1,784 results for 1980

  • Geographie und Utopie : die Suche nach dem Ort in Günter Eichs Lyrik : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in German at Massey University

    Jackson, Irene Charlotte (1980)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis probes the rôle and significance of Geography and Utopia in Günter Eich's poetry. Throughout his four main volumes of poetry a clear pattern of geographical contraction and expansion becomes apparent. In essence, the very wide and indefinite geographical concepts (such as the world, the wind, the clouds etc.) of his first snail volume 'Gedichte' contracts into the more specific, definite and localized names of individual places throughout Germany in tha first of his major volumes 'Abgelegene Gehöfte'. With the confinement theme of his 'imprisonment poems' the geographical contraction reaches its climax in an 'epicentre' pinpointed in a very small area around the Rhine. This geographical contraction interestingly closely parallels the poet's own personal 'contraction' (his physical confinement behind barbed wire) and his emotional-spiritual 'contraction' (withdrawal into a state of utter despair). From this generalized brough the geographical pattern moves back into an expansionary phase. From this point onwards (i.e. throughout the last three volumes) one notices a gradual expansion of geographical names to embrace the whole of Germany, then Europe and finally the wider world. However this movement of geographical names is not paralleled in the emotional-spiritual sphere. Instead it is this time counteracted by Eich's gradual withdrawal into his private world, seeking refuge in a self-created 'ivory tower', as symbolized by the 'Steingarten' in "Anlässe und Steingärten". The geographical expansion culminates notably in the ultimate distintegration of geographic names in his later poems, signifying the depth of Eich's apparent total disregard for and disinterest in this imperfect world. Günter Eich delivers a significant message about the nature and meaning of his poetry in a talk entitled "Der Schriftsteller vor der Realität" ("The writer before Reality"). Included in this is the statement (reproduced in the original German on page 1): "I write poetry to orientate myseif towards the truth. I regard them as trigonometrical points or as buoys which mark the course into an unknown area." Not only does Eich supply us with such a direct statement of his search for the true Reality (i.e. his 'Utopia' perhaps) but he uses geographical terminology to convey his meaning and - within the selected poems - a geographical 'explorer' theme in his unsuccessful attempt to complete it. Not finding this lasting 'Utopia', his true reality, through a dream-like regression into Nature, he goes in pursuit of it into 'this human world'. As his "trigonometrical points or buoys" he initially shows a preference for small isolated places, again indicating Eich's possible expectation of the nature of "the unknown area" he is relentlessly and almost obsessively seeking. Perhaps predictably, it is neither here nor anywhere else in 'this world' that he is able to find his Utopia, which presumably only death ultimately can reveal to him. 'This world', therefore, localized and pinpointed in terms of geographical places, presents itself more and more as a modern 'locus terribilis' - a reality in ruins, in contrast to the longed-for harmonious and united Utopia. Günter Eich comes closest to his Utopia through an apparent transcendence of the world through natural geographical heights and finally in his (self-created) 'ivory tower' world (symbolized by the very artificial and barren 'Steingarten', which at the same time is a reflection of what the world has become to him). Ironically it took a world-wide search (geographically-speaking) to enable him to come across these Japanese Stonegardens, again re-emphasizing the primary role of Geography and its link with Utopia in his poetry. The developed pattern of geographical names and places thus becomes a symbol of Eich's search for the 'actual Truth' the Utopia, which increasingly reveals itself as a 'U-topos', namely (and significantly) a place which does not exist here on earth. In fact this is startlingly illustrated by the final explicit disintegration of the geographical names he uses. Another inter-related observation is quite fascinating. Graphically represented, the geographical pattern of contraction and expansion can be seen in terms of a 'V'-formation. This structural form appears to symbolize 'the free flight of birds' (which parallels the notion of omniscience behind Eich's 'ornithological motif') and maps out a trigonometrical entity which again stresses the rôle and importance of Geography and its relationship to Utopia in the poetry of this ever-searching explorer-poet.

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  • Christa Wolf, Kein Ort, nirgends : an analysis : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in German at Massey University

    Byers, Greg (1984)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Some German throughout.

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  • The inter-country diffusion of pharmaceutical products

    Cullen, Ross (1981)

    Post-doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    A major debate has raged over the existence and causes of a phenomenon known as "drug lag". Protagonists in the debate have argued that the U.S.A. is typically late to receive new pharmaceutical products because of the very lengthy delays imposed by F.D.A. regulations before new products can be launched on the U.S. market. Supporters of the. F.D.A. have denied the U.S.A. suffers from a drug lag while proposing alternative explanations for its existence. In this thesis attempt is made to resolve the debate by investigating the pattern of inter-country diffusion of pharmaceutical products. Hypotheses are postulated and tested in an attempt to provide answers to four fundamental questions posed about inter-country diffusion. These questions are: 1. What factors determine the speed of diffusion of pharmaceutical products? 2. What factors determine the extent of diffusion of pharmaceutical products? 3. What factors determine when pharmaceutical products are launched in each country? 4. What factors determine how many pharmaceutical products are launched in each country? A survey of the relevant literature on diffusion of innovations reveals that profit-related variables are consistently useful explanators of diffusion patterns. The tenor of the hypotheses postulated for testing in this thesis is that firms in this industry strive to launch products in a manner designed to maximize their contributions to profits. The diffusion patterns between 18 countries, of 190 products first launched on to the world's markets between 1956 and 1976 are examined to test the hypotheses and thus provide answers to the four questions listed above. Statistical analysis is undertaken to test the hypotheses. There appears to be relatively little evidence to support many of the hypotheses tested about speed and extent of diffusion. However there is considerable evidence that the speed of diffusion of products, after their first launch, has increased steadily throughout the period studied. Deeper investigation suggests the typical time between discovery of products useful properties, and their typical times of availability on the worlds markets may have remained almost constant throughout the twenty one year period studied. Pharmaceutical companies may have acted to compensate for increasingly lengthy delays before products are first launched, by more rapid subsequent launch of products. The number of products which are launched in a country and the magnitude of the delay before they are launched in each country appear to be relatively predictable. Both of these parameters appear to be strongly influenced by countries levels of development. Countries with high health expenditures per capita, appear to receive more produces, more rapidly, than do lower expenditure countries. Interest ultimately focuses on the question of drug lags and the affects of regulations. Drug lags are shown to exist for the U.S.A., Japan and some other countries. When the period studied is divided into two sub-periods relatively strong correlations are shown to exist between ratings of regulatory tightness in markets; and changes in the numbers of products diffusing to markets and changes in mean times before products are launched in markets. Regulations do appear to exert considerable influence on the patterns of inter-country diffusion of pharmaceuticals in the latter part of the period studied.

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  • 'Black Diamond City' a history of Kaitangata mines, miners and community 1860-1913

    Bamford, Tony (1982)

    Honours Dissertation thesis
    University of Otago

    Coal mining is an industry about which people have held and still hold a number of misconceptions. Much of this fact lies purely in lack of understanding for it seems coal mines have always been shunned by the wider community. Isolation however is perhaps an aid to historical analysis for curiosity often prompted investigation even if many of the views expressed were still prejudiced. Similarly, miners, as a group, tended to operate outside the normal social realms of neighbouring societies. But although similarities existed between coal mining communities in a number of areas such as occupational patterns and basic institutions associated with the industry, these settlements cannot be lumped into one basket. Coal mining towns were as different from one another as any non-mining settlements were different from others. This thesis is concerned with such differences. It is concerned also with the pattern of development of such a town. The community, industry and group of people under observation is that of a small town of Kaitangata.[…] Kaitangata was one of the earliest mining settlements in New Zealand, and developed into Otago and Southlands largest coal mine. It had become firmly established by 1880 as a major industry, so that by the turn of the century Kaitangata had become a very permanent settlement, exhibiting quite ‘normal’ demographic characteristics.[…] [Extract from Introduction]

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  • Rotuma, a changing mobility, 1978-1983 : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Geography at Massey University

    Craddock, Christopher Noel (1985)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This work describes the changes in movement of people to and from Rotuma immediately before, and following, the establishment of an airport on the Island in May 1981. A sample survey was carried out during the middle of 1983 to gain field data. The dynamics of movement are investigated and the research examines whether any subsets within the Rotuman community had a higher or lower level of movement, by sex, age, religion, education or occupation during the period 1978-1983.

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  • The mineralogy, geochemistry and origin of Lower Tertiary smectite-mudstones, East Coast deformed belt, New Zealand.

    Fergusson, Linda Jan (1985)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Marine smectite-mudstones of Lower Tertiary age (Teurian to Runangan) occur throughout the East Coast Deformed Belt of New Zealand. In Marlborough, Marl lithofacies of the Amuri Limestone comprise calcareous, siliceous smectite-mudstone alternating with biomicrite. In Wairarapa, the Kandahar Formation consists of calcareous smectite-mudstone, micritic limestone beds and mass-flow greensand beds. Calcareous smectite-mudstone is also a minor interbedded lithology in the Mungaroa Limestone of Wairarapa. The Wanstead Formation in Hawkes Bay comprises uncemented smectite-mudstone with interbedded mass-flow greensands. Lower Tertiary sequences throughout the East Coast Deformed Belt are typically disrupted by thrust faults and associated shear/mélange zones which have developed in the weak smectite-mudstone lithology. Insoluble clay fractions of the smectite-mudstones are composed of well crystallised smectite + illite ± quartz (chert). Both the smectite and illite clays are discrete phases with no interstratification suggestive of post-sedimentary transformation of smectite to illite. From detailed phase analysis, the smectite clay overall is a montmorillonitic species, but with varying interstratification of other dioctahedral smectite species and varying layer charge. No distinct stratigraphic trends in clay fraction mineralogy or smectite mineralogy are apparent. Sand fractions of the mudstones are dominated by authigenic or non-volcanic detrital minerals. Average smectite + illite structural formulas calculated from chemical analyses are commonly non-ideal, with deficiencies in aluminium particularly apparent. The dominant exchangeable cations are calcium in Marlborough mudstones and sodium in Hawkes Bay mudstones. Trace element geochemistry of the smectite-mudstones is similar to that of typical shale and carbonate rocks. Variations in trace element abundances·reflect the lithological character of the mudstones and do not appear to be a useful tool for regional stratigraphic correlation. Combined sedimentological, mineralogical and geochemical features of the smectite-mudstones indicate a non-volcanic origin. They did not form by in-situ alteration of ash-falls and are unlikely to have formed from transported/reworked ash. Previous use of the term 'bentonite' for the smectite-mudstones implies such a mode of genesis and should be discontinued. Hemipelagic sedimentation and/or mass-flow redeposition of detrital or neoformed clay in an open oceanic, relatively deep water environment is proposed as the origin of the smectite-mudstones.

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  • Pay and purdah : women and income earning in Bangladesh : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Sociology at Massey University

    Begum, Najmir Nur (1986)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The purpose of this study was threefold: first, to identify factors which caused some rural women to obtain paid employment and not others; second, to discover the problems faced by those involved in income earning and third to find out what the economic and social impact had been on the lives of these women and their households. A single major hypothesis, an expression of the sociological approach adopted in this study, provides a continuous theme. It is that economic factors predominate the explanations sought in this thesis, more especially in explaining why women seek income earning and what kind of jobs they prefer. A sample of 158 women of a village, out of a total of 911, was selected on the basis of a systematic stratified random sampling technique and was studied by using social survey and ethnographic methods. Neelganj was one of the poorest villages of Bangladesh. Only a few villagers had agricultural land, the most important means of production in rural areas, the majority were engaged in occupations other than farming. Economic need was found to be the most important reason for women's income earning. It was the expressed reason given by women and their guardians. Inflation, death of the major breadwinner, dowry, divorce, in the absence of social security, aggravated the economic needs of women. Women of all ages were income earners. Widowed, divorced and separated women were more frequent among female income earners. Twenty two women had no male guardians and were the only income earners of their households. A variety of activities was pursued by women. Lack of capital, insufficient orders and seasonal work affected women's income earning. A large number of unemployed women was interested in working, some were desperately in need of money. Lack of job opportunities, shortage of capital and domestic responsibilities were the major reasons for women's unemployment. Though women's income was important and brought economic relief to their households, this did not make much difference to their social status or expectations about women's role in society. Attitudes of villagers were favourable towards women's income earning. Activities which could be done inside the home were preferred for women. Villagers generally were of the opinion that government should be much more active in the field of women's employment.

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  • A comparison of worst case performance of priority queues used in Dijkstra's shortest path algorithm

    Vickers, Alex (1986)

    Reports
    University of Canterbury Library

    This report presents results of experiments comparing the worst case performance of Dijkstra's Single Source Shortest Path algorithm using different priority queues. A description and worst case analysis are given of the five priority queues which were considered.These were an array of keys, array of pointers, binary heap, alpha heap and Fibonacci heap. To produce worst case performance of Dijkstra's algorithm it was necessary for the author to design a method for generating graphs which would induce this behaviour. A family of graphs with this property was discovered and their description is given within. Results of applying Dijkstra's algorithm to graphs of this type, using each of the priority queues are listed in the appendix while the more interesting outcomes are graphed and analysed in the main body of the report.

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  • The role of earthworms in nitrogen release from herbage residues : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Agricultural Science in Soil Science at Massey University

    Ruz-Jerez, Belarmino Emilio (1987)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Decomposition and nutrient release from pasture litter were examined in two biotic systems; either with or without large organisms ("macrobes"). Earthworms were the test macrobe and nitrogen (N) the test nutrient. This experiment addressed the hypothesis that consumption of herbage residues by macrobes, as opposed to microbes, should result in more of the contained N becoming available for uptake by plants or for loss processes, because macrobes oxidise a greater proportion of the contained carbon (C) by energetics. Earthworms influenced both soil metabolism and mineral N availability, irrespective of litter type (ryegrass or clover) and temperature (15 or 22.5 C). Carbon dioxide evolution and oxygen consumption increased by 26% and 39%, respectively, in the presence of earthworms. After an 11-week incubation about 50% more mineral N was recorded in the soils containing earthworms. Moreover, less microbial biomass was recorded in the presence of worms. This influence of macrobes carried over into a subsequent, exhaustive cropping experiment, using ryegrass as the test plant. Where soils had been previously influenced by earthworms, there was a significant increase in plant growth and N uptake. Carbon dioxide evolved during incubation was highly correlated with soil mineral N (r= 0.84** ) present at the conclusion of incubation, and also with subsequent plant dry matter yield (r= 0.75** ) and plant N yield (r=0.85** ). The link between elaborated C and contained N has long been recognised as providing stability to organic residues in soils. In the design of this experiment, other influences of macrobes (e.g. mixing or structural influences) were largely obviated, so one can conclude that nitrogen availability was increased primarily through carbon respiration by the macrobial population. These results offer a fresh perspective on the balance between mineralisation and immobilisation in the soil-plant complex and, hence, on the dynamics of nutrients contained in organic matter. Better understanding of these relationships may allow improved management of the dynamics of soil organic matter in temperate grassland ecosystems.

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  • Pattern analysis of genotype x environment interactions and comparisons with alternative analyses : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Plant Science at Massey University

    Cullen, Carol (1981)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The occurrence of genotype-environment interactions is a problem affecting the interpretation of cultivar trials. Several analyses have been used to try to resolve the inconsistencies of cultivar performances which occur when these interactions are present. An assessment of several techniques was carried out using three sets of data. Two sets of barley data came from one. season's trials covering the barley growing areas of New Zealand. Ten wheat cultivars were tested in four locations in the lower North Island in two seasons. The analyses which were examined were Analysis of variance, linear regression, Cluster Analysis and principal Component Analysis. The parameters of Wricke, Hanson and Eberhart and Russell were also studied. The Analysis of Variance revealed significant location, genotype and genotype-location interaction effects for the barley data. The wheat data had significant years, years x locations, genotype and genotype-year interactions effects. There was a strong linear relationship between the genotype means and the environmental index for the Finlay-Wilkinson regression analysis. Following refinement of the error term βi's with significant differences from 1.0 could be seen for several Barley and Wheat genotypes. It was noted that a conflict existed between the aim of finding significant differences from 1.0 and the assumption of independence of effects for the underlying model. It was suggested that an independent measure of environments be used. The parameters of Wricke, Hanson and Eberhart & Russell were each related to different concepts of stability and the genotypes ranked accordingly. The three parameters gave reasonably consistent results for the rankings of the cultivars. In the barley data the cultivars Goldmarker and Magnum had uniformly low rankings. The wheat cultivar Gamenya was generally found to rank highly. These were measures of variability over environments so a high ranking infers a low level of variability and vice versa. A comparison of the different clustering strategies available was carried out and Wards Incremental Sums of Squares method was chosen as the major strategy. This was applied to each data set using both genotype-environment effects and means. A probabilistic cut off measure was used for truncation of the dendrogram. The clusters formed could be related to the previous analyses and seemed to adequately summarise the different responses present. A Principal Component Analysis was carried out and the number of components needed to account for 75% of the total variation were examined. For the barley data sets relatively large numbers of components were needed for this ( five and six). This made interpretation and presentation of the genotypic performances difficult. For the wheat data two components explained a satisfactory level of the total variation and the arrangement of the genotypes on these two axes agreed closely with the clustering results. Varimax rotation did not aid greatly in the interpretation of the components. It was felt that the roles of these different analyses were complementary in interpreting genotypic performances.

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  • The National Development Act 1979 : a critical analysis : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the degree of Master of Arts in Sociology at Massey University

    Boyle, Andrew Dorrington (1986)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis analyses the National Development Act 1979. The theories of Claus Offe and Jurgen Habermas are used to analyse the Act as a capitalist state planning process. Two major theoretical distinctions provide a framework for the thesis. These are: (1) the distinction between technical rationalisation and practical rationalisation and (2) the contradiction between accumulation and legitimation. A clarification is made in the concept of legitimation to distinguish between actual or deserved legitimation and nominal or unfounded legitimation. An analysis of legislation, Tribunal reports, Cabinet papers and other documents shows the Act to be a dual planning process: one process occurring in secret and relating to accumulation; the other in public and relating to legitimation. Thus the Act is analysed as a technical planning process through which the state attempts to reconcile accumulation and legitimation.

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  • A mineralogical and textural study of the central North Island tephra, Okareka ash and its overlying tephric loess deposits : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Soil Science at Massey University

    Benny, Lynette A (1982)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    In Central North Island, New Zealand, Post-Okareka tephric loess rests upon Okareka Ash (c.17,000 years B.P.). Tephric loess accumulation occurred under semiarid conditions which coincided with glacial advances in southern areas of New Zealand. Morphological and grain-size evidence indicates the tephric loess has been derived from a localised source, most probably that of Okareka Ash material, reworked and redeposited by aeolian processes. Optical and electron optical evidence reveals that Okareka Ash particles are angular and relatively unweathered, whereas tephric loess grains are subangular and more weathered. The sand and clay mineralogy of the tephra and tephric loess are similar. Sand fractions contain mainly rhyolitic volcanic glass, quartz, plagioclase feldspar, biotite, hypersthene, hornblende, titanomagnetite and traces of cristobalite, tridymite and augite, whereas clay fractions contain halloysite, allophane, imogolite and gibbsite in varying amounts. Grain-size analysis reveals Okareka Ash deposits show decreasing mean grain-size with increasing distance from source, are poorly-sorted, fine-skewed, and lepto/platykurtic. In contrast to tephra, tephric loess samples exhibit a narrow mean grain-size range, and are better sorted, but show similar skewness and kurtosis values to ash. Grain-size results also indicate that due to minimal weathering of Okareka Ash and Post-Okareka loess, the distinction between the two deposits is less well-defined than data from similar deposits reported by Fisher (1966). Furthermore, where ash deposits are thin, in distal areas from source, and under certain environmental conditions, textural and morphological characteristics of the tephra are similar to those of the tephric loess. Nevertheless, grain-size parameters may be used to differentiate airfall tephra and tephric loess deposits, although this differentiation is enhanced by post-depositional weathering. The contrasting clay mineralogies of tephra and tephric loess samples from sections of similar topography, altitude, drainage and rainfall, illustrates the problems of field sampling in weathering studies.

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  • Milkfat - vegetable oil blends for the manufacture of Danish pastry margarine : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the degree of Master of Technology in Food Technology at Massey University

    Chin, Pearl Wing Ming (1983)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Legally, butter must contain at least 80% fat (all of which must be pure milkfat) and a maximum of 16% water. As a consequence of these legal restrictions, there has been a reluctance for the dairy industry to blend oils with milkfat since products like this cannot be termed as butter. However, in recent times there has been some interest in the mixing of milkfat and vegetable oils for dairy spreads. An example of this type of product is "Bregott" made from an 80:20 milkfat: oil mix (Anon, 1969) manufactured in Sweden and claimed to have superior spreading properties over normal butter. The blending of milkfat and oil for reasons other than improving spreadability has not been extensively researched. It would seem advantageous to incorporate milkfat into cake and pastry margarine to enhance the flavour of the end products, although the high cost of milkfat in some countries may prevent this from becoming commercially feasible. In New Zealand, milkfat is relatively cheap and it may be possible to produce a cake or pastry margarine containing a significant amount of milkfat at a competitive price. This type of product could capture a segment of the commercial baking industry which is at present monopolised.

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  • Management aspects of phosphate fertiliser use on hill country : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Agricultural Science in Farm Management at Massey University

    Stewart, Kenneth M (1983)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Farmer decisions relating to phosphate fertiliser use greatly influence farm profitability, and Farm Advisory Officers receive many requests for assistance in making fertiliser decisions. The Cornforth/Sinclair Phosphate Maintenance Model predicts the annual loss of phosphate from grazed pasture production systems. This model is studied in this thesis and used as the basis for an investigation of phosphate use strategies on a sample of Manawatu hill country properties. Alternative management strategies on three case study farms are analysed.

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  • An investigation into a relationship between locus of control and attribution theory in the field of consumer decision-making : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    Orr, Kathleen Blanche (1980)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The present investigation examines a relationship between Rotter°s (1966) Locus of Control Theory and Kelley°s (1967) Attribution Theory in the field of Consumer Decision-Making. The main hypothesis tested whether there was a difference in the probability of choosing in favour of a product with consensus information between individuals who have a belief in external control and individuals who believe in internal control. Secondary hypotheses were also investigated to detail other aspects of this relationship. Firstly, it was suggested that with externally and internally controlled Individuals, the probabilities of choosing in favour of consensus and distinctiveness information will differ. Secondly, that the probability of choosing in favour of personal control, and non-personal control information will differ for externals and internals. Finally it was suggested that the probability that externals and internals will have their responses rated as external or internal respectively, will be greater than the reverse. The main hypothesis was not substantiated, however there was a strong trend in the predicted direction, suggesting the value of future research. Some support was found for the secondary hypothese. Results are discussed in light of social learning and attribution theories and suggestions for future research offered.

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  • The meaning and management of organizational culture : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Business Studies in Management at Massey University

    Ramsey, Philip Lionel (1985)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Page 236 missing from the original copy.

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  • An investigation of regional income and employment multipliers in forest based industries in New Zealand : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Geography at Massey University

    Aldwell, Patrick Hauiti Bleriot (1980)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Page 124 is missing from original copy.

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  • Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task : an experimental investigation : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    Irving, Nina (1982)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This study investigated the effects of seven independent variables upon a Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (PASAT; Gronwall & Sampson, 1974). The main effects found were that arithmetic ability and a short-term memory measure were related to performance on this task. Interactive effects were found for measures of anxiety, sex and the strategy used in performing the PASAT. Theories considered included those of Broadbent (1977), Neisser (1976), Kerr (1973), Kahneman (1973) and Broadbent (1971) with emphasis on the latter two. The findings are most easily interpreted in terms of Kahneman's (1973) theory. Broadbent's (1971) model could not account for the effects of environmental and task conditions upon information-processing capacity. Further research is needed to examine the effects of individual abilities and biases in selective attention. Also it is suggested that perception and the allocation of effort policy (Kahneman, 1973) be studied further from Broadbent's (1977) perspective of global and local analysis of information. Clinical implications for the interpretation of the PASAT are discussed. It is suggested that this test could be used more widely as a measure of selective attention. More specifically it is suggested that the administration instructions could be simplified where necessary; and error scores considered together with rate of performance. These measures give an indication of performance effectiveness.

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  • Problems in promoting the professional development of staff in New Zealand secondary schools (a prima facie study) : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Educational Administration at Massey University

    Cardno, Carol E M (1988)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This study examines the problems which exist in promoting the professional development of staff in New Zealand secondary schools. It has been approached as a first phase study to establish an initial knowledge base in a field which has not hitherto been the subject of wide research in New Zealand. The introduction clarifies the use of the term 'professional development' in the context of this study and a review of overseas literature draws attention to themes and developments common to this field. An overview of the structures and the systems used to provide and promote professional development and the listing of current provisioning for professional development opportunity lead to a multi-disciplinary analysis of data as a comment on the state of the art in New Zealand. A study fellowship to Australia in 1986 enabled comparative research to be conducted and alerted the author to some of the problem areas in this field in New Zealand. The study concludes with the suggestion of tentative solutions to resolve problems identified in this phase of the research. It recommends that further research at a later stage be undertaken to eliminate error from conjectures made in the concluding chapter of this study.

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  • Rats on Kapiti Island, New Zealand : coexistence and diet of Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout and Rattus exulans Peale : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Zoology at Massey University

    Dick, Andrew Mark Philip (1985)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Snap-trapping information and diet analysis were used to investigate the coexistence of Rattus norvegicus and Rattus exulans with one another and with indigenous avifauna on Kapiti Island (1,965ha, 40 0 51'S., 174 0 56'E.). The period of trapping was one year (May 1983 to April 1984) and a diversity of habitat types were involved. Areas were trapped for a three day period after three days of prebaiting and most areas were trapped three times during the year. Reproductive and morphometric parameters were also recorded for the rat populations and an alternative form of estimating density, nocturnal rat counts, was tested. Attempts were also made to measure the arboreal activity of rats using chalk dust tracking paper. The density estimate for the combined populations (15.06 rats/100 trap-nights) is high when compared with mainland rat populations. Density varied with habitat and season, the highest density index being obtained in lowland grass, the lowest along a stony beach. A Standard Minimum estimate of 63 rats/ha was derived for the lowland grass area. Changes in density with season varied from area to area although there was a particular tendency for variations in spring. Species composition was different between habitats. Of eight areas trapped R. norvegicus was the predominant species in five. R. exulans was the predominant species in three areas and occurred in six. Seasonal fluctuations in species ratios were observed and in the three R. exulans areas a high negative correlation existed between the abundance of each species. Male R. exulans were heavier (x̄=85.92g) than females (x̄=78.98g) although the reverse situation occurred in R. norvegicus, (male x̄=209.76g, female x̄=222.07g). Reproduction in both species was seasonal with breeding activity peaking in summer and spring. Length of breeding season, average frequency of litter production and mean foetus number were greater in R. norvegicus. R. exulans showed greater fluctuations in age structure. Of the three main food categories measured, invertebrates, vegetation and seeds, the invertebrate fraction was, in terms of mean percentage volume and frequency of occurrence, the most important for both species. R. exulans had a less varied diet and was more reliant on invertebrates. Lepidopteran larvae were the most frequently eaten invertebrates with Araneida, Coleoptera, Orthoptera, Dipteran larvae and Chilopoda also occurring. Invertebrates formed a greater part of the diet in summer months. Diet strongly reflected the habitat in which rats were trapped. Distinctly different diets were noted in animals inhabiting forest when compared with those from grassland. The proportion of exotic vegetation and seed was more pronounced in the grassland habitats. Although the overlap in diet was considerable, particularly with the invertebrate types eaten (52 types identified, 17 eaten by only one species) the differences in volumes eaten were substantial. Birds did not feature heavily in rat diet and no instances were recorded of kiore having eaten bird remains. Nocturnal rat counts appear an unreliable alternative to trapping as a density measure and kiore do not appear to forage arboreally. The changes in species ratio, density and diet with area are discussed in terms of competition theory. It is hypothesised that R. norvegicus is competitively superior and excludes R. exulans from mutually desirable habitats. The mechanisms of the competition are unclear although available evidence suggests that competition for food rather than competition for space is the more likely.

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