118 results for 1940

  • Calendar 1948

    Victoria University College (Wellington, N.Z.) (1948)

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    Victoria University of Wellington

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  • Calendar 1946

    Victoria University College (Wellington, N.Z.) (1946)

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    Victoria University of Wellington

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  • Calendar 1947

    Victoria University College (Wellington, N.Z.) (1947)

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    Victoria University of Wellington

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  • Calendar 1949

    Victoria University College (Wellington, N.Z.) (1949)

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    Victoria University of Wellington

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  • Calendar 1942

    Victoria University College (Wellington, N.Z.) (1942)

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    Victoria University of Wellington

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  • Calendar 1940

    Victoria University College (Wellington, N.Z.) (1940)

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    Victoria University of Wellington

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  • Calendar 1941

    Victoria University College (Wellington, N.Z.) (1941)

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    Victoria University of Wellington

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  • Calendar 1944

    Victoria University College (Wellington, N.Z.) (1944)

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    Victoria University of Wellington

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  • Calendar 1943

    Victoria University College (Wellington, N.Z.) (1943)

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    Victoria University of Wellington

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  • Calendar 1945

    Victoria University College (Wellington, N.Z.) (1945)

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    Victoria University of Wellington

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  • Relations of government and private enterprise in New Zealand, 1860-1875 : a documentary study.

    Oathout, Evelyn Lewis (1949)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    New Zealand's leadership in “state socialism” is commonly thought of as originating in the 1890's, the period of the Liberal-Labour coalition, though writers on the subject have generally made a passing bow to the 1870’s when Sir Julius Vogel led the young colony out of economic stagnation by means of his program for opening the land with public works and government assisted immigration. In this paper I have undertaken to recount the story of that earlier development, together with its antecedents, as it appeared in those official publications of the successive Parliaments from 1860 to 1875 found in the Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives of New Zealand. I have limited my subject by omitting the tremendous question of land policy, although recognizing fully its influence on the state and economy of New Zealand. Too many factors enter into that problem for it to be viewed meaningfully from the economic angle alone. I have sought to record, often in the words of the participants, the relationship between. government and private enterprise however it appeared in the documents. The early years contributed little, since the colony was young, responsible government even younger. Official energies were largely concentrated on land acquisition and attendant difficulties with the Maoris. Permissory acts for corporations and emergency regulations ware typical manifestations of that relationship before 1870. The first extended contact recorded was that between successive administrations and the Bank of New Zealand, in which the former assumed the same position as a private firm of equal economic importance might have assumed toward its banking agent. Government participation in private enterprise fields began with the program of public works of the 1870’s, which testified to a change in administrative concepts; the central government was no longer the arbiter of the economy, but its leader. It built railroads and imported labor, it encouraged diversification and increase of industry, both primary and secondary, it strove to break the power of English monopolies over the colony. Those who have written about New Zealand's history have tended to consider this development an aberration from British economic thought of the nineteenth century, requiring explanation or defense. Two economists who were in a position to influence the colonists, however, distinguished between government in a developed, “overpopulated” country such as England, and administration of the empty spaces of a new land, providing theoretical justification for an active policy in the latter circumstances. Government construction of public works was no innovation in the Australasian colonies. On the continent, the separate colonies had faced the question of private or state railroads already and generally had settled on the latter. New Zealand's own provinces, not private enterprise, had built the colony's original telegraph lines and railroads as their finances permitted. This history of the shift from provincial enterprise to that of the colony as a whole follows.

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  • Studies on a New Zealand Serpulid Pomatoceros coeruleus, Schmarda

    Knox, G. A. (1949)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    1. It is shown that the animal studied belongs to the genus Pomatoceros. Its specific status is uncertain. 2. The species is widely distributed throughout New Zealand and has also been reported from South Africa. 3. The anatomy and some of the more interesting aspects of history are described in detail, comparison being made with other Serpulids. 4. The longitudinal muscles are well developed and the circular muscles much reduced, an adaption to the tubicolous habit. 5. One pair only of nephridia is present in the thorax, opening internally by large ciliated coelomostomes into the peristomial coelom and externally by a common pore at the anterior dorsal end of the body. Excretory products are probably extracted from the blood in the form of guanine. 6. The nervous system consists of a brain, formed from two pairs of united ganglia, situated in the prostomium and united to two sub-oesophageal ganglia in the peristomial segment by dorsal and ventral connectives on each side. The two ventral nerve cords are widely separated and the giant nerve fibres are particularly well developed. 7. The blood system consists of a gut sinus, connected to a ventral vessel by paired ring vessels in each segment. From the ring vessels branches supplying the various organs of each segment arise. The capillaries of these vessels end blindly. Movement of the blood is effected by rhythmic peristaltic contractions of the walls of the vessels. Details of the circulation are described. When the animal retracts within the tube the blood circulation stops. This reversible stoppage of the blood is brought about by the accumulation of carbonic acid. The course of the respiratory currents within the tube is described. 8. The ciliary feeding mechanism of the crown is described, the food consisting of finely divided plankton and detritus. 9. The form of the tube is extremely variable. It is shown to be composed of a glycol-protein of a mucoid nature in which crystals of calcium carbonate in the form of aragonite are deposited. It is formed as a discontinuous secretion from gland cells of the collar region of the peristomial segment. The evidence so far collected points to the sea-water as the source of calcium. 10. The development from the egg to a fully formed trochosphere has been followed. The egg us small with little yolk and development is rapid. 11. A large percentage of the worms is infected by a gregarine parasite and large numbers of a commensal ciliate, Trichodina sp. are present. 12. Experimentally Po,atoceros is found to tolerate a wide variation of temperature and salinity, and is shown to tolerate exposure and coverage by sand to a large extent. 13. The habitat of Pomatoceros coeruleus is described in detail and detailed analysis of the community at Taylor’s Mistake, Banks Peninsula, to which it belongs has been made. The relationship of a number of different species of plants and animals to tidal level and exposure to air is discussed, comparison being made with other surveys. Critical levels for the different species have been detected. Pomatoceros coeruleus is shown to be a dominant organism in the chamaesipho-Mytilus planulatus Association of the littoral rocky shore. The general zonation of the plants and animals on the shore is discussed in relation to tidal level and exposure to wave action. A comparison is made with other surveys carried out in Australia, South Africa, North America and Great Britain. A fundamental basic zonation of typical indicator animal species, common to the temperate regions of the world is recognized. This basic schme is, a Littorina zone, occupying the highest level on the shore followed by a Barnacle zone below with a Laminaria or Kelp zone occupying the sub-littoral fringe.

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  • The "contemporary" aspect of history

    Armour, Kenneth Ian (1948)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Laviase once said to his students: “We who live intellectually in the past should not forget that the majority of men live in the present and are concerned about the future”. It was as one of the majority, rather than of the minority, that I turned to the subject of this text. I had often wondered about the marked hiatus in history between the end of historical narratives and the present time. Indeed, it seemed that history faded away towards the near end of time and that this phenomenon might, from chronological juxtaposition, be associated with another vague aspect of history, the utilitarian present. To read history was, assuredly, to gain the habit of historical thinking, to acquire a sense of the indivisibility of life, to see one’s self and one’s society from the evolutionary point of view, to learn to discriminate between transitory and perpetual values, to become appraised of the need to exercise curiosity towards institutions and compassion towards men, to embrace the aesthetic pleasure of language in high service and, above all, to incline to deem it wise to court every opinion but to hesitate before espousing any one. But these seeming merits, and others that sprang to mind beside them, appeared as attitudes of the intellect that haunted me in the study but became furtive, coy things in the world of practical affairs. So, curious about the river of history where it went underground and thinking that, maybe, it gushed forth somewhere as a spring of living waters, I seized upon the connotations customary to “contemporary history” as covering, more or less, both ends of an interesting field of enquiry. Surprisingly, I found that discursive literature on contemporary history was not to be found. Only two brief articles touched upon the subject and, for the balance, I had to scan all the tests within my reach for a few fleeting references to the problems connected with narration of the last part of the past. Further, to acquire this negative information, I had to scan each book with some care as, in the matter of this neglected subject, indexes were never helpful. And, in addition, I was unable to find amongst my acquaintances anyone who had considered the contemporary aspect of history or who had much inclination so to do. As a consequence of these things this work has emerged as a discourse on “contemporary” history in subordination to history and concerned as much with the genus as the species. Secondary, with little comparative criticism possible on the primary facet of the subject, and with an elaboration of history necessary such as led on to consideration of the narration of its latest period, footnotes are scanty and personal conceptions plentiful. Thirdly, I have had to be content to trace the subterranean flow of the river of history and to set my period near the spring of living waters.

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  • The history of the apple industry in Nelson, with special reference to the work of the Cawthron Institute.

    Robinson, Elizabeth Joy (1942)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

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  • The Katipo Spider

    Hornabrook, Richard William (1948)

    Other thesis
    University of Otago

    Rights Statement: Digital copy stored under Section 55 of the NZ Copyright Act.

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  • The work of the third, fourth and fifth sessions of the Fourth New Zealand Parliament, 1868-1870, and its relation to the history of the colony.

    Sexton, Moya (1941)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis attempts to show the importance of the work of the New Zealand parliament from 1868-70 the influence on this work of the movements and opinion of the colony as a whole. General histories of New Zealand are apt to treat this period rather casually as it did not produce any of the more important legislative measures. Nevertheless even if it did not pass far-reaching legislation, it had an importance of its own, for it was a parliament of endings and beginnings. It saw the end of Stafford's last ministry, the end of the self-sacrificing and public spirited work of this Superintendent of Nelson; the end of the Maori Wars, and. the disputes with the Imperial Government. It saw the true beginning of a constructive policy towards the natives and the reconciliation of the two races. It saw the beginning of the end of the Provincial System, and most important of all, the beginning of Vogel’s period as Treasurer end his policy of borrowing and public works. In arranging my material I have summarised briefly the work of the first three New Zealand Parliaments, and that of the first two sessions of the Fourth, after which I have endeavoured to give some idea of the conditions prevailing in New Zealand in 1868. Devoting one chapter to the work of the last three sessions of the Fourth Parliament, chiefly from the source of Parliamentary Debates, I thought it wise to deal with the Maori question in a separate Chapter. In it I have followed through the history of the sessions trying to link up the events in the country with the parliamentary debates and legislation, and hoping to show the effect on the members of the legislature (and through them on the legislation) of the public opinion of the time. I found my greatest difficulty in obtaining material concerning the condition of New Zealand in the year 1868. I did not wish this account to be purely a parliamentary record, yet there is an amazing lack of literature describing the social and more general position. Sewell’s Diary ended before these years. My domicile prevented me from making use of the McLean and Stafford Papers in the Turnbull Library. I made enquiries of my elderly relatives, but they had not arrived in New Zealand till about the eighties, and even then were very young, but their stories enabled me to form some idea of the primitive state of the Colony and what it must have been ten Years before. By dint of much searching I discovered various old books written about this time, with their thick pages and distorted maps, and they helped to throw some light upon the times.

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  • Studies of the coat of the Romney lamb : practical and theoretical aspects of hair morphology, with special reference to the evolution of the fleece : thesis submitted by "Bourn" [for the degree of Master of Agricultural Science]

    Goot, Henry (1940)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The original purpose of the present thesis was to answer this question: "To what extent is a britch of high halo-hair abundance an indicator of the non-kemp hairiness of the fleece?" It was assumed by Dr Dry in the light of earlier observations, that, on a britch with very many halo-hairs, the large Curly Tip fibres would be very hairy, and this has proved to be so. Especially did we want to learn about the degree of hairiness on the part of the fleece near to the britch. The gradient over the body from the britch was also much in mind, all the more because the boundary between the area on the britch with very many halo hairs and the neighbouring region with far fewer halo hairs is often abrupt. The aim of the work was that just defined, but the analysis of the samples examined provided information on a number of other matters, several of which may be thought more interesting than the problem proposed at the outset. These various results are reported in this thesis.

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  • Space and time relations in the coat of the New Zealand Romney lamb

    Galpin, Nancy M (1943)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    In a recent paper Dry (4) gives an account of the fibre type arrays - the result of an action of two forces - the prenatal check and the reducing of inherent coarseness acting on an undefined substratum which occur on the back (4) of the New Zealand Romney Lamb. Preliminary observations by Dr. Dry and myself suggested that orderly relations existed between the fibre type arrays on the back and britch positions. These observations were extended and a comparative study of the fibre type arrays occurring over the dorsal and dorso-lateral portions of the coat of the Romney Lamb has been made. Their distribution, as one was prepared to find, has proved orderly. Following naturally on this investigation came a study of the proportions of precurly-tip to curly-tip and histerotrich fibres.

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  • A study of the influence of animal manure and clover on the structural and chemical characteristics and the earthworm activity in a Manawatu soil : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Agricultural Science in Field Husbandry of the University of New Zealand

    Watkin, B R (1949)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    In view of the increasing emphasis that is being placed on pasture production by the N.Z. farmer, part1cularly in the North Island, a full appreciation of the value of the grazing animal and clover in relation to pasture yield and composition is of prime importance, While knowledge concerning these factors has been steadily increasing over the past decade; due largely to the work of the Grasslands Division, D.S.I.R., little information is available relating to their effects on the soil itself.The object of the present investigation was to elucidate as many of the effects of manure and clover as was practicable using as experimental material certain plots which formed part of a pasture trial being conducted by the Grasslands Division. Accordingly the following aspects were selected for study: (a) the effect on the structural characteristics of the soil (b) the effect on the level of available nutrients in the soil (c) the effect of earthworm activity on the soil Although it is realized that these effects are not mutually exclusive of one another the results of the investigation are considered separately under these headings for the sake of clarity of presentation. The area concerned consisted of a series of plots laid down in the autumn of 1946 by the "Grasslands" Division to investigate the influence of animal manure and clover on pasture composition and yield. The major treatment involved the comparison of "return" with "no return" of dung and urine on grass swards with and without clover; within these two major treatments, six minor treatments involving various combinations of superphosphate and lime were included. The trial was in duplicate and the six minor treatments arranged in reverse order. Owing to the fact that the experiment was a :Mowing trial" the animal manure required for the treatments was obtained from specially harnessed sheep grazing an adjacent identical experiment being conducted under natural grazing conditions. The manure collected therefrom was added to the plots concerned in the present study, after each mowing, in amounts proportional to the dry matter produced.

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  • Observations on ruminant fat metabolism with particular relation to lactation : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of M. Agr. Sc. of the University of New Zealand

    Mayhead, J W (1949)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    In that animal fat is a major economic "building block" the mechanism of its production has attracted particular study. Although observations regarding digestion of fats may be traced back as far as those of Asellius in 1622 it was in 1843 that specific investigations into body fat production were first instituted by Lawes and Gilbert. From 1900 onwards biochemical research has made its greatest advances but, in spite of the volume of literature published on the subject of fat metabolism the state of knowledge in this field may yet be in its infancy. The three main experiments to be described relate principally to the changes effected in the degree of unsaturation of milk fat from dairy cows when highly unsaturated oils are included in the daily ration. The immediate effects of short-term inanition are also investigated. Two minor experiments are described; the first concerning the tracing of ingested stained fat into the milk and depot fats of simple-stomached animals; the second relation to the keeping qualities of milk fats of varying degrees of unsaturation.

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