1,271 results for 1970

  • In defence of behaviourism : a Skinnerian reinterpretation of Stenhouse's ethological theory of intelligence, supported by a Galilean philosophy of science : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Education at Massey University

    Southon, Lawrence David (1977)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis attempts to justify a Skinnerian interpretation of intelligence. The justification has three major themes. Firstly it is argued that Skinnerian behaviourism has the status of scientific knowledge comparable to Newtonian mechanics. Secondly it is argued that Stenhouse's ethological theory of intelligence has a number of defects, so that a behaviourist theory which retains the strengths of the ethological theory while avoiding those defects is to be preferred. Thirdly it is argued that certain widely received accounts of scientific knowledge are mistaken; an alternative account is presented. This venture into philosophy of science underlies the other two themes and is presented first. The supposition that science may be represented in terms of general laws of the form 'All swans are white' is critically examined, following Toulmin's analysis which is illustrated with three exemplars of scientific knowledge. A Galilean ideal of science is then elaborated. The ideal is formulated in terms of scientific knowledge following Toulmin, and illustrated with three exemplars of scientific knowledge. The processes of revolutionary science, normal science, technology, and justification of theories, are interpreted in terms of the ideal alluded to above with further illustrations. Convergences with de Bono's 'lateral thinking' are suggested. Criticisms of statistical 'social science' are noted. The conventional contrast between physical and social science is critically examined. A formulation of Skinnerian behaviourism is presented, to demonstrate that behaviourism conforms to the Galilean ideal of science. Various criticisms of behaviourism are responded to. The proposed criteria for justification of theories are applied to behaviourism. Stenhouse's ethological theory of the nature and evolution of intelligence is criticially examined. The divergent development of ethology and behaviourism from reflexology is outlined. Skinner's critique of Pavlov's concept 'inhibition' is applied to Stenhouse's 'P-factor'. The use of metaphors in science is discussed. De Bono's 'special memory surface' is noted as an alternative to the usual mechanical or electronic storage systems as a metaphor for memory. Skinner's analysis of the nature and evolution of intelligence is elaborated. Stenhouse's factors and especially the P-factor are reinterpreted in behaviourist terms. It is argued that a behaviourist theory of intelligence is preferable to Stenhouse's ethological theory in terms of the Galilean ideal of science. Educational and political implications of various philosophical and theoretical positions are also noted.

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  • Forms and transformations of soil manganese as affected by lime additions to a central yellow-brown earth in the Wairarapa District, New Zealand : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Agricultural Science in Soil Science at Massey University

    Rathakette, Pagarat (1973)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The application of liming materials to New Zealand agricultural soils for the purpose of increasing the productivity of pastures is an important soil ameliorative treatment. Specific benefits accruing from lime additions are thought to include the improvement of soil structure and moisture retention characteristics, increased supply of essential plant nutrients, and increased activity of desirable soil microorganisms. Much attention in New Zealand has focussed on the relationship between lime addition and the resultant increased plant availability of soil Mo. The lime and/or Mo requirement of New Zealand soils have been reviewed by During (1972). Recently, however, it has been suggested (N.D. Grace, pers. comm.) that pastures on certain Wairarapa hill country soils can contain a sufficiently high content of the trace element Mn to impair the health and performance of grazing animals, particularly sheep. Such observations have been reinforced as a result of preliminary field trials indicating improved ewe fertility and growth rates of lambs following the application of lime to these soils. Further, the controlled feeding of supplemental dietary Mn to young sheep has been shown to depress their growth rate. It is well known that the addition of lime to acid soil generally results in decreased availability of soil Mn for plant uptake. However, there is very little information for New Zealand soils on the amounts and forms of native soil Mn and the types of transformations resulting from lime application. The present field experiment was initiated to investigate the chemical forms of soil Mn in a typical unlimed Wairarapa hill country soil ( Purimu silt loam ) and to follow any changes in these forms, for a period of one year, following broadcast application of several rates of lime addition. When possible, bulk herbage samples were collected and analysed in order to assess changes in Mn content resulting from lime application.

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  • A general survey of education on Niue : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Education at Massey University

    Tauevihi, Niuaviu (1977)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The primary purpose of the thesis is to survey the provisions for education which began with the London Missionary Society Schools and eventually in 1952 the Government Administration assumed responsibilities towards developing a full quota of primary education. Secondary education at Niue High School followed in 1956, with a Teachers Training Centre in 1958, both of which constituted provisions for post-primary education, supplemented by higher education made available in New Zealand and other overseas institutions. Niue's educational provisions will continue to become dependent on New Zealand in opportunities for higher education, in educational policies, for financial aid and to a less extent for the vocational courses designed to furnish Niue's manpower requirements. Part II deals with the relationships between education, manpower needs and economic development in which ideas are explored within the Niuean context. This scrutiny indicates that the education provisions are not well related to the manpower needs of Niue as a politically self-governed state. The Government Administration and in general the Niue Public Service are adequately catered for, but not so in economic development and manpower needs. Irrelevancy in education provisions resulted in social disorganisation which is a direct effect of Nuieans emigrating to New Zealand to seek employment, and to a greater extent utilise the skills that were learnt in the classroom. The key ideas in the series of education planning are examined and recommended for the future are proposed with particular respect to Agriculture, School Curriculum, and Adult Education.

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  • Hyperactivity in children : some conceptual issues : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Education at Massey University

    Soeterik, Victor Frederik Willem (1973)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The literature on hyperactivity in children was reviewed and a theoretical discussion on underlying issues of brain damage, population samples, sociological and contextual variables followed, citing further literature in relevant areas. Some clinic cases were reviewed as instances of the discussion centering on contextual variables. The implications arising from these case histories were discussed.

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  • Erwin Strittmatter in reference to the agarian novel of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries

    Gebbie, Ian William (1978)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This study deals with two aspects of German literature: the agrarian novel from the early nineteenth century to National Socialism, and a comparison of capitalist and socialist ideology, using the works of the DDR author Erwin Strittmatter. In the first part of the thesis, chosen works are analysed with the aim of establishing a pattern of bourgeois idealism and of tracing its development in reference to the changing historical background. The political implications of the nationalist transformation and radicalisation of the conservative agrarian ideology, which grew up as a middle-class reaction to the emergence of modern industrial Germany, are illustrated by the combination of the heroic and the idyllic in fascist literature. The second part deals with the socialist agrarian novel, which is discussed, in the light of Marxist theory, as a departure from the conservative model, and in relation to different political ideals and objectives. Three agrarian novels of Erwin Strittmatter Ochsenkutscher, Tinko and Ole Bienkopp - are examined in detail as the basis for contrast with capitalist doctrine and for observations on the role of literature in the DDR. The concluding chapter illustrates how, in the established East German state of the 1960's, the disregard for the demands of authority, which is a feature of Strittmatter's Ole Bienkopp, indicates a return to the traditional pattern of bourgeois idealism within the confines of socialist morality.

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  • Inhabited by a cry : a thematic study of Sylvia Plath's Ariel : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in English at Massey University

    Spillane, Patrick (1971)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis will mainly concern itself with a thematic study of Ariel tracing motifs and imagery in the hope of a deeper understanding of the poetry of the volume. Emphasis, then, will be on the artistry and objective control of a poet such as Plath, while at the same time not ruling out the elements of extremism, and the threatening dangerous element contained in poetry of this nature. Along with this emphasis on artistic merit there will be an effort made to 'place' the poet and to discuss her positive value in literature for our present age. Above all the thesis will concern itself with Sylvia Plath's authenticity both as an artist, and as a person with individual and unique perception. All quotations and references, to the poetry will be taken from the American, Harper and Row, edition of Ariel, an edition not normally sold in New Zealand. This volume, unlike the Faber edition, contains an interesting preface by Robert Lowell, and several poems, such as 'Lesbos' which are not contained in the English edition. There are some textual discrepancies such as the singular noun being used in the 'Lady Lazarus' line 'Gentleman, ladies'. The English edition reads 'Gentlemen, ladies', but here, and elsewhere, the Harper and Row version will be followed. I wish to thank Mr. Peter Alcock for his perceptive comments and advice regarding the manuscript of the thesis and particularly for his introducing me to the poet's work. His help with reference texts, his knowledge of the modern literary scene, and arrangements to supervise the thesis have been an immense help. Thanks also to Del, my wife and all who encouraged me in completing this thesis.

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  • Race relations in the Waimarino, 1880-1911 : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in History at Massey University

    Voelkerling, Rex Herbert (1970)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis makes an examination of Maori-Pakeha relations in the Waimarino area of the King Country in the belief that all too often Maori history is approached on a national scale and viewed within a framework of national trends and Parliamentary Acts. Through the explorations of the dynamics of a bi-racial community it is hoped a regional corrective may be made to former national interpretations. A local study possesses the advantage of getting back to the 'grass-roots'. History is reduced to its very common denominator, the individual in a small community. From a point of 'culture contact' the emphasis in this thesis is placed on the years leading up to the new century, these initial years being crucial in determining the future of race-relations in the Waimarino. Briefly, it was not a series of Land Acts so much as particular comments and actions on the local level which influenced both Maori and European attitudes. These comments and actions have been investigated up to 1911 with one exception: the liquor question has been pursued to the early 1920's, it being very difficult to formulate any sort of a conclusion prior to this period in time.

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  • A philosophical exploration of some unstated educational presuppositions concerning Polynesian education in New Zealand : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Education at Massey University

    Whitehead, Paul Eric (1973)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    A PHILOSOPHICAL EXPLORATION OF SOME UNSTATED EDUCATIONAL PRESUPPOSITIONS CONCERNING POLYNESIAN EDUCATION IN NEW ZEALAND. The prime concern in a multi-racial society should. be to encourage harmonious race relations in a system which aims at 'equality'. The Education system is one way of achieving this objective. Historically New Zealand educational policy has emphasised assimilation or its later more euphemistic derivative integration. This policy effectively increased the rate of acculturation but only at the expense of Polynesian culture and 'Maoritanga'. Subsequent academic failure, coupled with a steady decline in enthusiasm for formal education has resulted in the Polynesian devaluing education for other more tangible rewards. Innovation in educational policy aimed. at providing the Polynesian with an education which is intrinsically valuable to him, has been slow. This despite the immediate urgency and despite the findings and recommendations of the various commissions and committees set up by Government. Specifically, what is needed is the type of innovation which will encourage a greater degree of involvement by both pupil and parent; innovation that will effectively close the gap in attainment level between Polynesian and European. In examining this problem it becomes obvious that the assumptions which may be widely held, either consciously on partly or wholly unconsciously, concerning education must also be explored so that the various types of innovation can be analysed in terms of their effect in the system and on the community. An examination of these presuppositions is necessary to allow for, and to counteract, possible bias which may interfere with any recommendations which may ensue. Also, it allows for critical thought and reflection on that assumption so that the universal tendency to make no systematic attempt to explain and justify the principles on which the education system is based can be avoided. These presuppositions can be found within existing or implemented policies and have largely determined the various policy statements: educational, racial, social, recreational, penal. Any one of these presuppositionse, once exposed and found to be an immediate influence, can be examined to determine just what extent they have influenced, or are influencing, the Polynesian educational structure. A variety of alternatives and possible solutions could instead be implemented. The principle objective then is: to explore these presuppositions and possible alternatives in order that the resultant recommendations might be implemented in an attempt to raise the level of Polynesian under-achievement. The four main steps in this process are: 1. To show that any one educational presupposition 'may' be held or that it is widely held, consciously or unconsciously. 2. To show what effect this presupposition has had, or is having, upon the Polynesian educational system. 3. To examine this effect and to explore the possible variations and solutions of diverse alternative policies. 4. To arrive at and to recommend what action might be taken to alleviate the discrepancies and inequalities that are found to be important determinants of Polynesian under-achievement. The solutions and recommendations that are advanced in this thesis have been the result of careful analysis and examination of the unstated presuppositions, the principal factors affecting them and the principles in which they are embedded. These recommendations are not intended to be prescriptive. They are not the only possible recommendations but are perhaps the most appropriate. They are the end product of an inductive logical inquiry utilizing the findings of empirical research where available and appropriate. Some of them have already been implemented since this thesis was begun. However, it is not desirable, nor necessary, to remove them simply because they have been implemented and therefore rendered obsolete. The argumentation for them, in fact, is given greater credence in a world that views philosophical inquiry as merely a priori. These recommendations must be retained to allow for the continuity of argument and the facts which support them.

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  • Swaggers and society : a New Zealand experience

    Steven, Graeme D. (1979)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    The aims of this study are two-fold. First, to reach an understanding of the swagger, his lifestyle, and his outlook on life. And second, to investigate the relationships between the swagger and various groups in New Zealand society, in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The North Otago region was chosen as a base for the study because it has traditionally been regarded as one of the main swagger areas in New Zealand. The main town of Oamaru had a population of 4000 to 6000 in the 1890's, and was neither wholly urban or rural. As the service centre for the North Otago hinterland and a road, rail and sea centre, Oamaru had large numbers of itinerants, passing through the town. In the rural hinterland mixed cropping predominated, and this required large numbers of seasonal workers, which were drawn from outside the region. In Chapter One it is argued that rural itinerant workers were integrated into a rural structure that was both labour intensive and seasonal. Chapter Two discusses the characteristics which separate the swagger from other rural itinerants, which I have called, the "swag-carriers". In Chapter Three the conflict between the swagger and a developing bureaucracy, and middle class ideology in the late nineteenth century, is analysed. In Chapters Four and Five, the attitudes of rural and towns people towards the swagger are investigated. A model based on the value system of "reputation" and "respectability is used in Chapter Six to explain the ambivalence of attitudes towards the swagger, and to investigate an important aspect of the swagger psychology - his self esteem and his individuality.

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  • Bureaucracy and professionalism in an educational organisation : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Education at Massey University

    Shaw, Brian (1971)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The development of human societies has been in essence a development of forms of social organisation. In modern societies, social organisation is complex, diverse, and characterised by conditions of industrialisation, division of labour, urbanisation, and the aggregation of individuals into large organisations with specific purposes. One form of social organisation which has developed to maintain social relationships in such conditions is the bureaucracy. Bureaucracies as structures, or systems of rational procedures deliberately set up to achieve specifically prescribed social ends, affect to some degree the lives of all citizens of modern societies. Educational organisations are bureaucratised to varying degrees, and the rapid and accelerating demand for popular education suggests that bureaucratisation is likely to be a dominating characteristic of education in the future.

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  • The comparative profitability of milk and beef production on seasonal supply dairy farms : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Agricultural Science in Farm Management at Massey University

    Lattimore, Ralph G (1970)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Irregular pagination: pg 111 missing - not in vault copy

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  • Aspects of Maukean population migration : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Geography at Massey University

    Gordon, Graeme David James (1974)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The increasing dissatisfaction and rising aspirations of many Pacific peoples has prompted an increased amount of outmigration to larger metropolitan countries where it is perceived that these desires can be fulfilled. Migration of Cook Islanders to New Zealand is no new phenomenon. In recent years, however, for a great diversity of reasons, the flow has reached alarming proportions. The repercussions of such a displacement of population are significant both for donor and recipient areas. Although several studies have focused attention on migrant groups in New Zealand, literature linking the whole migratory process from the island of origin is not quite so readily available. It is becoming apparent that more attention must be directed at the causal factors which induce would-be migrants to forfeit a familiar way of life for one which can be initially bewildering.

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  • Recreational resource management : Kapiti Island, a New Zealand case study of visitor usage, and perception: a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts at Massey University

    Hook, Trevor (1978)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This study was undertaken as a requirement for completion of a Master of Arts in Geography. My thanks go to the Geography Department Massey University, especially Professor K. Thompson, Dr. R. Le Heron and Mr. E. Warr for their valuable guidance throughout this research period. The topic of research also had the support of Lands and Survey Department, Wellington. People of the Lands and Survey Department in both the local District and the Head Office in Wellington were very co-operative, and permission was obtained to run a questionnaire for permit-holders visiting Kapiti Island. Great assistance was offered by both Mr. Bruce Tubb (Head Office, Wellington), and Mr. G.A. Turner, (Senior Planning Officer, Wellington Regional Office). Special thanks go to the Ranger and his family Mr and Mrs P. Daniel, who live on Kapiti Island for their assistance and support throughout the Survey period.

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  • The Church Defence Society of Otago and Southland, 1897: a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in History at Massey University

    Barber, Lawrence Harold (1970)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    In recent years there has been a marked increase of interest in New Zealand church history and sectarian controversy. Research into the beliefs and behaviour of early European missionaries has occupied the research time of an increasing number of post-graduate students during the last five years and has resulted in such useful works as Judith Binney's published analysis of the beliefs and behaviour of Thomas Kendall 1 Judith Binney, The Legecy of Guilt (Oxford, 1968). and John Owens' doctoral investigation of the Hokianga Wesleyans. 2 John Owens, "The Coming of the Wesleyons to New Zealand, 1819-1840", Unpublished PhD thesis, Victoria University of Wellington, 1969. Hugh Laracy, in his portrayal of Bishop Moran, 3 Hugh Laracy, "The Life and Context of Bishop Patrick Moran," Unpublished M.A. Thesis, Victoria University or Wellington, 1964. P.S. O'Connor, through his racy description of Catholic - Protestant conflict, 4 P.S. O'Connor, "Sectarian Conflict in New Zealand, 1911-1920", Political Science, 19 (i), July, 1967, PP. 3-16. and J. McKay with his consideration of the development within New Zealand of a parochial school systen,5 J.Mackey, "The Catholic Schools and the Denominational System of Education in Auckland. 1840-68", Unpublished M.A. Thesis, University of Auckland, 1960. have notably contributed to the history of the Roman Catholic Church. Research by P.F. McKimmey 6 P.F. McKimmeys, "The Prohibition Movement in New Zealand, 1885-1894" unpublished M.A. Thesis, Auckland University, 1968. and K.G. Geard 7 K.J. Geard, "The Prohibition Movement, 1894-1914", unpublished M.A. Thesis, Victoria University of Wellington, In Progress. into the nature of the New Zealand prohibition movement and Ian Breward's published monograph on Bible-in-Schools controversies 8 Ian Breward, Godless Schools? (Christchurch, 1967.) have made available analysis of socio-religious conflicts that divided New Zealanders from the late nineteenth century until well into the twentieth century. In the field of contemporary church history a symposium on religion in New Zealand including articles by J. Mols, J. Harre, and W.H. Oliver,9 W.H. Oliver, W. Merlin Davies, Lloyd G. Geering et al; Landfall, XX (1), March 1966, pp.4-59. posed questions about present day New Zealand ecelesiastical life that cannot be satisfactorily answered without an awareness of the theological and sociological development of the New Zealand churches and sects.

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  • Continuous buttermaking : a process capability study : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Technology in Industrial Management at Massey University

    Stockwell, Dean Thomas John (1972)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Continuous buttermaking has become an important process in the New Zealand Dairy Industry. From the first experimental trials in 1964 conducted by staff of the New Zealand Dairy Research Institute, continuous manufacture of butter by the Fritz process has now reached a commercial production of over 80,000 tons. Process control of the buttermaking process plays an important part in determining the economic return on the product. At this stage adequate information is available on the general operating principles of Continuous churns. However, in the absence of change in the operating conditions the product continues to show compositional variation. There is little information available to determine the causes of such variation. The work undertaken during this project was primarily aimed at investigation of this variation. It was conducted as a process capability study. It is clear that Continuous Buttermaking will continue to be an important process in the New Zealand Dairy Industry for some time, and it is essential that further information regarding the proceas is made available in order to facilitate improved process control.

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  • Growth and diversification in New Zealand's agriservice industry : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Geography at Massey University

    Campbell, Colin Terence (1979)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The thesis has been designed to research the problem of how the stock and station companies have developed from single product or single function firms and then evolved into large diversified mercantile corporations. The hypothesis surmises that the firms have followed trends in the growth of other large overseas companies which has meant changes in function, structure and especially unique to this industry, spatial changes. The geographic nature of the problem is centred on the companies expansion through time and space in the New Zealand economy. In studying this topic it is necessary to comprehend the basic components of corporate growth, diversification and the uniquity of the agriservice industry, a 'colonial invention' (MacDonald, 1975) of Australasia. In order to conceptualise the geography of the problem a model has been utilised to illustrate the spatial changes that agriservice companies have undergone when competing for space over New Zealand. The model, figure 1.1. refers to the thresholds of development, requirements that have to be met by a firm in order to increase its operating space. This change in scale results in an increase of activities and the organisational scale of the firm over time.

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  • Agrarian aspirations and demands as illustrated by the 1905 Royal Commission on Land Tenure : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in History at Massey University

    Bailey, Ross Leonard (1972)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This essay is an examination of the 1905 Royal Commission report on Land Tenure. The introduction examines the Commission's final report and looks at its reception. The report and newspapers are set against each other in order to show what pressures were exerted on the Commission to come out in favour of the freehold. The essay also looks at the Minutes of evidence in order that themes not apparent in the final report can be examined. The aspirations and demands of witnesses are considered in relation to their background: rural and Urban, pro-freehold and pro-land nationalization. Newspapers and parliamentary debates are used where they comment or throw light on the evidence in the minutes and on the general issue of the freehold-leasehold controversy. The essay examines the idea that the freehold-leasehold controversy had a greater emotional dimension than a practical one. The practical side, however, has not been ignored. Two areas were selected for examination and were fairly representative of the problems throughout New Zealand. The conclusion suggests that the emotional aspect of the freehold-leasehold issue was largely a result of the agitation by freeholders, in order to preserve their way of life against the encroaching land nationalizers. The leaseholders were upset by the fear of having their rents revalued, and once this fear was removed most leasees-in-perpetuity were content with the lease-in-perpetuity system.

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  • Aokautere basins : a study in morphometry : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Geography at Massey University

    Lee, Nanyang (1973)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    1.1 Location Of The Study Area The location of the study area is shown in Figure 1. It comprises part of the terrace to the south-east of the Manawatu River just opposite Palmerston North City centre. Almost all the area of the two drainage basins studied is within the boundary of Palmerston North City which has been expanded since 1967 to include land on this side of the river. This suburb is generally known as Aokautere. Both streams selected for study are secondary tributaries to the Manawatu River (Figure 2). They are here designated as Alton Creek, on the left, and Bolton Creek on the right, and the trunk stream they join before entering the Manawatu River is named Cliff Stream. The exact location of the study area can be found on NZMS 1 N149, the "Palmerston North" sheet, between grids E130 and E150, and N290 and N330. The township of Aokautere is about one mile northeast of the study area.

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  • The long term residential treatment of delinquent boys by the Child Welfare Division of the Department of Education.

    Campbell, John Baird. (1971)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

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  • Comments on the New Zealand Security Intelligence Service Act.

    Tristram, Richard Hamish. (1970)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

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