5,549 results for 1990

  • Variation in the grain properties of maize hybrids with different grain hardness characteristics and their response to nitrogen fertilizer in terms of milling quality : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Agricultural Science in Plant Science (Seed Technology) at Massey University

    Patwary, A.N.M. Mahbubur Rahman (1995)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The proportion of grits and flour produced during the dry milling of maize (Zea mays L.) grain is related to the ratio of hard to soft endosperm. The quality standards required vary widely with different end uses, and for dry milling a hybrid with a 'hard' endosperm will usually yield the highest proportion of grits. The texture of the maize endosperm is variable and depends on the maize hybrid and agronomic conditions. In general the available literature showed protein concentration of the grain can be improved by nitrogen fertilizer application, and as the protein content increases, the amount of hard endosperm increases along with value to the miller. A field trial to investigate the effect of nitrogen fertilizer on grain yield and quality, especially grain protein content and hardness, was carried out at the Frewens block, Massey University in the 1994/95 season. Three maize hybrids (P3751, P3787 and A82-8 xNZ84) with three different endosperm textures (soft, intermediate and hard) were grown at two sowings (October and November) with three different nitrogen levels (0, 250, 500kg urea/ha). Urea fertilizer was applied as a side dressing and split into three application times, i.e. at the three leaf stage, at canopy closure and at the 50% silking stage. Plant growth and development were measured by counting the leaf number and leaf appearance rate, formation of the black layer and grain moisture dry down for each hybrid. Grain yields and yield components were measured for different nitrogen treatments at both sowings. Grain protein content was measured from total nitrogen percentage as determined by the Macro Kjeldhal method. Grain hardness was measured by a Stenvert Hardness Tester, while bulk density and grain moisture content were measured by a grain analysis computer. The total number of leaves per plant was greater in hybrid A82-8xNZ84 than hybrids P3787 and P3751 at both sowings, but rate of leaf appearance was faster for the November sowing than the October sowing. Formation of the 'black layer' (i.e physiological maturity) and moisture dry down rate was faster in hybrid P3787 than in hybrids P3751 and A82-8xNZ84 at both sowings. Grain yield was significantly increased at both sowings by the application of 250kg/ha urea, but not by the 500kg urea/ha treatment. Hybrid A82-8xNZ84 gave the highest yield and P3787 gave the lowest. The main yield components which differed between hybrids were number of grains per cob and 100-grain weight. Grain protein content increased progressively in response to the applied nitrogen fertilizer. Protein percentage increased from 8.81% in the control to 10.13% for 500kg urea/ha in the October sowing, and 8.72% in the control to 10.13% for 500kg urea/ha in the November sowing. At both sowings all three hybrids contained the highest amount of protein at the highest urea treatment i.e. 500kg urea/ha. Increased nitrogen application improved grain hardness. For those grains grown under higher nitrogen levels grinding resistance time, energy required for grinding and milling duration time were higher than grains grown when no urea was applied. Grain bulk density (test weight) increased as nitrogen increased. Hybrids A82-8xNZ84 and P3787 had higher grain hardness under the high nitrogen treatment than hybrid P3751. There was a strong, positive relationship between grain protein content and Stenvert Hardness Test parameters at both sowings. When nitrogen was applied grain contained a higher amount of protein (which presumably made grain harder) than the no applied nitrogen treatment. Inherent endosperm texture was not changed by the increased protein percentage as the soft endosperm hybrid did not show an improved hardness, but the intermediate and hard endosperm hybrids showed an improvement in this regard. Results from both sowings indicated grain yield, protein and hardness quality can be improved by applying nitrogen fertilizer. This has implications for dry milling, where hard grain is a necessity for higher grits recovery.

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  • The significance of gender and sexuality : a study of discrimination and equal employment opportunities policy in the state sector : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Social Work at Massey University

    Raven, Anthea (1991)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The purposes of this study are twofold. The first is to look at the experiences of lesbian social workers in order to describe the themes and patterns characteristic of discrimination within the context of their professional and employment status in the state sector. The second is to examine whether the policy of Equal Employment Opportunities for women in the Department Of Social Welfare adequately addresses discrimination against lesbians, and the extent to which the needs of lesbians can be met within the existing framework of the policy. It has been proposed in this study that discrimination against lesbians in the workplace is a real and tangible source of oppression termed 'heterosexism'. Lesbian social workers' employment experiences indicate that these are qualitatively different from those of heterosexual women. Analysis of these experiences relies upon an understanding of the historical social, sexual and economic dynamic of male power over women. Heterosexuality has been emphasised as the only acceptable sexuality and therefore, an institutionalised form of control over all women's lives. One of the consequences of this control is the denial of the existence of lesbianism. This is because lesbianism represents an independent and alternative lifestyle and family structure. While this threatens the traditional male defined nuclear family relations it also challenges the view that women should be treated as economically dependent upon a man. There is strong evidence to suggest that gender is a significant determinant of employment opportunities. Thus, there is a clear basis for recognising women as a target group for special attention under an Equal Employment Opportunities policy. However, this study challenges the assumption that the needs of all women can be adequately addressed within the context of a hetero-relational model. For example, it is argued here that the underlying criteria for access to employment opportunities is based on conformity to traditional gender roles and stereotypes. This reinforces women's economic dependency on a man and a male controlled labour market. The view that women's equality should depend on their social, sexual and economic relations with men is therefore questioned. In contrast it is argued that lesbians should be able to benefit from their social, sexual and economic independence from a man and that any measure of their employment position in relation to men is a measure for all women. The radical potential for Equal Employment Opportunities policy for all women may well depend upon the inclusion of lesbians and their legal protection from discrimination.

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  • The seasonal and spatial dynamics in the phytomacrofaunal communities of Lake Henley, Mastert : a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Ecology at Massey Universityon

    Miller, Rosemary Jean (1995)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Spatial and seasonal dynamics of macrophyte beds in Lake Henley, a shallow artificial lake in Masterton, were examined between June 1993 and June 1994. Observed fluctuations in macrophyte biomass were linked with changes in filamentous algae associated with the weed beds. Invertebrate communities associated with submerged macrophytes were also examined at multiple sites between June 1993 and June 1994. Overall community composition was related more to seasonal influences than differences between sites within the lake. However, species richness and abundance did differ spatially. Recommendations for the ongoing management of Lake Henley, including management of the macrophyte beds and the maintenance of water quality and quantity, are made with respect to the ecological characteristics of the lake. The influence of trophic status on macrophyte invertebrate communities was also explored with a survey conducted in May 1994 of 13 other lakes in the North Island. Nutrient enriched lakes were characterised by phytomacrofaunal communities with high abundance and higher numerical dominance, whereas nutrient poor lake phytomacrofaunal communities were characterised by lower abundances but higher diversity of some taxonomic groups, particularly insects.

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  • The social and psychological effects of the Ruapehu eruptions within the Ohakune community : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    Millar, Marian (1998)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Page 7 is missing.

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  • A viscometric study of rheological interaction between selected commercial dairy proteins and selected gums in aqueous solution : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Technology in Food Technology at Massey University

    Kotaratititam, Wichai (1991)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Rheological interaction between solutions of four selected gum (locust bean gum (LB), sodium carboxymethycellutose (CMC), lambda-carrageenan (CR), xanthan gum (XN)) and solutions of four dairy proteins (sodium caseinate (SC), whey protein concentrate (WPC), coprecipitate (TMP), whey protein isolate (WPI)) were studied by steady shear viscometry using a Bohlin VOR Rheometer at 25°C, natural pH and natural ionic strength. The rheological properties of mixed solutions were greatly influenced by presence of gum, gum concentration and gum type. Rheological synergism, with no obvious shear rate dependence, occurred between LB and SC, LB and WPC, LB and TMP, CMC and all dairy proteins, CR and WPC, CR and TMP, and XN and WPC. The degree of synergism, which was determined in a new way, was relatively much greater with TMP. The results are discussed in terms of Ca2+ bridging for TMP synergism and in terms of electrostatic and molecular space occupancy effects for SC, WPC and WPI synergism. No significant interaction occured between LB and WPI or between CR and SC or between CR and WPI or between XN and SC or between XN and TMP or between XN and WPI. Quantitative measures of synergism in mixed solutions prepared from 0.5% gum solution and 6.0% dairy protein solution were in close agreement with similar measures of synergism in mixed solutions prepared from 1.2% gum, 10.0% daily protein and distilled water. Rheogical synergism was found to be unrelated to phase separation in the mixed solutions provided the phases remained intimately mixed. The relevance of this work to the use of the gum-dairy protein mixtures as rheologically-functional food ingredients is discussed.

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  • The thin end of the wedge : the 1970 South African tour controversy

    McKegg, William Amos (1990)

    Other thesis
    University of Otago

    In 1981 as a bewildered third former I marched up Queen Street in Auckland to protest against the Springbok tour. At the time I knew it was for the better good, yet the next day at rugby practise I had trouble explaining why. Sporting contacts with South Africa has been a source of curiosity ever since, hence my reason for choosing a South African tour debate. 1970 was chosen for the simple reason that other major controversial tours have been done and, as it happened the 1970 issue turned out to be a crucial year for New Zealand and South African sporting relations. [Extract from Preface]

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  • Response of kiwi to a range of baits and lures used for pest control in New Zealand : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Ecology at Massey University

    Ward-Smith, Tamsin Elizabeth (1998)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The primary aim of this thesis was to assess the palatability to North Island brown kiwi (Apteryx australis mantelli) of a range of non-toxic baits and flavours used to lure baits. During the wild bait trials incubation patterns of nesting male kiwi, chick behaviour and the presence of predators at the nesting burrow were recorded. A new 'improved' ground laid 1080 paste was also tested on a range of non-target bird species. All ten captive kiwi fed at least once on at least one bait type (i.e. carrot, No.7, RS5, apple pulp, and paste) but did not prefer any to their usual artificial diet. Wild kiwi did not feed on any bait type placed outside the nest entrance, but may have ingested apple pulp, or paste when they probed these baits. Results indicate that cereal-based baits are the safest bait type to sow aerially in kiwi habitat, while apple pulp baits are highly acceptable to kiwi. Cinnamon, aniseed, orange and clove flavours did not significantly attract or deter captive kiwi from feeding on portions of their usual diet. Insufficient flavoured cereal No.7 baits were eaten to determine whether any bait and flavour combination affected kiwi response to these baits. No wild kiwi fed on any cinnamon or orange flavoured No.7 cereal baits placed outside the nesting burrow, but kiwi did probe these baits. Incubating male kiwi left the nest once each night, except for two kiwi which sometimes left the nest twice in a night. One of these sometimes made three trips from the nest in a night. The active period of kiwi did not appear to be influenced by the number of times they emerged in a night. Male kiwi tended to spend less time away from the nest when chicks were due to hatch, following which they increased the time spent away. Possums, rats and mice regularly visited kiwi nests, but did not deter males from incubating, or harm kiwi eggs or chicks. Five species - robin, saddleback, blackbird, pukeko and weka, fed on a non-toxic cinnamon-lured form of 1080 paste. Species other than those mentioned rarely landed on the ground and therefore encountered paste infrequently. Captive weka found the paste highly palatable, while 24% of robins and possibly half of a pukeko family fed on the paste. All bird visits to the paste baits declined after the first day of exposure. Recommendations are made on the safe laying of paste baits in areas where robin, saddleback, weka or pukeko are present.

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  • The responsiveness of the bovine lactoferrin promoter to cytokines and glucocorticoids : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Biochemistry at Massey University

    Allen, Kirsty Ann (1998)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Lactoferrin is an iron-binding protein found in many bodily secretions and in the secondary granules of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. While there are many proposed functions for the lactoferrin protein - e.g. for iron storage, antibacterial properties, or a role in inflammation, the specific function(s) of lactoferrin have yet to be elucidated. Evidence that lactoferrin may be involved in inflammation was observed by Harmon et al. (1976) where after the induction of bovine mammary infections, a significant increase in secreted lactoferrin protein was seen during the early phase of the infection. As this increase was during the period of the acute phase response, this suggested that lactoferrin, as was the case with other proteins induced during this time, may have a role in the inflammatory response. The bovine lactoferrin (bLf) promoter contains many putative binding sites for inflammatory modulators, which suggests that the increases in lactoferrin seen during inflammation may be due to activation of lactoferrin gene transcription by these specifically-induced transcription factors. Substantiation of this suggestion would provide further evidence for a specific role for lactoferrin during inflammation. To investigate the cytokine-responsiveness of the bLf promoter, constructs corresponding to various lengths of the putative bLf promoter were linked to the luciferase reporter gene and introduced, by transient transfection, into RL95-2 human endometrial carcinoma cells. Cytokines, glucocorticoids or expression vectors for transcription factors were added to the cells, or potential 'masking' factors in the media such as phenol red or insulin were removed. The luciferase activity of the transfected cells was monitored for significant variation from the basal levels. The addition of cytokines with or without phenol red or insulin did not cause any significant changes in bLF promoter activity. In phenol red-free media, increases in luciferase reporter gene activity were observed after the co-transfection of an expression vector for NF-IL6, the addition of dexamethasone and also the addition of dexamethasone together with the co-transfection of a glucocorticoid receptor expression vector. These data provided evidence that lactoferrin transcription may be induced by inflammatory factors which support the suggestion that lactoferrin has a role in the inflammation process.

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  • Final report for BOP Fertiliser Ltd. : transportation, marketing, process design and costing for the commercialisation of granular reactive phosphate rock

    Ferris, Tim (1999)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This report was completed to determine the commercial feasibility of granular Reactive Phosphate Rock (RPR) as a fertiliser, and the requirements needed to bring it to market. Recommendations based on this report are as follows: • Redesign the existing Morrinsville plant • Change the name of the final product to something that is not directly associated with RPR, ie Gradual Delivery Phosphate • Convince the sales representatives in the ability of the new granular RPR • Employ a dedicated representative to target the forest and organic markets • Sell granular RPR for $210 per tonne ex works from year one • Consider adding extra nutrients into granular RPR for the Forestry market • Use marketing to current markets extensively • Appoint a Program Director for the implementation of granular RPR • Offer bulk discounts and special deals to bring in customers for the initial sale of RPR.

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  • Placement and displacement : the fallen woman in discourse : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in English at Massey University

    Dacre, Anna (1993)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis is an invitation to reconsider the process of reading and representing the fallen woman. It combines an eclectic theoretical approach, drawing on works by Foucault, Derrida and Kristeva, with the metaphor of colonisation and the palimpsest. Using this construction, the thesis examines the placement of the fallen woman in discourse. The first section discusses how she falls in discourse, and uses textual and visual examples (predominantly Esther Barton from Gaskell's Mary Barton, Monica Widdowson and Rhoda Nunn from Gissing's The Odd Women). The reading of these figures uncovers three characteristic issues in the fallen woman's representation: her construction as murderer, the 'justice' of her death, and her pornographic interaction with the reader. This examination of the placement of the fallen woman continues in the second section. Here, the thesis explores how representations of her placement in discourse also suggest a displacement--that is, how her fall in discourse is a fall from discourse. Reading her site as a palimpsest of colonising representations uncovers the placement and displacement of the fallen woman in discourse.

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  • The behaviour of reactive power marginal prices in an electricity spot market

    Ward, Andrew Graeme (1999)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis investigates the behaviour of marginal prices for reactive power in a competitive electricity spot market. In the proposed spot market, non-zero unit costs are assigned to the generation of reactive power as a method of paying for reactive power ancillary services. These costs enable reactive power to be optimally dispatched in the same manner as real power. This is unlike previous research, which has only described the behaviour of reactive power marginal prices in spot markets where the unit generation costs of reactive power equal zero. The theory of Dispatch Based Pricing, proposed by Ring [1995] is used to calculate and describe the behaviour of reactive power marginal prices for this spot market. Dispatch Based Pricing is an ex post variant of spot pricing, with the rare ability to accept non-zero unit generation costs for reactive power. It was originally derived from an optimal power flow (OPF) formulation. A new classification system for power system nodes in any OPF formulation is defined to enable the behaviour of reactive power marginal prices to be clearly described. Hence, Dispatch Based Pricing is redefined with respect to this classification system. An OPF is developed to validate this redefined Dispatch Based Pricing model and the marginal prices generated thereby. This OPF accepts non-zero unit generation costs for both real and reactive power, and uses them to optimally dispatch real and reactive power generation. The mechanisms determining the behaviour of reactive power marginal prices are investigated for optimal and sub-optimal dispatches of an unconstrained power system. Price behaviour is also investigated for optimal dispatches of voltage-constrained and reactive-power-generation-constrained power systems. The implications of this reactive power marginal price behaviour are discussed. It is shown that Dispatch Based Pricing can be used to calculate marginal prices when a load-following generator is used to supply reactive power. The conclusions regarding the behaviour of reactive power marginal prices are used to propose a spot market with non-zero reactive power unit generation costs, for the South Island section of New Zealand's National Grid. The use of Dispatch Based Pricing to calculate reactive power marginal prices for this spot market is detailed. The effects of this spot market on the operation of this South Island power system are then discussed.

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  • Perceived importance of the personality characteristics of a successful manager : the relevance of the CPI, the 16PF and the concept of androgyny : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment for the requirements of the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    Hodgson, Julie (1994)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The present study investigated the perceptions surrounding managers in New Zealand. Traits from the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF) and the California Psychological Inventory (CPI) were used to determine if managers perceived these traits differently for successful male and female managers. Subjects' gender role identity, and the perceived gender role identity of a successful manager were determined using the Bem Sex Role Inventory (Short Form). One hundred and forty three managers received one of three questionnaire versions. They rated either a successful manager, a successful female manager, or a successful male manager on the above traits. Results showed that successful male and female managers were perceived differently on six traits from the 16PF and CPI. Unexpectedly 41.5% of managers in the sample identified themselves on the BSRI as undifferentiated. Thirty five percent of respondents rated a successful manager as androgynous. These results are contrary to overseas research where managers predominantly rate successful managers as masculine. Only half the personality traits from the 16PF and CPI were actually considered important for managers. This supports research concerned with the use of general personality measures in selection.

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  • Personality and behavioral factors related to drink-driving among young males : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    McKillop, David (1999)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The study aimed to replicate the findings of research which highlighted a number of personality and behavioural variables that effect an individuals drink-driving frequency, and intoxication level while driving. These variables are aggression, sensation seeking, self-rated driving style and skill, driving related anger, and alcohol consumption. The studies sample (N = 129) was made up entirely of 20 - 24 year old males. This group has been shown to drink-drive more frequently than any other age group in New Zealand, and males drink-drive significantly more than females. Results showed that physical aggression, verbal aggression, alcohol consumption and risky driving style were correlated with drink-driving intoxication level. However, once a regression analysis was employed it was discovered that only alcohol consumption level had significant predictive validity in relation to drink-driving intoxication level. The more a participant drank the more likely they were to drive when drunk. Overall, the results tend to question how much impact the personality variables studied really have on the frequency of drink-driving. Assumptions in relation to the findings, and implications future research on factors effecting drink-driving, are also discussed.

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  • Predicting the cognitive correlates of sun protective behaviour : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    Seymour, Andrea (1999)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Previous research has explored the cognitive correlates of sun protective behaviour and has found that intention to use skin protection is likely to affect an individuals decision to use such behaviour. Other research has used social cognition models such as the Theory of Planned Behaviour to predict the use of sun protective behaviours with mixed results. The present study examined sun protective behaviour on beaches in New Zealand (n=80) and used a modified version of the Jones, Abraham, Harris, Schulz & Chrispin (1998) model of sun protective behaviour to predict sunscreen use. This modified version of the model contained variables from social cognition models, including the Theory of Planned Behaviour and Stage models of Health Behaviour such as that of Gollwitzer (1993). Knowledge, norms, threat likelihood, perceived threat, self-efficacy and motivation to prevent negative effects of sun exposure together accounted for 36.5% of the variance in intention to use sunscreen. The findings also suggest that motivation to prevent negative effects of sun exposure and threat likelihood consistently have the strongest correlational relationship (of all the prior cognitions) with both intention and sunscreen behaviour. A measure of planning did not mediate the effects of intentions on sunscreen use as was originally expected, rather, intentions had the largest effect on sunscreen use. It is reasonable to assume that planning may not always be necessary for the prediction of sunscreen behaviours. It was concluded that a modified version of the sun protective behaviour model may be useful in predicting such behaviours but refinement is required of the model and its measures. Implications for further research and model modification are noted.

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  • The perceptual preferences of a group of Malaysian kindergarten children and the effects of tactile and kinaesthetic teaching methods on their learning of Bahasa Malaysia as a second language : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Education at Massey University

    Lau, Linda (1997)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This intervention study was undertaken in response to a teacher's desire to acquire more effective language teaching methods to use with a small class of academically able, but disinterested five to six year olds. It was decided to trial the use of tactile and kinaesthetic methods because learning style research literature indicates that these are the preferred perceptual modalities of children of this age and the existing language teaching programme consisted almost entirely of auditory and visual activities. Pre-intervention interviews confirmed the first hypothesis: that the children preferred tactile and kinaesthetic learning. Pre- and post-testing of each lesson also confirmed the second hypothesis: that the class as a whole would achieve greater gains in vocabulary acquisition with the introduction of tactile and kinaesthetic learning activities. In a total of 18 out of 23 instances there was a significant pre-post gain on tactile lessons. In a total of 19 out of 24 instances there was a significant pre-post gain on kinaesthetic lessons. However, the final two hypotheses positing an advantage of the tactile and kinaesthetic experimental lessons over control lessons were less strongly supported. Whilst the experimental lessons were slightly more effective than the controls, yielding three, and virtually four significant gains over the control lessons in six trials (p= .0157, p= .0389, p=.0440, p= .0633), the gains registered for matched conditions did not significantly exceed those for unmatched conditions. Reasons are argued to lie in a spread of effect from the experimental to the control lessons, and the need to consider the influence of other learning style elements.

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  • Pollution of the aquatic biosphere by arsenic and other elements in the Taupo volcanic zone : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Biology at Massey University

    Robinson, Brett Harvey (1994)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    An introduction to the Taupo Volcanic Zone and probable sources of polluting elements entering the aquatic environment is followed by a description of collection and treatment of samples used in this study. The construction of a hydride generation apparatus for use with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer for the determination of arsenic and other hydride forming elements is described. Flame emission, flame atomic absorption and inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (I.C.P.-E.S.) were used for the determination of other elements. Determinations of arsenic and other elements were made on some geothermal waters of the area. It was found that these waters contribute large (relative to background levels) amounts of arsenic, boron and alkali metals to the aquatic environment. Some terrestrial vegetation surrounding hot pools at Lake Rotokawa and the Champagne Pool at Waiotapu was found to have high arsenic concentrations. Arsenic determinations made on the waters of the Waikato River and some lakes of the Taupo Volcanic Zone revealed that water from the Waikato River between Lake Aratiatia and Whakamaru as well as Lakes Rotokawa, Rotomahana and Rotoehu was above the World Health Organisation limit for arsenic in drinking water (0.05 µg/mL) at the time of sampling. Arsenic accumulates in the sediments of the Waikato River and Lakes of the Taupo Volcanic Zone. The levels were variable, but characteristically around 100 µg/g. Trout taken from the Waikato River and some lakes in the Taupo Volcanic Zone, had flesh arsenic concentrations of the same order of magnitude as the water from which they were taken. Trout from Lakes Rotorua, Rotoiti and Rotomahana contained average flesh mercury concentrations above the World Health Organisations limit for mercury in foodstuffs (0.5 µg/g). There were positive correlations between weight, length and flesh mercury concentration. Freshwater mussels from Lakes Rotorua and Tarawera had arsenic concentrations above the World Health Organisations limit for arsenic in foodstuffs (2 µg/g). Shellfish taken from the mouth of the Waikato river and from Raglan were below the World Health Organisation's limit for arsenic and mercury. Aquatic macrophytes from the Waikato River had arsenic concentrations many times greater than the water from which they were taken. Some samples of Ceratophyllum demersum had arsenic concentrations above 1000 µg/g dry weight. Water cress from the Waikato River at Broadlands and Orakei Korako contained on average 400 µg/g and 30 µg/g arsenic respectively. An experiment was conducted on the uptake of arsenic by water cress. It was found that water cress does accumulate arsenic if placed in an arsenic solution.

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  • Perceived stress in parents and partners of people with head injury : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    Heath, Elaine Joye (1992)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The stress experienced by Parents and Partners of people with head injury has been examined by several authors, especially in relation to a number of clinical issues. There is general agreement between researchers and clinicians alike that relatives of people with head injuries experience heightened stress as a result of the injury and its consequences. The present study sought to examine the stress experienced by Parents and Partners of people with head injury by focussing on minor events, along with several related variables. A single structured interview, including both verbally administered and written response questionnaires was completed with 18 Parents and 13 Partners. Measures included the Daily Hassles and Uplifts Scale, the Arizona Social Support Interview Schedule, questions regarding Role Change, Health Problems and the Information received at the time of hospitalisation. The combined Parents and Partners group indicated that they experienced moderate levels of Stress and Role Change. A relatively small proportion of participants reported experiencing Health Problems. Partners indicated a slightly higher degree of Stress and a greater degree of Role Change than Parents, and a larger proportion of Partners indicated the presence of Health Problems. Qualitative differences between the two groups were found in terms of sources of Stress. There was little quantitative or qualitative difference in Social Support. Positive correlations were found between Stress and Role Change and Stress and Health Problems. Participants indicated that, in general, the information received at the time of hospitalisation was not satisfactory. Their level of understanding and the perception of the adequacy of this information increased over time. The results obtained supported a number of the research hypotheses in showing that some differences do exist between the two groups, although generally these differences were not large. A number of suggestions for future research and service provision arose from the results obtained.

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  • Ecology of the Possum (Trichosurus Vulpecula Kerr) in the Karori Water Supply Reserve, Wellington, Sounds Ecological District

    Stoffregen, Hans (1997)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The abundance and condition of possums in various areas of the Karori Reserve, Wellington - Sounds Ecological District was assessed. Possums were most abundant in the upper part of the reserve in an area dominated by bishop and radiata pines with an undergrowth of native species and in an area dominated by gorse and flax shrublands. In the lower part of the reserve, possums were less abundant and there a number of characteristics were observed: possums had a higher body weight for age, their reproductive output was higher and the population was marked by a higher proportion of females and juveniles. This was interpreted as a "compensatory response" characteristic of possum populations maintained at low densities. Possum stomachs were sampled in spring and their contents analysed in order to investigate the importance of Fuchsia excorticata and other plant species to possum diet. In the lower part of the reserve the leaves of Fuchsia excorticata and the flowers of Cytisus scoparius made up more than 50 percent of the possums' forage. In the upper part of the reserve exotic species such as the flowers of Cytisus scoparius and Ulex europeans as well as the leaves of native species such as Aristotelia serrata, Pseudopanax arboreus and Coprosma robusta made up the bulk of possum forage. Exotic plants accounted for a significant proportion of the spring possum diet in the reserve. Whereas most leaves originated from native plants, the exotic species contributed mainly carbohydrate-rich flowers and pollen. The canopy condition of two possum-susceptible tree species Fuchsia excorticata and Pseudopanax arboreus was assessed early in autumn over the years 1993, 1995 and 1996. Over these years, 47 percent of marked fuchsia trees were completely defoliated and most trees are unlikely to recover even if possums are eradicated from the reserve. All defoliated fuchsia trees were located in the upper part of the reserve. On the other hand, 37 percent of marked fuchsia trees exhibited only a little possum damage. Most of these trees were located in the lower part of the reserve where possum density was lower. Increasing possum densities could therefore be correlated with an increasing level of possum damage to fuchsia canopies. Even though Pseudopanax arboreus leaves and petioles were encountered in 10 percent of possum stomachs, the canopies leaves and petioles were encountered in 10 percent of possum stomachs, the canopies of assessed trees did not seem to be greatly affected. It appeared that due to the high abundance of this plant species in the reserve the effects of possum browse were spread over the whole reserve to levels which could be tolerated by an individual Pseudopanax arboreus tree.

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  • The potential use of hen egg white lysozyme as an antimicrobial agent in foods : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Technology in Food Technology at Massey University

    Rushizha, Edgar (1995)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The potential use of lysozyme as an antimicrobial agent in foods was investigated in model food systems(brainheart infusion broth) using factorial designed experiments and in mussel and cottage cheese food systems. Optical density or absorbance was used as a tool to monitor the growth response of Listeria monocytogenes and C. tyrobutyricum in brain heart infusion broth under the combined influence of pH(5.5, 6.5), lysozyme (0.2mg/ml, 3mg/ml) and different chelating agents(ethylene diaminetetraacetic acid(EDTA), glycine, gluco delta lactone(GDL), citric acid, sodium phosphate dibasic(SPDB) and sodium hexametaphosphate(SHMP)(10mM, 25mM). Using 2 3 full factorial design experiments, the yield of the organisms (expressed as the area under the curve of a plot of change in optical density at 600nm vs time) was taken as the quantitative response variable for each treatment. These yield values were then used for (a) statistical analysis to determine which of the single or interactive factors tested significantly reduced the yield, (b) formulation of a mathematical regression equation which could be used to predict microbial growth within the limits of the factors studied. Diagnostic plots were constructed to evaluate further how well the statistical model fit the observed yield values. Plots of residuals versus predicted yield values appeared to suggest that a transformation of the response would improve the fit of the models. No other serious reservations were suggested by the diagnostic plots. Goodness of fit of the models was also evaluated by the R-squared values. Significant two-way and three-way interactions between lysozyme, pH and EDTA, GDL, citric acid and glycine were exhibited. Response surface methodology(RSM) was used to (a) characterize the response of L. monocytogenes to variation in treatment combinations and (b) show non-linearity of models(or interaction of factors). Generally yield was minimal in treatment where pH was low, with high lysozyme and chelator. Based on equal molar concentrations, the antimicrobial activity of the different chelating agents was in the order EDTA > GDL > citric acid > glycine > adipic acid > SHMP > SPDB. The same ranking was true for the degree to which each chelating agent enhanced lysozyme activity. Based on broth culture studies, the chelating agents EDTA, GDL, glycine, citric acid and adipic acid were demonstrated to have potential for use as antimicrobial agents in combination with lysozyme in food systems. Results of a 2 5 factorial design indicated that the 5 factors, lysozyme, GDL, pH, inoculum level and temperature were important in the inhibition of L. monocytogenes. Results of the broth culture studies gave a good reflection of the survival of L. monocytogenes in the food system. The variable combinations interacted to decrease the growth of L. monocytogenes and extended the lag phase duration. However C. tyrobutyricum was more tolerant to the different treatment combinations other than EDTA. A study of protein interference demonstrated that the antimicrobial activity of the lysozyme-GDL preservation system was not inhibited by the presence of proteins. The food system study demonstrated that the lysozyme-GDL treatment combination has potential for use as a preservative in refrigerated low pH ready-to-eat foods. The susceptibility of L. monocytogenes to lysozyme-GDL treatment in both broth culture and food systems increased as the temperature was reduced(25C-5C) and as the pH decreased(pH6.5-pH5.5). Food system studies demonstrated that modified atmosphere packaging(96.58%N2 , 2.09%O2 and 1.34% CO2) has no influence of the growth of L. monocytogenes. The susceptibility of L. monocytogenes to lysozyme-GDL was a stable characteristic, remaining unchanged during the entire study. Attempts to select for greater lysozyme-GDL resistance by testing populations grown from lysozyme-GDL survivors isolated at the end of the food system study was unsuccessful. There was no evidence that L. monocytogenes was resistant to the lysozyme-GDL treatment.

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  • Peer review : organisational learning for nurses : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Nursing at Massey University

    McRae, Brigid Halmai Te Kahui (1998)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Organisational learning as it relates to the development of a peer review system within a clinical area of nursing practice is the focus of this study. Sixteen Public Health Nurses, with the manager of their service, and three key managers from the employing Crown Health Enterprise in provincial New Zealand, took part with the researcher in this praxis-oriented participatory action research process. A framework of the learning organisation was created to direct the research inquiry and evaluate data in relation to the developing peer review system. Through the use of critically reflexive discussions in an ongoing spiral of planning, implementing, observing, and assessing, this study illuminates the growth of the learning organisation and the building of a peer review system. within a cost-conscious healthcare service delivery environment. The account of the research process includes factors facilitative of, and critical to, the learning organisation. Use of many direct quotes from participants creates a context against which to visualise problems and constraints faced by the research group, and offers the reader a decision trail with which to resolve issues of credibility. Use of the peer process, it is suggested, will generate vital information about organisational performance, which will enable nurses to assume legitimate control of clinical nursing workplaces. Conclusions derived from this study suggest that peer review and the learning organisation are important tools for both assuring the quality of clinical nursing performance and securing organisational goals.

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