531 results for 1960

  • Some aspects of molybdenum halide chemistry

    Gainsford, G.J. (1969)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Chemical and X-ray crystallographic studies of molybdenum(II) halides, which are based on the well-known (Mo₆C1₈)⁴⁺ cluster, have been carried out. Contrary to previous reports, the reactions of 2,2'-bipyridyl with the halides (Mo₆C1₈)C1₄ and (Mo₆C1₈)I₄ yield, even under mild conditions, bipyridylium salts of chloromolybdic(II) and iodomolybdic(II) acids respectively: (BipyH)₂((Mo₆C1₈)X₆) where X = C1, I and Bipy = 2,2'-bipyridyl. The reactions are complicated by the formation of mixtures of products, which are mainly various crystalline forms of the bipyridylium salts. An amorphous product may be a true mono-bipyridyl complex. An unusual oxidation occurs during the reactions of triphenylphosphine (Ph₃P) and triphenylarsine (Ph₃As) with (Mo₆C1₈)C1₄ and (Mo₆C1₈)I₄. Infra-red spectral and X-ray powder photographic studies show that the oxidized ligand complexes, (Mo₆C1₈)x₄(Ph₃Z0)₂ (X = Cl, I; Z = As,P), are formed except under conditions in which both molecular and chemically-bound oxygen is rigorously excluded. The conditions required to coordinate more than two neutral unidentate ligands to the (Mo₆C1₈)⁴⁺ cluster have been examined. It proved possible to obtain new ionic complexes under a range of conditions. The six-fold coordination of the (Mo₆C1₈)⁴⁺ cluster is maintained in these compounds (e.g. ((Mo₆C1₈)I₃(triphenylphosphine oxide)₂(pyridine))⁺I⁻) by the ionization of one or more of the terminal halogen atoms in the molybdenum(II) halide starting material (e.g.(Mo₆C1₈)I₄). The X-ray single crystal structures of two isomorphous salts, (BipyH)₂(( (Mo₆C1₈)X₆) (X = C1,I), have been solved using the difference Patterson method. To solve another crystalline modification of the chloro-salt, the (Mo₆C1₈) cluster was constrained to its established geometry with its centroid fixed at the origin of the unit cell. This rigid group of atoms was then rotated by the least-squares refinement of the three orientation-defining angles. The three structures contain discrete ((Mo₆C1₈)X₆)²⁻(X = C1,I) and (C₁₀H₉N₂)⁺ (bipyridylium) ions. The anions consist of highly-symmetric (Mo₆C1₈) clusters (Mo-Mo = 2.606, Mo-C1 = 2.48 Ao), with six terminal halogen atoms (X) bound by single covalent bonds to the molybdenum atoms (Mo-Cl = 2.423, Mo-I = 2.737 Ao). The bipyridylium cations are twisted from perfect cis conformations in all three structures. The average dihedral angle between the two rings is 13 degrees. Further details of the geometries of the anion and cation are discussed. The ionic packing in the three crystals is dominated by the bulky anions. These are arranged in expanded "hexagonal close-packed" layers with the cations centred on approximately trigonal holes in this array. The two crystalline modifications of the chloro-salt differ in the orientation of the bipyridylium cations in these layers.

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  • The phosphate status of the soils of Riverhead forest in relation to growth of Radiata pine : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Agricultural Science in Soil Science at Massey University

    Ballard, Russell (1968)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Extensive plantations of exotic softwood species in New Zealand have for the major part been restricted to land considered marginal for agricultural and pastoral pursuits. On these marginal lands of relatively low fertility and difficult terrain, forestry can compete economically with agriculture. Radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don), the most important of the exotic softwoods, occupies some 600,000 acres in New Zealand, but, despite its versatility and adaptability, has in some instances been established on sites which are outside the limits of its tolerance. Such is the case at the Riverhead State Forest in the Auckland conservancy. In many sectors of this forest, radiata pine, planted during the period 1926-33 on podzolized gumland clays, manifested symptoms of ill-health and unthriftiness within a short time of establishment. These symptoms gave rise to concern and stimulated a programme of research into the possible causal factors. The fertilizer trial work conducted at Riverhead up till 1958 has been reviewed by Weston (1956, 1958). Conway (1962) discussed aerial application of phosphatic fertilizers at Riverhead, while Will (1965) reported the more recent nutritional work. This nutritional work, which has included tissue analyses and the study of growth responses to phosphatic and zinc fertilizer treatments, has shown quite conclusively that unthrifty trees in the trial areas manifest a considerable response to phosphate, but not to zinc. The degree of response to the application of superphosphate has been shown to be dependent upon the prior condition of the stand and the rate of application. Topdressing at a rate of 5cwt/acre of superphosphate as a standard practice has been tentatively adopted following these trials. Will (1965) has shown that foliar analysis can be a most useful aid in assessing the need for fertilizer and in predicting the likely response to fertilizer treatment.

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  • Some physiological factors affecting root formation in cuttings of citrus : a thesis presented in part fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Horticultural Science in Massey University

    Shah, Ram Badal (1969)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Attempts to propagate Citrus species and varieties from stem cuttings have always met with varied results. Some types form roots readily enough to warrant using this method as a commercial operation. Other varieties and species have been extremely difficult, or impossible to propagate in this way, while a third group may be held to occupy an intermediate position. Modern technology has done much to improve the results obtained with stem cuttings of a wide range of plants. Improvements in selection of cuttings to provide materials with high potentials for root formation; improvements in environmental control, such as glasshouses, mist propagation units etc., and improved chemical treatments, have all acted to improve our ability to form roots in this way. Even with these improvements, however, the difficult-to-root species and varieties of Citrus give very poor response to attempts to propagate them from stem cuttings. From this, it might well be concluded that these are inherent factors responsible for the failure of such species and varieties to propagate from stem cuttings. Such factors could arise from anatomical differences between Citrus species and varieties, or differences in physiological conditions governing root formation. The physiological aspects could be in the presence or absence of compounds which either stimulate, or inhibit root formation on stem cuttings. The studies reported in this Thesis have been concerned with elucidating this latter type of problem.

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  • A study of the responses of four strains of mice to three different environments: a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Agricultural Science at Massey University

    Bigham, Murray Layton (1965)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Over the last few years a great deal of information has been obtained on the different mechanisms whereby small mammals maintain thermal balance in cold environments. The physiological adjustments that take place to acclimation (exposure to a constant temperature in the laboratory) and acclimatization to cold have recently been reviewed at the International Symposium on Cold Acclimation Fed. Proc. 22 No. 3 1964. These studies have been confined mainly to the white rat and the Norway rat exposed in the laboratory and outdoors to cold temperatures. Few attempts have been made to investigate genetic differences in the possible adjustments that take place on exposure to cold within any one species of mammal. The amount of data concerning the mechanisms whereby small mammals adjust to high temperatures is small. Again, no attempts have been made using small mammals to investigate genetic differences in the response to high temperatures within any one species. The present study was designed to investigate the possibility of differences in response of four strains of mice to high and low temperatures. The factors studied were:- 1. Body Temperatures. 2. Body weight and tail length and the relationships between these two factors. 3. Tail weight. 4. Hair weight. 5. Pelt weight. 6. Total body fat. 7. Abdominal fat. 8 Food intake. Differences in the adjustments to temperature treatments in the four strains were considered likely to show as differences in some or all of these more easily measured factors. If such differences were found to occur between the four strains this should then provide a basis for more detailed studies of their genetic and physiological basis.

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  • A History of Niue

    McDowell, David (1961)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    "In the beginning, this island now called Niue was nothing but coral rock (he punga)... There came a god, an aitu, from the south, a god sailed to and fro on the face of the waters. He looked down here and saw far below on the ocean the white punga rock. He let down his hook and hauled the punga up to the surface, and lo! there stood and island!" - John Lupo. The genesis of Niue remains conjectural. The Polynesian calls in a supernatural agency, an aitu from the south, to explain the emergence of the multiplication of corals and algae from the waters of the mid-Pacific to form an island two-hundred feet high, but the story of the god and his line and hook is a local adaptation of a very ancient and widespread fable, as are in varying degrees other Polynesian versions of the birth of the island, Cook advanced two further possibilities in 1777 when he speculated: "Has this Island been raised by an earthquake? Or has the sea receded from it?"

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  • The Wellington urban motorway : the parts played by the planning authorities and the Bolton Street Preservation Society

    Miller, Richard Ogilvy (1969)

    Bachelor of Arts thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The inadequacy of our present planning system to accomodate at the critical stage participation of interested citizens in the control of their environment. A case history showing how the negotiations between the various authorities and the Bolton Street Cemetery Preservation Society, the route of the motorway, concerning demonstrates the truth or otherwise of the hypothesis.

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  • The politics of planning : a case study : the Christchurch Master Transportation Plan.

    Eng, Andreas (1968)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The process of amalgamation of the suburban local bodies of the Christchurch metropolitan area with the City ended with the incorporation of Sumner into the City in 1945. A brief account of the circumstances in which amalgamation took place up to 1945 offers an instructive commentary on the problem of local government reorganisation. The boroughs of Sydenham, St. Albans and Linwood amalgamated with the City in 1903 because the advantages of doing so were obvious and immediate. There were simply too many functions of common concern which could not successfully be dealt with except by an amalgamated local body. A high pressure water supply and a comprehensive method of sewage disposal were two such functions almost immediately undertaken by the new City Council. A poll of electors in each of the three relatively under-developed boroughs favoured amalgamation by a margin of better than two to one. Between 1903 and 1945 twelve more suburbs joined the City but the bulk of 'essential' reorganisation was completed with the accession of the suburbs of Bromley and Papanui in 1923.

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  • Studies on the biology and functional morphology of Triplectides obsoleta

    Rowley Smith, Diana Margaret (1962)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Triplectides obsolete overwinters in the larval state, and larval stages may therefore be found at all times of the year. The first part of this section entails a description of the external features of the larval form. It appeared that the larvae changed little in form throughout their larval life, for no obvious features could be found which differed greatly from one instar to the next, the main change being a gradual increase in size due to normal growth processes. The primary aim of this section was to determine the number, and if possible the duration of the larval instars; secondly that the instars may be distinguished from each other so that by sampling the population over the autumn, winter and spring months the changes in proportion of the instars represented in the population during this time could be shown. Simultaneously and indication of the larval growth and habitat distribution has been obtained. The larval case and the case building habit is dealt with in a later section. The egg mass of T. obsolete was not found in the field, but two masses were laid by one female in the laboratory. A description of these and the contained eggs is given at the end of 1/3. The 1st instar larva partly on account of the difficulty in obtaining egg stages has not been found. Consequently its description has had to be omitted from this work.

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  • Industrial conflict in New Zealand, 1951-61

    Lukey, Lyall Gordon (1966)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis represents an Attempt to examine, in a particular historical context, the relationship between the system designed to regulate industrial conflict in New Zealand and the kind of conflict which ensues as a result of the existence of that system. The central event is the waterfront stoppage of 1951 which, over a period of five months, resulted in the loss of more than a million working days to New Zealand industry. A period of strife of the magnitude of the 1951 crisis could have served to perpetuate traditional patterns of conflict. In the event this does not seem to have happened. By over-reaching itself in 1951 the militant section of the industrial labour movement in New Zealand confirmed the attitude of the moderates: that direct action was a dangerous method for redressing grievances and securing concessions. In the decade after 1951 the incidence of stoppages and strikes was much lower than hitherto. The theme of this study is not that a period of conflict was followed by a decade of industrial harmony, but that the nature of industrial conflict itself underwent a significant change. After 1951 conflict between workers and their employers was riot suspended, but it took place largely at a political level, in a way which obscured most of the visible signs of discord. Mr. J. F. Fardell, General Manager of the Christchurch transport Board and Mr. K. McL. Baxter, National Secretary of the New Zealand Federation of Labour assisted this study by kindly providing material not readily accessible. Others, too numerous to mention, helped in various capacities and my thanks is also due to them.

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  • Factors affecting the establishment of Leptospermum scoparium J.R. et G. Forst. (manuka) : a thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Agricultural Science at Massey University

    Grant, David Alan (1966)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    L. scoparium is one of New Zealand's most important weeds of unploughable infertile hill country. The plant is an indigenous shrub, characteristic of the early stages of succession to forest in a wide range of habitats (Cockayne, 1928). In the eight years prior to 1959/60 nearly 40,000 acres of unimproved grassland reverted to scrub, fern and second growth each year. L. scoparium is one of the most important components of the scrub, fern and second growth category. By 1959/60 the total area of reverted land in New Zealand was 5.7 million acres of which 3.65 million were in the North Island. (Rigg, 1962). Control of L. scoparium on unploughable hill country has been limited to pulling, cutting, or cutting and burning, depending on stage of growth. Chemical methods and standing burns have generally proved unsuccessful. Most methods are expensive. Levy (1932, 1940, 1946) postulated that establishment of L. scoparium in pasture could be prevented by good farming techniques. Today there is a growing body of practical evidence to support this hypothesis (Suckling, 1959; New Zealand Farmer 83 (42, 43, 45)). This study was carried out to determine what intrinsic factors favour the establishment of L. scoparium, and the quantitative effect of farm management techniques on this process.

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  • A reappraisal of the 1890 maritime strike in New Zealand

    Merrett, Ian Arthur (1969)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Besides being a detailed study of the causes, course and consequences of the 1890 Maritime Strike in New Zealand, this thesis is also an overall account of the trials and tribulations, and the successes and failures of the labour movement in New Zealand between the passage of Stout's Trade Union Bill in 1878, and the enactment in 1894 of the Industrial Conciliation and Arbitration Act sponsored by Reeves. As such it has attempted to place that strike in its perspective as one of the really important events in labour history. From it I hope it can be seen that the 1890 Maritime Strike has to a certain extent, influenced the structure of the labour movement from the time that Reeves's bill was passed.

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  • The imagery of Thomas De Quincey's 'impassioned prose'

    Dwyer, Denis Noel (1965)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

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  • Morality and the women in the plays of Thomas Middleton

    Dawson, Susan Christene (1969)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    My aim in this study is twofold. Firstly I wish to bring to light the work of a dramatist who, at least in the past, has been admired for The Changeling (although even then with reservations), but for very little else. The Changeling may be Middleton's ultimate statement about the nature of evil in the human personality, but it is by no means his only one. Part of the interest in a study of this nature must therefore be in the tracing of the development which culminates in this play, Secondly, I believe that while Middleton's women characters show a development representative of a general interest in psychology, abnormal included, which is exhibited. by many of the dramatists in the late Elizabethan and early Jacobean periods, this development is also rendered highly individual by his moral point of view.

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  • The old poetic : a reappraisal of Old English lyrical and heroic verse

    Glover, Rupert Granville (1968)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

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  • The axe bites deep : settlement and land use in the Pohangina County, 1863-1963 : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in geography at Massey University

    Wright, Lynette Anne (1968)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Most of the research for this thesis was based upon two types of source material, primary material and other relevant secondary material. The primary statistical material came from a number of sources; published governmental records available in libraries, especially the Appendices to the Journals of the House of Representatives, the Rural Valuation Rolls made available by the valuer-General at the Palmerston North Valuation Department, and unpublished local body records made available by the Pohangina County Council. The published governmental statistical records formed the basis of the material in Appendix I. Most of this material was available from the Palmerston North Public Library and the Massey University Library, but for the period 1896-7 to 1916-17 it was found in the Pohangina County Council's archives. The Valuation Department records covering the Pohangina County from 1919 to 1963 provided data on the basis of individual holdings. The Pohangina County Council's archives provided material for the period since 1894 on ownership and tenure of holdings, the communications system, and a valuable collection of newspaper clippings relevant to the county from 1833 to c.1908. The Manawatu Catchment Board supplied much of the material on the nature and significance of conservation problems.

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  • Pseudo-conjunction in the cyclopropane ring

    Miller, Ian James (1966)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    A survey of the available data on the properties of cyclopropane systems shows that the common assumption that cyclopropane can conjugate with unsaturated systems is questionable. A series of phenylcyclopropanecarboxylic acids, and a series of phenylcyclopropylamines were prepared, and a study was made of the basicity and nucleophilicity of the latter, and reactivity of the former, and the spectral properties of both. It was shown that the lone pair of the nitrogen of a phenylcyclopropylamine does not appear to conjugate with the cyclpropane ring, that the cyclopropane ring cannot transmit mesomeric effects, and that the cyclopro-pane ring electrons are not appreciably more polarizable than is expected classically. A general explanation of the properties of cyclopropane systems is offered in terms of strain, and it is pointed out that in certain cases, particularly in consideration of polarizability, the effects of ring closure cannot be neglected. It is concluded that the cyclopropane ring does not conjugate with unsaturated centres.

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  • A study of low valency states of transition metals

    Hickford, Jeanette Helen (1967)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This is a study of certain aspects of the chemistry of low valency states of the two group VIIa elements, technetium and rhenium. Sections 1 and 2 are on technetium and rhenium, respectively, and Section 3 consists of a comparative review of their chemistry. SECTION 1 Technetium in oxidation states (IV) (III) and (II). New complexes of technetium, with some organic ligands containing group V elements, have been identified. The tetravalent complexes have been prepared by direct reaction between technetium tetrachloride (and tetrabromide) and the ligand. They are all basicall six-coordinate complexes in which technetium has three unpaired electrons. Electronic spectra of these compounds, and the potassium hexahalogenotechnetates (IV), have been studied in detail. The value of Dq for technetium (IV) in a chloride field is ~2400 cm -¹, if the band assignments are correct. The reduction of technetium (IV) to technetium (III) can be brought about be relatively mild reducing agents, e.g. the reaction of technetium tetrachloride (or tetrabromide) with bis(diphenyl-phosphino)ethane, in ethanol, produces the complex [Tc(III)X₂(diphos)₂]X, where X = Cl,Br. This is further reduced by reaction in the cold with sodium borohydride to form [Tc(II)X₂(diphos)₂]. The properties of these compounds are consistent with those expected for six-coordinate d⁴ and d⁵ spin-paired complexes. Several attempts have been made to synthesise technetium trichloride, using a variety of methods; the high stability of the tetrachloride is a dominant factor in the non-formation of the trichloride. SECTION 2 Rhenium(III) “cluster” compounds. Trimeric rhenium trichloride, Re₃Cl₉, has been reacted with several neutral polydentate ligands containing group V elements. From the reaction products (often several), new trimeric complexes have been isolated in which the ligand is attached to one or more metal atoms. For example, in complexes such as [Re₃Cl₈(diarsine)₂]Cl, and [Re₃Cl₈(terp)]Cl, the organic ligand is probably bonded to one rhenium atom; however, in a complex such as Re₃Cl₉(diphos)1.5 (empirical formula), at least some of the ligand groups must be bridged across two metal atoms adjacent trimeric units. The effect of groups attached to the rhenium atom, within the complex anion, has been studied further by the preparation of compounds of types M (x+y-9)[Re₃Clxyy], (where Y is a singly-charged anion e.g. bromide), and M(x+2y-9)[Re₃Clxyy’], (where Y’ is a doubly-charged anion e.g. oxalate); M is a univalent cation and x+y = 10, 11 or 12. A study of the properties of these complexes indicates that the basic unit Re₃Cl₃, is still present in each. The influence of “external” groups in the trimeric anion causes minor shifts in the visible absorption spectra. An interesting compound, which has been formulated as Cs₅Re₄Cl₆Br₁₂, was isolated during the investigations. The physical and chemical properties of this complex indicates that it is a “lattice compound”, consisting of the complex halide, Cs₂Re(IV)Br₆, and the trimeric compound, Cs₃Re₃(III)Cl₆Br₆. The reaction between thionyl chloride and rhenium dioxide (described by R. Colton as a means of preparing Re₃(IV)Cl₁₂) was studied in detail. The main products are usually the monomeric compounds, Re(IV)Cl₃(OH). H₂O, and Re(IV)Cl₃(OH).2H₂O; small amounts of other compounds, e.g. rhenium trichloride, are sometimes formed. The analogous reaction for technetium gives similar results.

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  • The evolution of the rural settlement pattern of lowland South Taranaki, 1860-1920

    Rawson, Gerald Ian (1967)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The settlement pattern forms the basis of any cultural landscape and it is the aim of this study in historical geography to trace its evolution in lowland South Taranaki in order to explain that landscape's final appearance. This pattern has evolved from the time of first European settlement and its study from a historical and geographical viewpoint allows the contribution of each stage in its evolution to be illustrated. To this end not only is where the people were important, but also why they were there and the intensity of their occupance. South Taranaki 's settlement pattern has formed around Agriculture, and as a result there is little need to distinguish between urban and rural uses of the land in the case of concentrations of settlement. The townships such as Ohangi, Oeo, and Matapu for example are an integral part of the rural scene as they exist only to serve their local farmers. The larger centres such as Hawera and Eltham serve a wider community than that provided by the districts' farmers but insofar as they have grown from and contributed to the rural districts they will be included as part of the rural settlement pattern. The area studied is bounded in the north by a line from Opunake through Ngaere to the edge of the hill country of inland Taranaki. This hill country and the Patea river to its mouth at Patea forms the eastern boundary (see figure 5). The coastline from Patea to Opunake forms the south western boundary. These boundaries are set not so much to argue that this area is distinct geographically as because by concentrating on a relatively small area the many factors which make up a settlement pattern can be illustrated. In addition available source material also favours this delimitation as it was the circulation area for The Hawera and Normanby Star and the Egmont Star the two major primary sources. This area includes all of the Hawera and Waimate West counties together with parts of the Patea, Eltham and Egmont counties (see figure 4). A boundary based more on county lines was considered but discarded as these had undergone many changes. The emerging of stable administrative boundaries is in itself one theme in the settlement patterns evolution. The settlement pattern in its final form was a European creation. The time period covered therefore is from 1860 when large numbers of Europeans began to settle to 1920 by which time the pattern had emerged in its final form. Most of the development took place between 1880 and 1900, while after 1920 the emphasis is on greater efficiency in farming interrupted by the depression of the 1930's.

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  • Calendar 1969

    Victoria University of Wellington (Wellington, N.Z.) (1969)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

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  • Calendar 1967 Part 2

    Victoria University of Wellington (Wellington, N.Z.) (1967)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

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