance of wall-to-diaphragm connections in the 2010/2011 Canterbury earthquakes, a summary of the performed experimental program and test results, and a proposed pull-out capacity relationship for adhesive anchors installed into multi-leaf clay brick masonry are presented herein.

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  • Statistical seismic vulnerability of New Zealand unreinforced masonry churches

    Marotta, A; Sorrentino, L; Liberatore, D; Ingham, Jason (2016-09-13)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    During the 2010–2011 Canterbury earthquake sequence, extensive damage occurred to New Zealand historical and architectural heritage, and particularly to unreinforced stone and clay brick masonry churches. Of 309 unreinforced masonry churches identified nationwide, a sample of 80 buildings belonging to the affected region was studied and their performance analysed statistically. Structural behaviour of religious buildings was described in terms of mechanisms affecting the so-called macro-elements, being portions of the building behaving more or less independently. Discrete local damage levels were correlated with macroseismic shaking intensity through Damage Probability Matrices. Multiple-linear regressions were also considered, accounting for additional modifiers increasing/reducing the vulnerability of the macro-elements. Results show the relevance of the proposed multiple-linear regression models for the national heritage of churches and the advisability of extending mechanism-based regressions to other countries besides New Zealand.

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  • Earthquake-Damaged Unreinforced Masonry Building Tested In-Situ

    Dizhur, Dmytro; Derakhshan, H; Lumantarna, R; Ingham, Jason (2010-09)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    In December 2007 a magnitude 6.8 earthquake had an epicentre located approximately 50 km from the city of Gisborne, New Zealand. This earthquake caused damage to a number of buildings in Gisborne, and in particular, to numerous unreinforced masonry buildings. One such building was damaged to the extent that significant post-earthquake repairs were necessary, and partial removal of two of the building’s gable ended walls was required. This reconstruction provided an opportunity for a team of researchers from the University of Auckland to conduct field tests on the building, allowing comparison with companion testing that had previously been undertaken in a laboratory setting. This field testing involved the extraction of clay brick and mortar samples, in-situ bed joint shear tests, diagonal shear tests on samples extracted from the gabled walls, an in-situ in-plane shear test and out-of-plane testing of a gable ended wall both in the as-built condition and after the installation of a near-surface mounted (NSM) carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) retrofit solution. Testing confirmed that the boundary conditions in real buildings can significantly affect experimental response, with vertical restraint resulting in a large increase in out-of-plane load capacity, and also confirmed that the near-surface mounted FRP solution is an excellent low invasive option for seismic strengthening of unreinforced masonry walls. Details of the history of the building, and the methods used to undertake the field testing are reported, and experimental results are presented.

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  • A Case Study of Successful Performance of Retrofitted Masonry Substations

    Misnon, Noor Aina; Dizhur, Dmytro; Mackenzie, John; Fikri, Rijalul; Abeling, Shannon; Ingham, Jason (2016)

    Conference Contributions - Other
    University of Canterbury Library

    Since the mid 1990s, the Christchurch inventory of substation buildings was seismically retrofitted as part of the Risk and Realities improvement programme. • The substation buildings were retrofitted using a system of simple and cost-effective steel elements. • The 2010/2011 Canterbury earthquakes caused significant immediate disruption to power distribution network in Christchurch. • It took a single day in September 2010 and ten days in February 2011 to restore power to 90% customers. Tostudytheseismicperformanceofmasonrysubstationbuildingsfromamulti-disciplinary perspective on structural,economic and social aspects.

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  • SEISMIC STRENGTHENING OF REINFORCED CONCRETE COLUMNS WITH STRAIGHT CARBON FIBRE REINFORCED POLYMER (CFRP) ANCHORS

    Ingham, Jason; Griffith, Michael; del Rey Castillo, Enrique (2016)

    Conference Contributions - Other
    University of Canterbury Library

    After consulting key members of the industry (BBR ConTech, Opus International, Fulton Hogan and Beca) it was found that, while the most common failure of RC columns is shear failure, the shear strengthening of RC columns with FRP anchors is fairly well known by engineers, and they are confident in their design. Flexural strengthening of RC columns with FRP anchors is a complex and unknown application and only one example of a research focused on this technique could be found in the existing literature. In addition to verify the applicability of the design equation previously developed, a few aspects not covered in the component tests will be investigated: • The effect of tensile-compression cycles • The effect of dynamic loading • The interaction between adjacent anchors • The behaviour of edge anchors • The effect of overlapped fan components • Behaviour on real case specimen • Effect of different confinement schemes • Effect of different anchor sizes • Strengthening of columns with lap splice failure

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  • How Prepared are Small Businesses for Another Earthquake Disaster in New Zealand?

    Egbelakin, T; Rabel, P; Wilkinson, Suzanne; Ingham, Jason; Eziaku, R (2016-05-30)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Earthquakes are low probability, high consequence events which are known to cause significant damage. Small to medium-sized enterprises (SBEs) are particularly vulnerable to impacts arising from such disasters, including: business disruption, employee health and safety, financial strain, or even total loss of business. Owners of these SBEs can make a few key decisions to prepare their businesses for an earthquake, in order to ensure business continuity and the wellbeing of their employees. This study sought to examine the level of earthquake preparedness of SBEs located in high seismic risk regions by examining the extent of mitigation measures adopted five years post the Canterbury earthquake disaster. Using a mixed-methods research approach, combining both qualitative and quantitative data, the research findings revealed that a majority of SBEs operating in regions of high vulnerability to disaster are underprepared for a potential earthquake disaster, despite the general increased awareness of earthquake risks in New Zealand. Cost, time, insurance processes, and access to disaster mitigation information, were identified to be the most important and constraining factors in the overall decision-making process. The research findings will provide strategies to local authorities on how to assist SBEs in making better informed preparedness decisions, ultimately improving their resilience to earthquakes, and thus improving the resilience of the New Zealand community as a whole. How Prepared are Small Businesses for Another Earthquake Disaster in New Zealand?

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  • Design and Performance of Bridge Cap Beam/Column Joints using Headed Reinforcement and Mechanical Couplers

    Sritharan, S; Ingham, Jason; Priestley, MJN; Seible, F (1999)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    The application of headed reinforcement as a replacement for conventional reinforcement was investigated in two projects relating to the seismic design of bridges. In the first project, a test unit composed of a column, cap beam, footing and knee joint was designed entirely with headed reinforcement, and in the second project a test unit representative of a multi-column bridge bent was investigated, having a cap beam design utilizing both headed reinforcement and a mechanical coupler system. In both investigations the use of recently-developed products facilitated simplified detailing, particularly in the cap beam/column joint region, resulting in reduced reinforcement congestion in the joint zone and improved constructability. The design and performance of the test units under simulated seismic loading are presented.

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  • Performance of posttensioned seismic retrofit of two stone masonry buildings during the Canterbury earthquakes

    Dizhur, Dmytro; Bailey, S; Trowsdale, J; Griffith, M; Ingham, Jason (2013)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Seismic retrofitting of unreinforced masonry buildings using posttensioning has been the topic of many recent experimental research projects. However, the performance of such retrofit designs in actual design level earthquakes has previously been poorly documented. In 1984 two stone masonry buildings within The Arts Centre of Christchurch received posttensioned seismic retrofits, which were subsequently subjected to design level seismic loads during the 2010/2011 Canterbury earthquake sequence. These 26 year old retrofits were part of a global scheme to strengthen and secure the historic building complex and were subject to considerable budgetary constraints. Given the limited resources available at the time of construction and the current degraded state of the steel posttension tendons, the posttensioned retrofits performed well in preventing major damage to the overall structure of the two buildings in the Canterbury earthquakes. When compared to other similar unretrofitted structures within The Arts Centre, it is demonstrated that the posttensioning significantly improved the in-plane and out-of-plane wall strength and the ability to limit residual wall displacements. The history of The Arts Centre buildings and the details of the Canterbury earthquakes is discussed, followed by examination of the performance of the posttension retrofits and the suitability of this technique for future retrofitting of other historic unreinforced masonry buildings.

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  • Finite element analysis of the PreWEC self-centering concrete wall system

    Henry, Richard; Sritharan, S; Ingham, Jason (2016-05-15)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    A self-centering concrete wall system has been developed that consists of a Precast Wall with End Columns (PreWEC). A finite element model was developed to investigate the cyclic lateral-load response of the PreWEC system that included allowance for uplift at the wall-to-foundation interface, inclusion of the energy dissipating O-connectors, and inelastic behaviour of the confined concrete in the toe of the wall. The model showed good correlation with the results of a large-scale experimental test of the PreWEC system for both the global and local responses, closely matched the experimental lateral force–displacement response, unbonded tendon stress, neutral axis depth, concrete compressive strains, and connector deformation. Additional analyses were conducted to investigate modifications to the PreWEC design. These modified designs highlighted the influence of the inelastic behaviour of the wall toe and showed that in the PreWEC system the axial load on the wall panel is independent of the number of energy dissipating connectors. Lastly, analyses were conducted to investigate wall-to-floor interaction with the PreWEC system. It was shown that a rigid wall-to-floor connection would result in some damage to the floor diaphragms and an overstrength that should be considered when designing the wall for shear. Alternatively, connectors could be used with the PreWEC system to isolate the floor from the uplift of the wall and eliminate damage to the floor diaphragm.

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  • Panel connection details in existing New Zealand precast concrete buildings

    Seifi, Pouya; Henry, Richard; Ingham, Jason (2016-06)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Following the 2010/2011 Canterbury earthquakes the seismic design of buildings with precast concrete panels has received significant attention. Although this form of construction generally performed adequately in Christchurch, there were a considerable number of precast concrete panel connection failures. This observation prompted a review of more than 4700 panel details from 108 buildings to establish representative details used in both existing and new multi-storey and low rise industrial precast concrete buildings in three major New Zealand cities of Auckland, Wellington and Christchurch. Details were collected from precast manufacturers and city councils and were categorised according to type. The detailing and quantity of each reviewed connection type in the sampled data is reported, and advantages and potential deficiencies of each connection type are discussed. The results of this survey provide a better understanding of the relative prevalence of common detailing used in precast concrete panels and guidance for the design of future experimental studies.

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  • Structural Dynamic Response of an Unreinforced Masonry House using Non-Destructive Forced Vibration

    Karim, ARA; Sa'don, NM; Ingham, Jason (2016-01-02)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The results of non-destructive forced vibration tests on a small-scale unreinforced masonry house with a flexible timber diaphragm are presented. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the dynamic responses between the as-built and retrofitted structures. This includes assessment of diaphragm response, wall-diaphragm connection details, in-plane wall response, out-of-plane wall response, and the response of wall corners. The test protocols were designed to investigate two types of retrofit techniques consisting of a plywood-retrofit on the diaphragm, and a connection-retrofit between the wall and diaphragm. From the results, one can see that the natural frequency and mode shapes of the first translational mode were affected. The force transfer mechanism of the as-built structure was significantly improved after applying both retrofits whereas each technique shows distinctive enhancements on the structure overall response.

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  • Construction Details and Observed Earthquake Performance of Unreinforced Clay Brick Masonry Cavity-walls

    Giaretton, M; Dizhur, Dmytro; da Porto, F; Ingham, Jason (2016-05)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Unreinforced masonry (URM) cavity-wall construction is a form of masonry where two leaves of clay brick masonry are separated by a continuous air cavity and are interconnected using some form of tie system. A brief historical introduction is followed by details of a survey undertaken to determine the prevalence of URM cavity-wall buildings in New Zealand. Following the 2010/2011 Canterbury earthquakes it was observed that URM cavity-walls generally suffered irreparable damage due to a lack of effective wall restraint and deficient cavity-tie connections, combined with weak mortar strength. It was found that the original cavity-ties were typically corroded due to moisture ingress, resulting in decreased lateral loadbearing capacity of the cavity-walls. Using photographic data pertaining to Christchurch URM buildings that were obtained during post-earthquake reconnaissance, 252 cavity-walls were identified and utilised to study typical construction details and seismic performance. The majority (72%, 182) of the observed damage to URM cavity-wall construction was a result of out-of-plane type wall failures. Three types of out-of-plane wall failure were recognised: (1) overturning response, (2) one-way bending, and (3) two-way bending. In-plane damage was less widely observed (28%) and commonly included diagonal shear cracking through mortar bed joints or bricks. The collected data was used to develop an overview of the most commonly-encountered construction details and to identify typical deficiencies in earthquake response that can be addressed via the selection and implementation of appropriate mitigation interventions.

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  • Integrated framework for enhancing earthquake risk mitigation decisions

    Egbelakin, T; Wilkinson, Suzanne; Ingham, Jason (2015)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The increasing scale of losses from earthquake disasters has reinforced the need for property owners to become proactive in seismic risk reduction programs. However, despite advancement in seismic design methods and legislative frameworks, building owners are found unwilling or lack motivation to adopt adequate mitigation measures that will reduce their vulnerability to earthquake disasters. Various theories and empirical findings have been used to explain the adoption of protective behaviours including seismic mitigation decisions, but their application has been inadequate to enhance building owners’ protective decisions. A holistic framework that incorporates the motivational orientations of decision-making, coupled with the social, cultural, economic, regulatory, institutional and political realms of earthquake risk mitigation to enhance building owners’ decisions to voluntarily implement adequate mitigation measures, is proposed. This framework attempts to address any multi-disciplinary barriers that exist in earthquake disaster management, by ensuring that stakeholders involved in seismic mitigation decisions work together to foster seismic rehabilitation of EPBs, as well as illuminate strategies that will initiate, promote and sustain the adoption of long-term earthquake mitigation.

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  • Performance of unreinforced masonry and infilled RC buildings during the 2015 Gorkha, Nepal earthquake sequence

    Dizhur, Dmytro; Ingham, Jason; Griffith, M; Biggs, D; Schultz, A (2016-06)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    On 25 April 2015 at 11:56 local time a moment magnitude (Mw) 7.8 earthquake struck Nepal, with the epicentre in Gorkha District (north-west) of Kathmandu and south of the China border. More than 390 aftershocks followed with magnitude 4 or higher, including a magnitude 6.7 and a 7.3 earthquake on 26 April and 12 May 2015, respectively. The epicentre of the main shock was approximately 34 km (21 mi) east-southeast of Lamjung, Nepal, and its hypocentre was at a depth of approximately 15 km. Over 500,000 buildings were identified by the Nepal Government as fully damaged and approximately 300,000 buildings as partially damaged, including both private and Government buildings. The affected buildings were primarily concentrated in the Gandaki, Bagmati and North of Janakpur Zones, between Pokhara and Mt. Everest, also including the capital Kathmandu. However the effects of the earthquake were observed in many buildings throughout Nepal. As part of earthquake reconnaissance an international team of experts visited urban and rural affected sites in Nepal. The team closely examined the performance of unreinforced masonry buildings, including cultural heritage structures, and infilled masonry RC buildings. Details of construction techniques and observed earthquake damage are summarised and commented on herein.

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  • Retrofitting URM cavity walls for out-of-plane composite behaviour

    Giaretton, M; Walsh, K; Dizhur, Dmytro; da Porto, F; Ingham, Jason (2016-06)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Experimental research has been performed previously to measure the out-of-plane (OOP) seismic performance of in-situ and retrofitted unreinforced clay brick masonry (URM) walls with solid thick¬nesses of contiguous and overlapped masonry leaves. However, comparatively little experimental research has been performed on URM walls with cavities (such as continuous air gaps separating leaves of brick from one another), despite the prominence of cavity masonry construction in various parts of the world. Hence, research was pursued with an emphasis on efficiently retrofitting URM cavity walls to enable the formation of composite behaviour when subjected to simulated seismic OOP loading consisting of both quasi-static loading of existing wall panels using airbags and dynamic loading of laboratory specimens using a shake table. Eleven tests were performed on URM cavity wall panels. The intended outcomes of the research reported herein included measuring the improvement of strength and displacement capacities of URM cavity walls due to retrofit improvements in which separated cavity wall leaves were connected together using various types, quan¬tities, and spacings of ties; comparing the difference in measured capacities and cracking behaviour between quasi-static airbag testing and dynamic shake table testing; establishing an equivalent solid wall thickness for retrofitted cavity walls for use in existing OOP predictive models; and developing a provisional predictive model for estimating the capacity of URM cavity walls retrofitted to behave semi-compositely or fully compositely.

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  • Vulnerability analysis of unreinforced masonry churches (EQC 14/660) - Final Report

    Goded, T; Cattari, S; Lagomarsino, S; Giovinazzi, S; Ingham, Jason; Marotta, A; Liberatore, D; Sorrentino, L; Ottonelli, D; Pinna, M; Clark, W (2016-06-30)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    We undertake the first (to our knowledge) seismic vulnerability method specifically designed for New Zealand Unreinforced Masonry (URM) churches. The vulnerability index (VI) methodology developed by Lagomarsino et al. (2003) for European churches and other monumental buildings has been the basis for our work. The technique entails a macroseismic approach which is based on the use of vulnerability curves to correlate the postseismic damage grade of the building to the shaking intensity experienced, using a discrete probabilistic distribution. The method has been redefined, with a new set of parameters and modifiers specifically created for New Zealand URM churches. This has been done by analysing the damage caused to 48 URM churches in the Canterbury region during the 2010–2011 Canterbury earthquake sequence. This report shows the main achievements obtained during this project, funded by the Earthquake Commission (reference 14/660, January 2014-June 2016), which include: (a) the structural data compilation of a wider stock of 297 URM churches spread within New Zealand; (b) a specific typological classification for New Zealand unreinforced masonry (URM) churches; (c) a damage survey form for URM churches; (d) a macroseismic method to obtain the seismic vulnerability of URM churches using VI modifiers that have been developed specifically for New Zealand URM churches, using the damage data from the Canterbury earthquakes; and (e) the development of seismic scenarios for the URM churches in Wellington, Auckland and Dunedin, using the new parameters developed within this project. The typological analysis of the New Zealand URM churches justified the need to develop a method specifically created for this country, as results show the great differences in typologies to European churches, with very simple architectural designs and a majority of one nave churches in New Zealand. The method has been applied to three cities in New Zealand, with very different seismic activity, from low (Auckland) to intermediate (Dunedin) and high (Wellington). Differences in the results due to the different characteristic scenarios show the need to develop specific scenarios for each city / region. This project is seen as a first step towards the qualification of all the historical buildings in the country, in order to preserve New Zealand’s cultural and historical heritage. Future work identified includes (a) the development of seismic scenarios for the URM churches in the rest of New Zealand, (b) addition of site effects to the seismic scenarios, to account for local differences in intensities experienced in each church, to be developed for the entire set of URM churches in the country, (c) development of a more sophisticated method based on the mechanical approach that analyses the structural behaviour of individual components of the building (macroelements) and (d) the addition of other buildings part of the cultural heritage in New Zealand.

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  • Shake table testing of retrofitted clay brick masonry chimneys

    Dizhur, Dmytro; Ingham, Jason; Giaretton, M (2016-06)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    An UnReinforced clay brick Masonry (URM) chimney is composed of a cantilever URM appendage above a roofline and is considered one of the most earthquake prone non-structural compo¬nents within vintage URM and timber-framed buildings. Observations from past earthquakes including the 1992 Big Bear City earthquake, 1994 Northridge earthquake, 2001 Nisqually earthquake, 2010/2011 Canterbury earthquakes, 2012 Northern Italy earthquakes, and 2014 South Napa earthquake served repeatedly as a reminder of the hazard induced by URM chimneys. The observed failure types included several cases where the adopted retrofit techniques were not adequate to effectively secure chimneys dur¬ing the earthquake. Data collected during the 2010/2011 post-earthquake building assessments in Christchurch and insur¬ance claims are reported herein. Five full-scale solid clay brick URM chimneys which replicated the most encountered geometrical and construction characteristics were subjected to shake table testing. Two chim¬ney samples were representative of the as-built conditions, while three samples were retrofitted using two different configurations of Near-Surface-Mounted (NSM) Carbon-Fibre-Reinforced-Polymer (CFRP) strips and post-tensioning techniques. The adopted securing techniques allowed an increase in seismic acceleration capacity of more than five times for chimneys constructed with ultra-weak mortar and more than twice for chimneys built with weak mortar.

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  • Seismic Zonation and Default Suite of Ground-Motion Records for Time-History Analysis in the North Island of New Zealand

    Oyarzo-Vera, CA; McVerry, G; Ingham, Jason (2012-05)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    A seismic zonation to be used in the selection of ground-motion records for time-history analysis of buildings in the North Island of New Zealand is presented. Both deaggregations of the probabilistic seismic hazard model and the seismological characteristics of the expected ground motions at different locations were considered in order to define the zonation. A profile of the records expected to apply within each zone according to the identified hazard scenarios is presented and suites of records are proposed for each zone, based on region-wide criteria, to be used in time-history analysis in the absence of site specific studies. A solution for structures with fundamental periods of between 0.4 and 2.0 seconds is proposed, considering a 500-year return period and two common site classes (C and D, according to the New Zealand Loadings Standard).

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  • Durability properties of sprayed engineered cementitious composite

    Lin, YW; Scott, A; Wotherspoon, Liam; Ingham, Jason (2013)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Engineered cementitious composite (ECC) shotcrete is a sprayable cement composite reinforced with synthetic fibers that exhibits a strain-hardening characteristic under tension. The ductile behavior of ECC makes it an ideal repair material for concrete structures as tensile strains from expansion of the original concrete structure can be accommodated. The aim of the reported research was to develop an ECC mixture design having superior durability properties while exhibiting a strain-hardening characteristic. Six mixture designs of ECC and a 5800 psi (40 MPa) cast-in-place concrete were tested using four test methods to determine their chloride resistance. Results from bulk diffusion testing showed that the most effective ECC mixture design, which incorporated a metallic soap additive, showed a 90% reduction in the chloride diffusion coefficient when compared with a 5800 psi (40 MPa) cast-in-place concrete. The alternating current (AC) resistivity, void, and sorptivity tests conducted did not show a strong correlation to the bulk diffusion test.

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