5,417 results for 1990

  • Myth and misunderstanding : The enigma of the Scottish Highland migrant to Otago/Southland, 1870-79

    Wilson, Megan Jane (1999)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    The major concern of this thesis is with the migration and settlement of assisted Scottish Highland migrants to the colony of Otago/Southland during the 1870's, particularly those that arrived under the auspices of the so-called 'Vogel Scheme'. Although the gold rushes of the 1860s had induced a number of immigrants to the region government judged that these individuals were not always of a 'suitable' type, hence Julius Vogel's 'Public Works and Immigration Act, 1870'. This Act, consisting of passenger assisted fares and nomination was instituted in the hope of attracting potential settlers away from the traditional destinations such as America as well as providing a workforce to complete desperately required Public Works. Following the identification of these migrants an attempt is made to trace their movements over subsequent years, thereby providing the reader with at least some sense of how the colony's settler population has been made. Although always a minority group Scottish Highlanders were generally looked upon with disfavour and they carried with them a centuries' old reputation for barbaric and uncouth behaviour. By providing brief biographies on several of those immigrants that were positively identified the thesis aims to provide an understanding of their lives and contributions to the development of the colony. In order to identify these immigrants the Otago/Southland (NZ.) Assisted Passengers 1872-1888 lists were consulted. The Otago Provincial Government Gazettes: Passenger Lists, 1986-1875 proved invaluable as well and fron1 there it was simply a matter of attempting to trace these individuals over the following years. The Postal and Street Directories, marriage registers and electoral rolls of the period provided further information necessary in tracking their subsequent movements. The major obstacle to identifying their whereabouts following arrival in the colony was the fact that many simply disappeared into the larger towns and cities, changed the spelling of their names, or spoke only Gaelic and could not write English; often original settlers were only identified through their children. Obscure local histories for towns such as Waitahuna or Fortrose were of particular interest as they provided insights into the characters of their settlers in the form of amusing stories and local feeling rather than just names and dates. Although there are numerous studies relating to the immigrant experience throughout the world, the plight of the Highlander and the even settlement of Otago, it is hoped that the following will provide some additional insight into one minority group that settled in the area. In a local context John Morris and Rosalind McClean have both tackled Scottish immigration. Both are general overviews of the Scottish phenomenon, however, rather than in depth analyses of a regional migration. It is hoped that although this thesis does not provide any earth-shattering discoveries it at least supports the more general assumptions made regarding the immigration of Scots to New Zealand and perhaps qualifies a number of mistaken beliefs about Scottish Highlanders. These assumptions include a tendency toward dishonesty, a well developed attraction to alcohol and a general disposition toward uncivilised behaviour.

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  • Ecology and biology of the banded wrasse, Notolabrus fucicola (Pisces: Labridae) around Kaikoura, New Zealand.

    Denny, Christopher Michael (1998)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Notolabrus fucico/a, a large common labrid inhabiting shallow waters around New Zealand and Southern Australia, were collected monthly (Dec 1996 to Feb 1998) around Kaikoura. They were found to be pelagic synchronous spawners and followed the typical labrid spring-summer seasonal pattern of reproduction (July to December). Compared to other New Zealand labrids that are protogynous hermaphrodites, N. fucico/a was found to be a secondary gonochorist, where individuals change sex before maturation. Although two colour phases are present, they are a monochromatic species with males and females found in all size classes and colour phases (a ratio of females to males 1.6: 1 ). Sexual maturity is attained between 2 - 3 years old and they can live upwards of 25 years. There was no significant difference in numbers across time or depth for N. fucicola but a significant difference was recorded for size with depth. N. fucicola is a generalist predator with seasonal variations in prey items. There were size specific changes in the diet from soft to hard-bodied prey. Seasonal variations were also recorded in gut fullness and condition. They are a territorial species that are likely to defend areas for food or shelter, but not spawning.

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  • The development of amperometric biosensors for the detection of glucose, lactate and ethanol : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment for the degree of Master of Science in Biochemistry at Massey University

    Goh, Leong Peng (1996)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Amperometric biosensors, also commonly known as enzyme sensors or enzyme electrodes, are a growing and very progressive area of research. Biosensors are analytical devices that contain a biological sensing element connected to a physical transducing element. The physical transducer "senses" the change in the biological element as it undergoes a chemical reaction. The physical transducer then converts chemical equivalents from the enzyme reaction in a dependent relationship to electrical equivalents that can be measured. Biosensors combine the power of electrochemistry with the specificity of enzymes to produce sensors that are specific to particular enzyme substrates. Some have wide specificities and others are quite narrow. Considering the wide range of enzymes available, the choice depends on the end use of these sensors. The aim of the current study was to design biosensors for the detection of glucose, lactate and ethanol. The method for attaching enzymes to electrodes was based on the carbodiimide method. The carbodiimide method activates haeme which then is able to be covalently attached to enzymes. Enzyme-haeme conjugates were then allowed to absorb onto platinum electrodes by exploiting the knowledge that haeme can bind irreversibly to platinum by sharing pi-electrons with the d-orbitals of platinum. The enzymes involved were glucose oxidase, lactate dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenase. The use of flow injection analysis for evaluating biosensors was desenbed and was found to be a fast, efficient method and the results were highly reproducible. In testing electrodes, the results of the present study showed it was possible to obtain current response that was dependent on the concentration of substrate when these enzyme electrodes were used. A particularly significant result in this study was the achievement of current responses that were dependent on substrate concentration in the absence of NAD+ for lactate and alcohol dehydrogenases using the substrates lactate and ethanol respectively. There is however much work to be done to improve the success rate of making these enzyme electrodes. Several factors were found to cause variable results whilst making and using these enzyme electrodes, such as the absorption of unbound enzyme to the sensing surface of the electrode that may produce significant current response, the formation of aggregated haeme during the enzyme-haeme conjugation process and most importantly, and the ability to make successful enzyme-haeme conjugates to be absorbed onto the sensing surface of the electrodes.

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  • Bosnian refugees in New Zealand : their stories and life experiences, health status and needs, and the implications for refugee health services and policy : a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the degree of Masters in Business Studies (Health Management), Massey University

    Madjar, Vladimir (1998)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    New Zealand has been accepting refugees for resettlement since the 1940s and currently accepts a quota of up to 750 refugees per year. Although international literature demonstrates that refugees have substantial health needs, little research has been conducted in New Zealand. This study used a semi-structured interview guide containing a list of predetermined themes that were explored through open-ended questions. Twelve refugees from Bosnia, seven male (former concentration camp detainees) and five female refugees were interviewed in the setting of their choosing between April and October 1996. Findings indicate that though severely traumatised by their experiences, the respondents were not assessed for mental health during the comprehensive medical screening process at the Mangere Refugee Reception Centre. As with other aspects of the resettlement process, no follow-up of this group of refugees took place to assess how they were coping and adapting to the new surroundings since the completion of their orientation programme at the Centre. This, in part, may explain their lack of awareness of the service provided by the Refugees as Survivors Centre established some two years after their resettlement in the community. Though unsure of the long-term effect that their experience may have on their health, immediate and most common symptoms reported were headaches, irritability, persistent thoughts of the past, difficulty with sleeping, and nightmares. Believing that they would not be understood by those who had not been through the experience themselves, former concentration camp detainees have come to rely on each other for mutual support rather than other members of their family or any outsider who had not been through the camps. The majority of those interviewed said they had limited contact with the wider community which resulted in a sense of social isolation. Contact with other Bosnians has been retained, although contact with non-Bosnian immigrants from the former Yugoslavia, including those who arrived in New Zealand well before recent conflicts, has been avoided. Despite their ordeal, most of those interviewed seemed to enjoy good physical health. The reported use of General Practitioners and other health services was low. The major reported health need was dental, but dental care was largely not met because of the cost. Language and transport were not identified as major barriers to health care. This may have been mitigated by the availability of interpreters known to the respondents who initially also took them to the health care providers. No other barriers to health care were reported. Mental health services were not seen as a need by those interviewed, in spite of the symptoms reported. The findings of this study highlight the potential difficulties when an established ethnic group, from the country of origin, is selected as a sponsor, especially considering the cultural religious and political complexities of the former Yugoslavia. Greater consultation with the refugees themselves, speedier family reunification, orientation programmes that more closely reflected the character and background of the refugee group, and greater financial assistance, would have facilitated the resettlement process and minimised possible downstream personal, social and financial costs and in the long term, potential health problems. The major conclusion of this study is that refugee health and refugee health policy cannot be isolated from the total refugee experience (the pre-flight period, asylum and resettlement in a distant foreign country). This experience is characterised throughout by loss (of loved ones, homes and homeland), trauma and a lack of choice. An effective refugee resettlement and health policy must take these factors into account.

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  • Continuum: the mixture's moment : presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in English at Massey University

    Goodwin, Anton Peter (1993)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis grew out of a simple observation. This was that in terms of sheer numbers, allusions to the bodily, the sexual and scatological in Continuum outweighed all other references. What is the significance of so much 'body language'? Is a simple 'listing' enough to show anything of interest? Certainly the specific body allusions have several characteristics in common. They often use strong, short and sometimes 'shocking' words; they use the idea of taboo to seek out new meanings; they are often alliterative or punning (and hence literary and conscious); they may often involve pain or release and spillage. This is their emotional or immediate function. We might infer that Curnow wishes to be 'all things to all men,' to have the sort of 'inclusiveness' approved of by a critic like Eric Partridge when he discusses the imagery of Shakespeare's plays. Time after time, critics have insisted on Curnow's willingness to face the 'reality of experience' or have commented that he seizes 'the reality prior to the poem.

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  • Comparative analysis of a pressure vessel finite element analysis versus speckle photography : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Technology at Massey University

    Wang, Zuping (1994)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    A detailed explanation and analysis are presented of the Finite Element Method used to solve the stress/strain situation in a small pressure vessel. A pressure vessel was modelled whose displacement characteristics were previously analysed using speckle photography. The Mystro/Lusas finite element software was used on a PC 486 computer system. A linear and static analysis was made. Contour plots of direct stress and shear stress distribution are presented which also show the highest stress areas. A comparison of the results from Finite Element Method and Speckle Photography Method as well as the pressure vessel design formulas are presented. Advantages of the Finite Element Method are discussed.

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  • Being safe & taking risks : how a group of nurses managed children's pain : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Nursing at Massey University

    Coup, Anne (1998)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    A small, grounded theory study was conducted in a children's surgical ward in a large, urban teaching hospital involving registered nurse volunteers. The purpose of the study was to investigate how nurses' deal with children's acute pain. Ten unstructured, but focused in-depth, taped interviews were conducted with five nurses. The constant comparative method as proposed by Glaser and Strauss (1967) and Glaser (1978) was used to generate substantive theoretical categories, a core category and basic social process. Analysis revealed that what nurses may want to do and what they can do when managing children's pain is not necessarily the same thing. A number of structural barriers to prompt and effective pain management were identified, such as doctors not always being available to write prescriptions, under prescribing or doctors even refusing to prescribe opioids for children at times. Lack of equipment for delivering continuous analgesic infusions meant that optimal methods could not always be used. The predominant method used was intermittent incremental intravenous doses of morphine, which appeared to provide poor pain control in many cases. The analgesic protocols the nurses were expected to follow were time consuming and impractical when they had several children needing analgesia at once. The nurses' solution to such dilemmas was to still act to relieve pain even when this involved some risk because the nurses' believed that the risk-taking was done responsibly, and that it was more important to promote the child's wellbeing. The types of risks they took included administering several doses of morphine in quick succession without always monitoring for respiratory depression, and altering prescriptions (but not in writing). Being Safe and Taking Risks emerged as a paradoxical core category, which reflected the pattern for the nurses' pain management decision-making and practice. It also emerged that a moral interest (Being Ethical) appeared to direct and connect the nurse's thinking and practice; they tended to do what they considered was in the child's best interests and believed that the benefits outweighed potential harms.

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  • Constructing a female saint : the gendered construction of the cult of Walpurgis, 9th to 14th centuries : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree Master of Arts in History at Massey University

    Merritt, Louise (1999)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    'And so I have written of these signs and wonders so that it may be understood what divine majesty the virgin brings about for the love of God and men through the recent elevation of relics from her tomb. But so far those most famous relics of the dear virgin have been spread out through the whole of kingdom of the Franks, and every day many and quite excellent miracles of glorification are brought about through our Lord Jesus Christ, who is with the Father and the Holy Spirit in eternal glory for ever and ever, Amen.'1 Haec itaque signa et prodigia hic nunc scripto comprehensa, quae Divina majestas in illa novitate sublevationis ex monumento corpusculi, Deo et hominibus amandae Virginis peregit, multum laudanda et admiranda sunt. Sed adhuc in diversis per totum Francorum regnum provinciis, quae ejusdem Virginis reliquiarum pignoribus illustratae constitunt, quotidie plura excellentioraque preaconio digna efficiumtr per Jesum Christum Dominum nostrum, cui est cum Patre et Spiritu sancto perennis gloria in secula seculorum Amen, Vita II S. Walburgis, ed. Godefridus Henschenius, Acta Sanctorum, Februarius Tomus III, 2nd edition, Paris, 1865, ch.20, p.552. [ Vita II] The numbering of the Vitae in this thesis follows the standard set in the Acta Sanctorum. The second Vita Walpurgis, written in the tenth century, testified to the remarkable rise of a female saint to a position of power and popularity. Walpurgis (ca. 710-779) was an Anglo-Saxon nun who joined the eighth-century Boniface mission to Germany and, with the help of her brothers Willibald and Wunibald, co-foundcd and eventually ruled the double monastery of Heidenheim. Her cult had its beginnings in the late ninth century, with the translation of her relics to Eichstätt, and the composition of the first Vita Walpurgis. Less than a century later, the Vita II could paint a picture of Walpurgis as a powerful saint whose relics were spread across Europe and widely venerated as foci of her miraculous powers. In the period of the ninth to the fourteenth centuries, Walpurgis came to posses an extended identity as intercessor and miracle-worker, protecting patron saint, daughter of a king, virginal bride of Christ, nurturer, producer of healing oil. Walpurgis thus cut a striking figure in the medieval landscape: she was a powerful female within a milieu of misogyny. This thesis therefore analyses the development of the cult of Walpurgis, and focuscs on the issue of gender to create an overall picture of the gendered construction of the cult of this female saint.

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  • A comparative study of the phosphorus characteristics of oil palm volcanic soils in Papua New Guinea and New Zealand volcanic soils : a thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Applied Science in Soil Science at Massey University

    Banabas, Murom (1998)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) grown on volcanic ash soils in Papua New Guinea (PNG) generally respond well to N fertilisers but shows a lack of consistent response to inorganic phosphorus (P) fertilisers. This is true even on soils with high phosphate retention (PR) and where Olsen P values highlighted in the preliminary survey of PNGOPRA field trial data are very low (90% to at least 60 cm depth). This study was done to characterise the PNG oil palm growing volcanic soils in relation to P responsiveness, to identify P fractions and their relative amounts, to determine the fate of applied P fertilisers and to compare chemical and mineralogical characteristics of PNG soils with some New Zealand (NZ) equivalent soils. Mineralogical analysis indicates that the PNG soils used in this study are relatively young as evidenced by the presence of very high amounts of readily-weatherable volcanic glass in the sand, silt and clay fractions. Soils at Hoskins, Kapiura and Bialla, all in West New Britain (WNB) Province, contain similar amounts and types of primary and secondary minerals. Soils at Bialla are probably older than those at Hoskins and Kapiura and contain large amounts of secondary amorphous minerals (allophane and ferrihydrite) in the clay fraction. Soils at Popondetta are different from those in WNB with high amounts of hornblende and no augite or hypersthene in the heavy mineral fraction. Allophane levels in the clay fraction are high to very high in soil surface layers at Hoskins and Kapiura and at all depths in Bialla soils. At Popondetta, allophane content is very low at all depths PR in all soils and at all depths was highly correlated with acid oxalate extractable Al (Alo) (r = 0.84*) and iron (Feo) (r = 0.89*). The sources of these 2 extracts (allophane and ferrihydrite) are largely responsible for the high PR in the soils studied. High allophane and ferrihydrite levels at all depths in Bialla soils correspond well with very high PR values ( >90%) to at least 2 m depth. Low levels of these 2 minerals in Popondetta soils correspond well with low PR values (30%). Intermediate PR values (60 - 70%) for Hoskins and Kapiura surface soils correlates well with the occurrence of intermediate levels of allophane and ferrihydrite. In all PNG soils, a P fractionation scheme showed that the major P fractions are organic. At Hoskins, NaOH-Po accounts for 38 to 48% of total P. For Kapiura NaOH-Po accounts for approximately 50% of total P, and Bicarb.-Po accounts for 59% of total bicarbonate-extractable P. For Bialla soils, NaOH-Po and Bicarb.-Po comprise between 74 and 76%, on average, of their respective total extracted P for all depths. At Popondetta, NaOH-Po comprises 62% and Bicarb.-Po 63% of their respective total extractable P contents. P fertiliser accumulation in Hoskins and Kapiura soils occurs mostly in organic forms and within the top 10 cm of soil. At Hoskins, 83% of total added P accumulated in the top 10 cm (53% being NaOH-Po) while 17% was found in the next 10 cm depth (31% being NaOH-Po). At Kapiura, 74% of total accumulated P was found in the top 10 cm of soil (61% being NaOH-Po) and 26% within the 20 - 30 cm layer (81% being NaOH-Po). The presence of amorphous minerals explains much of the behaviour of P in trial soils, with the major P source/sink in PNG soils being as organic forms. In relation to soil mineralogical and chemical characteristics, PNG soils were classified into one of the major 3 groups in terms of responsiveness to P fertilisers; (a) soils with very high PR (>90%) and Olsen P values of less than 4 mg/kg which are considered most likely to respond to inorganic P fertilisers e.g. Bialla soil, (b) soils with medium to high PR (60 - 70%) will likely show inconsistent responses to P fertilisers and P responses are most likely to be secondary to N e.g. Hoskins and Kapiura soils and (c) soils with low PR (30 - 40%) which are unlikely to respond to P fertilisers at least in the foreseeable future e.g. Popondetta soils. This study highlights a future need for further study of the dynamics of P nutrient cycling, specifically the mineralisation rates of organic matter and the release of Pi for plant uptake in PNG oil palm growing soils. Also there is a need to re-establish the leaf critical concentration because in PNG soils though leaf levels are generally less than 0.150% DM, palms do not always respond to P fertilisers. This suggests that the "critical" P concentrations under PNG conditions is probably less than the international standard at 0.150% DM. Mineralogical and P sorption characteristics of young volcanic ash soils in NZ are sufficiently similar to those in PNG to provide useful information about the general behaviour of P fertilisers and P reaction products in oil palm production systems.

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  • Becoming a resident : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Social Science at Massey University

    White, Joan Margaret (1992)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    In this thesis the meaning of relocation is examined for six elderly people in Northern Tasmania who voluntarily left their own homes and moved into two hostels for the frail aged. The research method of ethnography was used to guide the study. Periods of participant observation in the hostels and in-depth interviews with each of the six key participants, at approximately three monthly intervals over a nine month period following admission, were the main methods of data collection. Data was also obtained by interviewing other hostel residents, nursing staff associated with the relocation process, and significant others of the key participants. Data analysis occurred concurrently with data collection. Qualitative content analysis was used to inductively derive themes and sub-themes from the data. The themes and sub-themes were in turn validated with the key participants. Three major themes, "PREPARING FOR RELOCATION". "FITTING IN", and "LEADING THE LIFE I LIVED" emerged from the data. Preparing for relocation was a difficult time for the key participants. Decisions about where to relocate and what possessions to dispose of and what to keep had to be made. During this period, they were actively supported by professionals and significant others. Fitting into the hostel was a smooth process for five out of the six key participants. Some had been previously admitted on a short term basis and were familiar with staff and routine. Hostel staff were identified by the new residents as the most important group who helped in the adaptation phase. They facilitated residents self-care and encouraged them to pursue previous activities either within the hostel or in the community. Many features of the resident's new lifestyles were able to be integrated to provide continuity with their previous lifestyles as the key participants relocated in the same geographical area in which they had previously lived. Outside social contacts and recreations were maintained. One key participant exhibited features of poor adaptation to the hostel. She spent the day within the confines of her hostel room pursuing aspects of her previous lifestyle. The study demonstrated that for five out of six key participants the most stressful part of the relocation process occurred in the the preparation phase. Adaptation to the new environment and integrating aspects of old and new lifestyles were relatively smooth processes. Reasons for this smooth transition were concerned with the key participants making their own decisions regarding the choice of hostel and the timing of entry to the hostel. During these decision making processes, they were helped and supported by the professionals and significant others. Other reasons for the smooth transition period related to the key participants' knowledge of the hostel's physical surrounding, routine and staff. All key participants in one hostel had previously been admitted to the respite area adjoining the hostel. The key participants of this hostel also relocated from homes in the immediate neighbourhood thus they were able to easily maintain continuity with aspects of their previous lifestyles. The key participants in the other hostel did not have a choice of hostel accommodation. They belonged to a smaller rural community but were known by staff members and other residents prior to their admission. Staff members in the hostels also contributed to the smooth transition. They demonstrated positive attitudes towards the new residents adapting to the hostels and saw their roles as helping the elderly maintain their independence, thus providing an environment which helped the integration of old and new lifestyles.

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  • Developing an integrated internet presence : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Technology at Massey University

    Lusk, Simon John (1996)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis aims to demonstrate a replicable process for creating an integrated internet presence. An integrated internet presence includes the use of the World Wide Web, Email, Email Lists and Newsgroups. Using the web alone is not using the medium either appropriately or to its full advantage. It has a business orientation, due to the fact that no non profit sites have been developed. Several concepts are dealt with in detail, including: What is the Internet? An Integrated Internet Presence Promoting Web Sites A Promotions or Selling Medium? Appropriate Use of the Medium Competitive Advantage A series of case studies designed to support these concepts form the second half of the thesis. The case studies are predominantly based on existing web sites developed by the author in the past year and a half. Those cases not based on developed sites have been chosen as they illustrate several concepts addressed. Due to the speed that technology is moving, a snapshot in time has been taken. The actual date of the chosen point in time, June 1996, is not as important as the sophistication of the browser. For the purposes of this thesis, the most widespread browser in use at the time of writing, Netscape Navigator 2.0 Netscape 2.0 may be found in Appendix 2, and run either from the CDRom or from the machine of the person viewing the CDRom, is the browser used.

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  • The binding of glycosaminoglycans to peptides : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Biochemistry at Massey University

    Taylor, Grant John (1994)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The overall aim this study was to examine the possibility of using immobilised polypeptide chains to fractionate/separate Glycosaminoglycans (GAG's) from mixtures. Initially individual samples of three GAG classes (chondroitin sulphate, dermatan sulphate and heparin) were characterised to establish purity and provide basic information. Once these samples had been characterised the samples were treated as standards. Three short poly-l-lysine (PLL) chains with defined length and orientation were synthesized. As a control a PLL chain with 633 residues was immobilised. The interaction of the GAG standards with these resins did not replicate published solution binding behaviour of longer PLL chains. This suggested a different mode of binding. The interaction of two lengths of PLL (126 and 633 residues) and the K8G peptide with the GAG standards in solution was investigated. These studies demonstrated that the mode of binding of GAG's to short PLL chains was radically different to the earlier reported solution binding studies. β-Strand dominates with the short PLL chains instead of α-helix established in the published solution binding studies. The interaction of two peptides PCI (264-283) and thrombospondin peptide with the GAG standards was studied using circular dichroism spectroscopy. In the case of the PCI peptide, each GAG induced different secondary structures. Chondroitin sulphate and heparin induced an α-helix, whereas dermatan sulphate gave β-strands. Heparin and dermatan sulphate induced double the amount of secondary structure compared to chondroitin sulphate. The strength of the interaction of GAG's with the peptide was also measured by the concentration of salt required to dissociate 50% of the complex. The figures for dermatan sulphate and heparin were found to be 0.1 and 0.3 M salt respectively. The binding of the GAG standards to the thrombospondin peptide did not elicit any detectable change in conformation of the peptide. Critical examination of published material on the interaction of GAG's (principally heparin) with short peptides, prompted the writer to propose two new complementary models. The first model examines binding in terms of the conformation of the peptide induced by binding to the GAG. It is composed of three components, the periodicity of polar and nonpolar residues within the peptide sequence, the spacing of pairs of basic residues and the spacing of pairs of acidic and basic residues. This model is successfully able to rationalise the binding behaviour of a number of GAG/peptide interactions in terms of the dominant secondary structure and the biological activity. The model is able to make a number of specific predictions. The second model examines the strength of the interaction between heparin and peptides containing the proposed consensus sequences for GAG binding sites. A significant correlation between the binding strength and an attribute derived from the sequence of the peptide was found using only one assumption. The assumption was that the peptides in the correlation bound to heparin with significant levels of β-strand. For the first time it is possible to rationalise the behaviour of GAG/peptide interactions in a coherent manner. The design of peptides that are capable of binding to specific GAG's now seems possible.

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  • Biological control and biomass evaluation of Botrytis cinerea : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Applied Science at Massey University

    Vingnanasingam, Vallipuram (1998)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The efficacy of biocontrol agents is often judged by symptom development on inoculated plants. This process can involve long delays, as with Botrytis infection of kiwifruit and an alternative, quicker approach would be useful. When biocontrol is successful, then pathogen biomass is limited hence a means of measuring the biomass of a pathogen on/in a target substrate (plant material) could be used as a tool for rapid estimation of biocontrol efficiency. Two yeast (Enterobacter agglomerans, Enterobacter aerogenes) and two bacteria (Candida sake, Trichosporon pullulans) with an already identified ability to attach to the surface of Botrytis cinerea and to reduce infection in tomato and kiwifruit, were evaluated for control of B. cinerea in bean, lettuce and rose in this study. Potential biological control and efficacy was assessed by measuring lesion size and percentage infection by B. cinerea. An investigation of methods of conidial application of B. cinerea to these crops tissue showed that disease severity and incidence were increased by a high concentration of wet spore application to bean and dry spore application to lettuce and rose tissue. Each application technique was used as the standard technique for biocontrol experiments on the crop on which it was most efficient. Three of the potential BCAs (Enterobacter agglomerans, Enterobacter aerogenes, Trichosporon pullulans) were found to reduce lesion size and percentage infection on all three crops at 20°C. Biological control by bacterial BCAs, Enterobacter agglomerans and Enterobacter aerogenes, were demonstrated by applying them to bean tissue at the time of inoculation with a suspension of 1x108 conidia per ml of B. cinerea. These two bacteria and the yeast, Trichosporon pullulans, showed biological control when applied to lettuce and rose tissue one or two days after inoculation with dry spores of B. cinerea. A potential rapid assessment of biocontrol efficiency of microorganisms has been demonstrated using Laser Scanning Confocal Microscope. A clear image of the fungal hyphae in the host tissue was produced in confocal microscopy by using glutaraldehyde as a fluorescent stain for B. cinerea hyphae. Biomass of B. cinerea at an early stage of infection in bean and lettuce tissues was successfully measured by computer analysis before and after application of yeast and bacterial biocontrol agents. BCAs application in both tissues prevented development of a large biomass of B. cinerea.

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  • A basis for the exploration of hypermedia systems : a guided path facility : a thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts at Massey University

    Stenhouse, Alan (1992)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis examines the potential of a paths facility as an aid to navigating large hypermedia systems. The use of the navigational metaphor as applied to finding information is continued with the idea of following a path through information 'space'. This idea assumes that each node, or chunk of information, on the path can be considered a landmark that can be easily returned to when side-trips are taken off the path to explore the surrounding space. The idea of a guided path assumes the re-use of a path, and also assumes that there is extra information available about the path. This meta-information is very important for providing information to help path-followers make better sense of the path, both in terms of content and context, but also in making more effective use of the nodes on the path and in navigating the variety of interface conventions seen in the test environment - HyperCard. A small pilot study has been carried out using two groups of users performing a directed information-seeking task. One group used HyperCard's navigational facilities to find information in a group of stacks, while the other group used a guided path as a base on which to explore the same group of stacks. Both groups had a time limit, at the end of which they completed a number of questionnaires to indicate task completion, as well as providing a subjective evaluation of the facilities they used. The guided path facility appears to be most effective for inexperienced users for a number of reasons. It presents a simplified view of the complex system - the information available has already been filtered and selected, and a simple and consistent navigational interface reduces the cognitive overheads associated with learning a variety of mechanisms present in different stacks. An important feature of a path facility seems to be the provision of meta-information, especially scope information which can reduce the incidences of disorientation. Another feature is the provision of a history facility which provides a backtracking capability. It may also be used in the creation of paths using the length of visit as a criterion for node inclusion on a new path.

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  • Bridge building and barrier breaking between ecosocialism and deep ecology : a metatheoretical perspective : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Development Studies at Massey University

    Marshall, Alan (1995)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Irregular pagination: pg 58 missing - not in vault copy

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  • Biodegradation of pentachlorophenol : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Technology in Environmental Engineering at Massey University

    Flynn, Martha (1999)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Three isolates previously isolated from pentachlorophenol (PCP) contaminated soil as a consortium were tested for their ability to remove PCP from a minimal mineral salts medium with and without vitamin supplementation. Only one of the isolates, designated Bradyrhizobium sp. strain ET01, could utilise PCP as a sole source of carbon and energy. The other two isolates designated Pseudomonas putida strain ET02 and formerly Pseudomonas aureofaciens strain ET03 could grow in the presence of PCP but could not utilise it as a sole source of carbon and energy. The effects of various initial PCP concentrations and vitamin supplementation on the kinetics of PCP removal and the cell numbers for ET01 and culture combinations was tested. An increasing initial PCP concentration affected the PCP removal rate, the lag period, the cell yield, cell numbers and specific growth rate. PCP removal by ET01 ceased at a concentration of 175mg/1. The PCP removal rate increased for ET01 in pure culture through the course of the experiments. The rate of removal at 150mg/1 initial PCP concentration improved from 1.48mg/1/hr to 1.85mg/1/hr. The rate of removal at 120mg/1 initial PCP concentration improved from 1.38mg/1/hr to a maximum of 2.10mg/1/hr. The shortest lag period was 4 hours for ET01 in pure culture on 20mg/1 initial PCP concentration. The lag period for ET01 in pure culture was 0.30 of the initial PCP concentration. The size of the inoculum of ET01 had an effect on the lag period and the rate of PCP removal. Cell yield was extremely low for ET01 and the culture combinations at all initial PCP concentrations tested. Measurable PCP removal was observed when the cell density of ET01 reached approximately 1x10 7 cells/m1. The final number of cells for ET01 for initial PCP concentrations over the range of 20mg/1 to 150mg/1 was approximately 5.5x107 cell per m1 (0.09mg/1). The highest specific growth rate for ET01, 0.06hr-1, occurred in media containing yeast extract and at an initial PCP concentration of 40mg/1. Continuous subculturing under the selective pressure of PCP as the sole carbon and energy source in media containing yeast extract led to an increased PCP removal rate and a decreased lag period for ET01. There was a slight increased rate effect of combining ET01 and ET02, but generally ET01 in pure culture removed PCP at a higher rate than any of the culture combinations.

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  • Behavioural ecology and prey attraction of the New Zealand glowworm Arachnocampa luminosa (Skuse)(Diptera : Mycetophilidae) in bush and cave habitats : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Zoology at Massey University

    Broadley, Richard Adam (1998)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Larvae of the mycetophilid Arachnocampa luminosa (Skuse), known commonly as "glowworms", inhabit damp, sheltered and shaded places in bush, and caves. The glowworm is predaceous, and it lives within a mucus tube or gallery front which hang vertical "fishing lines" made from silk and sticky mucus. Invertebrates are captured on the fishing lines and hauled up by the larva and eaten. Glowworms use bioluminescence to attract invertebrates. I tested the effectiveness of bioluminescence by comparing the numbers of invertebrates caught on transparent adhesive traps placed over glowworms with similar traps set over areas that glowworms had been removed from. Prey attraction was investigated in Reserve Cave, Waitomo, and in its bush-clad entrance over 200 days during "winter", "spring" and "summer. Traps placed over glowworms caught significantly more invertebrates overall per trap per day than control traps. Glowworms in bush attracted both greater numbers and types of invertebrates than glowworms in the cave. There were also significant seasonal differences in the numbers caught and types of invertebrates. Flying Diptera predominated in both bush (85% of the total catch) and cave (89%) habitats. Minor components consisted mainly of spiders (Araneae), Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Orthoptera, Trichoptera, Gastropoda, Acariformes and Neuroptera. Confirmation that the attracted invertebrates were eaten by glowworms was demonstrated by collecting and examining glowworm faeces and identifying discarded material from their snares. This was done by placing blotting paper sheets under glowworms in cave and bush habitats during spring and summer. Most faecal material consisted of insect sensillae and spines, cuticle and compound eye cuticle, but discarded legs, antennae and wings were sometimes present either as parts or entire. Entire or fragmented millipedes were sometimes present, especially in the cave. Occasionally insect head capsules, thoraxes and abdomens were also discarded. Several small snail shells (Gastropoda) were found under bush glowworms and three entire insects were found under glowworms in the cave in summer. No adult A. luminosa were caught on adhesive traps, or identified in the material discarded from glowworm snares. Glowworms under adhesive traps appeared to be able to survive for long periods without food, especially those in the cave, which all survived with little or no food for 78 days. At Waitomo, variation in light output by different glowworms affected the number of invertebrates that were attracted to the light and increased the variance in prey numbers between different glowworms. This was overcome at Waitomo by running the experiment for long periods of time in order to demonstrate attraction. Using live glowworms in such experiments was also labour intensive and time consuming. A light-emitting diode (LED) with a similar maximum wavelength to glowworms was used, to explore the possibility that it could be used to sample the potential food of glowworms in areas where glowworms do not occur, such as some passages in caves. The suitability of these LEDs were tested by comparing catches in adhesive traps containing them with traps containing glowworms and traps without (controls). These were run in bush for 21 days and then a further 21 days in a cave passage at Piripiri Road Caves, Pohangina. Traps with LEDs caught a significantly greater total number of invertebrates overall than traps either with or without glowworms. However, there were no significant differences in the numbers of Mycetophilidae, other Diptera families and other invertebrates caught on the three trap types in bush or in the cave. The prey recognition behaviour of A. luminosa larvae involves taste and/or smell. This was demonstrated by comparing the numbers of live and dead Drosophila melanogaster, and blotting paper that was both dry and soaked in crushed D. melanogaster juice, that were "hauled-up". "discarded", "left hanging" or "missing" the day after they were placed on the vertical fishing lines of larval snares. There were significant differences between responses of glowworms to dry paper, wet paper, and dry paper placed above D. melanogaster on fishing lines. Most (72%) of the pieces of paper with crushed D. mealanogaster juice were hauled up into glowworm snares, and none were discarded, whereas dry pieces of paper were found hauled up 16% of the time but 40% of them had been discarded. Remote recording of A. luminosa in both bush and cave habitats at Waitomo was done between 18/1/95 and 19/11/95. Observations were made using infra-red light and a TV camera which was sensitive to this light. A total of 934 individual "larva-hours" of activity were recorded, including 308 "larva-hours" of 4 glowworms in bush; 345 "larva-hours" from 4 glowworms in Demonstration Chamber of Glowworm Cave; 233 "larva-hours" from one glowworm in Reserve Cave; and 48 hours of several glowworms in Waitomo Waterfall Cave. Observations were also made of three adults emerging from their pupal exuviae. A male adult was observed alighting upon a female which had not glowed for about 53 minutes, and the pair copulated. This provides evidence to support the suggestion that adults may use olfactory organs in mate attraction. After copulating they were both eaten by a large predatory harvestmen (Megalopsalis tumida Forster). As a result of video-taping A. luminosa many observations were made and many types of behaviour were identified. The most obvious ones were production of bioluminescence, "fishing line construction", "defecation", "fighting" between pairs of larvae, "prey capture", and attempted capture of invertebrates by larvae. Behaviours recorded rarely were the eclosion of both male and female adult A. luminosa from pupae, mate attraction, and copulation. Glowworm larvae in bush glowed only at night. They usually became active late in the afternoon when they began to make fishing lines, repair snares, and void defecatory droplets. They started to glow up to an hour and a half after becoming active, and they turned on their bioluminescence relatively quickly, from less than 15 seconds to about 1 minute for a bright light to be visible. At dawn, glowworms in bush took several minutes to fade out their lights, but on cold nights (~ < 6°C) they glowed only intermittently or not at all. Larvae in the Demonstration Chamber appeared to be disturbed by cave lights and wind currents apparently generated by the activities of humans in there. When cave lights were switched on for more than about 30% of the time (~ 20 minutes per hour), larvae did not glow brightly and spent little time making fishing lines (<5% of time per hour). However, there is no way to be certain if this disturbance was detrimental to their overall well-being. The larva in Reserve Cave glowed on average only between 13:00 and 02:00 on only four out of eleven days, and did not appear to glow brightly compared with glowworms either in bush or in Glowworm Cave. However, it was not possible to determine whether this behaviour was typical of other glowworms living in the cave. Only one observation of prey capture was made, and this occurred in bush. It appeared to be a small winged dipteran. Three other partial observations were made of insects being hauled-up. Observations were made in bush at night of spiders which appeared to move accidentally through glowworm snares, breaking the delicate fishing lines. However they were not caught and eaten by glowworms. On one occasion, a spider was attacked by a glowworm when it touched its snare, but it was strong enough to break free. Fighting between larvae usually occurred when a larva moved part-way out of its gallery to search the substrate for new points of attachment for its snare and fishing lines, and then accidentally touched the snare of its neighbour. This indicates that larvae fight to increase the size of their territory or to protect their own territory. Fighting larvae glowed brilliantly and would snap at each others heads with their jaws, and occasionally tried to pull each other out of their snares. These fighting episodes usually concluded when one of the larvae retreated, but often the fights would resume some time later. Larval cannibalism was not observed, although on one occasion a larva was bitten on its body by an intruder which had moved completely out of its snare. Defecation was observed on ten occasions. In bush, larvae either voided excretory droplets out of the snare or produced them so they hung on fishing lines. In the latter case the larvae then lengthened the fishing lines until the droplets made contact with the substrate. In caves the glowworms cut and dropped entire fishing lines with droplets on them, or they left them hanging within the snare. Starch-gel electrophoresis of allozymes showed that populations of glowworms tend to be genetically discrete but with no particular geographic or ecological structuring between them. This was demonstrated by collecting A. luminosa larvae from many cave and bush sites in the North Island. Average Standard Genetic Distances between populations were determined (Nei, 1975) and the results were subjected to cluster analysis using average pair group clustering with the package M.V.S.P. This showed that geographically adjacent glowworm populations did not tend to be more similar genetically than distant populations and that glowworm populations did not cluster into bush and cave populations. However, the high degree of polymorphism (range ~ 38% to ~ 86%) and heterozygosity (range ~ 3% to ~ 18%) suggests gene flow occurs regularly between glowworm populations, and does not support the notion that cave and bush forms should be regarded as distinct species or subspecies.

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  • Has the "Sleeping" Director Finally Been Laid to Rest?

    Cassidy, Julie (1997)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The decision in AWA v Daniels was heralded as marking the end of the "sleeping" director and the beginning of a new era in corporate responsibility. It is suggested, however, that this praise was not really warranted. While at times Rogers CJ's judgment in this case echoes the more rigorous approach to directors' duties adopted in the insolvent trading cases, his Honour nevertheless reaffirmed the subjective nature of non-executive directors' duty of care. This article suggests that the majority judgment on appeal in Daniels v Anderson is more worthy of praise. Here the majority justices, Clarke and Sheller JJA, rejected Rogers CJ's approach, asserting, inter alia, that the objective test found in the law of negligence was equally applicable to both executive and non-executive directors and thereby finally laying to rest the "sleeping" director. This article suggests that the majority approach in this case involves a significant change in the common law directors' duty of care and that this change should be applauded. Ultimately it is submitted that in light of the current uncertainty underlying the interpretation of s 232(4) of the Corporations Law, the common law duty of care may have surpassed the standard of care expected under its statutory equivalent.

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  • An Evaluation of Section 232(4) of the Corporations Law and the Directors' Duty of Due Care. Skill and Diligence

    Cassidy, Julie (1995-06)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    As the fate of a company rests largely in the directors' hands, in Australia both the common law and statute law (Corporations Law, s 232(4)) impose on directors a duty to conduct the company's affairs with due care and diligence. This article evaluates the directors' statutory duty of due care and diligence in light of the shortcomings underlying the common law approach to this duty. In the course of this discussion the article focuses on the accuracy of suggestions that the amendment of s 232(4) by the Corporate Law Reform Act 1992 (Cth) was unnecessary and has not changed the law. It is ultimately submitted that this amendment will have a significant impact on the directors' duty of care, requiring directors to maintain a considerably higher standard. The article concludes with a comparison between s 232(4) and its New Zealand counterpart, s 137 of the Companies Act 1993, examining whether the latter may have better served Australian company law.

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  • Infinite antichains of matroids with characteristic set {p}

    Oxley, J.; Semple, Charles; Vertigan, D.; Whittle, G. (1999)

    Reports
    University of Canterbury Library

    For each prime p, we construct an infinite antichain of matroids in which each matroid has characteristic set {p}. For p=2, each of the matroids in our antichain is an excluded minor for the class of matroids representable over the rationals.

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