1,754 results for 1980

  • From subject to device, history as myth in action : the evolution of event from mythic processes as revealed in Waterfront Dispute fiction

    Matthewson, Claire C. (1986)

    Post-doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    This analysis of selected New Zealand works defends the evolving function of history as fiction-material. It is intended to establish that purpose and treatment alter, as time further separates the writing and the event. The general change is one of development from subject to device properties. In tracing history's evolving role and treatment in fiction, analysis identifies history's eventual source - shown, in fiction, to be mythic and subjectively conceptual.

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  • Stratigraphy, structure and geological history of mid-Cretaceous sedimentary rocks across the Torlesse-like/non Torlesse boundary in the Sawtooth Range-Coverham area, Marlborough.

    Ritchie, D. D. (1986)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis describes the geology of an approximately 100km2 area lying between the Clarence River and Kekerengu. The objectives were to determine the relationship of the "Torlesse-like" sawtooth Group to the late Early Cretaceous Coverham Group; to determine the relationship between the coeval Split Rock and Burnt Creek Formations within the Coverham Group; and to investigate the nature of Cretaceous events which led to the traditional differentiation into older Torlesse type "basement" and younger Cretaceous "cover". Geological mapping indicates the presence of three packets (Glencoe, Pikes and Coverham Blocks) of sedimentary rocks separated by the major Ouse and Pikes Faults. These packets comprise probable submarine fan flysch, massivE? sandstone, massive siltstone, acid tuffs and conglomerate of Sawtooth Group (Torlesse-like Urutawan - Motuan) unconformably overlain by probable slope basin flysch, massive siltstone, Inoceramus shellbed, and conglomerate of Coverham Group (non-Torlesse). The unconformity is most commonly angular but in a few places is a more subtle paraconformity. A further minor unconformity occurs at the base of the Ouse Member within the Split Rock Formation of the Coverham Group and is thought to reflect the presence of the growing Ouse Anticline. The Coverham Group rocks have similar Motuan - Teratan ages on each side of the Ouse Fault. The Split Rock Formation, previously used only for rocks in the middle Clarence Valley, has been extended to the Coverham area and used for rocks west of the Ouse Fault. The partly coeval Burnt Creek Formation east of the Ouse Fault was probably deposited some distance from the Split Rock Formation in a different basin separated by a structural high. They were juxtaposed by low angle reverse movement on the Fault in the Late Cretaceous. structural/deformation characteristics cannot be used as criteria for separating the Torlesse-like rocks from non-Torlesse rocks in the study area. It is dangerous to assume that 'Torlesseness' is a certain and particular state of deformation. Both the Torlesse (Sawtooth) and Coverham Group rocks exhibit a whole spectrum of deformation from 'broken formation' to more or less undisturbed beds. The pattern of deposition and deformation suggests an accretionary prism setting for these rocks. Sawtooth Group rocks are likely to represent 'younger' Pahau Terrane rocks which were deformed by a single intra-Motuan event either tectonic or perhaps a huge submarine slide, creating widespread unconformity between them and the Coverham Group slope deposits. Continuing instability is likely to have led to growing folds and further minor unconformities. The termination of the Rangitata Orogeny occurred in a progressive and evolutionary way representing a mid-Late Cretaceous change from a compressional subduction regime to a tensional rifting regime. Andesitic-rhyolitic volcanism was common in the late Early Cretaceous.

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  • The learning process of access trainees : an investigation of study motives and strategies : a research report presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Business Studies at Massey University

    Mbanga, Basil Adam (1989)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The study applied Biggs' Study Process Questionnaire to the context of transition education in an investigation of the approaches, motivations to learn and strategies trainees in Access Training Scheme used in their learning. Respondents were also asked information about their age. sex, educational qualification, ethnic origin and how long they had been without a job. Three training centres in Palmerston North city were chosen.The first centre conducted a course in drama, the second, a course in Maori language and culture, and the third, a course in basic computer skills. The Study Process Questionnaire was administered to 33 subjects, 16 males and 17 females. The Study Process Questionnaire is concerned with three main approaches to studying and their three associated motivations and strategies. Surface Appproach is dominated by extrinsic motivations where a learner concern is with obtaining a qualification. The study strategy involves memorising and reproducing when required in a test. Deep Approach is linked to intrinsic motivation dominated by intrinsic interest in the subject or task. Students under this motivation tend to search for meaningful learning and read widely. Achievement Approach is governed by achievement motivation and is associated with a desire to compete and obtain higher grades. Learners predisposed to this approach tend to schedule their time and do homeworks. Trainees studied to express the use of Deep Approach more than Surface or Achievement Approaches. Accordingly they were inclined to be deep motivated and predisposed to adopt deep strategy to surface or achievement strategy in their study. A follow-up interview with 11 trainees tended to confirm the findings of the Study Process Questionnaire. It was concluded that the Access trainees in the sample were likely to adopt deep approach in their study. This suggests that they are inclined to be intrinsically motivated in their learning and may be predisposed to engage in meaningful learning.

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  • An evaluation of in-service training : women in management 1978-1980 : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Education at Massey University

    Steele, Jill (1981)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This report is an evaluation of the National In-Service training courses for Women in Education Management, run by the Department of Education from 1978 to 1980. Five courses were held during this time, but the first course had a follow up with the same membership, so for evaluation purposes these first two courses are considered as one. The study used the Stake model for evaluation. This model provides a systematic framework for collecting data about a programme and further suggests how the various sections of data should be matched against the others. Interviews, discussions, a mailed questionnaire, attendance at a Course and observations were methods used to obtain this data. 1975 was International Womens' Year and during this year the Department of Education co-sponsored with the Committee on Women at Victoria University, a conference entitled, "Education and the Equality of the Sexes". Following this Conference interest and awareness of the anomalies and unequal distribution of women in positions of education administration became more widely recognised. An Interim Committee on Women and Education was set up. This body made representation for special courses for women in education management training. In 1979 this committee was recognised as a National body and became inaugurated as the National Committee on Women and Education (NACWE). One way to redress the imbalance of women in education management positions was thought to be to have special women - only management courses to train women in education management skills. Women needed to learn these skills in a supportive atmosphere and because of this, it was felt that an all-women course would be more useful and supportive than one where women had to 'compete' with the men as well as learn their new management skills. The courses had three specific objectives: (1) To train women in specific management skills (2) To study issues particular to women as managers (3) To prepare a group of women to become resource personnel in education management programmes in their own regions and districts. This study examines the rationale for the Women in Management courses, looks at the three course objectives and examines the outcomes of the courses. Discussion of these outcomes follows and recommendations for future development are given.

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  • Evaluation of dry blending for infant formula manufacture : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Technology at Massey University

    Zhao, Zheng (1989)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Blending experiments and storage trials were carried out to assess the feasibility of manufacturing infant formula through dry blending of high fat whey powder (HFWP) with whole milk powder (WMP) or a base powder (BP) made from skim milk, sucrose and corn oil. An indication of cohesiveness of the components of the blends was obtained by measuring compressibility using an Instron testing machine. Compressibility decreased in the following order: BP, wmp, HFWP, lactose and ascorbic acid. Particle size determination using a laser sizer indicated that the particle size increased in the above sequence. Scanning electron microscopy revealed no evidence of an ordered mixture for either whey powder with milk powder or the powders mixed with ascorbic acid. The mixtures did not exhibit complete randomness and segregation. They are thus termed 'pseudorandom mixtures'. HFWP was blended with WMP or BP to achieve a target ratio 50:50 in both an experimental ribbon blender and a pilot ribbon blender. Using Response Surface Methodology, load ratio and mixing time but not rotation speed were found to have significant effects on the homogeneity with the experimental ribbon blender. At load ratio 0.4, the time for reaching a certain homogeneity was shorter than that at load ratio 0.8. The cohesiveness of BP impaired its mixing. A mixing index based on a satisfactory sample standard deviation has an acceptable value of 1. Both powder ratio scores and ascorbic acid level could be mixed below a MI of 1.5 but above 1. As to protein, fat, carbohydrate, the mixtures reached the acceptable MI. The secondary nutritional requirements such as the ratio of whey protein to casein and the ratio of unsaturated fatty acid to saturated fatty acid were above 1 when the powder ratio MIs were higher than 1. After mixing WMP and HFWP for 10 minutes differences of sensory quality could not be detected by the taste panelists even though the MI was still above 1. Unblended and blended samples of WMP and HFWP were tested through a 180 day storage trial at 20°C, 30°C and 40°C. There was no significant difference between unblended and blended samples on the criteria of TBA, PV, HMF, oxidised flavour and caramel flavour at the 5% probability level. Using the Arrhenius approach, at 20°C, the shelf lives of unblended and blended samples were estimated as 1628 days and 1090 days respectively, with an oxidised flavour limit of 3.5 out of 7 points. The shelf lives were 480 days and 466 days based on a PV limit of 2 milliequivalents O2 per kg fat. Dry blending is a feasible technique for manufacturing infant formula, with acceptable homogeneity of the main components of the blended samples and with normal storage stability. The cohesiveness of the components and the design of blender are important factors in improving homogeneity. Further trials are recommended in both experimental and commercial plants.

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  • Financial analysis of MAFTech bull beef investment opportunity : a research report presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Business Studies at Massey University

    Cowley, Anna Margaret (1989)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    MAFTech has established an investment opportunity whereby a nonfarming investor can provide the capital required to farm bull beef. The farmer and the investor share the returns from the investment, with the investor having a first charge over the proceeds received from the sale of the beef up to the amount of the initial capital injection. This type of investment scheme differs from more conventional form of investment. However, in order to compare this scheme with the more common forms of investment it is necessary to evaluate it to enable an optimal investment decision to be made. Hence the market for the production of bull beef is appraised. The risk involved in this investment is outlined and a sensitivity analysis to changes in price and weight conducted. Using this risk and return information a comparison with other investments is then made.

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  • Phase manipulation of speech using FIR digital filters

    Stephen, R. D. C. (1987)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Three related investigations involving the fields of FIR digital filters, phase manipulation of speech, and speech coding via bandwidth compression are reported. The first investigation is aimed at providing a means of generating the impulse response coefficients of a non-linear phase FIR digital filter. Existing methods of designing linear-phase filters are discussed and compared from a defined common comparison base. The methods available for designing non-linear phase filters are examined. An existing linear phase design method is extended to the non-linear phase case and shown to be useful. The required impulse response length in the presence of non-linear phase is studied. Particular emphasis is placed on "random phase" filters and their generation because they are required by the second investigation. The second investigation examines in detail the ramifications of phase randomising a speech signal. The analytic zero representation of speech which forms the underlying base on which the discussion, and answers, are based is elucidated. The technique of using a non-linear phase FIR filter is shown to be feasible and as a minimum, offers at least the same level of performance as a very early reported technique. Significant differences in the behaviour of male and female speech is demonstrated. The third and final investigation reports some early and incomplete experiments on a radically different approach to achieving band width compression and expansion of a signal. The technique is referred to as "phase unwrapping". It is based on the application of a linear phase FIR digital filter in an adaptation of the traditional convolution relation. The motivation and validity of the basic idea is outlined and justified via application of the procedure to simple sinusoids and one experiment using real speech. The fundamental problem to be overcome is identified and the basis of a possible means of solution indicated.

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  • The influence of sex-typing and social status on children's occupational preferences and occupational stereotypes : an examination of Gottfredson's theory of occupational choice : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    Henderson, Susan Mary (1986)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The present study examined Gottfredson's theory (1981) of vocational development, which suggests that occupational preferences and occupational stereotypes are influenced firstly by sex-typing, between the ages of six and eight, and secondly by social background, between the ages of nine and thirteen. A large, heterogenous sample (396) of New Zealand school pupils, aged between five and fourteen were asked about the occupations they would like to do, using free and forced choice formats, and these responses were then tested for their relationship with gender, age, parental socio-economic status and ability. A forced choice Occupational Card Sort, comprising 15 occupations, was used to measure sex-type and status dimensions of occupational stereotypes and effects for age and gender were investigated. Data were analysed using discriminant analysis and contingency analysis. Results indicated that gender was a strong influence on the sex-typing of occupational preferences and occupational stereotypes from the age of five (younger than the age suggested by Gottfredson), with males demonstrating more rigid sex-typing than females. Consistent with Gottfredson's theory, socio-economic background and ability were significant influences on status level of occupational preferences for respondents aged over nine years, with results suggesting that ability had a more direct influence on the status level of occupational preferences than did parental socio-economic status. The developmental pattern for the formation of occupational stereotypes was not as predicted by Gottfredson's theory, as both the sex-type and status level elements of occupational stereotypes were evident from the age of five. Results further suggested a weakening of sex-typing of occupational stereotypes with increasing age. The inconsistencies of present findings with Gottfredson's theory were discussed in the context of previous research and the developmental literature, and the usefulness of the theory in relation to occupational choice was evaluated. Implications of the present findings for careers awareness and education programmes were considered. It was concluded that Gottfredson's theory provides a useful framework for examining early vocational development, but that the failure of the theory to explain deviant developmental patterns limits the theory's explanatory power. It was suggested that the theory's usefulness would be enhanced by recognising the impact of environmental influences such as campaigns to encourage women into non-traditional careers and by incorporating more psychological influences such as self-cognitions.

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  • The influence of growth stage and application site on movement and effect of glyphosate in Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Agricultural Science in Plant Science at Massey University

    Harrington, Kerry Charles (1983)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Glyphosate was applied at different rates to the upper parts of Cirsium arvense plants at various growth stages in a glasshouse experiment. Measurements and observations were made of the plants over a period of several months following treatment. In other experiments, glyphosate was applied to different parts of plants and to either side of leaves to determine the importance of herbicide placement on its subsequent effectiveness. Complete death of plants, as signified by decomposition of the roots, generally occurred only where the maximum dose (100 mg ai/plant) was applied, and occurred consistently only for those plants treated at the post-flowering growth stage. However, plants treated on the lower parts of stems died in some cases after application of 25 mg. The symptoms and damage resulting from glyphosate action are described and discussed. Extensive translocation of glyphosate appeared to occur, both symplastically and apoplastically, with greater translocation to the roots and untreated daughter stems occurring from treated tissue situated low on the stem. Stem tissue seemed as efficient at absorbing glyphosate as leaves, and likewise no difference in absorption rates by upper compared with lower leaf surfaces was detected. Complete control of plants occurred only if all stems simultaneously wilted approximately 1 month after treatment, apparently due to disruption of the roots. Plants varied considerably in response to treatment and no relationship could be established between degree of effect and plant size, plant sex or relative humidity at the time of treatment. The results are discussed in relation to ropewick application of glyphosate to C. arvense plants.

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  • International investment : its principles and application to New Zealand companies investing in Thailand : a research report presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Business Administration at Massey University

    Oakes, Lesley J (1985)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    1.1 Overview of the problem The future of the New Zealand economy lies in expanding its markets and investments overseas. With an annual population growth rate of only 1.5% and a current market size of only 3.3 million people, the potential for domestic economic expansion is not encouraging. The decision to consider a foreign market often stems from the fact that the home market is too limited to attain a sales volume with a sufficiently attractive yield (OECD, International Investment, 1983). The Minister of Overseas Trade in the present government administration stated that the only way New Zealand will increase employment and revenue is through exports... that is where the recovery of the economy lies (National Business Review, 15 Apr 85) The signing of the Closer Economic Relations (CER) agreement with Australia in April 1982, dismantling many of the protective barriers precluding the free flow of trade between the two countries, was a step in the right direction in providing market opportunities for New Zealand companies. Many domestic industries are entering the mature stage of their life cycles, characterised by stagnant demand. This together with a general contraction of the market, necessitates that the future growth of these industries rests on the exploitation of offshore markets.

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  • Hospital information systems : a nursing viewpoint : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Nursing Studies at Massey University

    Wenn, Janice (1983)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis is concerned with hospital information systems. The literature relating to management information systems is examined in conjunction with the literature which specifically focuses upon hospital and nursing information systems. A field study, using a case study approach, is designed and implemented, its purpose being to analyse five sub-systems of a current hospital information system in use in one Hospital Board. This field study utilises a basic systems analysis methodology focusing upon the problem identification and performance identifications of the analysis cycle. In the problem identification phase forty-two subjects are interviewed, (83.3% of the sample being nurses in management positions). Check lists designed to test the sub-systems abilities to generate, store, retrieve and utilise data, and test the subjects knowledge of the sub-systems are devised and applied. The data obtained from the application of check lists is analysed and data flow charts and in-depth interview schedules developed for use in phase two or the performance identification phase of the field study. In phase two (performance identification) eleven subjects in administrative positions within the Hospital Board are interviewed using the data flow charts and the in-depth interview schedules as tools for eliciting data. Contrary to the author's expectations the field study results reveal a considerable diversity. In phase one the respondents possessed a sound knowledge of the admission/discharge, patient care and nursing management sub-systems. 85,7% of the nurse respondents have knowledge of the patient care sub-system and a further 79.2% have some knowledge of its ability to generate, store, retrieve and utilise information. In common with the administrators the high level of knowledge of retrieval and utlisation (89.2%) would indicate frequent use of the system. By contrast only 5.4% of the respondents in phase one had knowledge of retrieval and utilisation of the staffing information sub-system as compared with 100% in the administrators group. This same pattern emerges for the financial sub-system with 13.5% of the respondents having knowledge of retrieval and 18.9% of utilisation of the sub-system compared with 81.8% of administrators. These results indicate to the author that information systems development tends to be associated with each health discipline rather than with the macro development of a relevant, comprehensive hospital information system. To this end a series of questions are raised and possible answers provided. Finally a model which could become a prescription for future development is presented.

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  • Helplessness or self care? : a study of nursing practice with depressed patients in an in-care setting : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Nursing Studies at Massey University

    Butterfield, Shona (1982)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This study was conducted to investigate the practice of nurses when working with depressed patients in an in care setting. A survey of the literature shows that the role commonly prescribed for nurses who work in psychiatric settings is one that emphasises a one-to-one relationship based on models of psychotherapy and focusses on individual illness, pathology, symptoms and psycho-dynamics. It is suggested that this is not a role which most nurses working in New Zealand psychiatric settings would be able to implement in practice. Three perspectives of nursing practice were explored in the study: what nurses were seen to do in practice; what they thought they should do as evidenced in results of an exercise to rank different possible interventions; and what patients said were helpful nursing interventions. A framework was developed for the study which depicts the process of helplessness (depression) as the negative 'mirror-image' of the process of self care. Results were analysed within this framework to determine whether or not nurses tended to support behaviours which were indicative of movement towards helplessness or encourage those which indicated progress towards self care. Results suggest that nurses in this study sample did not encourage progress towards self care by their interventions. There was little evidence of positive reinforcement for independent or coping behaviours with patients in the study sample. Further, the nursing practice showed little relationship to the role prescribed in the literature. The nurses did demonstrate a warm, caring, friendly approach that seemed to stem from a more traditional 'succouring' or 'mothering' view of the nurse's role.

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  • Inservice social work education : an analysis of policies and programmes : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Social Work at Massey University

    Swain, Peter Mervyn (1983)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Page 131 is blank from the original copy

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  • Internal audit of foreign exchange operations : a research report presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Business Studies at Massey University

    Mathews, Clive M. H (1989)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Foreign exchange operations involve complex economic. political, technical and financial factors. Due to these complexities and the rapid deregulation of the New Zealand financial markets in recent years, there is a real danger that foreign exchange operations maybe mismanaged leading to major losses. A recent New Zealand survey by Deloitte Haskins and Sells on treasury operations, which include foreign exchange activities, as reported by the National Business Review stated: ... many organisations which had moved to manage financial risks by establishing treasury functions had done so without fully understanding the implications of mismanaging that function. This had led to spectacular and well publicised losses such as the 483 million marks Volkswagon lost through unauthorised dealing. (MacLennan, 1989, p.14) This illustrates the magnitude of financial loss that can occur through mismanagement of treasury and, similarly, foreign exchange operations. A specific dollar amount for the total value of foreign exchange operations in New Zealand is not available1, 1. (Discussions with the Department of Statistics, Massey University's Economics Department and Mr B.H. Doyle from the Rural Bank determined that no actual figure was available due to the difficulties in establishing a basis for measurement.) but it runs into many billions of dollars. The research described in this paper addressed issues relating to the internal auditing of Foreign Exchange (FX) operations. As indicated above, foreign exchange operations carry high risk of loss due to the complexity of the factors involved. The primary objective of this research was to identify the seriousness of risks and appropriate management controls to deal with those risks. To achieve this two subobjectives were formulated. Firstly, all possible risks had to be identified, both from a normative and practical perspective. Secondly, the identification of all types of management controls theoretically appropriate and/or actually used to eliminate or reduce risk. This research is likely to be particularly relevant in an Australasian context because of the high dependency of local economies on the export and import of goods and services invoking millions of dollars of foreign exchange being handled each working day. Within New Zealand the deregulation of the financial markets, since 1984, has led to greater exposure to currency fluctuations, with the management controls to eliminate or reduce risk consequently becoming of greater importance.

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  • Regulation of microbial production in intertidal mudflats : the role of Amphibola crenata, a deposit feeding gastropod

    Juniper, S.K. (1982)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Interactions between the deposit feeding gastropod Amphibola crenata and the microbial community in intertidal mudflats were studied in laboratory and field experiments in two New Zealand estuaries. The study was mainly designed to reveal the effect of deposit feeding on bacterial and microalgal production and assess the importance of these microorganisms to the nutrition of the snail. The secondary aim was to compare the influence of Amphibola to external factors which regulate microbial production on the mudflat. Short-term effects of deposit feeding on bacterial production were examined by monitoring the recolonisation of Amphibola faeces by bacteria. Long-term effects on bacterial production were studied in artificial enclosures in the field where the effect of snail density on bacterial numbers and activity was monitored. These same enclosures were also used to study the effect of grazing by the snail on standing crop and productivity of the epibenthic algae. Assimilation of bacterial carborn by Amphibola was experimentally measured, and the contribution of bacterial and microalgal carbon to the snail’s carbon budget was estimated. The effect of microbial biomass on the feeding behaviour of Amphibola was also examined. It was found that a pulse in bacterial production occured during the recolonisation of Amphibola faeces by bacteria. This appeared to be similar in magnitude to the amount of bacterial biomass consumed by the snail - approximately 4. 5 mg C/m²/day. Amphibola also had a minor long-term influence on bacterial numbers and activity, but no clear effect on productivity was apparent. Grazing by Amphibola caused a substantial reduction in microalgal standing crop and productivity and affected the species composition of the microalgal community. Both the bacteria and microalgae serve as significant sources of carbon for the snail, but a large additional input of carbon is required to meet its nutritional needs. Other possible sources of carbon for the snail include meiofauna and non-living organic material. Amphibola was also found to alter its feeding rate in response to changes in microbial biomass, in a manner which may improve the return for feeding effort. In overview, it appears that Amphibola and the sediment bacteria similarly influence the other 's productivity while Amphibola has a greater effect on the microalgae than the microalgae have on Amphibola. Ultimate control of microbial productivity was concluded to be external to these relationships, with the snail acting only to modify seasonally determined levels of productivity.

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  • The viability of developing Maori leasehold land : the case of Part XXIII hill country leases in the Tairawhiti land district : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Agricultural Economics at Massey University

    Tattersfield, Georgina Maree Iritana (1983)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This Thesis is concerned with assessing the extent of underutilization and reversion that has occurred on land leased under the provisions of Part XXIII of the 1953 Maori Affairs Act. It seeks to determine the constraints that exist to the development of Part XXIII leases. Further it attempts to find ways to overcome these constraints, that are compatible with the needs of the Maori people. Chapter One of this thesis discusses the reasons for this study. It outlines the objects of the study and reviews the design of research used to obtain these objects. Chapter Two deals with the selection of a sample of Part XXIII leases to be studied and assesses their relative states of development. Chapter Three describes the Tairawhiti Land District, the farm environment in which the lease sample exists. Chapter Four reviews the evolution of Maori Land Tenure and discusses the institutional and administrative problems that have resulted from changes in it. This chapter identifies 438/53 trusts and incorporations as modes of administration for Maori land that are more compatible, than Part XXIII of the 1953 Act, with the ancient ideals of the Maori people. Chapter Five identifies specific institutional, physical, financial and management factors that can constrain the development of Part XXIII leases. Chapter Six analyses the relationship between specific factors throught to constrain Part XXIII lease farm development and actual states of development on the sample leases. Chapter Seven draws conclusions on the analysis done in Chapter Six and makes recommendations on ways to promote the farm development of land presently leased under the provisions of Part XXIII of the 1953 Maori Affairs Act.

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  • An evaluation of the validity of multidimensional scaling methods : for the representation of cognitive processes

    Fraser, Christopher O (1980)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This study is an evaluation of the issues involved in providing a meaningful psychological interpretation of multidimensional scaling solutions, for example to regard them as valid representations of the cognitive processes involved in generating the data. The various metatheoretic approaches that have been developed to define appropriate procedures for the quantification of psychological attributes are discussed and evaluated. It is argued that much current psychological research is based on an inappropriate paradigm. In particular it is argued that the emphasis on magnitude estimation to generate psychological data is misplaced and scales derived from weak-ordered judgements are much to be preferred. Extending these arguments to the multidimensional case, it is argued that most applications of multivariate methods in psychology have shown insufficient recognition of the theoretical implications of using a particular technique. The application of any method of data analysis such as multidimensional scaling is only appropriate if it can be shown that the assumptions implicit in the scaling model are satisfied for that set of empirical data. In addition some variations in the scaling model, such as subjective metrics scaling, involve additional assumptions which need to be explicitly formulated and tested. These metatheoretic limitations, as well as evidence on the frequent occurrence of violations of its basic assumptions suggest that multidimensional scaling configurations can at best be attributed with only a limited degree of psychological significance. It is suggested that such value as it does possess is limited to the evaluation of non-dimensional structural hypotheses derived from some prior substantive theory. An empirical example is presented demonstrating that even when there appears an obvious and intuitive interpretation of the dimensions of a MDS configuration, the solution may be completely inappropriate as a model of the underlying cognitive processes. A second example however describes a more appropriate and successful application of multidimensional scaling methodology. A theoretical interpretation of emotion labelling based on Guttmans (1957 ) facet theory, was shown to be substantially confirmed in the structure of a MDS configuration.

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  • The religious beliefs, rituals and values of the Ringatu Church : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Social Anthropology at Massey University

    Newman, Alan (1986)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis sets out to understand and to interpret the faith aspects of the Ringatu Church, which is comprised of the followers of Te Kooti, and because both he and his followers have been, and still are much misunderstood, to examine the Ringatu claim to be seen as a part of the Christian Church. The Introduction surveys how some writers have applied various anthropological theories in their respective studies of the Maori prophetic movements, and by either comparison or agreement, the present writer indicates his own theoretical approach. This approach emphasizes that these Maori movements are primarily a response to revelation, and that they are concerned with expressing meaning, asserting identity, and seeking some measure of control over their environment. Chapter one provides an outline of traditional or pre-European Maori religion, in order that such elements may be identified in the Ringatu faith. Chapter two sketches the life of Te Kooti, the background of his times, the events in which he was involved, and the beginning and the development of the Ringatu Church. Chapter three, describes the Church in its present organization, and the variety and content of its services of worship. Chapter four attempts to identify traditional, Old Testament and New Testament components in the Church's liturgy and practice, and to assess the church's claim to be truly Christian. Chapter five poses some questions and expresses some hopes about the future of the people called Ringatu, in the light of problems faced by them at present.

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  • Growth studies with peas : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy at Massey University

    Floyd, Robert Muir (1981)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Two experiments were conducted on vining peas under field conditions and their growth was followed using growth analysis techniques. In the first experiment, cv Victory Freezer was grown to maturity and the growth parameters total plant dry mass, leaf area and leaf dry mass recorded at weekly intervals for each of four planting densities. Determination of weekly values of R,E and F where R is mean relative growth rate, E is mean net assimilation rate and F is mean leaf area ratio, was unsatisfactory due to harvest variability. By fitting loge values of each parameter over the harvest period to quadratic functions, of the form Ŷ = a + bT + cT2 where Ŷ is the derived parameter value, a, b, and c are regression constants and T is time, it was possible to calculate instantaneous values for R, E and F. Calculation of R over the whole of growth by this method was not satisfactory. A third method of deriving R, E and F was then attempted by fitting the logistic function W = A(1-e-(λ +kT)θ)1/θ where W is the required parameter, A is the asymptote, e the base of natural logarithms, λ, k and θ are constants and T time. Values of R obtained by this method appeared to more closely approximate to the growth patterns of peas. However, due to the non-asymptotic growth of leaves the method was not suited to derivation of E and F over the whole of growth. Fitting of growth parameters to the model was also difficult where appreciable variability existed in the parameter to be fitted. At the lower plant densities, Relative Growth Rate was maintained at a higher level for much of the growth period apparently due to a higher net assimilation rate. In this experiment maximum yield was shown to occur at the highest plant densities. This was despite lower numbers of pods per plant; numbers of peas per pod and individual pea fresh mass being little affected by density. The second experiment compared three near isogenic lines of cv Dark Skinned Perfection vining pea, differing only in the expression of leaf, tendril and stipule. Each was grown at the same range of densities as in the first experiment. By the time that this experiment was half grown, the weather conditions were unfavourable for growth, with strong winds, heavy rain and low light levels. These conditions were ideal for the spread of fungal disease and the combination of weather and disease made growth very erratic. Despite the poor conditions recording of growth parameters continued until no further plots were available for harvest. At that stage only a few plots had commenced fruiting and little yield data was obtained. The very variable growth parameter records made interpretation of R,E and F almost impossible. The ease of fitting the quadratic function made it seem that this was the only method worth attempting for derivation of R, E and F values over the experimental period. Results obtained showed that in contrast to the first experiment the higher density of planting conferred many benefits to the peas. Higher leaf area ratios in the more closely planted plots led to larger values of R in this experiment. Weather effects on density were mirrored in leaf reduction where the relative growth rate of the least leafy cultivar was much lower than for the more conventional types, due again to lower values of F. The difficulty in obtaining meaningful mean values of the derived functions in both experiments suggests that different methods of deriving R, E and F are desirable. Using quadratic regression to derive these functions is limited in following whole of growth changes. Fitting of the logistic model is also difficult particularly where harvest variability is high and where the parameters are not basically asymptotic in form. It is suggested that fitting of functions to data over only part of growth may be advisable.

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  • Instructional leadership as perceived by principals of 3-7 teacher schools : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Education in Educational Administration at Massey University

    Payne, James Robert (1984)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The major objective of this study was to determine the match/mismatch between the ideal and the actual role of Instructional Leadership as perceived by a group of Teaching Principals (N=10) of 3-7 Teacher Schools. Instructional Leadership is one of the major components of the principal's role and involves influencing the work of another teacher in order to improve the perceived effectiveness of the teaching-learning experience. Teaching Principals of 3-7 Teacher Schools were chosen for the purposes of this study because these schools are an important component of the New Zealand education system, especially as falling rolls, changes in staffing ratios, and integration of private schools have increased both the proportion, and the total number, of these schools. Very little research has been carried out into the actual role of a Teaching Principal. Most of the literature on the role of a principal assumes that all principals are without the responsibility for an actual class. Teaching Principals have a dual role because, while Teaching Principals have been appointed as "Principal", they have the full time responsibility for a group of children. This study utilized semi-structured interviews to determine the perceptions of the Teaching Principals, and questionnaires to determine the perceptions of selected teachers in the Teaching Principals' schools. No observational or experimental interventions were attempted. Each of the Teaching Principals had experienced some kind of course or training in educational administration, however minimal. Some of the Teaching Principals expressed doubts as to the relevance of these courses or training to their present positions. The Teaching Principals perceived their role as both principal and teacher, and felt that they were unable to provide the standard. and extent of Instructional Leadership that their position required because of the lack of sufficient time resulting from involvement in full time teaching, administrative tasks and continual interruptions by visitors. Although the teachers were generally satisfied with the Instructional Leadership provided, there were differences in perception between the Teaching Principals and the teachers, with the teachers concentrating on the Teaching Principal's role as a facilitator and supporter. The teachers also placed greater emphasis upon help provided by other teachers. There were also some differences in perception between the Teaching Principals and teachers of the smaller schools and those of the larger schools. The latter schools appeared to be more formal with syndicates being the major organizational focus. While there was seen to be a need for more assistance with courses and training and the provision of extra professional and non-professional staffing to enable Teaching Principals to carry out their role as Instructional Leaders, the position of Teaching Principal was seen as providing definite advantages for Instructional Leadership. As classroom teachers, the Teaching Principals possessed a close identification with other staff members, and this gave credibility to their advice and guidance, as well as providing a practical example of class teaching. By utilizing the advantages of their position Teaching Principals can provide worthwhile Instructional Leadership, which will ultimately benefit the children in their schools.

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