5,454 results for 1990

  • Women's attitudes toward menstruation : a quantitative survey and qualitative interview investigation : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    Fitzgerald, Bridget, M.A. (1990)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Menstruation plays an important role in the psychology of women. There is, however, little information about the nature of women's attitudes toward menstruation. The present study used a quantitative survey followed by a series of qualitative interviews to explore these attitudes in a sample of University women in New Zealand. The Menstrual Attitude Questionnaire (MAO) was used to assess the attitudes and beliefs of 343 women. The psychometric properties of the MAO and its underlying factor structure were examined using a range of factor analytic models. Responses were then used to select a sample of 1O women for interview. Interviews were conducted in order to elaborate upon the attitudes identified by the MAO and to examine in more depth the nature of women's attitudes toward menstruation. Factor analysis of the MAO yielded five orthogonal factors. Results suggested that these university women perceived menstruation as: Marginally causing physical, emotional and intellectual changes, a natural event, an inconvenience and slightly disrupting their usual performance and activities. Subjects accepted the existence of premenstrual tension. Similarly, interviews revealed that attitudes were multidimensional with each subject having an individual configuration of positive, negative and neutral beliefs about menstruation. No consistent pattern among the different beliefs was established. Furthermore, it would appear that attitudes towards menstruation may not be acquired from direct experience but may be learned through social expectations. Directions for future research are indicated, particularly the importance of qualitative research.

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  • The effectiveness and results of the New Zealand official development assistance education and training programme to the Philippines : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Development Studies at Massey University

    Inoncillo, Ninia P (1997)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The role of education in the development of any given society is, beyond doubt, central, and crucial. When developing countries began their drive for social and economic development more than three decades ago, education was perceived as a means not only of raising political and social consciousness, but also of increasing the number of skilled workers and raising the level of trained humanpower. There is nothing new in a developing country seeking help from the developed countries who fund scholarships, trainings and programmes. The effects of these scholarships, trainings and programmes on the developing countries is much an open issue for study. This thesis examines the outcomes and effectiveness of an educational aid programme in the Philippines. Its central purpose is to determine and evaluate the New Zealand Official Development Assistance (NZODA) Education and Training Programme for the Philippines. This entails an examination of the social and private benefits, as well as the costs accrued to the recipients and donor country were also looked at. The NZODA educational aid for the Philippines was further analysed in relation to the general aid objectives of gender bias, rural and urban development, and equal development of private and government institutions. The study found that there are many social, economic and technological benefits that are derived from the programme and that accrue to the recipients and the donor. Further, the programme has brought about many substantial changes both in the social and economic development of the Philippines. The programme has not only increased the number of highly skilled employees but has increased as well the social and private rates of returns. Moreover, it was found that expansion of educational aid in the Philippines would be profitable for both the Philippines and New Zealand. In general, the programme is effective, but, because the results of the programme are faced by many constraints, there are a big number of things that need to be improved.

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  • Lactose hydrolysis by immobilized whole cells of K. lactis CBS 2357 : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Technology in Bioprocess Engineering at Massey University

    Marasabessy, Ahmad (1999)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The application of immobilized yeast for lactose hydrolysis was investigated. The enzyme stability was tested as a function of pretreatment. The stability of K. lactis CBS 2357 cells after treatment with glutaraldehyde (GA) and the β-galactosidase activity of whole cells after immobilization in alginate bead and corn particles were studied. Permeabilization using ethanol and chloroform (10% and 2%, respectively) at 37 °C and 120 rpm for 5 min, followed by stabilization with 10 mM glutaraldehyde at 30 °C for 1 hour with gently shaking deactivated 2.5% of the initial whole cells β-galactosidase activity, tested with the ONPG method. The glutaraldehyde treatment could significantly maintain β-galactosidase activity in phosphate buffer pH 6.5 containing 0.1 mM MnCl2. Manganese and potassium ions in the Mn-Buffer were found to be essential to enhance the activity. The biomass activity of GA stabilized cells in Mn-Buffer can be maintained above 70% during 72 hours of incubation at 30 °C. An increase of incubation temperature from 30 to 37 °C deactivated 10% of biomass activity after 72 hours. Direct stabilization of alginate biocatalyst with glutaraldehyde caused a significant reduction of β-galactosidase activity with the resulting deactivation depending on glutaraldehyde and alginate concentrations. When 40 g of biocatalyst containing 2x109 cells/g alginate was stabilized in 100 ml of 0 to 4 mM glutaraldehyde, the optimum range of glutaraldehyde concentration was between 0.5 to 1.0 mM. When this concentration range was applied to stabilize 2%- to 3%-alginate biocatalyst, the average biocatalyst activity remained within 56-74% of the initial activity. It was shown that the adsorption of K. lactis on corn particles through a "double liquid cultivation stage" followed by permeabilization of biocatalyst gave a higher activity. The activity obtained was 0.84 μmol lactose hydrolyzed /min/g biocatalyst under the conditions tested. This activity was about 5 times higher than the case without permeabilization and about 2 times higher than that of the permeabilized biocatalyst prepared with a "single liquid cultivation stage". When tested in the packed-bed reactor, during the initial stages the degree of hydrolysis (d.h.) was 45% within the operational conditions tested. Free enzyme was detected during the first 5 hours of operation, especially when non-stabilized corn biocatalyst was used. After 5 hours, free enzyme was no longer detected in the reactor outlet, suggesting that direct adsorption might have rendered good cell confinement inside the corn particles.

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  • Gulliver and other monkeys : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in English Literature at Massey University

    Henman, Jim (1993)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The distinctions between tragedy, satire and comedy, as with the lines severing madness from genius, are blurred and uncertain. The purpose of this essay is to further smudge, and where possible to erase, the artificial divisions within these two sets of notions, and thereby create more confusion. Throughout I shall refer to the life and work of Swift, and in particular Gulliver's Travels, as neat examples of the chaos intrinsic in these diverse, yet related, concepts. As Aristotle exemplified the principle of the tragic, using Sophocles' Oedipus Tyrannos, saving why it is sad or tragic in his opinion, so I hope to say why I feel Gulliver's Travels to be predominantly funny or comic, and attempt to explain the principle of the comic in a like manner, with digression upon other works as has seemed appropriate to the illustration of the subject. Throughout I shall use the term 'comedy' in its broader sense, as referring to the comic, rather than in its technical sense of comic drama.

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  • Soil water regimes of the Glendhu experimental catchments

    Miller, Blair J. (1994)

    Honours Dissertation thesis
    University of Otago

    The Otago block mountains are important water supply areas with their abundant water yield attributed to conservative water use by narrow-leaved snow tussock (Chionochloa rigida), the dominant vegetation cover of the region. This study looks at three aspects of the soil hydrology of the Glendhu experimental catchments, east Otago, New Zealand: soil water regime changes following afforestation of the tussock grasslands; a comparison of soil water regimes with topographic position in order to identify possible saturated overland flow generation sites; and some characteristics of a peat wetland that is typical of those that occupy gullies in the region. Several sites were set up in the forested and the tussock catchments, and depending on position, contained tensiometer nests, neutron probe access tubes and water table observation wells. Data were collected betw.een 29/3/93 and 19/5/94 and revealed much drier conditions under forest cover, with saturation not occurring in the A horizon throughout the study period. Using tussock catchment sites for topographic comparison, a downslope increase in water content was found on the interfluve, while saturation persisted for longer periods of time at headwall sites where subsurface convergence resulting from the concave planar morphology occurs. Wetland water tables only fluctuated 27.5 cm during the study period, and do not appear to be sustaining the high baseflow that occurs from the catchment.

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  • Gastrointestinal infection in a New Zealand community : a one year study : a thesis presented in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Microbiology at Massey University

    Wright, Jacqueline Margaret (1996)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Diagnostic medical microbiology laboratories detect and identify pathogens in submitted specimens. The techniques used should maximise the detection of pathogens (sensitivity) while minimising the number of tests for their detection (efficiency). To achieve the best compromise between sensitivity and efficiency, it is necessary to have information on both the relative prevalence and clinical importance of various pathogens within the relevant community, and the relative efficiency of various detection techniques. This investigation had three primary objectives: to establish what pathogens were associated with community-acquired gastrointestinal symptoms in the Eastern Bay of Plenty, and the incidence and relative importance of each; to compare the merits of various methods for detecting these pathogens (in those cases where more than one method was available); and to collect data from patients so as to identify potential sources and/or risk factors for infection. 997 faecal specimens from 716 episodes of illness were tested over a one year period. Patients completed a questionnaire on symptoms, and food and environmental exposures. Using one or more standard techniques, the specimens were tested for bacteria and parasites which may cause gastroenteritis. Specimens from young children were also tested for the presence of rotavirus. The incidence rates of the various pathogens, expressed as a rate per 100 000 persons per year, were as follows: Blastocystis hominis, 358; Campylobacter species, 208; Giardia lamblia, 158; Yersinia species, 87; Cryptosporidium parvum, 67; Salmonella species, 62; Aeromonas species, 62; Dientamoeba fragilis, 29; Plesiomonas shigelloides, 21; Escherichia coli (E coli) O157, 4; Vibrio cholerae non-O1, non-O139, 4; and Shigella species < 4. Faecal specimen macroscopic form, microscopic findings, season, and patient age showed little correlation with the presence of specific pathogens. Consequently the tests selected for the detection of pathogens in faeces should not be based on any of the above parameters. Furthermore, the symptoms associated with parasitic and bacterial infections were similar, so it is not possible to select the appropriate tests on this basis. The presence of rotavirus in patients older than five years was not investigated so incidence in the general population can not be calculated. A study of all age groups for the presence of this organism would be appropriate. From the above findings, and an evaluation of the literature, it is recommended that all specimens should be examined for the following organisms and, on the basis of our observations, the most cost-effective method is shown in brackets: Salmonella (selenite enrichment subcultured to xylose lysine desoxycholate agar); Shigella (none were detected, so a cost-effective medium could not be determined), Campylobacter (5% sheep blood agar supplemented with 32 mg/1 cefoperazone); Yersinia (Yersinia selective agar (YSA), plus selenite enrichment subcultured to YSA); Giardia lamblia (detection of antigen); Cryptosporidium parvum (detection of antigen). While routine testing for E coli O157 is not recommended, laboratories should have the capability to test for this pathogen if a patient presents with haemolytic uraemic syndrome, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura or unexplained bloody diarrhoea. Likewise, routine culture for Vibrio species is not recommended; however, laboratories should test specimens using thiosulphate citrate bilesalt sucrose agar if the requesting clinician suspects cholera, or the patient has a recent history of shellfish consumption. A trichome stain for Dientamoeba fragilis is recommended for patients with chronic gastrointestinal symptoms who are to be investigated for neoplastic and other non-infectious conditions. Pathogenic parasites other than those noted above were not detected. However, since such organisms are isolated in New Zealand, usually in association with overseas travel or institutionalisation, it is recommended that a trichrome stain and a faecal concentration technique should be performed on specimens from all cases of gastroenteritis who have recently travelled overseas or who are institutionalised. Close liaison between the laboratory and the clinician is essential to ensure appropriate selective testing for these less common pathogens. The presence of Blastocystis hominis and Aeromonads should be reported, but the report should note that their pathogenicity is uncertain. Dientamoeba fragilis and Plesiomonas shigelloides are probably pathogenic, but further work is needed to clarify this point. Correlation of data from the questionnaires and the laboratory findings identified the following risk factors: (the relative risk, 95% confidence interval and p-value are shown in the brackets). Campylobacter species: consumption of unpasteurised milk (4.67,2.39 - 9.11, p = <0.001); Salmonella species: overseas travel (7.20, 1.67 - 20.9, p = 0.040), eating a barbecued meal (4.55, 1.37 - 15.12, p = 0.026), eating shellfish (3.80, 1.18 - 12.21, p = 0.032); Yersinia species: consumption of water from a home supply (3.46, 1.32 - 9.10, p = 0.016), handling cattle (4.88, 1.73 - 13.76, p = 0.008), handling sheep (14.80. 4.93 - 44.46, p = 0.001); Giardia lamblia: consumption of unpasteurised milk (3.93, 1.63 - 9.46, p = 0.011), attendance at a day care centre (2.70, 1.17 - 6.27, p = 0.033), handling cattle (3.39, 1.59 - 7.22, p = 0.005), handling horses (5.27, 1.85 - 14.97, p = 0.002); Cryptosporidium parvum: consumption of water from a home supply (5.08, 1.88 - 13.71, p = 0.002), consumption of unboiled water from a natural waterway (3.97, 1.29 - 12.24, p = 0.031), attendance at a day care centre (3.30, 1.06 - 10.22, p = 0.054), handling cattle (5.41, 1.88 - 15.58, p = 0.006), owning a cat (4.50,1.02 - 19.91, p = 0.029); Plesiomonas shigelloides: eating shellfish (13.67, 1.44 - 130.13, p = 0.020); and Dientamoeba fragilis: consumption of unboiled water from a natural waterway (7.46, 1.71 - 32.48, p = 0.019). The risk factors suggest the value of the following precautions to prevent gastrointestinal infection: maintaining a high standard of both personal hygiene (particularly in the rural environment) and environmental hygiene in areas that food is prepared; avoiding consumption of untreated water or unpasteurised milk; cooking animal-derived food thoroughly - especially barbecued food and shellfish; and washing hands thoroughly after animal contact. Persons with diarrhoeal symptoms should take particular care with personal hygiene. Those travelling overseas should be conscious of the risk associated with the consumption of food and water which is not properly cooked or treated. These findings should assist New Zealand laboratories to optimise their approach to the detection of faecal pathogens and should also assist in formulating policy for prevention of infection by enteric pathogens.

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  • Frequency of occurrence of novel milk protein variants in a New Zealand dairy cattle study population : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Biochemistry, Massey University

    Burr, Richard Gordon (1996)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Since the discovery of genetic polymorphism within milk protein genes, a considerable volume of research has been published relating milk protein genetic variants and milk production properties. Polymorphism of milk proteins can result in two effects: (a) changes in the biological and physico-chemical properties of systems containing the variant protein, (b) changes in the synthesis level of variant proteins. As a result several studies of milk protein variants have identified phenotypes which may be commercially advantageous for specific products. Currently employed methods to determine milk protein phenotypes are generally limited to electrophoretic techniques. The gel electrophoretic techniques commonly used are able to detect most milk protein variants that differ by their net electrical charge. However single amino acid substitutions that result in a change in net charge account for only 25% of the possible substitutions that could occur. The remaining 75% of potential variants are the result of a neutral residue substituted by another neutral residue - a 'silent' variant. Thus it is likely that some substitutions, and hence genetic variants have gone undetected in the past. The purpose of this study was to develop new methods for determining the phenotype of milk proteins, and to determine the frequency of occurrence of silent or other novel variants in a New Zealand dairy cattle study population. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), free zone capillary electrophoresis (CE), peptide mapping by reverse-phase HPLC and electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) were used in the characterisation of milk proteins purified from 109 individual dairy cows. Three different PAGE systems were used. Alkaline-urea PAGE enabled the detection of α si-casin variants B and C, β-casein variants group A (variants A1, A2 and A3) and B, and K-casein variants A and B in the study population. Beta-casein variants A1, A2 and A3 were subsequently resolved in an acid-urea PAGE system. The whey proteins were very poorly resolved in PAGE systems containing urea. Alpha-lactalbumin A, and β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) variants A and B were resolved in a non-denaturing 'native' PAGE system. The frequencies of the various milk protein variants corresponded closely to figures previously published. A free zone CE method that is able to resolve β-LG variants A, B and C was used to check the phenotype of purified β-LG samples. Three samples previously typed as β-LG BB were subsequently determined to be β-LG CC; one sample typed as β-LG BB was re-assigned as β-LG BC. This highlighted the limitations of PAGE systems for the detection of known variants. Tryptic hydrolysis of purified casein proteins and β-LG, followed by reverse-phase HPLC separation of the resultant peptides was used to create peptide 'maps' of the hydrolysis products. Differences in peptide maps were noted between protein variants. The differences corresponded to peptides containing a substitution site. All samples analysed in this way contained more peptide peaks than expected. Analysis revealed that some were the result of incomplete digestion; others the result of chymotryptic-like cleavages. No aberrant peptide maps, indicative of a silent mutation, were detected. Purified casein proteins and β-LG were subjected to ESI-MS for mass analysis. The mass of each protein species was determined as follows: Protein Average mass Std. dev. as1-CN B-8P 23614.9 Da 1.2 Da as2-CN A-11P 25228.9 Da 1.5 Da β-CN A1-5P 24023.9 Da 3.1 Da β-CN A2-5P 23983.5 Da 1.8 Da β-CN B-5P 24092.6 Da n.d. k-CN A-1P 19038.8 Da 1.5 Da k-CN B-1P 19003.8 Da n.d. β-LG A 18362.6 Da 1.0 Da β-LG B 18277.0 Da 0.9 Da β-LG C 18287.2 Da 0.6 Da In all cases the experimentally determined mass corresponded to the mass calculated from published primary sequences of milk protein variants. In addition to the expected β-LG variant in each mass spectrum, additional species were detected differing from the mass of the β-LG species by increments of approximately 324 Da. Although less pronounced, the +324 Da molecular weight species were also detected in a sample of β-LG purchased from the Sigma Chemical Company. The additional species were also detected in whey prepared by ultra-centrifugation, although at a much lower level. The 324 Da molecular weight adducts observed in ESI-MS spectra of purified β-LG are consistent with an addition of a lactosyl residue to the protein. The observation that these species remain after heat denaturation, reduction and RP-HPLC treatment suggest that the linkage is covalent. Lactulosyl-lysine is known to form in milk products during some processing conditions, particularly during heating. The observation of these glycated species in gently treated, unheated milk suggests that glycation may occur to some extent in the udder of the cow. The association of the 324 Da molecule with β-LG does not alter the charge, molecular weight or hydrophobicity sufficiently to be detected by PAGE. CE or RP-HPLC.

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  • Cliff erosion and coastal change, mid Canterbury.

    Flatman, Michael R. (1997)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The mid Canterbury coast has been largely neglected in the coastal research of the South Island's East Coast. This thesis investigates cliff erosion and coastal change in mid Canterbury. The mid Canterbury coast is comprised of mixed sand and gravel beaches with unconsolidated alluvium cliffs landward of the beaches. The average erosion rate of the cliffs is 0.43m.y( 1 • This rate masks spatial and temporal variations in cliff erosion rates. Erosion at the northern section of the study area is 0.7m.y( 1 faster than erosion at the southern end. In the long-term (15 years) cliff height is the major controlling factor on the spatial variations of cliff erosion (r = 0.733). Beach volume controls short-term (1 year) spatial variations of cliff erosion (r = -0.774). Coastal storm frequency significantly controls temporal variations of cliff erosion (r = 0.635). Erosion of the mid Canterbury cliffs yields 228,339m3 .y( 1 to the coast. Longshore sediment transport is predominantly in a northward direction and provides a net sediment quantity of 40,645m3 .y( 1 • The mid Canterbury coast is bisected by two major rivers, the Ashburton and Rangitata. Their specific sediment yields are among the largest in the world. Sediment yields of beach forming material (coarse sands and gravels) are much lower supplying 25,000 and 28,000m3 .yr- 1 of sediment to the coast. The mid Canterbury coast has a sediment budget deficit of 27,500m3 .yr- 1 • Major sources of sediment to the mid Canterbury coast are cliff erosion (70 per cent), river transport (17 per cent) and longshore sediment transport (13 per cent). Major sediment sinks include offshore transport through abrasion (76.8 per cent) and longshore sediment transport (23.2 per cent). The large amount of sediment lost through abrasion suggests that sediment, once it arrives on the coast has a short 'life span' before it is ground up. Total beach sediment volume varies significantly from year to year but is losing 27,500m3 .yr- 1 of sediment on average.

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  • The Impact of the Official Information Act 1982 on the Policy Development Process

    Poot, Edward H. (1997)

    Master of Public Policy thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The Official Information Act was passed into statute in 1982. Among the purposes of the Act is the enhancement and respect for the law and the promotion of good government. The aim of this paper is to detennine, from a participation perspective, the impact of the Official Information Act 1982 on the core public sector policy process. The paper starts with a background to the Act before reviewing the expected and actual impact of the Act, as outlined in the literature. The policy making process in New Zealand' s core public sector is considered, highlighting opportunities for participation. Participation theory is discussed. The research involves a survey across the core public sector to gain general views of the impact of the Act on the policy development process. The results are used as the basis for three in-depth case studies of core public sector agencies. The conclusions are that while the Act is an important instrument of accountability, the success of the Act in enabling more effective participation is not so clear. While information is more readily obtainable, technocratic officials and Ministers keen to control information impact on the ability of citizens to participate. It is concluded that for the Act to be of maximum benefit education of officials and a loosening on the control of information will be needed.

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  • The Provision of Free and Frank Advice to Government

    Voyce, Evan Williams (1996)

    Master of Public Policy thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This paper examines the extent to which New Zealand public servants feel able to offer free and frank advice to the Government through Ministers of the Crown. It seeks to define the nature of constitutional conventions; the importance of the free and frank convention to the preservation of an apolitical, independent public service and how and where this convention is captured in the "rules" governing the behaviour of both public servants and the Ministers they serve.

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  • Intraday stock volatility : a New Zealand perspective : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Business in Finance at Massey University

    Mead, Daniel J (1999)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Open-to-open, close-to-close, open-to-close (trading) and close-to-open (non-trading) time periods are examined for dually and non-dually listed stocks in an attempt to explain the volatility patterns which were observed in the New Zealand Stock Exchange. The time period analysed covers the 1997 calendar year. The intraday volatility pattern for the New Zealand Stock Exchange showed similar results to previous studies performed on large exchanges around the world. That is, when the return variances are plotted against the trading time they follow a distinct U-shaped curve, caused by high volatility at the opening and closing of the market. Previous studies have found that the high volatility experienced at the opening of the market results from the long non-trading period prior to the opening. This was examined by analysing the open-to-open to close-to-close variance ratio for both dually and non-dually listed stocks. The explanation that the long non-trading period prior to the opening of the market is a major cause of the volatility experienced at the market opening is not supported by the results found in this study. The results obtained from this study show that the high volatility at the market opening is associated with high capitalised stocks. A low open-to-close (trading) to close-to-open (non-trading) variance ratio was observed in the New Zealand market. Previous research has attributed this low ratio to dually listed stocks continuing to trade during the non-trading overnight period of the domestic market. The findings in this study contradict this explanation and suggest that it is low capitalised stocks that are associated with the low trading to non-trading variance ratio observed in the New Zealand Stock Exchange.

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  • The role of deputy and assistant principals in the New Zealand secondary school : a collaborative administrative project submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Educational Administration, Department of Education, Massey University

    Graham, Adie; Smith, Lynlee (1999)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role and representation of DPs and APs in the New Zealand secondary school in 1999. While significant literature exists on the role of the Principal, there is little published literature on the DP/AP group. Since 'Tomorrow's Schools' there has been significant change in secondary schools yet little is known about how this change has affected the role and representation of DPs and APs. A previous study done by Manchester in 1983 formed a baseline for comparison. The current study involved conducting a replica survey, by questionnaire, with all DPs and APs in the historical 'central region'. 1983 and 1999 data was then compared. Eight DP/APs from the group of questionnaire respondents were then selected for case study. They were selected from a variety of secondary school types in an effort to make their voices representative. Interviews were conducted with these eight people to provide more in-depth information about what they do and how their current roles and representation affect them. The previous study identified that women were under-represented in senior school administration. In addition, their roles tended to reflect the traditionally feminine duties of 'hostessing and nurturing activities.' A focus for this study, therefore, was to investigate whether this situation had changed in light of legislative and policy changes in the intervening period. The present study concludes that change has occurred in both the role and representation of DPs and APs in New Zealand secondary schools. There is movement towards a team approach to management, workload has increased and job satisfaction decreased. The findings support previous New Zealand and international literature about what this group does but questions whether, as a group, they have real decision-making ability that should accompany these responsibilities. Concerns about equity in representation are also highlighted. Females are still under­ represented in DP positions. Finally, increasing numbers of DP/APs are looking at options outside education for their future.

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  • Influences on practice in the mathematics classroom : an investigation into the beliefs and practices of beginning teachers : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Educational Studies in Mathematics at Massey University

    Haynes, Maggie (1996)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This study reports on an investigation into some of the issues impacting on the provision of equitable classroom programmes in mathematics by beginning teachers, and focuses in particular, on the ways in which the teachers were able to cater for both the girls and boys in their classes. Due to the constructivist environment within which their pre-service mathematics education courses had been presented, constructivist principles formed the belief-framework for the teachers. The initial aim was to explore the relationship between the beliefs and practices of beginning teachers but during the course of the study, it became apparent that teacher-belief is only one of the many factors influencing practice. Therefore, a case study approach was used, to explore what life is really like, for six teachers in their first year of primary teaching. The findings from the study confirmed the complexity of classroom research and identified, in particular, three crucial issues of influence on practice: the teachers' own beliefs about mathematics and mathematics teaching; the mathematics curriculum and its philosophy; and the process of socialisation into their school culture as it affected their professional survival as teachers. The results of the study have implications for all involved in the support of beginning teachers and in particular, for pre-service educators.

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  • Integrating real-time simulation models into a SCADA environment : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Technology at Massey University

    Rao, Rangaraju Srinivas (1997)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Control system engineers have always envisaged the prospect of using the real-time models in an industrial setting. The inclusion of the real-time models can benefit industry in the following ways. 1. Operator Training - The operator can learn about how the various process react to control actions with the help of simulation models without affecting the real process itself. 2. Control Systems testing - The simulation models can be helpful in testing the control system software prior to trialing it on the real process. 3. Proccss Monitoring - Operators can compare the real process outputs with the simulation model outputs. This helps them in stopping the process when unusual conditions occur. 4. Testing for optimum operating conditions - Simulation models can be used to test for optimum operating conditions or for testing a certain operation at a new operating condition without affecting the real process. 5. Implementation of advanced control strategies - Advanced control strategics such as multivariable control, model predictive control and non linear control can be implemented as a real-time model without the development of separate real-time software. Even though using the real-time models can benefit the industry as mentioned modeling and real-time models have not found much favour in the industry. The reasons for this may be as follows: 1. Lack of awareness - Most of the plant managers/operators fail to understand what modeling results in and how it can improve the overall plant operation. 2. Lack of expertise - There is no expertise and/or tools in the company to develop the simulation models and implement it. 3. Cost of modeling - Producing a simulation model incurs significant costs. 4. Cost of implementation - Once the model is developed in the development environment it has to be transferred to the industrial platform. The cost of this transfer is high as the model software has to be more robust than the general purpose software. In order to produce real-time simulation models for an industrial setting there are two significant environments required. These are the development environment where the model is developed and secondly the implementation environment, where the model is used.

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  • Input, uptake, output : a study of intertextual source use in academic writing : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Second Language Teaching at Massey University

    Easton, Pamela Joyce (1998)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Research in writing has moved from writing to learn to writing from sources. This represents a move to considering writing not just as an isolated activity, but one associated with acquisition and representation of knowledge from different forms of texts. Research on sources to date has focused on a limited number of inputs, mainly one or two sources, in relation to the target product. In contrast, the present study investigates a wide range of sources students use as material for their studies. This naturalistic study investigates sources used by different groups of students, (L1 writers. L2 writers; expert L1 writers, novice L1 writers), and their ability to integrate these inputs in written text. The research was conducted within the context of an academic course and followed a pilot study trialling pedagogical and data gathering procedures. The primary data was in-class essays annotated by students to indicate source use. The essays were analysed structurally by a coding scheme adapted from the work of Christensen (1966). Mann & Thompson (1988), and Hyland (1990). Secondary data was obtained through pre-course and post-course questionnaires and included information on students' cultural and linguistic experience, their perceived usefulness of particular sources in the course, and their attitude towards writing tutorials. Results indicated that there were differences in the way the identified groups of students accessed the varying sources. While the lecture remained the primary input for all students, the manner and extent students used personal experience was demonstrated in different ways. Results showed L1 students integrated a wider range of sources in their writing. The differing patterns of source use indicated that students followed different pathways in developing text, and that the strategies they used had consequences for their text construction. As an extension of this, a hierarchy of personal experience in writing was established; 1 personal narrative; 2 untransformed narrative; 3 integration of personal knowledge with concept and discipline knowledge. Findings also indicated the difficulties less proficient writers had in moving beyond the writer-oriented narrative form which is consistent with other research (Leki 1995, Flower in Leeds, 1996). There are a number of factors that appear relevant to explaining the different pathways. These include language proficiency, writing expertise, content and schema knowledge, and perceived saliency or interestingness of the task and topic. The results of the present research points to the fact that these and other affective factors deserve further research attention. Such research could possibly affect the pedagogical achievements of learning experiences in academic courses.

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  • Ideal integrated national environmental management system for South Africa : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Development Studies at Massey University

    Utlwa, Abel Pheello (1995)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The South African environmental management system has been characterised by fragmentation and the lack of effective legislation. The number of statutes concerned with conservation issues is an associated problem. The implementation of the Environmental Conservation Act 1989 has been viewed as inefficient because of the lack of enforcement and control of environmental management issues. The Act has not provided opportunities for public participation, particularly from black communities, in decision-making about environmental matters. The South African environmental management system has not recognised and integrated indigenous peoples resource management systems into the country's legal framework. This is illustrated by the impacts of conservation programmes which have resulted in black communities being uprooted from their lands for the establishment of national parks and tourism facilities, without compensation to traditional owners. Research has identified the need for a revision of environmental impact assessment (EIA) practices in South Africa. There is also an associated need to integrate environmental impact assessment (EIA) into the planning process to achieve sustainability. Studies carried out in South Africa have identified the lack of effective regulations for enforcing the provisions with regard to the status of the coastal zone. The criticisms of the White Paper delivered by participants at the Conference held at Megawatt Park, Sandton, 10 June, 1993, highlight the need for a comprehensive environmental management system to ensure the sustainable management of natural and physical resources. An ideal system would improve the quality of life in the South African community, while maintaining the integrity of the natural resource base. Even though the criticisms have been valid, they fall short of suggesting ideas for the formulation of a new integrated environmental management system for South Africa. Research carried out in South Africa has also identified the inadequacies of the proposed Integrated Environmental Management procedure referred to in the White Paper. This procedure has been perceived as inadequate to achieve the universal principles of sustainable development. This project evaluates the White Paper, the submissions criticising the White Paper and the proposed Integrated Environmental Management system in South Africa. A matrix is used as a method to examine both the New Zealand Resource Management Act 1991 and the South African environmental management provisions against the recommended national actions in the IUCN/UNEP/WWF (1991) and Agenda 21. Research from a number of disciplines concerned with integrated environmental management, are used to recommend changes to the South African environmental management system. Criteria derived from the IUCN/UNEP/WWF (1991) strategy and Agenda 21 are used in the thesis to evaluate the White Paper, submissions criticising the White Paper, and the proposed Integrated Environmental Management system. Finally, An ideal National Integrated Environmental Management System for South Africa is proposed.

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  • Hypertext and literature : facts and fictions : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in English at Massey University

    Bridges, Jon S (1995)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    PLEASE NOTE: 2 discs in pocket inside back cover

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  • Mathematics achievement in the transition from intermediate school to high school : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for Master of Educational Studies in Mathematics at Massey University

    Glover, Derek (1997)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This study investigates the nature and level of communication between the primary and intermediate schools and the high schools in relation to student achievement. It also investigates how information relating to mathematics achievement is passed between the schools and makes some suggestions to improve the current situation. Four high schools, three intermediate schools and three full primary schools were identified for the study and a survey was conducted of two teachers in each of these schools to identify what happens in these schools in relation to the transition of students from Form 2 to Form 3. It was found that there were significant differences in the ways that schools on either side of the transition viewed and implemented the National Curriculum in Mathematics. The primary and intermediate schools were much more enthusiastic about the National Curriculum than the high schools. As a consequence it was found that the primary and intermediate schools have made considerable progress toward reporting student progress against the objectives of the curriculum and were able to determine levels of achievement in each strand. It was found that primary and intermediate schools are moving away from the "Primary Progress Record, Senior School" (known as the blue record card) as the main means of handing information about student achievement on to the high schools. Many schools are developing their own "profile" or progress sheets as a way of better tracking student progress and therefore are more able to accurately indicate where the student is when they enter high school. The high schools have generally not been using this information as a basis for their third form programmes. They report that there is a large variation in the quality and quantity of the information which comes from their provider schools and in many cases would prefer a single document which gave a general idea of student ability. The high schools were therefore placing students in classes on general ability, gained by enrolling staff, or on entrance tests which they developed. The high schools were much less enthusiastic about measuring against the objectives of the curriculum and were able to present a number of reasons for their reluctance. There is therefore a need to develop a model for communicating student achievement across the transition into high school. It was found that many of the high school teachers did not value the information provided by the primary and intermediate schools because they had no part in determining what information should be collected and how it could be used. Revising the data collection process, involving the teachers who could potentially use the information, would be one way of overcoming this. Results of this study show that there is a need for teachers to be more aware of the practises of schools on the other side of the transition.

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  • Mathematical modelling of bulk stored onions in transport containers : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Horticultural Science in Agricultural Engineering at Massey University

    Clayton, Murray (1995)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Export onion bulbs are predominantly transported from New Zealand loose in sacks which are bulk loaded into intermodal transport containers. Product respiratory heat, water vapour, and volatiles are dispensed of by a fan unit installed in the end of the container, ventilating the stow by forcing ambient air from a false floor up through the crop and exhausting the air from a head space. The objective of this study was to mathematically model this system with respect to onion bulb temperature and weight loss, and internal container air temperature and relative humidity. These product and flowfield variables were predicted at different locations within the transport vessel. Bulb temperature and weight loss were simulated as dynamic variables using ordinary differential equations, and air temperature and relative humidity were simulated as quasi steady state variables using algebraic equations. A validation experiment was conducted to evaluate the simulation model by placing temperature and humidity sensors throughout the product and flowfield space measuring the respective properties. Onion and air temperatures were predicted with satisfactory accuracy in almost all measured locations of the container. Prediction of relative humidity varied considerably throughout the container, although excessive sensor errors were identified casting suspicion on some validation measurements. Simulated relative humidity could not therefore be fully verified. Bulb weight loss was predicted with variable levels of accuracy. Significant variability in the validation data was evident in the upper and lower regions of the container preventing complete model validation. Central regions of the container were simulated with satisfactory accuracy. A model sensitivity analysis revealed that container ventilation rate strongly influenced model performance with respect to temperature and relative humidity. The mass transfer coefficient, as expected, was most influential over product weight loss.

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  • Options for solid waste management for Metro Manila, Philippines : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master in Resource and Environmental Planning at Massey University

    Bergonia, Consolacion Paz (1997)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The Government of the Philippines has considered the solid waste crisis as an urgent national concern. Since devolution Local Government Units, especially in Metro Manila, have had difficulties in coping with the collection of large volume of solid waste generated in the metropolis. The existing landfills and dumpsites are also rapidly reaching their maximum capacities. This study examines and evaluates the existing institutional arrangements in Metro Manila and other countries in the ASEAN for the purpose of generating recommendations for the improvement of solid waste management service delivery in Metro Manila. A framework for evaluation of the institutional arrangements was developed which addresses the following questions: How is solid waste management service treated: is it public or private good/service? What are the roles of the different participants in the solid waste management service delivery chain? What are the operating arrangements in the delivery of solid waste management services? How do the institutional arrangements measure up to the criteria of efficiency, effectiveness, and equity? This framework was used to assess, by survey, arrangements in case studies in the major metropolitan areas of five ASEAN countries (Singapore, Bangkok, Jakarta, Kuala Lumpur and Metro Manila). The results of these case studies were used to generate the institutional options for solid waste management for Metro Manila. The research concluded that the appropriate arrangement for Metro Manila is the joint public-private provision of solid waste management services using contracting, franchising, licensing and community arrangements. Contracting and community arrangements have the most advantages in terms of attaining the objectives of efficiency, effectiveness and equity. Franchising and licensing have limited applications because ot equity considerations. This study also generated suggestions for institutional reform for effective solid waste management in Metro Manila: the "do-nothing" or status quo option; individual LGUs to be given collection, recycling, transfer and disposal responsibilities and fiscal autonomy in revenue generation; creation of commissions among LGUs and; creation of a single-purpose Metro Solid Waste Authority. Among the options, the creation of one or more commissions among LGUs appears to be the most feasible option at this point in time as it achieves economies of scale and allows possibilities for building managerial and operational competence among LGUs without loss of local autonomy. In all arrangements, the role of the public sector is critical in the development, negotiation, management, monitoring and enforcement of public-private agreements, and for equity purposes. Whatever arrangement eventuates, government agencies need to implement training and capacity building in SWM.

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