1,302 results for 1970

  • The origin and evolution of urban form in Wanganui East, Gonville and Castlecliff : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Geography at Massey University

    Dickson, Thomas Gordon (1970)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The decision to study the urban form of Wanganui East, Gonville and Castlecliff (Plates 1,2 and 3) was made in 1968 after discussions with Mr. Ross, the then Town Planner for the City of Wanganui. Tho topic was chosen for two reasons. It was felt that the results could provide an insight into the evolution and nuture of the suburbs concerned, which would be of use to the City Planners. In addition it allowed for study in depth of concepts which appeared to be of considerable relevance not only to the geographer, but to the community as a whole. The three suburbs were selected because they alone within the present Borough of Wanganui had once existed as separate towns (see AppendixA), and it was thought that because of this they might exhibit distinctive characteristics in their physical form. This hypothesis appeared to be supported by a preliminary investigation of the material available. Concomitant with this assumption and resultant hypothesis was the belief that it was in any case important to examine and identify the elements of form in urban areas. It was felt that these, if investigated properly, could be helpful in correcting some of the problems inherent in the suburbs, and in New Zealand towns in general.

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  • Response of cow's milk composition to changes in environmental temperature : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Agricultural Science at Massey University

    Bandaranayaka, Dennister Dias (1971)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The need for greater production of animal proteins in the developing countries stems from two factors. Protein deficiency among growing populations due to a wide gap between production and consumption and the continuing demand for the conventional proteins despite the availability of synthetic substitutes French 1970. Studies with regard to the nutritional properties of dairy products Henry 1957; McGillivray and Porter 1960. McGillivray and Gregory 1962 showed that the (protein) fraction of milk was well balanced in the essential amino acids enchancing their nutritive value. Milk production at the desired levels has not been possible in humid and arid regions of the world due to a variety of technical problems chief of which have been the choice of dairy breeds and the availability of good quality pasture, Payne 1957. Cattle breeds indigenous to these regions are poor milk producers. They are slow developing, late maturing animals with short lactatious, long dry periods and poor milk let down; factors which probably contribute to their higher heat tolerance, a character incompatible with high milk yields Mahadevan and Marples 1961. In the United States of America Red Sindhi and Brahman breeds were used in cross breeding programmes aimed at evolving a heat tolerant high producing dairy breed for the gulf coast areas. The first generation Jersey Sindhi and Jersey Brahman crosses not only produced less milk than their contemporary pure Jerseys, but also lacked persistency and a suitable dairy temperament; which were in fact heritable. Brandon McDowell and Brown 1966. These observations do not preclude however the advantages of cross breeding for higher milk production in the tropics Legates 1966; Salazar 1968. Although early ventures using temperate breeds of cattle for milk production in the tropics have shown results of a disappointing nature Payne 1957, given near temperate conditions found in tropical uplands these breeds could respond well. Trail 1968; Yung Chen Chia 1966.

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  • The population dynamics of Porcellio Scaber, latr (Crustacea Isopoda) in waste grassland in New Zealand : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Zoology at Massey University

    Cox, Roger G. (1971)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The dynamics of an isopod (Porcellio acaber) population in waste grassland are described. Three different generations can be distinguished on the basis of size distributions. A difference in age structure and sex ratio is seen in two areas of the study region. Overall there are more females than males. A cohort of 1000 individuals can produce 6000 young in a year, but only 10% of these survive to become sexually mature. Isopods provide a significant reservoir of calcium in the environment.

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  • Planning and state housing : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Geography at Massey University

    McCallum, Lawrence Robert (1975)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Within the framework of the comparison of planning theory and practice, the thesis explores the implications of the statement that the planning process of the Housing Division, Ministry of Works (now part of the Housing Corporation) for its residential subdivisions , is not one based on a theoretically rational model but on a series of ad hoc decisions, framed by current government policy or lack of policy and derived from the accummulated experience of the personnel involved. Chapter One investigates the theoretical models of the planning process including comprehensive, structure, advocacy and systems-approach planning and theories which are more closely related to the actual practic of organisations and personnel involved in planning and decision-making. The planning and subdivision development operations of the Housing Division are described in Chapter Two where it is identified that within the planning role there are no formal steps corresponding to a comprehensive-rational model, nor, if the advocacy approach is followed is there evidence of a comprehensive understanding of the wants and desires of the underprivileged populace the Division is housing. Housing Division staff were administered an informal questionnaire on the planning of State house subdivisions which confirmed that a development process aimed at constructing a number of houses within an annual programme is adhered to, rather than a planning process. The planning and development by the Housing Division of the Sherriff Block, Gisborne, is used as a case study, showing a lack of goal and objective formation and feedback of information and a similarity with an incremental decision-making process. Chapter Three makes a tentative assessment of a State house subdivision, namely, the Sherriff Block, Gisborne. Based on a questionnaire of the residents, comparison of the characteristics of the Sherriff Block is made with other research on State housing and some of the factors affecting satisfaction with living in the Block are presented. Housing, shopping, educational and recreational facilities are examined and the process of residential development is outlined. The conclusion further defines problem areas in State housing, notes recent developments and suggests greater use of structured planning units and the adoption of a comprehensive-rational planning process.

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  • Peptide sequences by mass spectrometry : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Biochemistry at Massey University

    Kent, Stephen Brian Henry (1970)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The preparation and mass spectrometry of permethylated peptide derivatives was investigated. Procedures for the modification of free peptides prior to permethylation were examined. Acetylation with methanol+ acetic anhydride was found to result in partial esterification of the peptide. Specific cleavage of the C-terminal residue was also observed; a mechanism is proposed for this reaction. Esterification with HCl in methanol followed by acetylation of the peptide ester gave a mixture of products due to random methanolysis during the esterification. Methods of acetylating free peptides were examined, and it was found that the use of water + acetic anhydride at room temperature resulted in rapid quantitative acetylation, with no significant side reactions. Reaction of an ethereal solution of diazomethane with the acetyl-peptide gave quantitative esterification with negligible byproduct formation. Use of dimethylsulfinyl sodium in dimethylsulfoxide, and methyl iodide for the permethylation of peptide derivatives was investigated. Suitable conditions were found for the preparation of the reagent and for its use in the permethylation reaction. Substitution at existing ester groups was found to occur during the permethylation, and the products were partially characterised. Use of the free acetyl-peptide rather than its methyl ester eliminated this side reaction. Introduction of more than the expected number of methyl groups was observed. This extra-methylation was found to occur mainly at specific residues, although some random methylation was observed. The conditions of permethylation were adjusted to minimise extra-methylation and limit it to specific sites in the molecule. Peptides containing aspartyl residues undergo chain cleavage; the products of this reaction were identified and a mechanism proposed for their formation. The permethylation reaction is discussed in relation to the formation of these artefacts; it is thought to involve deprotonation of the peptide to form a multiple anion. Reaction conditions are suggested to eliminate these side reactions. The mass spectrometry of permethylated peptide derivatives is discussed and the mass spectra of peptides of known sequence reported. The mass spectra show the sequence-determining fragments as the principal ions. This observation is rationalised in terms of the negative-inductive effect of the N-methyl groups. The simple procedure for interpreting the mass spectra of permethylated peptide derivatives is outlined, together with the use of minor fragmentation modes in identifying the molecular ion and sequencing peaks. Deuteriated methyl iodide, high resolution mass spectrometry and the detection of metastable transitions can all be used to confirm the deduced sequence. The techniques developed were applied to a mixture of free peptides isolated from cheese; the three peptides present were sequenced. The results were confirmed by high resolution mass measurement and permethylation with deuteriated methyl iodide. The present state of peptide sequence determination by mass spectometry is evaluated and possible future developments discussed.

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  • The New Zealand feed grain industry : production, marketing and utilization : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Business Administration in Agriculture at Massey University

    Booth, Donald M (1978)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    THE NEW ZEALAND FEED GRAIN INDUSTRY: PRODUCTION, MARKETING, AND UTILIZATION D. M. Booth The New Zealand feed grain industry has expanded considerably over the last decade yet to date very little is known about the influence of both the economic and non-economic factors on grain production. Even less has been written about the marketing and utilization of these grains. One objective of this study was to examine the functions and activities of the many participants in the feed grain industry. A secondary objective was to develop a model of feed grain supply for maize and barley crops which would reveal the reactions of producers to the changing economic and non-economic variables that were prevalent in the marketplace when actual production decisions were made. From a grain producer's point of view many decisions have to be made. Initially the producer has to decide on one or several production alternatives in which to invest his limited resources. "Will I produce maize this year or will I buy more breeding stock?" is a typical decision that has to be made. There are several non-economic factors influencing production decisions at the farm level such as: (1) constraints imposed by nature (delayed seeding, etc), (2) cultural constraints (crop rotations, etc.), (3) fixed factors involved in agricultural production, (4) institutional constraints (price for wheat set by the New Zealand Wheat Board), (5) uncertainty and imperfect knowledge (prices, etc.). All of the above factors influence production decisions at the farm level. The New Zealand feed grain industry is made up of many participants starting initially with the producer and his grain merchant. Grain merchants are involved in many activities such as: (1) the establishment of annual feed grain prices, (2) the management of the grain contracting system, (3) the marketing of agricultural inputs and other services to the primary producer, (4) marketing of feed grains to both the domestic and export markets. The majority of the feed grains produced in New Zealand are produced under contract to a grain merchant. Approximately 95% of the maize and 80% of the barley acreage is contracted each year at specified prices subject to certain grading standards. In New Zealand there is no "formal" marketplace (such as a commodity exchange) for the establishment of feed grain prices. Prices are negotiated by the producer and his grain merchant on an individual basis with generally the same price quoted for each producer. As acres are contracted and it seems that production will not be sufficient for the expected demand, then a higher contract price is offered which hopefully generates the necessary production that is needed. All contract prices are equalized within a region by the individual grain merchant. Competitive grain merchants set their own prices but again prices tend to equalize within a region. Price differentials between regions generally account for the differing transportation costs of moving the grain from producer to end user. Another participant in the grain industry is the grain broker. The grain broker brings buyers and sellers together. For example, somebody has grain they want to sell while another needs grain. The grain broker contacts both and without the buyer knowing who the seller is, the sale is negotiated at a mutually agreeable price. Prices fluctuate depending upon supply and demand and the position of the grain (i.e. is it readily deliverable? transportation costs, etc?") The grain broker handles grain sales between merchants and also between merchants and feed manufacturers. New Zealand grain has primarily two end sources - the domestic or the export market. The domestic market is divided into grain for stock feeding, industrial uses and for human consumption. A major participant at this stage is the feed manufacturer. He performs several important functions in the grain sector: (1) participates in the establishment of prices, (2) makes the necessary transport arrangements to move the grain from free-on-rail or ex-silo positions, (3) manufactures and retails feed grains in bulk and bag form, (4) provides technical and economic services for end users. An attempt to quantify some of the relationships within the feed industry was carried out in the form of a supply response model. A simple linear regression model was used. A generalized model took the following form: Q*t = ao + ai pgt/tct - a2 pLt +a3Zt + a4T + at where Q*t = acreage of grain in period t pgt = price of grain in period t pct = price of the major competitive grain in the specific region in period t pLt = price of major livestock alternatives in the specific region in period t Zt = non-economic factors in period t T = linear trend variable et = error term ao,a1,a2,a3,a4 = regression coefficients to be estimated. The analysis was divided into two parts, the North Island and the South Island regions. Each region was estimated for the major feed grains produced. Barley on the South Island and both barley and maize on the North Island. For example in the South Island barley analysis, the model explained 86% of the variations in production with all variables statistically significant at the 1% level. This particular model estimated that for a 10% increase in the price of wool, the area sown to barley would decrease by 5.4%. Similarily, a 10% increase in the barley to wheat price ratio would result in a 25% increase in the area sown to barley. For maize, one of the estimated equations explained 87% of the variation in maize acreage. The elasticity at the mean was estimated and for a 10% increase in the maize price, the acreage of maize increased by 15%. This was based on 15 years of data. Several grain marketing alternatives were discussed. These included grain cooperatives, feed grain marketing boards and also making better use of the services of the grain broker. All have merits and of course certain limitations but as the feed grain industry expands there will be increasing pressure for changes within the New Zealand feed grain industry. This study hopefully has shed some light onto the functions and activities of the major participants in the New Zealand feed grain trade. This is just a starting point. More accurate grain statistics are necessary before any extensive research can be conducted. Hopefully this is an area where government and industry can come together.

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  • The New Zealand Chinese gooseberry export industry and its future development : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Agricultural Science in Agricultural Economics at Massey University

    Milne, D. W. (1972)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    New Zealand's dependence on the traditional exports, meat, wool, butter and cheese for the major overseas earners is well documented, (see (1)). New Zealand is one of the world's most efficient producers of these commodities but market access and short term political and social expediency has tended to reduce the gains of economic rationalization. During the last year (1971) butter and cheese have been placed in long term jeopardy due to Britain's impending union1 1. This is not an unexpected development. Britain first applied for membership in 1961 and was rejected in 1963 - negotation restarted in 1966 and entry will date from the 1/1/73. However, the provisions of the Common Agricultural Policy will not come into force until 1/1/74. with the European Economic Community. Wool suffered a serious price reversal in 1967 and although a price revival has occurred in the past year it is doubtful if this will be a long term recovery. Lamb exports to the U.K. are experiencing greater competition than ever from other meats, especially cheaply produced poultry. The beef quota for the U.S.A. cannot be considered safe as it depends to a large extent on seasonal production variations in the U.S.A. and the strength of the U.S.A. farm lobby. The existence of tariff and non-tariff barriers to trade, together with low price and income elasticities of demand for primary exports has placed emphasis on manufactured exports and import substitution in New Zealand, but many attempts at such diversification are often misdirected.2 2.An obvious example of this in New Zealand - The Automobile Industry. (see The World Bank Report on the New Zealand Economy 1968) though the farming industry has some protected sectors also. New Zealand has no absolute or comparative advantage in citrus production, hop production, wheat production - consequently all are protected by trade barriers in common with many other countries. Condliffe (5) has a cautionary note about this: "It is necessary to aim at competitive production for the world market rather than protected production for a small local market."

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  • Ethanol metabolism in humans : a thesis presented in partial fulfillment for the degree of Master of Science in Biochemistry at Massey University

    Couchman, Kenneth George (1974)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Alcohol metabolism in humans has been studied by examining blood, urine and breath samples taken at frequent intervals for 3 hours after an alcohol load of 0.5ml/kg in a fasting condition. A gas chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous estimation of acetaldehyde, ethanol and acetone levels in blood and urine specimens and various column packings were investigated. Porapak Q was the most suitable material and the method finally adopted used the headspace gas phase over urine or perchlorate precipitated blood specimens to which had been added sodium sulphate to displace the volatile components from the aqueous phase. Protein precipitation was necessary in order to prevent the loss of acetaldehyde from the blood samples. A gas sampling valve was fitted to enable similar determinations in breath samples but was not used in this study. Assays by enzymatic methods were developed for lactate, pyruvate, B-hydroxybutyrate, glucose and glycerol utilising the changes in concentration of NADH which was measured by fluorometry and the merits of converting NAD+ to a fluorescent compound was examined. Twenty male and eight females volunteered for the study. Blood samples were obtained from an intravenous catheter, a procedure supervised by a physician. Blood alcohol levels were monitored by breath tests with an electrochemical device, (an Alcolimiter) for detecting ethanol. Alcohol concentration in urine samples were measured and compared to the blood levels and the diuretic effect of alcohol was noted. These findings, together with those reported in the literature have been discussed together with their significance in interpreting disturbances of metabolism when alcohol is consumed. More assays are thought to be required including those for blood acetate, blood triglycerides with free fatty acids and some hormones. It is considered that the use of labelled compounds could add a new dimension to the in vivo investigations on human volunteers.

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  • Pahiatua borough : the formative years (1881-1892) : a thesis presented in partial fufilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in History at Massey University

    Bentley, Byron John (1973)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    To the New Zealand citizen of the 1970's, surrounded either by the tall buildings of an urban landscape, or the predominantly open fields of a rural environment, the terms Seventy and Forty mile bush may connote more of a legendary forest tract, than the actual existence, less than 100 years ago, of a vast primeval forest, extending from Norsewood to Mauriceville, on the eastern side of the Tararua and Ruahine ranges in the North Island of New Zealand. The fact that nowadays, dairy and sheepfarms and the towns of Dannevirke, Woodville, Pahiatua and Eketahuna cover what was once bushland, is illustrative of how quickly the early inhabitants of the area adapted to their new environment, and turned their vision of viable communities surrounded by farmland into reality. This making over of the accessible parts of the North Island inland forest was the outstanding achievement of our people .... The achievements of all these ordinary struggling people makes the really significant history of the North Island. George Jobberns 1 1. Quoted in S.H. Franklin "The Village and the Bush", from J. Forster (ed.) "Social Processes in New Zealand", p.102. The story of Pahiatua is part of "this making over of the accessible parts of the North Island inland forest", though in many ways it is a unique variation on this theme.

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  • Propagation of Actinidia chinensis (Planch.) by stem and root cutting : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master in Horticultural Science at Massey University

    Sim, Boon Liang (1979)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Basal wounding, bottom heat, light with IBA treatments were found to be beneficial for rooting of Actinidia chinensis (Planch.). IBA treatment was effective only when there was a high natural ability to initiate root in Summer and Spring. Seasonal fluctuations in rooting ability was pronounced. This seasonal variation seems to be related to the levels of endogenous IAA, ABA and cofactor 2. No correlation between root initiation and bud activity or IAN level was established. IAA seems to be the fundamental physiological promoter of adventitous root formation. IBA plays only a supporting role in promoting root formation, by protecting the endogenous IAA level in the cutting base. Leaf tissue is an important factor for rooting to be successful. The role of leaf tissue is not just to produce auxin or synthesize nutrients but rather some unknown factor in the leaf can produce a synergistic interaction with auxin in root formation processes. Root cuttings of Abbott variety were sequentially harvested and planted over a period from late Autumn (1.4.77) until mid Summer (8.1.78). Root cuttings of different thickness and length were compared to evaluate their effect on regeneration. The effect of various growth regulators was investigated too. Root diameters of 0.5 - 1.5 cm. out performed that of the thinner or thicker ones. Shorter cuttings (5 cm) of equivalent total length were found to be more productive than a single long cutting (15cm). Strong polarity was observed with shoots only arising from the proximal end of the cutting. Regenerative capacity was highest in late Autumn and Winter and lowest in Summer. This seasonal fluctuation can be altered by exogenous application of growth regulators. IBA suppressed shoot regeneration, whereas cytokinin and sucrose promoted it, while GA3 did not have any significant effect. For commercial use, the practical and economic aspects of this techique require further investigation.

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  • Manufacturing industry in Marton : its origins, growth and present nature : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Geography at Massey University

    Bertram, David Ian (1970)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Marton can justly claim to be an ideal town for setting up secondary industries......."1 (1)Marton Development Council, n.d., 5. "..... The population over recent years has shown a steady increase and there are signs afoot that the potential of this centrally situated, well planned and solidily supported borough is being realised more and more and that a period of 2 greater industrial development and growth is imminent...."2 (2)Marton Development Council, n.d., 7. ".... The Borough of Marton has the fastest growth rate of any of the towns in the Wanganui Employment District..."3 (3)Marton Development Council, n.d., 7. ".... For its size, Marton must be one of the most prolific factory towns in New Zealand.... "4 (4)Marton Jaycee (Inc.), 1967, 31. ".... Originally the settlement's sole purpose was to service the rich country areas that surround it on all sides, but it has, in recent years, developed into a centre that is above average in industrial development....."5 (5)Young, 1966, 67. Such statements, gleaned from various articles and booklets about the town of Marton, suggest that, in terms of manufacturing industry, it is, in certain respects, atypical of other New Zealand towns of a similar size and has, in fact, considerable potential as a small, industrial centre. The Marton-born writer, too, was aware of certain other distinctive features of the town's manufacturing industry - for example, the virtual absence of industries for processing the produce of its agri-cultural and pastoral hinterland yet the presence of other industries using imported raw materials with markets of nationwide importance.

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  • A study of winds and waves

    Cherry, N.J. (1971)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The project involved an observational program to study the lee waves produced over Canterbury due to the Southern Alps over the year 1970 using superpressure balloons and radar-wind/radiosonde balloons. The characteristics and performance of balloons (tetroons) and balloon systems were studied in detail. The data from the balloons was used to obtain a wave classification which may be used to predict the scale of wave motion from the radar-wind profile. It was also compared with solutions of two-, three- and exponential layer models to evaluate their applicability in predicting the wave motion. It was found that they gave a good correlation with observations when the atmosphere was approximated by layers but generally the airflow profiles were more complex and the layer theories at best predicted the scale of the wavelengths observed. The amplitudes of the waves were found to be mainly dependent on the resonance between the forcing periodicities of the mountains and the natural oscillations of the airflow.

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  • Nesting biology of Bombus ruderatus Fab. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Zoology at Massey University

    Pomeroy, Nelson (1977)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Most natural nests of Bombus ruderatus were found in underground locations. Underground domiciles were highly attractive to queens of B. ruderatus and B. terrestris, these two species occupying 93% of 45 domiciles. A design modified to simplify inspection and colony removal vielded 62% occupation by B. ruderatus only in 13 domiciles. These percentages compare favourably with overseas results (various other Bombus spp.) and supass those obtained previously in New Zealand. Colonies were transferred from domiciles to observation hives for study of their development. The observation hives were designed to provide the colonies' needs for warmth, ventilation, sanitation, and brood-comb support. The total number of bees produced per colony in both natural sites and observation hives ranged from to 230 to 750 (mean = 420). Egg production in B. ruderatus post-incipient colonies in regulated by the quantity of fresh cocoons, one egg clump being made per five (approx.) substrate cocoons. Egg clumps consist of 1 - 5 (mean = 1.5) egg cells, each cell containing 10 - 19 (mean = 14.3) eggs. Egg mortality, especially in multi-celled clumps, appeared to be high but could not be quantified. Larval rejection caused the loss of 13% to 36% of the larval populations of five colonies in observation hives. The role of larval rejection appeared to be the control of adult size. It was very prevalent during colony decline when food shortages coincided with queen production. B. ruderatus differs from most other "pocket makers" in having a clear size distinction between workers and queens. Larvae which became queens consumed at least twice as much pollen as most worker larvae. In most colonies there was an interim period of male-only rearing between worker and queen production. Colonies varied in their time of initiating male production, earlier male production being associated with less worker production and lower overall colony productivity. It is suggested that future research should attempt to elucidate the causes of male production in Bombus colonies.

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  • An investigation of some differences between aspects in hill country : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Agricultural Science in Plant Science at Massey University

    Lambert, Matthew Greg (1973)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Climatic, edaphic and biotic variables were measured, over a twelve month period, at each of four aspects of a hill in the Southern Ruahine ranges. These variables were soil moisture status, soil temperature, air temperature, wind-speed, rainfall, soil nutrient status, sheep-dung deposition, and pasture botanical composition and productivity. Information on sunshine hours, maximum and minimum screen temperatures, relative humidity, and wind direction were obtained from the records of an adjacent meteorological station. Net radiation and potential evapotranspiration were calculated from meteorological data, and actual evapotranspiration from soil moisture data. Large differences were recorded between aspects for most of the above mentioned variables. The wind during the observational period was a prevailing West/Northwesterly. Differences in net radiation between the north and south aspects were largest during the Winter and smallest during the summer months. In all cases the evapotranspiration values calculated were larger for the north than for the south aspect. Soil moisture tension differences were not detected during the winter months, but during the remainder of the year the north aspect was driest, followed by the east and west aspects, and the south aspect respectively Differences between aspects, in terms of average monthly 4 cm. air temperature, were not apparent. However, large differences in the average monthly 4 cm. soil temperature of the various aspects were detected: during the January to August period the north aspect was warmest and the south coolest; during the October to December period the east aspect was warmest and the north and south aspects, which had similar average soil temperatures, were coolest. The south and west aspect soils had greater nutritional limitations to plant growth than did the soils of the east and north aspects. This was probably due, at least in part, to nutrient transfer by grazing animals, and the differential action of soil-forming factors. Nitrogen mineralisation was closely associated with soil total nitrogen status, and was one of the main factors limiting pasture productivity. Soil moisture status was the other major limitation to pasture productivity. Pasture production during the observational period (346 days), for the east, south, west and north aspects respectively, was 9683, 3637, 2959 and 2771 kg./DM./ha. Some of the pasture species present were found to be distributed in a definite pattern according to aspect, while for other species the pattern was indistinct. For a number of species no distribution pattern was detected. The patterns observed appeared to follow soil nutritional (especially mineral nitrogen) and soil moisture gradients. Possible reasons for the above-mentioned differences, and some practical implications of these differences, are discussed.

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  • An investigation into the stage history of Shakespeare's Tempest, 1667-1838 : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in English at Massey University

    Ballantyne, Jeremy A (1973)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    After the theatres were re-opened in England at the Restoration, there were many adaptions made of Shakespeare's plays, and this was a common occurrence throughout the eighteenth century, lasting to Victorian times. It was only in the middle of the nineteenth century that Shakespeare began to be appreciated in the original form. The Tempest was one play that suffered many changes. Sir William Davenant and John Dryden collaborated in the first alteration of 1667, and their version is noteworthy because their changes were to a great extent retained by subsequent adapters. Pandering to a neo-classical desire for artistic symmetry, Davenant, the major contributor, and Dryden paired several of the major characters. To complement the lovers (Miranda and Ferdinand), they added Dorinda (Miranda's younger sister) and Hoppolito, who had never seen a woman, to be her mate. Caliban was given a sister, Sycorax, who has eyes for Trincalo (sic), and for Ariel, a female spirit called Milcha was created. Other changes in the dramatis personae are minor. The Restoration Tempest is full of farcical situations which stem from the lovers' naivity and the grotesque antics of the low comedy characters. The masque of Juno, protectress of marriage, in Shakespeare's Act IV has been cut, and altogether the effect of the original vanishes, the new play being much coarser. In 1674, an operatic version of the Restoration Tempest was published, probably written by Thomas Shadwell. This was basically Dryden and Davenant's play, though many songs were added. An elaborate masque of Neptune and Amphitrite was added towards the end, though it is hard to associate these characters with the ending of the play. Throughout the play there was much opportunity for spectacle and the use of mechanical contrivances. From 1747, when David Garrick became the manager of the Drury Lane Theatre, many of Shakespeare's plays were given a new look. Shadwell's operatic Tempest had been a long-running success, and in 1756 Garrick turned it into a three-act opera. This incorporated thirty-two songs, only three of which were Shakespeare's, and little regard was paid to the original text. It was a failure and Garrick repudiated authorship of it. In 1757 he reverted to a version that was much closer to Shakespeare's than any other before it. Among the 400 or more lines that Garrick omitted, however, were several intensely poetic passages. John Philip Kemble's Tempest of 1789, which used just the bare outline of the original plot, was merely a vehicle for the presentation of a number of songs, and was poorly received by critics who had begun to clamour for real Shakespeare, not a hybrid version of him. Kemble's next attempt to produce the play was in 1806, when he tried to combine the original and the Restoration versions. The last appearance of the Dryden-Davenant Tempest was in 1821 when Frederic Reynolds produced it, but it was greated with acrid criticism. William Charles Macready restored Shakespeare's original to the stage in 1838; and even though his interpretation catered for the visual impact more than for the poetry, his version was the first serious attempt for over century and a half to present the unadulterated Tempest to English theatregoers. Apart from detailing and commenting on the above changes, I have given several reasons for them, namely the adapters' endeavours to cater for contemporary taste and opinions, the neo-classical desire for symmetry, eighteenth century pragmatism, and the popularity of opera and of spectacle.

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  • An investigation into the friendship behaviour of Maori and pakeha children : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Education at Massey University

    Young, Robert Joseph (1977)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    In this thesis, two aspects of the friendship behaviour of a group of children are investigated to see whether an apparent difference in patterns of behaviour between Maori and Pakeha children is supported. Two questionnaires requiring written answers are prepared and presented to all the pupils (938 in all) in the Form One intake of all five schools in a North Island town, on two occasions six months apart. These surveys provide the data on which the analysis is carried out. The relevant literature is searched for possible 'causes' of the presumed difference in behaviour. A hypothetical explanation is proposed derived from the literature which places emphasis on the effect of different patterns of child socialization, believed to be culturally based. In particular, it is suggested that Maori families might still be influenced by traditional child-rearing patterns which exert some influence towards friendship networks which are larger and more fluid than those of Pakeha children. This is the question being investigated. Besides the variable Ethnicity, the effects of four other variables, considered to be plausible . alternatives, are included in the investigation. All five variables are believed to have significant influence within the family life experiences of children. The effects of these variables on the criterion variables, the Size and Persistence of the children's friendship groups, are measured and compared. The first stage of the analysis indicates that among the children surveyed, the Maori children tend to prefer friendship groups that are larger but more changeable than those of Pakeha children. However, the result of the second stage analysis, using multiple regression analysis, indicates that when the effects of the other variables are controlled for, the influence of ethnicity is in fact negligible. Of far more significance are the effects of family size and the presence of similar age relatives, variables which are closely correlated with ethnicity. A contributary factor to the original impression would the high 'visibility' of the Maori children. The results of the investigation do not lend any support to the explanation proposed, viz. that the friendship behaviour of Maori children is still showing the influence of traditional child-rearing practices. The evidence suggests that larger and more changeable friendship groups tend to be favoured by those children, Maori or Pakeha, who grow up in association with a large group of similar age siblings and cousins.

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  • Railways and settlement : a study of the nature of the relationship between railways and settlement in the Manawatu and district between 1871 and 1971 : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Geography at Massey University

    Tester, Kenneth G (1972)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The source material used in this thesis is of two types; primary and secondary. The primary material includes official government publications such as the Appendices to the Journel of the House of Representatives, particularly the Public Works and Railway Statements, the New Zealand Gazette, Statutes of the Colony of New Zealand, Census Publications and the Official Yearbook. The Annual Reports of the Wellington and Manawatu Railway Company, held at Alexander Turnbull Library provided much valuable information while additional material was obtained from National Archives, the Department of Lands and Survey, New Zealand Railways and Palmerston North Public Library. I wish to thank all those who assisted me in the preparation of this thesis, particularly: - The Alexander Turnbull Library and the Palmerston North Public Library for permission to reproduce photographs - Mr T.J. Lovell-Smith from National Archives - New Zealand Railways and the Department of Lands and Survey - Mrs Colleen Tester and Mrs Lynette Toms for typing the manuscript - The Geography Department, Massey University and in particular, Mr E.C.R. warr who willingly gave his time and his advice.

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  • Upper atmospheric studies : some observations of the south tropical OI airglow phenomenon

    Malcolm, Roger K. (1972)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    An account is presented of a series of observations of the dynamic behaviour of a region of the south tropical airglow·arcs made from Rarotonga (Lat. 21.2° south, long. 159.8° west) with the aid of a large aperture (90 cms), high resolution (½° beamwidth) scanning photometer. The night airglow is found to be strongly disturbed on many nights, characteristically by elliptical areas of lower than normal intensity drifting in an easterly direction. It was possible to associate their passage with the occurrence of 'spread-F' as observed by the Rarotongan ionosonde. An attempt is made to account for the airglow processes; suggestions are made concerning the possible origin of the disturbances; and their presence is examined in the light of the trans-equatorial propagation of V.H.F. signals from Hawaii, as recorded at Rarotonga.

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  • Solid state spectroscopy : rare earth - hybride centres in the alkaline earth fluorides

    Jacobs, I.T. (1971)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Both the optical and infrared spectra of cerium and praseodymium tri-positive ions in the alkaline earth fluorines have been studied. Various charge compensation mechanisms have been employed including negative hydride, deuteride and tritide ions. For the hydride centres the degenerate local mode lines are resolved into more than one component. These splittings are attributed to electron-phonon interaction effects between the low lying rare earth 4f electronic states and the hydride ion local mode phonons. The 4f-5d electronic transitions of the cerium hydride type centres show large isotope shifts up to 50 cm⁻¹. Only the non-degenerate hydride ion vibration appears in the 4f-5d optical spectra and the vibrational interval is increased from absorption to fluorescence by as much as 15%. Both the isotope and vibronic shifts for the tetragonal cerium sites are attributed to electron-phonon interaction effects. Simple models involving point charges and point dipoles account in a semi-quantitative way for several features of the spectra but fail to account for either the sign or magnitude of the isotope and vibronic shifts.

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  • Nonprofessional involvement in helping services in Palmerston North : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    Daniels, Kenneth Raymond (1974)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Helping as it has been influenced by the development of a welfare state philosophy is examined. A review is made of the societal changes that have and are continuing to have a potent influence on the established networks of support, care and help. The results of these societal changes and consequent network changes are seen in the rapid increase in demands for professional helping services. These rapidly increased demands have been matched by a rapid increase in personnel in helping services. The contribution of the nonprofessional has been somewhat curtailed as a result of the emphasis on the growth of professional helpers. The literature from overseas records evidence of the re-emergence of the nonprofessional helper as a powerful contributor to meeting the needs of the community. In this respect the concept of 'community care' is becoming a reality. The literature reviewed points to the contribution the nonprofessional is and can be making and overwhelmingly supports the positive nature of this contribution. This study examined what happened in Palmerston North in terms of the nonprofessional contribution to helping services. All professional helpers (psychiatrists, psychologists, counsellors and social workers) in the city, were interviewed and a 20% sample of nonprofessional helpers drawn from selected helping agencies were interviewed. 75 professional helpers and 76 nonprofessional helpers were interviewed personally, two separate questionnaires being used. The results show that helpers were predominantly aged 31 to 60 (75%) and less than 2% were under 22. There were equal numbers of males and females. 81.4% of professional helpers worked in government or quasi-government services, while only 3.9% of nonprofessionals linked up with such services to make their contributions. Over half of the professional helpers are social workers and only 40% of all professional helpers have a professional qualification. Both professional and nonprofessional helpers feel overwhelmingly that the nonprofessional has a contribution to make. However 56.6% of nonprofessionals had never been asked for help by a professional. Those who had been asked, were most frequently asked to provide 'befriending/support'. This is what most nonprofessionals wanted to be asked to do and over half of the professionals felt this was the best contribution the nonprofessional could make. Almost 100% of nonprofessionals felt capable of offering 'material' help or 'befriending/support', while 77% felt capable of offering 'advice and guidance' and 51% 'counselling'. 42.6% of professionals had requested nonprofessional assistance in the past week, while 7.9% of nonprofessionals had received such a request in the same period. Overall, nonprofessionals felt that professionals understood them, but almost 20% felt they did not receive enough encouragement or support. The expectations each group had of the other were investigated and it was found that overall, both groups had similar expectations. The advantages and disadvantages each group had found of working with the other were explored. The results give a valuable insight into the positive and negative experiences helpers in each group have had of working with the other group. Three implications are drawn from the study, firstly concerning the utilization of resources, secondly, relationship factors and thirdly, differentiation of skills.

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