25,240 results for 2000

  • The stitchbird (hihi-- Notiomystis cincta) and its habitat : effects on nesting behaviour and reproductive success : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Science in Conservation Biology at Massey University

    Makan, Troy Dahya (2006)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis grew out of a basic problem in the management of a "Nationally Endangered" New Zealand bird species, the stitchbird. Following European colonisation of New Zealand it is hypothesized that predation and severe habitat loss along with disease, extirpated stitchbird from the North Island and reduced the distribution to a single population on Little Barrier Island. Efforts to recover the stitchbird have involved many translocations to other islands. Three of these translocations failed and the remaining three populations only persist due to intensive management by the Department of Conservation, mainly through supplementary feeding and provision of nesting boxes, as a way of artificially enhancing the island habitats. The primary aim of this study was to determine the effect of habitat on stitchbird nesting behaviour and reproductive success. To investigate this, I conducted research that aimed to relate stitchbird parental provisioning, reproductive success and habitat on Little Barrier Island, the single self-sustaining population of stitchbird from where little information was previously available. I then examined these results with similar data from three other stitchbird populations (Kapiti, Tiritiri Matangi and Mokoia Islands) to assess the effects of management enhanced and unmanaged habitats on stitchbird. An in-depth analysis of habitat structure was then conducted in two of the populations (Little Barrier and Kapiti Islands). These data were then analysed with respect to the reproductive success of these populations (with Kapiti's reproductive success being taken during the period when there was little management). When all islands are considered, conservation management, through the provisioning of nest boxes and feeders led to a significant increase in fledging success. This habitat management did not affect paternal behaviour. Although maternal investment was highly variable between individuals, females showed increased visitation rates when their habitat was enhanced through conservation management. In the unmanaged populations habitat complexity and nest tree size were found to be very important to the reproductive success of the stitchbird. Regardless of management and location, habitat quality played an integral part in determining the pattern of parental investment, and significantly affected reproductive success. In the unmanaged populations habitat complexity may provide a proximate assessment of overall habitat quality, while nest tree size may influence the internal microclimate of the nesting cavities. It appears that in lower quality habitats, parent's trade off their own survival against current and future reproduction. Conservation managers have managed to offset the restrictions of low quality habitat by enhancing habitats to a higher quality than natural environments. Now there is a need to find new sites where self- sustaining populations can be established, without the aid of expensive conservation management. I have found that it may be important to consider not only the phenology of the habitat, but also its complexity and the availability of large potential nest trees when considering new translocation sites.

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  • The evaluation of stakeholder relationship marketing information systems : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Business Studies in Marketing at Massey University

    Pescott, Christopher James (2004)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Modern business is evolving, the large profit driven organisations of the past have dissipated and responsible, triple bottom line, sustainability focused organisations are pioneering global business practices. The new goal for modern businesses is to become more transparent to their stakeholders, compile triple bottom line reports, and to become a sustainable organisation. To do this an organisation needs to identify who its stakeholders are. Literature in this stakeholder area is vast and has been traced back to the 1930's. However in order to uncover how organisations may utilize stakeholder management to enhance their business practice, there is a clear definition of what a stakeholder actually is. "those with a vital stake in the organisation without whose sanction and support would cease to exist." (Murphy et al., 2004) Stakeholders can have many different relationships with an organisation so there are multiple perceptions on how an organisation is performing through the eyes of its stakeholders. To gain a true understanding of how to communicate with stakeholders, there must be a suitable classification of stakeholder groups. "It is commonsense to consider the five stakeholder groups as being indispensable in the functioning of a sustainable business. The business is financed by shareholders, is allowed to exist by the community, has suppliers providing materials and services, for employees to create goods and services, which customers purchase in preference to competitors' goods and services." (Murphy et al., 2004)

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  • Shifting cultivation, livelihoods and change : a study of agricultural decisions in Xieng Ngeun District, Lao PDR : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Development Studies at Massey University

    Whittaker, Sarah (2006)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Shifting cultivation has long provided a livelihood for upland farmers in the tropics. However, recent years have seen increasing political, environmental and economic pressure on these farming systems and those who practice them. In the Lao PDR, shifting cultivation is a priority development issue; government policy is to replace it with sedentary forms of agriculture by the year 2010. Alternatives to existing practices are being researched and extended to farmers through both the public and private sector, and farmers are faced with an increasing range of choices for their livelihoods, which remain largely agriculturally-based. Their responses to these new opportunities, and their ability to take advantage of them, will be important to the sustainability of their livelihoods into the future. Recognising that agricultural changes take place in the context of people's livelihoods, this thesis applies a livelihoods approach to the study of household agricultural decisions in the Lao PDR. It investigates farmer responses to introduced forage technologies for the intensification of livestock production in four upland villages of Xieng Ngeun District, in order to explore the relationship between livelihoods and change. Many aspects of people's livelihoods are found to shape their decisions. In particular, access to resources can be important in the ability to take advantage of opportunities. Activities such as livestock raising require an initial cash investment that may preclude poorer households from specialising in them; thus these households are less able to benefit from livestock-related technologies. Households' existing livelihood strategies and the resulting livelihood outcomes also influence their ability and desire to intensify livestock production through managed forages. The wider context within which livelihoods are constructed may both facilitate and constrain change in a particular direction. In addition to those issues commonly identified in livelihoods frameworks, other factors also need to be considered. The importance of farmer perceptions in particular is highlighted and it is suggested that this, along with the characteristics of the technology itself in relation to people's livelihood situation, be included in the framework for application to the study of agricultural change. Finally, the thesis finds the livelihoods approach to be a useful and practical way of focusing attention on issues at the local level and placing rural people at the centre of development-related analysis.

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  • Web-course search engine : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Computer Science at Massey University

    Gong, Xiaohua (2002)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The World Wide Web is an amazing place that people's lives more and more rely on. Especially, for the young generation, they spend a significant amount of their play and study time using the Internet. Many tools have been developed to help the educational users in finding educational resources. These tools include various search engines. Web directories and educational domain gateways. Nevertheless, these systems have many weaknesses that made them unsuitable for the specific search needs of the learners. The research presented in this thesis describes the development of the Web-course search engine, which is a friendly, efficient and accurate helper for the learners to get what they want in the vast Internet ocean. The most attractive feature of this system is that the system uses one universal language, which lets the searchers and the resources "communicate" with each other. Then the learner searchers can find the Web-based educational resources that are most fit to their needs and course providers can provide all necessary information about their courseware. This universal language is one widely acceptable Metadata standard. Following the Metadata standard, the system collects exact information about educational resources, provides adequate search parameters for search and returns evaluative results. By using the Web-course search engine, the learners and the other educational users are able to find useful, valuable and related educational resources more effectively and efficiently. Some improvement suggestions of the search mechanism in the World Wide Web have been brought forward for the future research as a result of this project.

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  • Web-based asynchronous synchronous environment : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Information Science in Computer Science at Massey University

    Yang, Ang (2002)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    In the face of the coming of new information technology era of 21st century, web-based learning has become the major trend of future teaching and learning model. The web-based learning systems are created to simulate the real teaching-learning environment in the classroom using computer software and web-based tools. Learner can study web-based teaching materials according to their individual needs and instructional schedule. Although web-based learning has a lot of advantages over traditional face-to-face learning, the lack of the explanations and interpretation of teaching materials from human teacher in most existing web-based learning system is critical. This project proposed an innovative solution to the problem by combining the benefits of classroom learning in the web-based education. In this project, a prototype Web-based Asynchronous Synchronous Environment (WASE) is developed that not only combines the benefits of tools such as WebCT and AudioGraph, but also integrates lectures given by the human teacher within the system. WASE provides simultaneous low-bandwidth streaming of lecture video and presentation, while facilitating students with presentation annotation facilities, and peer discussion on particular issues related to the topic. The prototype system is built using a three-tier, client-server architecture. The client tier is a set of HTML frames embedded with RealPlayer running in the students' web browsers to provide course contents and navigation guide. The middle tier is an application server which consists of Java Sevlet, JSP engine, and application programs to receive the students' request and send the corresponding course contents and navigation guide information to the client side. The third tier is the relational database for storing the course structure and contents, and for recording the interaction between students and teachers. This project provides a solution where the off-campus students are able to enjoy the explanations and interpretation of course materials from human teacher just as normal on-campus students do in the traditional face-to-face learning environment, while still reaping the benefits of web-based learning.

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  • The sense in humour : a personal exploration of humour in the teaching of adults : some questions and tentative answers : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Education in Adult Education at Massey University

    Watt, Iain J (2007)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis is a personal exploration of the potential applications of humour in the teaching of adults. I have provided some questions and tentative answers about the use of humour in the facilitation of adult learning. Having recognised the value of humour in my own teaching practice, I have examined the ways in which humour, when applied appropriately, can promote creative thinking by enhancing the processes of knowing, perceiving and discovering. Adult learning has been said to be a means of gaining knowledge and skills, a way to satisfy learner needs and a process of critical self-reflection that may lead to transformation. Adult education can involve challenging periods of transformation and students may require assistance to overcome inhibitions, behaviours and beliefs about themselves their culture and learning. In this thesis I have sought to explore how humour, manifesting itself in verbal, written and visual formats, may be a valuable pedagogical tool to address such issues. One of the purposes of this thesis is to contribute to knowledge in teaching practice by demonstrating that the systematic and informed introduction of humour into individual teaching strategics may provide a more people-centred climate which addresses individual and group learning needs from the perspective of teacher and student.

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  • Was it worth it? : evaluating outcomes for students who undertook the Diploma in Supported Employment : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Social Policy at Massey University

    Taylor, John (2005)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis evaluates self-reported outcomes from 12 students who enrolled in the Diploma in Supported Employment during the three intakes funded by the Ministry of Social Development (2001-2002). It explores how the content and delivery of the diploma have met student needs and expectations, and assisted them in their practice as supported employment practitioners. The research is conducted within the environment of disability and the vocational rehabilitation sector of New Zealand, where the focus of endeavour is assisting disabled people with their employment aspirations. The sector is predominantly funded through contribution from central government and is in the process of a paradigm shift. Research indicates that the vocational sector has traditionally operated on the individual or medical understanding of disability, which equates disability with impairment and characterises it as some unfortunate or catastrophic, chance occurrence that has befallen the individual. The emerging paradigm is that disability is socially constructed, having its roots in critical social theory. Supported employment is in keeping with the new paradigm shift and has become a major government strategy in supporting disabled people. The Diploma in Supported Employment was originally conceived as a way to provide the necessary skills to a largely untrained workforce. Its delivery was the first ever attempt at coordinated training across this sector. The Ministry of Social Development, to further their policy objectives, supported existing vocational sector staff to enrol. The thesis therefore represents a timely and pertinent evaluation of the effectiveness of the Diploma in Supported Employment and will assist future planning for work force development in the vocational sector. A qualitative methodology is employed to explore students' lived reality through six individual interviews and a focus group of an additional six past students. The analysis privileges the student voice and key factors that support the student to complete the qualification and to apply their new knowledge in their work are identified. This project has potential public policy implications and makes recommendations for future practice and research.

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  • The wedded soul : mystical marriage in late medieval female mysticism : a thesis presented in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in History at Massey University

    Logan, Jeanne-Marie (2003)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    From its first days in the early Church onwards, mystical marriage between the soul and God was powerful, pervasive and malleable, both as a concept and as a lifestyle and belief system, and was increasingly used and developed by late medieval female mystics as their chosen form of exclusive holy life and individual expression of their own spirituality. At the root of its power and potential in the spiritual life of the mystic was the deep, intimate, unmediated and heightened relationship with God which mystical union encapsulated. This mystical relationship was considered the apex of holy and mystical life and brought with it all the attached privileges of a personal connection to God, mystical experiences and spiritual gifts and power. Mystical marriage or union came under the category of bridal mysticism, the mystical system which took its form and expression from the spiritualised concept of marriage. The range of experiences and nuanccs available through the metaphor of marriage made bridal mysticism a strongly expressive and sensory based alternative to the intellectual mysticism of the medieval Church, which female mystics were virtually cut off from. The expressive and mystical potential of bridal mysticism, and thus mystical marriage, was recognised by late medieval female mystics and brought union with God to the centre of female mysticism, at the same time as female mysticism and religious devotion itself was growing and flourishing (1), and holy life was becoming more publicly practiced and more popular with the laity (2).

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  • A single woman's place : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in English at Massey University

    Bishop, Gailene Paula (2001)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis is a study of selected novels by Anita Brookner and Muriel Spark. It explores the depiction of women as figures of resistance and insurgence in the novels Look At Me and Hotel du Lac by Anita Brookner, and in The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie and The Abbess of Crewe written by Muriel Spark. The study looks first at the way the role of the single woman is structured, and functions as a location of resistance and subversion. The specific characters are Frances Hinton in Look At Me, and Edith Hope in Hotel du Lac and Jean Brodie in The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie, and the Abbess Alexandra in The Abbess of Crewe. The second focus is to determine whether a transfigurative process is enacted, how, and upon what. The women characters are the pivotal location for the transfigurative processes, and their characterisation reveals what is disclosed, and what is transfigured. The proposal is that those transfigurative processes subvert culturally constructed notions, or commonplaces, about how women may see, and be seen, in the social environments presented in the novels. The transfiguration of these nominal commonplaces is revealed in Brookner's work through the processes of change, which are depicted as necessary for the key characters to undergo. Transfiguration abounds in Spark's work as her satire and parody mock all social norms. Finally, this thesis looks specifically at the relation between the consolidated material from the process outlined above and two general strategic approaches to women's writing. The first strategy is the revisionist approach that proposes a re-writing of traditional texts as a method of challenging and subverting the hierarchical constraints found in those texts. The other strategy advocates the appropriation of dominant patriarchal models for women to use in writing about women, and supports effecting change from within those models.

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  • Energy saving potential in the New Zealand agricultural sector with emphasis on the vegetable greenhouse industry : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Applied Science in Natural Resource Management at Massey University

    Wilson, Anna Fay (2005)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    In the last decade, the energy demand of New Zealand's horticultural and agricultural sub sectors has increased as a result of land use conversion, intensity of production, the use of irrigation and an increase in energy intensive horticulture, such as greenhouse vegetable production. This has highlighted the sector's reliance on fossil fuels leaving it susceptible to future shortages, higher prices and the forthcoming carbon charge. As part of a contract with the Energy Efficiency Conservation Authority, which aimed to compile, estimate and analyse information from a wide variety of sources on energy end uses and patterns of energy consumption within the agricultural sub-sectors, available literature on energy demand by fuel type and the various uses to which energy is put in the New Zealand primary production sub-sectors was collated in matrices. Through the compilation of these matrices it was evident that limited energy related research was available relating to the greenhouse sub sector. The New Zealand greenhouse industry is a relatively energy intensive sub-sector of the primary production industry and relies heavily on the use of fossil fuels. The impending carbon charge may result in a cost which growers may be unable to pass on due to competition on the domestic and export markets from non-Kyoto countries. It follows that reducing energy consumption and consequently avoiding the emissions charge would be a means of increased viability for the industry. This part of the research was funded and conducted in conjunction with the New Zealand Vegetable and Potato Grower's Federation Inc. A walk-through energy audit was designed and conducted with 22 greenhouse vegetable growers. This provided an in-depth case study perspective in terms of what technologies and practices are currently used by the New Zealand's protected cropping industry. The findings from the energy audit show that location and the heating system type are significant factors in determining energy use. The main areas identified where potential energy saving could be made were minimising heat loss, through the cladding, the heat distribution system and the flue, and improving heating efficiency, through improved heater maintenance. An energy saving model was designed using Microsoft Excel for the purpose of encouraging the user to think about potential energy savings that could be made within their individual greenhouse operation, and also the potential cost of the carbon charge on to their business. Recommendations from the model were based on best practice and use of energy saving technologies identified through the energy audits, review of current literature and consultation with manufacturers.

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  • Psychological discourses on gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    Patel, Asmita (2001)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The present study was concerned with how the discourses used in cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT), theory and practice construct the identity categories of gender, ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES). This study also focused on whether CBT practitioners view CBT as a psychotherapy that is designed and aimed more toward obtaining individual client change and adaptation to distress than focusing on social causation of client distress and social change awareness. The research aims were executed using both Potter and Wetherell's (1987) approach to discourse analysis and a feminist poststructuralist framework. Ten clinical psychologists, participated. They were interviewed about the identity categories of gender, ethnicity and SES in relation to CBT theory and practice. An open ended unstructured approach to interviewing was undertaken. Transcripts from the interviews were analyzed. Analysis resulted in the identification of three main discourses: the assessment discourse, the individual practitioner discourse and the empowerment advocacy discourse. Overall analysis of the discourses revealed how they acted to construct CBT as a beneficial psychotherapy to use with clients from ethnic minority groups, low socioeconomic groups and for women, despite the overall consensus that CBT is not specifically designed to assess the effect of gender, ethnicity and SES factors. Analysis of transcripts also revealed that participants view CBT as psychotherapy that is designed more toward obtaining individual client change, though participants stated that CBT has the potential to design social change initiatives. The key issues arising from the findings are discussed and some general conclusions are presented. Limitations and future directions for research are also discussed.

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  • Physical volcanology of Red Crater, Tongariro

    Bardsley, Candice Joy (2004)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The Tongariro Volcanic Centre (TVC) is New Zealand's most recently active volcanic centre and comprises two large active andesitic cones, Ruapehu and Tongariro. Tongariro is a dominantly andesitic cone complex, yet located at its centre is Red Crater, a basaltic andesite vent with an eruptive nature in striking contrast to the rest of Tongariro. The main aim of this research was to reconstruct the eruption history of this vent and provide the basis to model the impact of a range of future eruption scenarios from Tongariro. The Red Crater basaltic andesite vent occupies a small scoria cone (~ 0.3 km³) which has also erupted eleven lava flows including the single largest preserved lava flow on Tongariro, with a length of ~ 7 km and a volume of ~ 0.3 km³. This flow was erupted between 9.7 ka and 3.4 ka, providing a maximum age for the vent. A distinctive feature of this vent is the exposed drained dike in the eastern wall. Clast density (vesicularity), SEM, grain size, and petrographic analysis were undertaken on the deposits erupted from Red Crater, and used to constrain the timing of the lava flows in relation to the construction of the scoria cone. Average vesicularities for the Red Crater scoria deposits, exposed in the eastern and southern crater walls in particular, range from 51.5% to 76.8%, while the range of individual clasts is from 30.5% to 82.1 %. These values classify Red Crater scoria as highly vesicular. This scoria section is ~ 60 metres thick and possibly erupted within a 48 hour period. The five lava flows erupted prior to this scoria cone construction (pre 1.85ka Taupo eruption) are andesitic blocky flows, with lengths up to ~ 7 km and thicknesses up to ~ 50 metres. Five basaltic andesite aa flows were erupted post 1.85ka and coincided with the construction of the scoria cone. Maximum thicknesses are ~ 5 metres with lengths up to 0.98 km. The change in composition of the lava flows at this time is reflected by a change in the eruptive processes. Effusive activity dominated pre 1.85 ka while strombolian style eruptions producing discrete gas bursts dominated during the scoria cone construction post 1.85 ka. Two dikes are intruded into the scoria cone; one is the eastern wall and the other in the western wall. The eruptive history of Red Crater can be divided into three phases. Phase one was probably initiated with a violent phreatic eruption caused by the interaction of an intruding dike with groundwater. The loss of volatiles during this phreatic eruption and through the permeable country rock lead to sustained effusive activity which produced the five andesite flows into Oturere Valley. Phase two began when more basaltic magma was injected into the system, with strombolian eruptions rapidly building the scoria cone and erupting the remaining six basaltic andesite lava flows. The basaltic andesite flow (flow 9) into Central Crater has the most mafic composition of any lava flow from the entire Tongariro cone complex. Phase three began when the withdrawal of magma from the dike caused a series of phreatic explosions originating from the deeper section of the NE-SW orientated dike, which violently excavated the NE trending Emerald Lakes explosion pits, the northern section of the scoria cone and the explosion pit on the south face of the cone. Minor ash and steam eruptions have been observed at the end of the last century, but it is the active fumaroles surrounding the vent which reveal Red Crater's currently active state, and potential for future eruptions.

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  • Why place Māori children with Māori caregivers? : a dissertation presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Social Work (Applied) Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Montgomery, Mary Avril (2009)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This qualitative study explores the concepts of customary care, recognising the Maori worldview and emphasising the value of placing Maori children with Maori caregivers. It examines the establislunent of the Matua Whangai Programme in the context of the social/political issues of the 1980-1990s and the impact of legislation and reports on the placement of Maori children outside of whanau. The participants in this study were three caregivers m the Matua Whangai Programme. They each had experience of customary care practice in their own whanau and who generalised this experience in the context of the Matua Whangai programme. In this community, the Matua Whangai programme ran from 1985 to 1991. The study shows that when the programme was disestablished, not only did Maori children lose access to whanau whangai (foster families), the community also lost tribal linkages, both locally and nationally, along with effective networks with other social and governmental agencies established by Matua Whangai within the Lower South Island

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  • Effects of carbon dioxide addition on algae and treatment performance of high rate algal ponds : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements of the degree of Master of Engineering in Environmental Engineering at Massey University

    Heubeck, Stephan (2006)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Waste stabilisation ponds have been used for treating a great variety of wastewaters around the world for many decades. More advanced systems combine anaerobic or advanced facultative ponds with high rate algal ponds (HRAP) followed by a number of algae settling ponds and maturation ponds to achieve enhanced and more reliable removal of wastewater pollutants, while yielding possibly valuable by-products such as biogas and algal biomass. In recent years a growing number of scientists and engineers have proposed the use of HRAP treating domestic wastewater for carbon dioxide (CO2) scrubbing from biogas and CO2 sequestration. The experiments presented in this thesis sought to determine if the treatment performance of HRAP is affected by the addition of CO2 and subsequent reduction of pond pH. Experiments with algae cultures grown on domestic wastewater in laboratory microcosms, outside mesocosms and outside pilot-scale HRAP were conducted. Carbon dioxide addition to algae wastewater cultures restricted the maximum pH level to ~8. Key wastewater quality parameters of CO2 added cultures, were compared to control cultures without CO2 addition. The wastewater quality parameters monitored include temperature, pH, and concentrations of total suspended solids (TSS), ammoniacal-nitrogen (NH4-N), dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP), filtered biochemical oxygen demand (fBOD5) and the faecal indicator Escherichia coli (E. coli). Carbon dioxide addition to algae wastewater cultures was found to promote algal growth and increased the TSS concentrations. Over 8 day culture length CO2 addition in laboratory and outside batch experiments increased algal growth (indicated by TSS) by up to 76% and 53%, respectively. During semi-continuous outside experiments CO2 addition increased algal growth by ~20% in comparison to the control cultures. Despite enhancing algal growth (TSS), CO2 addition appeared to have little effect on algae cell morphology, species composition and zooplankton activity in the algae wastewater cultures. Monitoring of the key nutrients NH4-N and DRP in cultures with and without CO2 addition indicated that CO2 addition can lead to an increase or a decrease in nutrient removal. Under culture conditions which allowed the control cultures to achieve high day-time pH levels CO2 addition, and subsequent pH restriction, appeared to reduce overall nutrient removal. Only slight changes or an increase in nutrient removal as a result of CO2 addition were observed under culture conditions which allowed only for a moderate or small elevation of the control culture pH. However, the increases in algal biomass, observed in all CO2 added cultures indicate a greater potential for the reclamation of potentially valuable wastewater nutrients in the form of algal biomass. Monitoring of fBOD5 levels during several outside experiments showed that CO2 addition had no effect on the fBOD5 removal by the algae wastewater cultures under those conditions. During several outside batch experiments (of up to 8 day culture length) the removal of the faecal indicator bacteria E. coli was monitored. It was shown that CO2 addition reduced E. coli removal by 1.4 to 4.9 log units compared to control cultures. Basic modelling of carbon flows indicated that under New Zealand conditions the CO2 volumes required for the changes described above would be available from the biogas produced in a wastewater pond system treating wastewater with a volatile solids (VS) concentration of ~ 500 mg/L. In systems treating weaker wastewaters additional CO2 could be made available through the onsite combustion of biogas. In summary, the obtained results suggest that CO2 addition to a field-scale HRAP could increase algal biomass growth year-round and slightly enhance nutrient removal during winter, but might reduce nutrient removal during summer, and reduce E. coli removal year-round, while having no effect on fBOD5 removal. The reduction in nutrient treatment performance during summer, and especially the losses in E. coli removal resulting form CO2 addition may require more sophisticated downstream processing of the HRAP effluent, like increase retention times in maturation ponds. Such remedial measures have to be evaluated on a case by case basis, and are dependent on the given regulations and discharge regimes of the system. This study indicates that in general HRAP can be employed for biogas purification and provide a useful sink for CO2 rich waste streams. The beneficial effects of CO2 addition to HRAP do not appear to allow for any design or management changes within the system, while it was indicated that most detrimental effects of CO2 addition could be accommodated without major alternations, although in some cases significant remedial measures may be required for correcting the losses in disinfection and nutrient removal performance.

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  • Performance improvements to the 802.11 wireless network medium access control sub-layer : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Engineering in Computer Systems Engineering at Massey University

    Morrison, Michael Philip (2005)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis presents the outcome into the research and development of improvements to the 802.11 wireless networking medium access control (MAC) sublayer. The main products of the research are three types of improvement that increase the efficiency and throughput of the 802.11 protocol. Beginning with an overview of the original 802.11 physical layer and MAC sub-layer standard, the introductory chapters then cover the many supplements to the original standard (including a brief on the future 802.11n supplement). The current state of the 802.11 MAC sub-layer is presented along with an assessment of the realistic performance available from 802.11. Lastly, the motivations for improving the MAC sub-layer are explained along with a summary of existing research into this area. The main improvement presented within the thesis is that of packet aggregation. The operation of aggregation is explained in detail, along with the reasons for the significant available throughput increase to 802.11 from aggregation. Aggregation is then developed to produce even higher throughput, and to be a more robust mechanism. Additionally, aggregation is formally described in the form of an update to the existing 802.11 standard. Following this, two more improvements are shown that can be used either with or without the aggregation mechanism. Stored frame headers are designed to reduce repetition of control data, and combined acknowledgements are an expansion of the block acknowledgement system introduced in the 802.11e supplement. This is followed by a description of the simulation environment used to test the three improvements presented, such as the settings used and metrics created. The results of the simulations of the improvements are presented along with the discussion. The developments to the basic improvements are also simulated and discussed in the same way. Finally, conclusions about the improvements detailed and the results shown in the simulations are drawn. Also at the end of the thesis, the possible future direction of research into the improvements is given, as well as the aspects and issues of implementing aggregation on a personal computer based platform.

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  • River Mouth Processes and Morphodynamics on a Mixed Sand-Gravel Beach

    Paterson, Adam Karl (2000)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Where the Ashburton river meets the sea it is impounded by a mixed sand-gravel barrier, formed through littoral transport of sediment, causing a lagoon to form, locally referred to as hapua. From the hapua, discharge to the sea is maintained through small, ephemeral channels, which are unstable and are subject to morphological change in response to fluctuations in longshore transport of gravel and variations in river flow rate. There are few descriptions of the morphodynamics of these highly changeable features, particularly changes that occur over short time scales of hours to weeks. To investigate the patterns and processes involved in the migration of drainage channels, several new instruments were trialed. A methodology of was developed to provide estimates of longshore transport on a gravel beach using a Gravel Transport Sensor. Video camera technology was the primary tool used to study river mouth morphodynamics. The camera provided hourly images of the environment, enabling qualitative assessment using movies of the images to observe morphologic changes, and quantitative measurement of the migration of the channel. Measurements of river flow, wave climate and lagoon water levels were also gathered to investigate the relationships between the morphological response and the forcing factors. Results of the study showed that the ends of the channel behave differently, with the lagoon end remaining more stable than the seaward end. The seaward end is more exposed to the high wave energy prevalent along this coast. The wave climate, especially wave period and direction, were found to be predictors for the migration rate. The location of the seaward end is more variable due to the fluctuations in wave climate, differing from the lagoon end which is influenced predominantly by river flow rates. It has been found that the migration of the lagoon end occurs in 'steps', which are separated by raised gravel banks, the single persistent feature throughout the study. This stepping migration is driven primarily through episodic events such as high river flow or large wave events.

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  • The politics of privatizing water services : in theory and practice.

    Treliving, Victoria (2000)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Since the early 1980s, the phenomenon of privatization has quickly spread worldwide, changing the balance between the state and the market in favour of the latter. Its adoption questions and replaces the traditional roie of the state in providing and controlling certain public services. One formerly predominantly public service to be affected by privatization is piped water services, as it is commonly argued that private suppliers stimulate greater efficiencies and innovations than public suppliers. Most of those writing on this subject tend to focus narrowly on comparisons of public and private water companies in an attempt to argue that one or the other is best. Alternatively, some concentrate on the policy process through which privatization found favour. However, the thesis takes a very different approach to the analysis of privatizing water supplies, contributing to an area that has attracted little attention: its theoretical context and its implications for democratic politics. The aim of the thesis is to concentrate on, and extend, the types of assumptions - efficiency and innovation - inherent in arguments for privatization, thus providing a wide-ranging theoretical context in which to locate the privatization of water services. After discussing at some length exactly what comprises privatization, the thesis examines the theoretical foundations from which the policy originates. With reference to two case studies of privatization - Britain and Wales, which privatized water services in 1989, and New Zealand, which has not fully privatized its water, but is increasingly favouring more commercial practices - the thesis then illustrates how the theories have informed privatization in practice. The thesis concludes that privatizing water supplies . is an inappropriate extension of these theories because, first, they do not recognize the inherently non-commercial nature of water services and, second, because their implications for citizenship, and therefore democratic politics, are potentially very damaging.

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  • The romance of readings : an anthropological study of the roles of specialists in divination or "readers" in Aotearoa/New Zealand : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Social Anthropology at Massey University

    Hassett, Verina Rose (2003)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Divination, in a variety of forms, has been present in many societies for millennia. Divinatory specialists are said to illuminate answers to enquirers through the interpretation of natural and 'supernatural' phenomena and engagement with oracular tools and objects. Anthropological studies with those that engage with divinatory systems within Western societies have so far been limited. This thesis is the result of a phenomenological study with 'readers' in Aotearoa/New Zealand who utilise clairvoyant and psychic awareness, astrological, numerological and tarot knowledge in the provision of divinatory readings. Belief in sensory, symbolic and spiritual systems of divination is utilised to 'read' and produces a body of knowledge, which is then interpreted within the interactive process of a reading. The thesis explores the provision of readings as a largely marginalised way of knowing within the context of a predominantly sceptical society.

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  • Physiology of Chatham Island forget-me-not (Myosotidium hortensia) seed : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Applied Science in Seed Science and Technology at Massey University

    McGill, Craig Robert (2003)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Chatham Island forget-me-not (Myosotidium hortensia (Decne) Baillon) is endemic to the Chatham Islands where it is mainly confined to the outer islands. There is speculation that seed of M. hortensia is recalcitrant and reports that germination can be slow and erratic. Moreover there is little information on the seed biology of M. hortensia available. In this study the seed structure and composition of the seed storage reserves of M. hortensia were determined. The seed is a dicotyledon. The embryo is predominantly cotyledonary tissue with a only small embryo axis present. There appears to be a single cell thick layer of endosperm tissue between the embryo and seed coat. Food reserves are stored as both protein and oil with no starch reserves apparent. The seed contains 24% oil and therefore can be considered an oilseed. These oil reserves include the commercially important γ-linolenic (cis, cis, cis-6, 9, 12-octadecatrienoic) acid (9% of the fatty acid content). Seed of M. hortensia was evaluated for recalcitrant behaviour by determining if desiccation to low seed moisture content caused a loss of viability. Seed was harvested at two moisture contents, 47.4% (green seed) and 35.5% (black seed), and air dried to a final moisture content of 7.5%. Seed viability and germination performance were monitored at harvest and as moisture content declined. At 7.5% seed moisture content viability was 89% and germination 92% for seed harvested at 47% seed moisture content, and 82% and 78%, respectively, for seed harvested at 36% seed moisture content. Within each colour classification, after desiccation there was no significant difference in germination compared to that at harvest, indicating that M. hortensia seed can be desiccated to a low seed moisture content without loss of germination and is therefore not recalcitrant. Seed stored at 5°C and 7.5% seed moisture content showed no decline in viability after 21 months, but, seed stored at the same temperature and 9.5% seed moisture content showed a significant loss of viability after 9 months storage. The loss of viability at this higher (9.5%) seed moisture content is characteristic of oilseeds, but it is not clear whether the high oil content of the seed alone can account for the loss of viability after nine months storage at a temperature of 5°C. This study confirmed earlier reports that germination of M. hortensia seed is slow and erratic. At maturity seed of M. hortensia is dormant. Seed dormancy is a function of the seed coat rather than the embryo. The dormancy is likely to be a result of either physical constraint of embryo growth or restriction of gas exchange by the seed coat, or a combination of both. Removal or weakening of the seed coat allowed germination to proceed. However, some of the treatments used to weaken the seed coat resulted in an increase in abnormal seedling development. An effective and non-damaging technique for alleviating dormancy was to prick the seed coat with a 0.6-0.8mm diameter dissecting needle in the middle of the cotyledons.

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  • Policing New Zealand : perspectives of rural and urban police officers : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Psychology at Massey University

    Fowler, Corinne Elizabeth (2008)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis presents an exploration into rural and urban police officers' perceptions and experiences of their work in Northland, New Zealand. Although international research has already investigated police officers' rural and urban experiences, there is a lack of similar literature in New Zealand. The only studies conducted within the New Zealand Police (NZP) have resulted in contradictory data, creating a debate about whether there is a difference in policing rural and urban areas. A study by Winfree and Taylor (2004) into whether the perceptions of NZP staff differed in rural, small town or metropolitan areas found little difference between either the NZP personnel themselves, or their perceptions of policing. This contrasts with research by Jaeger (2002) and Goddard and Jaeger (2005), who explored not only policing but also the strategies utilised within the roles. Goddard and Jaeger proposed that there are significant differences between officers in rural and urban areas. The current research attempts to resolve this debate, exploring both rural and urban perspectives through the use of Grounded Theory. Interviews with 16 police officers based in the Northland District were conducted to capture the essence of their experiences. Seven key categories emerged: community, job role, management, safety, the judicial system, police culture, and family and personal life. These were placed under the core category of 'Boundaries'. It emerged that rural officers found it difficult to implement boundaries due to their isolation and need for a working relationship with the community. Urban officers, however, described how the implementation of boundaries enabled them to work effectively in their environment. Consequently, this research found that there is a difference in the rural and urban policing experience, supporting the findings of Goddard and Jaeger (2005). It is hoped that the individual themes and overall findings from this research will stimulate further investigation into the experience of policing. While it only explored one New Zealand Police District, the information contributes to a deeper understanding of police perspectives and experiences.

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