1,728 results for 1980

  • Seismic resistant design of base isolated multistorey structures

    Andriono, Takim (1989)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The Base Isolation technique and its benefits in reducing the transmitted earthquake energy into a structure has gained increasing recognition during the last two decades. This recognition is indicated by the application of Base Isolation systems to a large number of bridges, several multistorey buildings and some power plants in countries which have high seismic risk. Unfortunately, the currently available design procedures, especially for multistorey structures, seem inadequate and too restrictive and as a result present practice still relies upon a series of deterministic time history analyses which are not only impractical for design purposes but appear unable to give the designer a clear insight into the seismic behaviour of the multistory structure. This research is carried out to investigate in more detail the effects of various structural parameters and ground motion characteristics on the seismic response of Base Isolated multistorey structures. It also reviews the shortcomings of the current design methods. The results are then used to develop two simplified analysis methods for practical design. The first method which is called the Code-Type approach can be used to accurately estimate the inertia forces, not only at the level of the isolation devices but throughout the height of the multistorey structure. It is recommended for use as a preliminary design tool or even a final design tool for simple Base Isolated multistorey structures. The second procedure which is based on the Component Mode Synthesis method is suggested for final design purposes of more complex Base Isolated multistorey structures. This method enables the designer to evaluate the effects of the isolation devices on the contribution of each mode of vibration to the total response of the structure.

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  • Case studies in rural co-operatives: three studies of the organisation and management or rural co-operatives providing post-harvest facilities in the kiwifruit industry: a research report submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Agricultural Business and Administration at Massey University

    Beattie, Michael Ian (1983)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The co-operative ownership structure is one that is commonly encountered in New Zealand's agricultural industry. This type of organisation would appear to have a number of natural advantages that should make it very competitive in modern agri-business. However it is apparent at least some co-operatives have not lived up to their members' expectations. This research project has been undertaken to identify some of the problems of co-operative enterprise and to provide some possible strategies to improve their operation. This report examines the management and organisational practices of three co-operative enterprises providing post-harvest facilities in the Kiwifruit industry. The research follows a longitudinal case study approach, with each co-operative described in terms of the six dimensions of history, facilities, shareholding, direction, operation and finance. The material generated by the study is discussed within a framework of central issues, established from evidence of other co-operative activity, both in New Zealand and overseas. The report concludes with a description of some 14 common problems, and a discussion concerning the effectiveness of management and organisational measures that have been implemented as possible solutions. It then goes on to outline 10 general strategies that could be of significance in the improved operation of rural co-operatives.

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  • A case study of the socio-economic development of Tovulailai : a village in Fiji : a thesis presented to the Department of Sociology, Massey University in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts

    Ratumaitavuki, Maciu (1981)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The 'Rural Development' programme in Fiji began about 1969, the eve of our independence, with the principal aim to raise the standard of living in the rural areas, in particular those who live in the villages. Consideration was given to involve the rural people closely and meaningfully with the planning, decision making and implementation of the programme. To date, because the need for development in rural areas is so great and due to the severe lack of skilled manpower, Fiji cannot do everything she requires especially in the areas of feasibility studies and research. This is why most of the works done in this areas were done mainly by expatriates who were in many instances, total strangers to the local scene and who may not have fully understood or appreciated the complex nature and the interwoven intricacies of the Fijian way of life. Compounding this problem is the lack of Fijian scholars who are interested in the areas of social research. The basic aim of this present study is to examine the development of the village people and also to stimulate Fijian scholars to become interested in studying the development of their own people, especially of those who are in the disadvantaged rural sector. This paper presents a case study of the socio-economic development of Tovulailai: a village in rural Fiji. The present study is an attempt to observe and explain the influences of the multiple outside forces, in particular those exerted by change agents and how these village people have responded and adapted to these social forces which are impinging upon them. The needs which the people of Tovulailai felt and expressed were fully identified together with the various problems why these needs were not being fulfilled. People in this village needed to raise their general standard of living; improve their level of education; their health and general sanitation; to facilitate their access to urban markets; need to increase their sources of income; the need for adequate housing; the need for transportation and communication and other infrastructural facilities. But, they cannot easily satisfy these needs because of the problems inherent in the present system. These problems are: the lack of good leadership; lack of education lack of good cultivable land; lack of access to urban markets; lack of good housing; lack of technical skills; lack of goods and services; lack of scientific agricultural techniques and low level of technology in the rural villages. The non-structured intensive interview and observation research methods were used by this study in its attempt to examine and explain how the people of Tovulailai village are responding to the impact of social change agents in their attempt to meeting their pressing needs as expressed above. Furthermore, an attempt is made to determine how change agents themselves achieved results and how the mechanism of change within the client system functioned in diffusing and communicating the process of social change and how clients attain their goals in passing from one social state to another. All these processes are fully discussed in the text. The implications of the study which can be used in other situations in Fiji are discussed in the concluding section of this paper. It is apparent that the central issue which emerged in the study is the very effective interaction between the change agents, the client system and the mechanism of diffusion of social change within the system to achieve the desired objectives in socio-economic development at the village level.

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  • Knowledge and action in nursing : a critical approach to the practice worlds of four nurses : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in nursing at Massey University

    Hickson, Patricia (1988)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis provides an interpretive critique of the way in which knowledge is viewed, transmitted and crystallised in the practice worlds experienced by four registered nurses working in acute care hospital settings. The theoretical assumptions of critical social theory underpin both the methodological approach (case study) and the analysis of data. In-depth, unstructured interview, a critically reflexive dialogue between the investigator and participant focussed on the practice world experiences of the nurse, was the principle research method. A brief analysis of documentation was also undertaken. It is argued that previous studies related to nursing practice, and to the social worlds of nursing, have been limited by their failure to take account of the socio-political context in which nursing takes place. There has also been a tendency to treat the transmission of knowledge in nursing and nursing practice as a passive process of information exchange. No account of socially generated constraints on personal and professional agency, or of systematic distortions in communication within the practice setting are therefore given. The analysis of data in this study demonstrates the way in which constraints on personal and professional agency were experienced by each of the four participants. In particular, practice expressing the participants' professional nursing knowledge and values was often denied in the face of shared understandings reflective of the institutional ideology. These shared understandings included a belief in the legitimacy of medical domination over other social actors and the support of doctor, rather than nurse or patient, centred practices. The study demonstrates that the way that nurses and other social actors come to 'know' and interpret their social worlds is dependent on the socio-political context in which that knowledge is produced. It also shows how this knowledge may be treated as though it were 'an object'. This tendency to treat existing social relationships and practices as 'natural', hence unchallengeable masks possibilities for transformative action within the practice of nursing. It is argued that a particular form of knowledge is required if nurses are to overcome the types of constraint experienced by these four nurses. This knowledge, emancipatory knowledge, is that developed in the process of shared, socially critical self-reflection rather than solitary, self-critical reflection.

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  • Sappers of the south: the origins and impact of the Corps of the Royal New Zealand Engineers

    Berry, Peter Edwin (1984)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    This thesis traces the growth, leadership, changes in role, and strategic employments of the Royal New Zealand Engineers from their formation in 1902 until the present day. The writer has deliberately chosen to make his major concern the Corps development since the Second World War. However, because there was a military engineer presence in New Zealand prior to the Corps formation, indeed from the establishment of the first 'Redcoats' fighting force in New Zealand in the1840’s, a preliminary study has been done of the British and Volunteer New Zealand Sappers of the period prior to 1902. This thesis is intended as a contribution to New Zealand's sparse military history. Concentration on the post-war World War two period has seemed fitting in that, it is in this period that the Corps of the Royal New Zealand Engineers has provided specialist service, in diverse roles through the new regions of New Zealand’s strategic interest – South East Asia, the pacific and Antarctica.

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  • Detection of thin tephra deposits in peat and organic lake sediments by rapid X-radiography and X-ray fluorescence techniques

    Lowe, David J.; Hogg, Alan G.; Hendy, C.H. (1981)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    This paper reports the application of the X-ray image process of X-radiography to unopened, small diameter organic sediment cores containing thin tephra deposits. Second, a rapid technique for detecting tephra layers in peat samples by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis is described.

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  • Late Quaternary tephras in the Hamilton Basin, North Island, New Zealand

    Lowe, David J. (1981)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    This paper summarises the occurrence and distribution of late Quaternary tephras in the Hamilton (Middle Waikato) Basin and outlines a model to explain the pattern of soils formed from them. The collaborative work currently in progress on paleoecological aspects of the late Otiran - Aranuian history of the area is also reported.

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  • Aid to the civil power : the New Zealand experience : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements of the Master of Arts degree in History at Massey University

    Pedersen, Mark (1987)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This work concerns a comparatively unexplored area of New Zealand military history- Aid to the Civil Power (ACP). ACP is divided into three distinct forms. The first is Military Aid to the Civil Conmunity (MACC) which covers areas such as disaster relief and civil defence. MACC is not examined in this thesis. The other two forms are Military Aid to the Civil Ministries (MACM) and Military Aid to the Civil Power (MACP). MACM is the use of military personnel to replace striking workers. MACP is the use of military personnel to support the police. Three specific incidents are studied and these are the 1951 Waterfront Dispute (MACM), the Cook Strait airlifts (Operation Pluto, MACM) and the 1981 Springbok Tour (MACP). Within these incidents the following areas are explored; civil-military relations and civilian control of military operations, the law, how governments justify ACP operations, the public reaction to ACP operations and, lastly, the military response to ACP operations. The study establishes the following hypotheses. Firstly, civilian control is the key feature of any ACP operation as it ensures that the government is seen to be governing. Secondly, the present laws relating to ACP confer uncertain responsibilities and powers on both the police and the military. As a consequence there is a possibility of an ACP operation being conducted that contravenes the government's wishes. Additionally, the newest piece of ACP legislation, the International Terrorism (Emergency Pcwers) Act 1987, lacks focus and clarity and this has ensured that the act is a poor replacement for the PSCA. Thirdly, governments have undertaken ACP operations to gain political capital. In justifying these operations various governments have portrayed their actions as upholding the public good although their level of commitment to the public good sometimes appears questionable. Fourthly, the public response to an ACP operation is dependent on the incident and not the principles involved in ACP. This lack of an underlying philosophical basis to the response explains the rapid shifts in public opinion that have occurred. Fifthly, the armed forces show a great reluctance to become involved in any ACP operation that could result in conflict with the public. This shows an awareness on the part of the military of the importance of civil-military relations. The thesis concludes with a discussion of future trends in New Zealand ACP operations. It is considered that MACM will become a less viable option as society becomes increasingly technological. This is because the armed forces can really only supply labour as modern society and the military have few skills in common. Additionally, society is less labour oriented than it was in previous decades. The prospects of MACP operations being conducted in New Zealand are considered remote given the current lack of violence in New Zealand political life and the success of the police in dealing with disorder.

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  • Applications of linear programming to corporate farm planning in developing countries : a case study for NAFCO Farms in Tanzania : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Agricultural Business and Administration at Massey University

    Swai, Ernest Aleonasaa (1980)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The economic development of most of the developing countries depends, almost entirely, on the agricultural industry. Measures to speed-up the development of the agricultural sector to increase productivity in such countries are therefore imperative. In Tanzania, one of the actions the government has taken to achieve this is the establishment of agricultural Corporations which operate large scale mechanized farms. To achieve maximum productivity from scarce resources, such Corporations must be operated efficiently and this can only be achieved with appropriate planning of the corporate farms. This study has dealt with one such Corporation in Tanzania called National Agricultural and Food Corporation (NAFCO). The objective of the study has been to illustrate how such a Corporation can be operated efficiently so that maximum food production can be achieved from scarce resources. Linear programming has been evaluated as a planning tool for a single representative farm of NAFCO. The aim was to develop a suitable LP model for the farm, use this model to determine the optimal farm plans and associated information and evaluate whether the technique would form a suitable planning tool for NAFCO farms. The linear programing model developed demonstrated that the profits of the farm under study could be increased substantially by allocating the farm scarce resources more optimally. Repeating the optimisations of the model by changing the various assumptions proved to be quite useful in providing additional information on which to base management decisions. These results provided a better understanding of the effects and implications on what would happen if the anticipated yields, prices and certain policy decisions were changed. These are discussed in detail. The optimum plan computed should with minor changes be both acceptable and realizable. It is argued that, because under corporate farm structure, specific data relevant to individual farms is more readily available than under peasant farm situations and that because of the large scale nature of the corporate farms, the availability of wide choice of activities and resources as well as the necessary skills and defined objectives; linear programming would form a suitable planning tool for NAFCO farms.

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  • The law of government, of Parliament and of the judiciary : an example, the Trespass Act 1980.

    Fanselow, John David. (1981)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

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  • Criminal trespass, the Trespass Act 1980, and the New Zealand legislative process

    Oliver, Robin. (1981)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

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  • The Income Tax Amendment Act 1987 : application of accrual rules for income tax purposes in New Zealand

    Phillips, Anne, 1950- (1987)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

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  • The selection of judicial candidates in New Zealand : the potential for political abuse

    Perese, Simativa. (1989)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

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  • Parliamentary privilege

    Ellis, Anthony J. (Anthony Joseph) (1986)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

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  • The New Zealand Goods and Services Tax 1985 : an interpretation, comparison and evaluation

    Davis, Howard (Howard William) (1986)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

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  • Maori claims relating to rivers and lakes

    Ferguson, James Philip. (1989)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

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  • The Attorney-General and the public interest : political independence : reality or myth?

    Eagleson, Wayne C. (1988)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

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  • Comparative advertising and the Fair Trading Act 1986 : consumer protection or marketing gamesmanship?

    Borland, Penelope A. (1989)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

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  • The public administration of justice in the courts

    Baylis, Claire. (1989)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

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  • The changing roles of graduate women in Tonga : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts (Social Science) in social anthropology at Massey University

    Kupu, Lesieli Ikatonga (1989)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis examines the roles of graduate women in modern Tonga and how they differ from the women's traditional roles. A survey of a group of graduate women and how they perform at work, at home and in the community was undertaken. This was to investigate their own perceptions of the place graduate women have in their own society. Evidence from the study indicates that graduate women have changed in the ways they fulfil their roles. At work they are no longer confined to "women's work", but they are beginning to take up prominent positions in the office. This has had an impact on their relationships with their male superiors and both their male and female colleagues. At home, graduate women have become "providers" for their family, and that has given them a say in the family as a decision-making body. In church and community functions, there is a marked decrease in active participation but an increase with financial contributions. In conclusion, the graduate women know that their roles are changing. This change is determined by a combination of factors. While these factors liberate the graduate women from the pressure of social obligations, the same means of liberation have also isolated them from other social groups in Tongan society.

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