25,053 results for 2000

  • Mere-Zeal, Hyper-Zeal and the Ethical Obligations of Lawyers

    Dare, Tim (2004)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Analysis of results in simulation and modeling of CDMA systems

    Kolahi, Samad (2007-07-01)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    In this paper, using discrete event stochastic simulation by batch-means, new results have been obtained by analysing the sensitivity of CDMA blocking probability for a given traffic load against various number of calls per batch and confidence intervals. It is found that for the system under study one long simulation with one million call arrivals produce approximately 99% confidence in results while it needs 100,000 calls to achieve 95% confidence. For system under study and with 27 Erlang of traffic, the blocking probability is 0.0202 with 99% confidence and 0.0192 with 95% confidence. The impact of warm-up period on CDMA simulation is discussed. Situation with three tiers of neighbouring cells are considered when mobile compares three base stations and chooses the base station with the strongest signal.

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  • Have your cake and eat it too : the treatment of contemporaneous relationships under the Property (Relationships) Act 1976

    Reid, Adrianne Nicola (2007)

    Honours Dissertation thesis
    University of Otago

    Although it is clear from the Act that a person can be in more than one qualifying relationship at a time, the courts have shown themselves to be reluctant to recognise contemporaneous relationships as falling within the ambit of the Act. Because of this, contemporaneous relationships will only be recognised where it is abundantly clear that the parties are living together as a couple. Sections 52A and 52B are designed to divide property between relationships, and do not override the usual rules governing the division of relationship property between the partners in a relationship. Sections 52A and 52B will apply after the court finds that the relationship property of contemporaneous relationships overlap, and they will only apply to those pieces of property which are found to be relationship property of both relationships. The first limb of the rule in sections 52A and 52B will be redundant as all property that is relationship property of a relationship is attributable to that relationship. Property which is relationship property of both relationships will be divided between the relationships in accordance with their respective contributions to its acquisition. Sections 52A and 52B work to the advantage of the common partner, leaving them with half of the total relationship property. Because sections 52A and 52B only apply if the court has made findings in respect of each relationship, it is to the advantage of the common partner to litigate both disputes simultaneously, rather than undergo successive settlements with each partner. Sections 52A and 52B can also be used to manipulate the outcome where only one of the relationships has ended, or, in the case of the common partners' death, where one of the partners has an interest in retaining as much of the relationship property as possible between themselves and the deceased common partners estate. Given the difficulties in applying sections 52A and 52B, and their fairly arbitrary outcome, they would be better replaced with an unambiguous provision which allocated specified shares to the relationships on a more objective basis. [Extract from Introduction]

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  • Tangata whaiora/consumers perspectives on current psychiatric classification systems

    Moeke-Maxwell, Tess; Wells, D; Mellsop, Graham (2008-06-12)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background A number of studies have been undertaken with the aim of considering the utility of mental health classification systems from the perspective of a variety of stakeholders. There is a lack of research on how useful consumers/tangata whaiora think these are in assisting them in their recovery. Methods Seventy service users were involved in seven focus groups in order to consider this question. Results and discussion While for clinicians diagnosing someone might be a discrete event and easily forgotten as a moment in a busy schedule, most people in this study remembered the occasion and aftermath very clearly. The overall consensus was that whether being 'diagnosed' was helpful or not, in large part, depended on how the process happened and what resulted from being 'labeled' in the person's life. Conclusion Overall, people thought that in terms of their recovery, the classification systems were tools and their utility depended on how they were used. They suggested that whatever tool was used it needed to help them make sense of their distress and provide them with a variety of supports, not just medication, to assist them to live lives that were meaningful to them.

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  • A brave new world: Mediation in cyberspace

    Khouri, Nina (2006)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • New Zealand Trade Marks Act 2002 and it's References to Māori : a critical discussion

    Rustler, Marie-Christine (2005)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    New Zealand established the Trade Marks Act 2002 to meet the substantial changes in trade mark matters over the past 50 years. Particular focus was placed on improving the protection of trade mark rights for business and economic interests. As Māori groups' concerns regarding the former Trade Marks Act intensified, the Governments also began extensive consultation of Māori, revealing the dilemma for Maori cultural property when forced under Western-oriented trade mark law systems. This research paper analyses the new Act with respect to its references to Māori. It focuses on the unique sections 17(1 )(b)(ii) and 177 to 180 and the Governments' aims and intentions that underpin these regulations. Analysis of the paper aims to show the meaning of the law in trade mark practice, with regard to Māori and business people. The paper is based on the thesis that the Act is dishonest legislation. It argues that the Government presented the law as a significant improvement in all relevant matters; in particular, as law that for the first time provides Māori knowledge and cultural heritage with legal protection. It is shown, however, that the Act neither provides business/economic interests, nor Māori with satisfying law. The paper concludes that the Governments were not interested in revealing their actual intentions in trade mark matters. The Governments' political interests did not allow them to exclusively focus on business and economic interests. Therefore, the Governments introduced a few Māori regulations.

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  • Challenges for educators in meeting the needs of students bridging into tertiary education : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Education in Adult Education at Massey University

    Morgan, Cecile Jane (2003)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Tertiary pre-entry programmes are designed to assist students in attaining an academic qualification that will allow entry into undergraduate study programmes. This study explores the challenges that educators encounter in meeting the needs of students bridging into tertiary education. It includes a review of programme purposes from historical, political and social viewpoints. It also describes the traditional and current profile of students accessing such programmes. The educator role within tertiary pre-entry programmes is outlined, interlinked with teaching and learning theory. Integral to the study is an exploration of the philosophical assumptions underpinning current teaching practice in relation to students, programmes and the future direction of tertiary pre-entry education. However, it is difficult to isolate an educator perspective from institutional and political perspectives. Hence this study addresses all these. The various perspectives all closely connect to create the learning environment that comprises current tertiary pre-entry programmes. The study identifies a number of tension areas between philosophical assumptions and practice that educators need to consider in meeting current student needs in their learning endeavours. These areas are: • The learning environment that students encounter • The people who interact in these environments • Future directions of tertiary pre-entry programmes. The study makes recommendations, from an educator's perspective, on what is required to lessen the tension and successfully meet the needs of the diverse student populace accessing tertiary pre-entry programmes.

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  • Being comfortable : having and making a comfortable cognitive and environmental habitat : a grounded theory on the meaning of home : a thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    Aspinall, Charlotte Nicola (2008)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Prior research on the meanings of home represents a rather fragmented set of studies. The present research utilises phenomenology and aims to create a grounded theory on the meanings of home which is explorative, participant-led and integrates the current state of home research. 15 participants singularly took part in semi-structured interviews, including myself as a participant-researcher. The interviews were audio taped but not transcribed. The interviews were then analysed qualitatively as per grounded theory methodology. Participant's interpretation of the word home was both construed as having a spatial definition, and varying along a continuum from home as a house to a more subjective definition of home. The core code that the data generated on the meanings of home was that home was primarily about being comfortable. The basic social process of making a comfortable habitat was the main axial code. While the idea of comfort held strong between participants there was much individuality as to what was comfortable and which particular strategies were employed to make home comfortable. The result was a grounded theory about person environment interactions in the field of home, a cognitive and a physical habitat. Implications of this theory are discussed in relation to current and future home research as well as suggestions for practical applications.

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  • Capitalism with a conscience : SMEs and community engagement : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Management in Management at Massey University

    Yates, Angela Patricia (2007)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    It is commonly acknowledged that business organisations are expected to demonstrate ethical and moral conduct, yet throughout the last half century the bar has been raised. Not only are organisations expected to behave ethically; they are being summoned to exercise Business Social Responsibility (BSR). While there is a growing amount of literature on BSR, research in this field has largely confined itself to corporations. As such, especially in the New Zealand space, it has neglected prolific Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs). The aim of this study was to explore SME owner-managers' perceptions of community engagement. To accomplish this aim an exploratory, qualitative study involving semi-structured interviews with 10 SME owner-managers was conducted. SME owner-managers interviewed perceive business as having a highly integrated function in society. The owner-managers engage with their communities in significantly diverse ways, covering an extensive range of stakeholders. Primarily influenced by values pertaining to religion, family, and moral orientation, many owner-managers overlook economic gain, yet consider peripheral benefits to accrue nonetheless.

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  • Becoming-interior : toward a nondual philosophy of design for dwelling-in-the-world : a thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Design at Massey University

    Archer, Jennifer (2005)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Martin Heidegger suggests that dwelling is an act of inhabitation, which engenders a becoming-interior of the world. The site of this dwelling is not confined to architecture, but occurs in the space between earth and sky: the world. This work seeks to investigate the implications of this claim on the role of interior design. It proposes that, in order to formulate an approach to design that aims to facilitate a Heideggerian dwelling, the binary oppositions of inside and outside, nature and culture, self and world, must be re-examined. The connections between architectural minimalism and Eastern aesthetics that are hinted at in contemporary New Zealand lifestyle magazines such as urbis provide a gateway to an investigation of dwelling-design that moves beyond the conflicts of a world divided by Cartesian dualism. The space between East and West operates as the field of inquiry within which this work locates a comparative study of nondual philosophies pertaining to dwelling as an interrelation of self and world. Nondual concepts found in the writings of Elizabeth Grosz, and Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari, are subjected to a reading that suggests links with such Eastern philosophical concepts as ma (the space of the in-between), yin and yang as an analogy of correlativity and becoming-other, and dao and de (field and focus) as a conceptual model for the interrelation of the natural world and the self. Through the generation of a nondual core philosophy, the work suggests that the "nothingness" of minimalism may be reconceptualised as a betweenness, with the potential to act as an intermediary space between the inhabitant and nature. The nature of this mediation as the stimulation of resonance is explored in relation to the depiction of the natural world in art, and subsequently applied to the architectural threshold. Architecture is posited as an instrument of facilitation - the means by which the potential for dwelling may be manifested in a becoming-interior of the world.

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  • Blind people can do anything but not in my company : employer attitudes towards employing blind and vision-impaired people : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Business Studies at Massey University

    Inglis, Christine (2005)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Previous international research has shown blind and vision-impaired people to be in the less favoured groups of employees employers are willing to hire. None of the research has addressed why this is the case. The present study was undertaken firstly to see if in New Zealand also, blind and vision-impaired people were less favoured in comparison with other disability groups as potential employees; and secondly, to determine employer attitudes and perceptions towards employing blind people, and how or why these attitudes and perceptions influence employers to overlook the blind and vision-impaired when employing staff. One hundred and two employers (sample 200) participated in a telephone survey and, of those, six were interviewed again in an in-depth face-to-face interview. A combination of attitudinal and perception survey instruments were used. The research found participants had mainly favourable attitudes towards blind and vision-impaired people. However, in total contrast, blind and vision-impaired people (alongside those with moderate to severe intellectual disabilities) were regarded the least suitable or least employable for positions most and second most often available in firms across all industries. The results were congruent with earlier findings (Gilbride, Stensrud, Ehlers, Evans & Peterson, 2000) in that of all of the disability groups, blindness and persons with moderate or severe (mental retardation) intellectual handicap were perceived as the hardest to employ in comparison with other disability groups. Lastly, this report comments on how potential hiring practices (employers' potential behaviour) can be changed to better match their apparent positive attitudes towards blind and vision-impaired people. A range of recommendations are made such as the need for education programmes in schools, media campaigns and cultivating positive media relationships, workplace training and education, employer mentoring programmes, the development of government policies and strategies and the need for work experience programmes.

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  • Bullying in secondary schools : a discursive approach : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Psychology at Massey University

    Ryan, Anne Beryl (2008)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This study attempts to transcend the narrow boundaries imposed on mainstream research into bullying by its adherence to a modernist discourse of individualism. The theoretical framework for this research argues that a modernist focus has both limited our understanding of the phenomenon and contributed to its continued occurrence. An approach that is underpinned by the ontological and epistemological assumptions of a social constructionist paradigm offers the potential for a broader and more encompassing analysis of this formidable social issue. Language is taken as a critical focus of attention because of its pervasiveness in social interaction. Discourse is understood as actively constructing the experience and meaning of bullying. Furthermore, a consideration of the power relationships embedded within discourse is an essential feature of this approach. The study involved interviewing 24 senior students from a small provincial New Zealand secondary school to discuss a range of issues surrounding bullying. These interviews were taped and transcribed and a discourse analysis was carried out to gain an understanding of how students talk constructed bullying. Discourses were identified that constructed bullying as disparity, as irrelevant, as a consequence of difference, as a form of discipline, and as inevitable. The construction of bullying as disparity was seen to struggle against the other prevailing educational discourses that together functioned to maintain the status quo of power relationships in the educational institution. It is suggested that the acceptance of such 'common sense' constructions of bullying are effectively sustaining the pervasiveness of bullying in schools today.

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  • Challenging Stout : value conflicts in trying to reform the University of New Zealand, 1910-1914 : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Management at Massey University

    Park, Nick (Nicholas) (2001)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This study looks at the reasons why the University of New Zealand (UNZ), characterized by Beaglehole as an object of "fury, loathing and despair" (1949, p. 1) survived so long, from its founding in 1871 until its dissolution in 1961? The study takes a broad sweep to cover the depth of those reasons. A general answer to the question is that it suited local conditions in New Zealand to create and maintain a university based around a federal, non-teaching, examining model. However, there was a serious challenge to that model mounted in 1911 by the New Zealand University Reform Association (NZURA) and so this study looks in particular at the reasons why that challenge failed. There is a short answer to that question, too. It failed because the institutional authority of the UNZ, and the politicians who supported it, was easily able to drive a wedge through any attempted coalitions that might threaten to dispose of it. The reformers of 1910-14 did not want to destroy the UNZ. They wanted to change it in two respects: they wanted to give what they thought was their rightful place in university governance to professors; and they wanted to give the professors what they argued was their rightful place in teaching and examining their own students as well. However, the UNZ had sufficient confidence and authority to characterise the reformers as destructive of an institution which had served colonial New Zealand well, and which was competent enough to serve the growing Dominion even better. And furthermore, the UNZ had the adaptive capacity to absorb its critics and convert their energies to supporting its subsidiary institutions and serving a common purpose. If it is ever fair to characterize organizations as living organisms it is fair to say that the UNZ showed great vitality and adapted well to local conditions. This study looks at the stories of the UNZ and examines the general questions already suggested, and, in doing so, goes on to tackle other minor questions such as how much the structure of the UNZ owed to the British and the colonial cultures in which it was embedded, and how much the outcomes of 1910-14 owed to the resource dependency of the actors. To answer these questions the study revisits a number of narratives that touch on the UNZ. There are two written histories of the UNZ. The more readable of the two does not provide a complete history for it was published in 1937 by Beaglehole more than twenty years before the university, as he later put it, was finally given a "clump on the head" (Beaglehole in Parton, 1979, p. 253). Beaglehole had deeply committed views about what a university should be, and was strongly of the view that in many respects the UNZ did not measure up to his ideal model. His history is interesting because he was a participant observer in the UNZ and demonstrated strong sympathies towards the reformers. He was a leading figure among the academics who served the UNZ and became one of the most outstanding researchers at the youngest of its Colleges, Victoria University College (VUC). However, he did not take up his position at Victoria before featuring in one of the more outspoken incidents at Auckland University College (AUC) where the weight of power rested with the College Board in stand-offs over academic freedom. The UNZ defended neither academic freedom, nor Beaglehole over the difficulties at AUC and preferred to insist instead on the autonomy of its constituent college to takes its own course of action. Fowlds, the Chairman of the AUC Council at the time, was also a member of the Senate of UNZ so the refusal of the UNZ to act in opposition to AUC probably reflected a view of academic freedom shared by the governing bodies rather than some commitment to principles of autonomy in favour of the subsidiary institution. The bite in Beaglehole's rhetoric and his attitude to the UNZ may have been sharpened by this incident. When he later wrote his essay and mentioned feelings of loathing, fury and despair towards the UNZ he was. I feel sure, expressing his own deeply felt emotions.

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  • Change management : structural change-- a case study in the Maldives : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Educational Administration at Massey University

    Qasim, Mizna (2007)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Changes to schools structure is a common practice in the Maldives. Structural change impacts on people at every level of the organisation. It is essential to identify how change is managed at different levels in schools in order to implement change successfully. This study is based in a secondary school in the Republic of Maldives. This research examines the processes, school systems and practices, that facilitate change in structure. It seeks to understand how processes facilitate structural change at the various levels of school organisation, namely senior management (principal, assistant principals, supervisors), middle management (heads of departments) and teachers. In this inquiry, the structure selected to examine processes of change is the 'Organisation Chart'; in particular, changes to the roles and responsibilities of individuals. To understand aspects involved in managing change, a review of literature focused on change and change management, leadership, structures of organisations, change agents and culture. This provided the researcher insight into the processes, aspects and issues in managing change. A qualitative case study was undertaken for this research. A qualitative approach allowed the researcher to understand multiple realities, interpretations and perspectives of individuals associated with structural change. Data collection incorporated individual interviews, focus group discussions, document analysis and observations. Data was analysed using the, 'constant comparative method' (Merriam, 1998). Evidence from this study suggests that equal attention needs to be given to the systems, change agents and culture of the school to facilitate and manage change.

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  • Healthy eating in 10-13 year old children : understanding choice using the theory of planned behaviour and the role of parental influence : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Health Psychology at Massey University

    Hewitt, Allison Melinda (2005)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Currently, one fifth of New Zealand children are overweight and one tenth are obese. The majority of the literature reports that an increase in the intake of energy-dense foods, particularly those containing fats and sugar, are a contributing factor in the development of overweight among children. This study utilised a social cognitive model, the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) to examine the influence of behavioural beliefs, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control, and attitudes towards healthy eating on a sample of 10-13 year old children. The model examined their intentions to consume particular types of food, and whether intention, in turn, predicted dietary behaviour (self-reported consumption of healthy food items). In addition, the role of parental influence on children's eating behaviour was examined. Two hundred and sixty one children, comprising males and females aged between 10 and 13 years old, from two types of school, completed a questionnaire, which focussed on five different food groups. Parents and caregivers of the children also completed a questionnaire examining their child-feeding practices. The TPB explained 65% of the variance in Ashhurst School children's behavioural intentions and 43% of Palmerston North Intermediate Normal School (PNINS) children's intentions. Intentions accounted for 47% (PNINS) and 28% (Ashhurst) of the explained variance in dietary behaviour. Parental influence did not contribute significantly to the model. For PNINS children, behavioural intention partly mediated the relationship between subjective norm, perceived behavioural control and dietary behaviour and fully mediated the relationship between behavioural belief and dietary behaviour. For Ashhurst School children, behavioural intention mediated the relationship between attitude and dietary behaviour. The results of this study support the use of the TPB in identifying healthy eating intentions and behaviour in school age children. These results however, do not support the addition of parental influence, measured by the Child Feeding Questionnaire, as a predictor of children's dietary behaviour over and above the TPB.

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  • The application of economic instruments to the management of threatened species : a fisheries case study in the Galápagos Islands : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Applied Science (Natural Resource Economics), Massey University,

    Bermeo Alvear, Santiago Antonio (2007)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Under open access conditions fisheries tend to suffer from overexploitation and rent dissipation. This situation makes regulation necessary to achieve sustainability. In the Galápagos Marine Reserve, ineffective fisheries management has created a 'regulated' open access situation. The major fisheries, sea cucumber and spiny lobster, have been exploited beyond sustainable levels and catches have decreased significantly. Given the state of the resources, fisheries management in Galápagos needs to effectively limit catch and effort to sustainable levels. This research analyses the feasibility of an individual transferable quota (ITQ) scheme in Galápagos, evaluating the suitability of the context and assessing the expected economic benefits and equity implications from such a regulatory instrument. The spiny lobster fishery is considered to be suitable for an ITQ scheme while the sea cucumber fishery is not, given that the resource is on the verge of commercial extinction, the difficulties in monitoring exports and the variability of prices. The optimal management scenario for the spiny lobster fishery, of those evaluated in this study, is an ITQ scheme where the total allowable catch is set at the maximum economic yield. This scenario resulted in the largest economic benefit and efficiency gains. Major equity implications are expected from an ITQ scheme in this fishery also. These, however, are consistent with the amount of catch that needs to be reduced in order for the fishery to operate sustainably. With this in mind, it is concluded that the Galápagos National Park Service and other stakeholders that participate in fisheries management in the archipelago should consider the adoption of an ITQ scheme to manage the spiny lobster fishery. The sea cucumber fishery on the other hand, needs to remain closed until the stock recovers. Current challenges to more effective fisheries management are limited monitoring and enforcement and weaknesses within fishing cooperatives. An enhancement of the monitoring and enforcement component, and a strengthening of fishing cooperatives through more meaningful grassroots participation in fisheries management are necessary to improve the current situation. Complementary restrictions and policies to achieve particular socio-economic and environmental objectives will also be necessary in order to reduce potential negative impacts from an ITQ scheme.

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  • Conditional expertise in chronic illness : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Social Sciences at Massey University

    Casey, Georgina (2000)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The incidence of chronic illness is increasing in the developed world. This means that there is an increased utilisation of acute health care services by people with chronic illnesses, either for treatment of exacerbations or for unrelated health problems. Acute health care services are based on the notion of finite, curable episodes of ill-health, and as such they do not always meet the needs of people with chronic illnesses. This study uses a grounded theory approach to examine the issues surrounding hospitalisation in acute care facilities for a group of eight people with chronic illness. Participants were interviewed within two months of an admission to hospital. Analysis of data, further interviews and other data collection, and generation of theoretical concepts were performed in accordance with the grounded theory method. The key finding from the research was a state of conditional expertise for the chronically ill. While living at home, and in a state of relative well-being, participants were acting as experts in the management of their illnesses. During encounters with health providers in the primary care setting, particularly those whom participants knew, a process of negotiation occurred, engendered by mutual trust in each other's expertise. However, once the acute care setting was entered, participants discovered that their expertise was neither valued nor acknowledged. In response, they went through the processes of informing health carers, by repeatedly telling their stories to different health professionals they encountered, and finally withdrawing from participation in care. This withdrawal could be either physical, where the participants sought early discharge, or emotional in terms of becoming passive recipients of care. The implications of this study, given its limitations, are numerous. In order to provide satisfactory care for people with chronic illnesses, health professionals working in acute care settings must move beyond the dominant model and seek to establish trust relationships which acknowledge and value patient expertise. This requires, first, that education programmes for health carers encourage the recognition of important data patients that do not relate to biological and disease states. Second, a system of care needs to be developed within the acute care setting that allows ongoing relationships to be established between individual patients and carers. This in turn would generate trust between patient and carer, which would enhance the abilities of each to acknowledge expertise. The Partnership model of nursing care is proposed as a possible solution to this problem.

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  • A criterion validation of the New Zealand Army Officer Selection Board : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Psychology at Massey University

    Benjamin, Kathryn (2006)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Appendix 5 has been removed. Please contact the Senior Psychologist Army, NZDF for access to this appendix.

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  • Cognitive trait model for persistent and fine-tuned student modelling in adaptive virtual learning environments : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Information Science in Information Systems at Massey University

    Lin, Taiyu (2003)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The increasing need for individualised instructional in both academic and corporate training environment encourages the emergence and popularity of adaptivity in virtual learning environments (VLEs). Adaptivity can be applied in VLEs as adaptivity content presentation, which generates the learning content adaptively to suit the particular learner's aptitude, and as adaptive navigational control, which dynamically modifies the structure of the virtual learning environment presented to the learner in order to prevent overloading the learner's cognitive load. Techniques for both adaptive content presentation and adaptive navigational control need to be integrated in a conceptual framework so their benefits can be synthesised to obtain a synergic result. Exploration space control (ESC) theory attempts to adjust the learning space, called exploration space, to allow the learners to reach an adequate amount of information that their cognitive load is not overloaded. Multiple presentation (MR) approach provides guidelines for the selection of multimedia objects for both the learning content presentation and as navigational links. ESC is further formalised by including the consideration of individual learner's cognitive traits, which are the cognitive characteristics and abilities the learner relevant in the process of learning. Cognitive traits selected in the formalisation include working memory capacity, inductive reasoning skill, associative learning skill, and information processing speed. The formalisation attempts to formulate a guideline on how the learning content and navigational space should be adjusted in order to support a learner with a particular set of cognitive traits. However, in order to support the provision of adaptivity, the learners and their activities in the VLEs need to be profiled; the profiling process is called student modelling. Student models nowadays can be categorised into state models, and process models. State models record learners' progress as states (e.g. learned, not learned), whereas a process model represents the learners in term of both the knowledge they learned in the domain, and the inference procedures they used for completing a process (task). State models and process models are both competence-based, and they do not provide the information of an individual's cognitive abilities required by the formalisation of exploration space control. A new approach of student modelling is required, and this approach is called cognitive trait model (CTM). The basis of CTM lies in the field of cognitive science. The process for the creation of CTM includes the following subtasks. The cognitive trait under inquiry is studied in order to find its indicative signs (e.g. sign A indicates high working memory capacity). The signs are called the manifests of the cognitive trait. Manifests are always in pairs, i.e. if manifest A indicates high working memory capacity, A's inverse, B, would indicates low working memory capacity. The manifests are then translated into implementation patterns which are observable patterns in the records of learner-system interaction. Implementation patterns are regarded as machine-recognisable manifests. The manifests are used to create nodes in a neural network like structure called individualised temperament network (ITN). Every node in the ITN has its weight that conditions and is conditioned by the overall result of the execution of ITN. The output of the ITN's execution is used to update the CTM. A formative evaluation was carried out for a prototype created in this work. The positive results of the evaluation show the educational potential of the CTM approach. The current CTM only cater for the working memory capacity, in the future research more cognitive traits will be studied and included into the CTM.

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  • The behaviour of mail survey non-respondents : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Business Studies in Marketing at Massey University

    Finn, Anna Jeanette (2004)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Over the past fifty years, researchers have become increasingly concerned with declining response rates to mail surveys. Previous attempts to increase response rates have focused on encouraging people to respond to a survey without necessarily determining why some have not responded. As a result, relatively little is known about the process of mail survey non-response. It has been suggested that by examining mail survey non-respondent behaviour and the reasons for it, future research can focus on factors with the greatest potential to increase response rates. To test this proposition, the non-respondents of three separate mail surveys were followed-up. Each non-respondent was asked at which point non-response occurred and the reasons for their non-response. Some non-respondents were also asked how they could be influenced to become respondents. A key finding was the large number of unreturned 'gone, no address' (GNA) survey packages. In the three surveys studied, an average six percent of packages neither reached their intended recipient, nor were 'returned to sender'. This suggests that conventional mail survey response rate calculations may underestimate actual response rates. A response rate formula that incorporates an allowance for unreturned GNAs would acknowledge this. Ideally, however, researchers would obtain the most recent sampling frame possible. But when this is not practical, they should be prepared to increase initial sample sizes to allow for unreturned GNAs. In the three surveys studied, the most common stage for non-respondents to withdraw from the survey response process was once they had opened the survey package, but not started the questionnaire. The next most common source of non-response was potential respondents who began the questionnaire, but did not finish or return it. Lack of time was the reason most often given for not responding, and future research needs to investigate ways of reducing the perceived burden of mail surveys. Whether this could be achieved by reducing the questionnaire length, or by manipulating the visual cues and graphic paralanguage of the survey package, requires further investigation. Other factors that may increase the probability of non-respondents participating in a survey include the survey topic and sponsor. Unfortunately, these aspects of a survey cannot easily be manipulated. Non-respondents are most likely to respond to local/social or politically-based surveys and least likely to respond to topics of a commercial nature. This suggests commercial or personal topics should, if possible, be nested amongst local/social or politically-based questions in a survey. Non-respondents are least likely to respond to surveys conducted by private research companies. If these companies can find a co-sponsor, approved by a respected organisation relevant to the study, this could help to increase their mail survey response rates. Several researchers have suggested that attitudes to surveys, in particular, negative attitudes, affect the response to individual surveys. However, this suggestion was not supported in the research reported here. Only a small proportion of non-respondents studied were seriously concerned with issues of privacy and confidentiality. Few non-respondents felt over-surveyed, despite receiving on average five survey requests every six months. The only negative attitudes detected were that surveys often took longer than claimed, and that some mail surveys involved deception. While such perceptions cannot be changed quickly, it is possible for researchers to include honest time estimates in covering letters and to do their best to discourage sugging (selling under the guise of research).

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