25,108 results for 2000

  • Talanoa ile i'a : talking to Pacific Island young people in West Auckland about health : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Social Work at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

    Faleolo, Moses Ma'alo (2003)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The present study explores the health issues surrounding Pacific Island youth health development. The present study conducted a literature review on youth health issues in New Zealand and found that most are cultural and social related. A second literature review of theoretical dispositions to account for the emergence of youth heath issues found that Pacific Island concepts, medical sociology theory and youth health theory were relevant explanations for the emergence of Pacific Island youth health issues. The present study conducted focus groups with Pacific Island young people about youth health issues to see if the information from the literature review corresponded with the participants’ responses and whether the theoretical explanations were consistent with the participants’ responses. The present study found that a correlation exists between the literature review and the participants’ responses. The present study maintains through the participants’ responses that the key to addressing Pacific Island young people health issues is to involve their families throughout the process of assessment and in the development of response plans. This means the perspectives of those in youth health policy arenas, the perspective of service managers and the perspective of professionals are required to recognise that the perspective of the young person is an essential domain for understanding the cause of and for resolving Pacific Island youth health issues. ‘Talanoa ile I’a’ is the story of Pacific Island young people living in West Auckland. It is based on responses to questions posed to participants of the study in relation to Pacific Island youth health development issues. The present study contends that in order to understand, identify and resolve Pacific Island youth health issues it is important to talk to Pacific Island young people themselves. The present study did not conduct any research with youth policymakers, youth health services or health professionals but preferred to explore youth health with Pacific Island young people themselves. The present study is built on the participants’ responses and provides both warning signs and building blocks for youth health policy, youth healthcare services and youth health professionals. The present study is a Pacific Island approach to Pacific Island youth health issues; it is ‘by Pacific for Pacific’.

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  • Effects of a six week beginner pilates exercise programme on transversus abdominis thickness in low back pain subjects

    Spurdle, Anastasia (2004)

    Thesis
    Unitec

    PURPOSE Transversus abdominis has been shown to be dysfunctional in low back pain patients. Specific exercises involving contraction of core muscles of the spine have been shown to be effective in treating low back pain. Although it is widely claimed that pilates exercise develops the core muscles surrounding the spine, including transversus abdominis, there is little research to support this. OBJECTIVE To investigate the effect of a pilates exercise programme on transversus abdominis thickness in subjects with a history of low back pain. To investigate the reliability of ultrasound measurement of transversus abdominis thickness. STUDY DESIGN Test retest design, with subjects recruited via convenience sampling. METHOD Intra-tester reliability was investigated by measuring transversus abdominis thickness with B-mode ultrasound in eight subjects with a history of low back pain on two separate days. A further twenty-two subjects were recruited for a six week pilates matwork exercise programme with measurements of transversus abdominis thickness taken pre and post intervention. RESULTS The intra-tester reliability was found to be high in supine lying for transversus abdominis measurements taken one week apart (ICC = 0.92, 95% CI 0.60 to 0.99). There was a large and varied effect of the pilates intervention on the change in thickness of transversus abdominis (effect size = 1.27, CI -2.7 to 5.5). History of respiratory dysfunction was found to be very highly correlated with a decrease in transversus abdominis thickness measured at the end of expiration (r=0.7, CI 0.3 to 0.9). SUMMARY The ultrasound methodology was found to be reliable in measuring transversus abdominis thickness. It is not known why there was a wide variation observed in terms of magnitude and direction of change of transversus abdominis thickness after the pilates intervention. It is thought that changes in transversus abdominis thickness measured by ultrasound at the end of expiration (functional residual capacity) were related to respiratory function status. This relationship may have been modified by the six week beginner pilates exercise programme in subjects with a history of respiratory dysfunction. It is postulated that this relationship changed by reducing the contraction of transversus abdominis at the end of expiration. No definitive conclusions can be made, however, due to the small sample size in this preliminary study.

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  • Urban Maori art : the third generation of contemporary Maori artists : identity and identification

    Rennie, Kirsten (2001)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Kia u ki tou kawai tupuna, kia matauria ai, i ahu mai !we i hea anga ana koe ko hea Trace out your ancestral stem, so that it may be known where you come from and in which direction you are going. The intention of this thesis is to examine and interpret the artistic careers and practice of University of Auckland Bachelor of Fine Arts graduates Lisa Reihana (1987), Brett Graham (1989), and Michael Parekowhai (1990), and University of Canterbury Bachelor of Fine Arts graduates Shane Cotton (1989) and Peter Robinson (1989). These urban artists are from a third generation of contemporary Maori artists, and they have been selected for this study because they represent a phenomenon within the New Zealand arts establishment. Graduating within three years of one another, they have instantly and successfully mapped out their artistic careers, rapidly rising in status nationally, and internationally, over the past decade. An examination of how contemporary Maori art has been defined by Maori and Pakeha critics and artists, and who is legitimised as Maori artists, presented as the debate between an essentialist and a post-modern, post-colonial argument, frames the context for this survey of identity and identification. The thesis investigates a contemporary Maori art movement: presenting a whanau of artists who form an artistic and educational support network of contemporaries, that whakapapa back to the Tovey generation - the kaumatua artists, influential in the work of Shane Cotton (Ngati Hine, Nga Puhi), Brett Graham (Ngati Koroki Kahukura), Michael Parekowhai (Nga-Ariki/Te Aitanga, Rongowhakaata) Lisa Reihana (Ngati Hine, Nga Puhi, Ngai Tu), and Peter Robinson (Kai Tahu). The artistic whanau now includes Cotton, Graham, Parekowhai, Reihana and Robinson who in turn influence and support their third generation peers, subsequently informing the artistic practice of the fourth generation of contemporary Maori artists, and forming a vital link in the continuation and development of the contemporary Maori art movement. The sesquicentenary of the Treaty of Waitangi in 1990 raised the question, once again, of how we identify as a nation, specifically, is there a New Zealand bicultural identity? The historically familiar focus on forming a partnership between the tangata whenua and Pakeha continued to be of importance for the nation as it approached the end of the millenium. The issue for New Zealand, as a country populated by a diverse range of migrant and locally born peoples, more recently, has become less concerned with 'creating' a bicultural identity and more interested in visually representing a multicultural nation. The last decade of the second millenium (1990 - 2000), is the main focus of this study because each one of the five artists profiled is conscious of speaking between two cultures, and they utilise their artistic works as the vehicle through which to investigate their Maoritanga and their bicultural reality. In a global climate of an increased awareness involving the rights of indigenous peoples, the third generation of contemporary urban Maori artists, the thesis will argue, became cultural ambassadors both nationally and internationally, their work an institutionally acceptable bicultural fusion of Pakeha and Maori concerns. The easy facility with which they negotiate between these two worlds makes them a pivotal generation in any study of contemporary Maori art. This thesis aims to reveal the changing and sometimes controversial face of contemporary Maori art, establishing the necessity for this change, revealing where the artists position themselves as a result of their geographical location within New Zealand, and in terms of their own connection to their Maori heritage and knowledge of their whakapapa, investigating issues of identity and identification.

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  • Is there a relationship between substance use disorders and violent offending? : a case study of Rimutaka and Wellington male prisoners : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Rehabilitation at Massey University

    Jones, Amanda (2007)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    New Zealand imprisonment per capita rates are second only to the USA with continued growth expected in the next decade. Previous research and extensive personal work experience within the prison system suggests that there is a connection between Substance Use Disorders (SUDs) and crime. The main object of this study was to investigate and ascertain if there is a relationship between occurrences of SUDs and violent offending. This is a complex question, as it is unlikely that SUDs are the only determinants of violent offending. Demographics, ethnicity, education and other environmental and psychological factors will also be contributing factors. The current study tests SUDs and 'other factors' to see if a relationship exists. Two hundred prisoners from Rimutaka and Wellington Prisons were randomly selected from a possible sample size of 850. The 102 respondents who chose to take part in the study were administered the Substance Use Disorders Diagnostic Schedule (SUDDS-IV). Seventy of these 102 prisoners were in prison for having committed a violent offence. A demographic questionnaire followed the psychometric test. Surprisingly, SUDs (both substance abuse and substance dependence), were not found to be statistically more significant in prisoners that had offended violently. Overall, SUDs were found in 99% of the entire population. Eighty-four percent diagnosed with substance dependence and a further 8.8% with substance abuse. Only 6.9% did not have a SUD at all. Fifty-eight percent of the sample investigated identified themselves as Maori, 26.5 European and 13.7% Pacific Islanders. This study found that those imprisoned for a violent conviction were more likely to be Maori. In addition, it illustrated that the prisoners convicted for violence were more likely to have only two years secondary school education or less. Evidence also shows that Maori studied were less likely to be educated. However, such findings require more validation for use as evidence in prisoner research. Further research could include a qualitative approach with emphasis on Maori with limited education and a propensity to be violent. This research would be beneficial if directed towards the unique lives of New Zealand prisoners, their families and specifically the children of the established offenders. The main objective would be to provide information about the next generation of violent offenders. The data and intelligence gathered could be then utilised to better manage and treat violent offenders.

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  • Financial incentive schemes in a TQM environment : a case study in a world class organisation : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Technology in Industrial and Manufacturing Technology at Massey University

    Soliman, Wassim (2000)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Whether or not financial incentive schemes help organisations to reach their objectives is an old debate. During the last few decades, the modern management schools -Total Quality Management (TQM) and new manufacturing techniques-added extra pressure on financial incentive schemes by claiming that such schemes don't fit in a modern management environment and that they can have a destructive influence on organisations. Although the advocates of TQM and modern manufacturing management techniques have different views concerning financial incentive schemes, generally speaking, they don't believe that these schemes help modern organisations to reach their objectives. Some of these advocates see that financial incentive schemes motivate employees to focus on quantity and ignore quality. Others see that although those schemes can help to achieve progress, that progress is at the expense of the intrinsic rewards that organisations should promote. Other TQM advocates believe that these schemes do not help because effective and efficient systems rather than individuals are the main factor that determines the progress of organisations. This category believes that it makes more sense to improve the systems and procedures rather than to use financial incentive schemes to motivate employees to reach the organisations' targets. The purpose of this research project was to answer the question as to whether a compromise between TQM and financial incentive schemes could be achieved to make the best use of both approaches. To answer this question an organisation with a strong TQM environment was identified and a financial incentive scheme was designed and implemented in that organisation with the help of a design team from the same organisation. The scheme covered five main areas of interest to the organisation namely: product and process quality, manufacturing management, environmental compliance, safety compliance and cost effectiveness. From several key performance indicators (KPIs) used by the organisation in these five areas only those under the direct control of employees were used in this research project. Samples of employees from the departments covered by the incentive scheme were consulted all through the different stages of the development of the incentive scheme. A comprehensive communication plan was undertaken to ensure that the structure and principles of the incentive scheme were clearly communicated to all employees. The results of installing the financial incentive scheme were then analysed to study the effect of implementing that scheme on the organisational performance and on the TQM environment and particularly on some specific TQM attributes. The analysis of those results showed that the incentive scheme achieved a considerable improvement in almost all of the areas covered by the scheme. The analysis showed no evidence of any adverse effect on the TQM environment as a result of installing the incentive scheme. In fact it was concluded that the TQM environment assisted the implementation of the financial incentive scheme.

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  • Faecal steroid measurements for the assessment of reproductive function in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) and kakapo (Strigops habroptilus) : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Physiology at Massey University

    Hawke, Emma Jane (2002)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The kakapo (Strigops habroptilus) is an endangered parrot endemic to New Zealand and little is known of its reproductive physiology. Reproductive function is conventionally determined by the measurement of reproductive steroids in plasma samples. This is impractical and invasive in endangered, free-living species. However, the measurement of reproductive steroids in avian faecal samples is practiced. Few studies have documented strong relationships between faecal and plasma steroid concentrations. The objectives of this study were to develop and validate a faecal extraction method for the measurement of oestradiol, progesterone and testosterone in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica); determine the relationships between steroid concentrations and gonadal development in quail; and define annual faecal hormone cycles of kakapo in relation to their breeding status. Groups of male and female quail were held on different photoperiodic and temperature regimes to produce birds with a range of gonad sizes and steroid concentrations. Steroid concentrations were measured in faeces and plasma by radioimmunoassay. Positive relationships were demonstrated between plasma and faecal steroid concentrations. Faecal steroid concentrations had strong positive relationships with ovary and testis size in female and male quail respectively. The extraction method developed was then applied to faecal samples, which were collected from kakapo in their free-living environment on Whenua Hou (Codfish Island). The samples were collected from identified birds over three potential breeding seasons. There were annual cycles of hormone concentrations that corresponded with cycles of breeding activity in females and males. No significant differences were found between breeding and non-breeding years for faecal concentrations of all three hormones, suggesting that kakapo undergo a degree of gonadal development each year. Annual hormone profiles for individual birds supported this finding. This study quantifies the value of collecting multiple faecal samples in both captive and wild situations and demonstrates the power and value of faecal steroid analysis.

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  • Health appeals in television food advertising : a social semiotic analysis : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    Smale, Keryn Ann (2006)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Lay beliefs about health generally, and health in relation to food in particular, are interesting and moderately researched topics. However, within these areas of study, little consideration has been given to the socially constructed nature of these so-called beliefs and values. Additionally, research that has explored the meaning and ideological significance of advertising has tended to do so in a static way. relying almost entirely upon the researcher's necessarily subjective analysis of print advertisements, while overlooking the active and constructive role of people in creating meaning. Based on the theoretical understanding that advertising, as a social and linguistic medium, both reproduces and creates cultural meanings, this study explores how the concept of health is appropriated in television advertisements for food products. In this way. the ideological implications of the meaningful relationships between health and food in modern consumer culture are elucidated. Fourteen ads for food products, which made some appeal to health, were recorded from free to air television. These ads targeted either middle-class mothers or independent, working women. Two focus group discussions were conducted, employing women from each of the target consumer groups as participants. These groups are referred to as mothers and singles respectively. In the focus group discussions, participants viewed and talked about the ads. A semiotic deconstruction of each of the ads was also undertaken. This involved breaking down the sign systems operating in the ads. in order to identify the underlying cultural assumptions about food and health. Semiotic interpretations of ads were grounded in real-world lay readings produced by participants. Drawing upon these interpretations, it is argued that for women, food and health discourses, particularly where they intersect, are sites of tension and contradiction, creating considerable food related anxiety and ambivalence. Appeals to health in food advertisements conflate health and beauty concerns to disguise and reinforce moral judgements based on body weight. Social constructions of the 'good mother', as evidenced in advertising, hold mothers responsible for the dietary health of children. At the same time, dominant nutritional science explanations of the relationship between health and food disempower women by privileging expert knowledge. Women are ideologically positioned through food and health discourses in oppressive ways characterised by irresolvable moral dilemmas. This study makes a clear social contribution by exposing the assumptions and myths underlying food and health meanings, and thereby laying them open to challenge.

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  • Fashioning liminal space : the meaning of things and women's experience in the practice of domestic shrine making in Aotearoa/New Zealand : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Social Anthropology at Massey University

    Savage, Deirdre Anne (2003)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This paper aims to bring together two lines of analysis that converge upon the specific spaces that are women's domestic shrines. One line examines the material culture of the spaces and objects on the shrines of ten different women and seeks to reveal the "agency" of these things in themselves. The other line is a phenomenological one and responds to the shrine as a site in which issues of practice, embodiment and intentionality in the daily life of the subjects is explored. The material culture of the shrine is investigated as part of the intersubjective experience of its creator and scrutinized as a fruitful place in which to develop an ethnographic understanding of the truth of life-as-lived. This study strives to give voice to ordinary New Zealand women and their precious things within their own homes. Key Words: Domestic Shrines/Altars, Feminist Ethnography, Material Culture, Objects, Spaccs, Phenomenology, Practice, Intersubjectivity, Embodiment, Agency, Women's Experience, Liminality.

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  • The oxidation stability of extra virgin avocado oil : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Technology in Food Science at Massey University

    Sherpa, Nimma (2002)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Extra virgin avocado oil (EVAO) is extracted from avocado fruit with minimal processing. It contains a wide range of non-lipid compounds that have a profound affect on oil stability. The deterioration of oil quality is due to autoxidation and photooxidation reactions that occur during oil storage. The objectives of this research were to determine the effect of prooxidant factors (light, temperature, oxygen level) on oil oxidation and quality; make recommendations for oil processing and packaging procedures to minimise oxidation; predict the shelf life of the oil and to determine the effect of commercial antioxidants on oil oxidation. An accelerated oxidation reactor was developed to test the effects of fluorescent light, elevated temperature and varying oxygen levels on the peroxide value (PV) (initially 0.96 ± 0.03 meq/kg oil) and chlorophyll content (initially 16.2 ± 0.1 ppm) of EVAO. The production and packaging processes of Olivado NZ. were analysed for exposure to oxidation promoting factors. EVAO was exposed to dark storage at 50°C and 60°C in order to determine Q10 values for oil oxidation. Several commercial antioxidants were evaluated by examining their affect on EVAO using the Rancimat oil stability index analysis and hot air oven testing. It was found that fluorescent light at 4500 lux and aeration with dry air strongly accelerated the oxidation (determined by PV) and reduced the chlorophyll content of EVAO. The average effect of 4500 lux fluorescent light compared to 0 lux over seven hours was a PV increase of 4.5 ± 1.4 meq/kg oil and decrease in chlorophyll content by 0.9 ± 0.3 ppm. The average effect of aerated EVAO compared to EVAO stored at ambient oxygen levels over seven hours was a PV increase of 3.5 ± 1.7 meq/kg oil and a chlorophyll content decrease of 0.3 ± 0.2 ppm. Exposure to an elevated temperature of 60°C for seven hours did not cause a significant increase in PV. Recommendations were made to minimise the exposure of the oil to light, aeration, water and fruit sediment during production and packaging in order to minimise oxidation of the oil. Due to the breakdown of natural antioxidants and alternative side reactions that occurred at elevated test temperatures but not at ambient temperatures, the shelf life of the oil could not be defined. EVAO containing ascorbyl palmitate at a level of 100 ppm had a peroxide value 80 % less than control EVAO with no antioxidants after 500 hours storage at 60°C. Ascorbyl palmitate has GRAS status and was concluded to be the most effective antioxidant of those tested in EVAO.

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  • The effect of army support services on satisfaction with army life experienced by partners of service personnel and their subsequent willingness to remain within the military enclave : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    Renaud, Marguerite (2000)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The present short-term study is a survey of the effect of Army support services on satisfaction with Army life as experienced by partners of service personnel and their subsequent willingness to remain within the military enclave. It aimed to elicit the personal perspective of partners on deployment issues, the efficacy of current Army support services, and attitudes to continuing an association with the Army. Participants were recruited from the families of those soldiers who had returned from peacekeeping deployments between January to July 2000. New Zealand Army Administration staff supplied a list of 317 addresses. Of these, 291 partners could be contacted by mail and subsequently 184 individuals returned a completed 16-page New Zealand Partner Support Survey (2000) questionnaire. This questionnaire elicited data about: socio-demographic characteristics; perceived support; Army support services; general issues; potential deployment problems; general health (GHQ-30); parenting issues and anecdotal narratives. Using quantitative methods the data was analyzed with an additional aim to collect data for a future longitudinal study on the retention of Army personnel. The participants' anecdotal narratives showed that deployments do impact the family and that family factors such as attitudes to Army lifestyle and support services do influence the soldiers' decision to remain in service. The study revealed that partners tend to mainly expect support from the Army with what they perceive is an Army related problem. These issues primarily concerned communication links with deployed partners and dissemination of information regarding soldiers. Based on this evidence it is suggested that the Army consolidate current support services to establish positions of full-time, dedicated Information Officers. The main responsibility of this position would be to liase between the soldiers' families and the Army. From this short-term study it is apparent that the decision to remain in service can be influenced by the Army's demonstration that the soldiers' families are valued members of the Military community. The provision of a quality support service specifically tailored to meet the needs of those it purports to serve is tangible evidence of this regard.

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  • In search of self : the hospitalisation experiences of children with cancer : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    Rochecouste, Véronique (2001)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Cancer is the second most common cause of death in children in the Western world. The diagnosis and treatment process is painful and distressing, and is carried out in the hospital environment. This environment is foreign to most children, and influences children's coping with the experience of having cancer. Research in this area has focussed on assessing coping responses, and designing interventions for the pain, distress and anxiety associated with the medical procedures. There have also been studies which have measured the prevalence of emotional and behavioural difficulties in children with cancer. No studies have been conducted into children's experiences of hospital expressed in their own terms. The aim of the present study was to elicit the hospital experiences of children with cancer. Interviews were conducted with seven children, aged 5 - 15 years, who had completed treatment for cancer within the previous two years. An interpretive phenomenological design was utilised in order to gain and analyse accounts of the participants' perceptions and experiences. Findings suggest that the experiences can be interpreted in terms of two themes underlying the experiences of children with cancer, and their coping responses. The first theme is 'Retaining a sense of self-as-normal', which describes efforts to 'Maintain links with familiar people' and 'Becoming 'at home' in hospital'. The second theme is 'Incorporating multiple selves', which are 'Self-as-body-in-pain', 'Self-as-confined', 'Self-as-patient' and 'Self-as-survivor-living-with-cancer'. Success in retaining a sense of self-as-normal both affects, and is influenced by, the incorporation of multiple selves. Implications of these themes for practice in terms of the assessment of coping responses, design of interventions, and the measurement of outcomes, are suggested.

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  • Effects of constant incubation regimes on eggs and hatchlings of the egg-laying skink, Oligosoma suteri

    Hare, Kelly Maree (2001)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The conditions under which reptilian eggs are incubated affect survival probability and physiological attributes of the progeny. The egg-laying skink, Oligosoma suteri, is the only endemic oviparous lizard in New Zealand. No controlled laboratory incubation had previously been undertaken, and thus no information was available on the requirements for successful captive incubation. I studied the effects of incubation regime on the eggs and hatchlings of O. suteri to four months of age. Oligosoma suteri eggs (n = 174) were randomly distributed among three constant incubation temperatures (18°C, 22°C and 26°C) and two water potentials (-120 kPa and -270 kPa). Hatching success and hatchling survival were greatest at 22°C and 26°C, with hatchlings from 18°C incubation suffering from physical abnormalities. Incubation regime and maternal influence did not affect sex of individuals, with equal sex ratios occurring from each incubation treatment. Hatchlings from the 22°C and -120 kPa incubation treatments were larger, for most measurements, and warmer incubation temperatures resulted in increased growth rates. Juveniles from 22°C and 26°C and individuals with greater mass per unit length (condition index) sprinted faster over 0.25 m. Sprint speed was positively correlated with ambient temperature. At four months of age sprint speed decreased in 18°C individuals and individuals incubated at 26°C and -270 kPa compared to their performance at one month. The results suggest that the most successful captive incubation regime for O. suteri is 22°C and -120 kPa. This study also shows that temperature-dependent sex determination does not occur in O. suteri, but that fitness traits are influenced by incubation temperature.

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  • "Gone by lunchtime" : social policy, breakfast radio and the 2005 New Zealand election campaign : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Public Policy at Massey University

    Belgrave, David (2006)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    New Zealand's 2005 election was fought largely on ideological and social policy differences between the country's two largest political parties. The campaign was closely fought with opinion polls putting either the New Zealand Labour Party or the New Zealand National Party ahead at various times. Election campaigns are an important opportunity for policy debate as public interest in politics and the direction of policy is usually much higher than at other times. Parties attempt to convince voters that their policy programmes are sound and that their leaders are both capable and responsible. The media play an important role in allowing politicians to communicate their policies and personalities to the voter. In addition to direct political communication the media play an important role in debating politics and policy which becomes all the more important during an election campaign. Auckland has a saturated radio market with a large number of heterogeneous stations attempting to service niche demographics. Almost all of these have some news content. Using data collected from four Auckland breakfast radio shows this thesis attempts to explain the policy detail, ideology and personality-based appeals made by politicians on social policy in their attempt to sell their policy programme to the voter, while also exploring how this debate was covered by the breakfast radio shows. Both Labour and National Party politicians concentrated on policy detail and ideologically-based appeals when debating social policies. For both major parties those ideological appeals were, to some extent, contradictory to the targeting of their policies to middle-income voters. Meanwhile the analysis of this debate differed greatly from station to station, but on all stations examining social policies came second to reporting on the contest between to two parties to gain the Treasury Benches.

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  • Imperial preferences : a study of New Zealand's great power relationships from 1949 to 1963 : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in History at Massey University

    Lewis, Wynford (2004)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This year is the fiftieth anniversary of the signing of the treaty that led to the formation of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organisation or SEATO. As such, it is an opportune time to review aspects of New Zealand's membership of this organisation. This task is all the more timely, because this year has also seen the Prime Minister of New Zealand sign a Non-Aggression Pact with ASEAN in the capital of Laos. Helen Clark is following in the footsteps of her Labour predecessor Walter Nash, who defied SEATO and the US over the matter of armed intervention in Laos. This thesis examines the changing defence relationships of New Zealand with the UK and the US during the 1950s, and seeks to explain the circumstances of Nash's disagreement with our largest ally. I wish to thank the staff of the Auckland University Library and the Massey University Library and the staff of the National Archives. Thanks to John Mills of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade for his assistance and to Bruce Brown and Tom Larkin for their interviews. I also wish to convey my thanks to Adam Claasen for his guidance and to Marilyn Lewis for her proofreading. My major thanks and appreciation goes to Ester Lewis.

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  • Gender, power and practices in tension : mixed-sex rooming in hospital : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment for the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Women's Studies at Massey University

    Burrell, Beverley Ann (2000)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Using a feminist poststructural framework this study analyses interview reports and the complex contextual elements existing in the uncommon event of sharing one's bedroom space with a stranger of the opposite sex whilst in hospital. Dilemmas of gender sensibility, patients' rights and privacy are evident for the eight women interviewed for this study who experienced mixed-sex rooming (MSR) in New Zealand hospitals. Sex differentiation and gender difference significantly influence the conditions upon which social relationships evolve. This research examines the significance of the category 'woman' and the impact of gender and patient norms, including the foundations on which any objection to MSR might rest. Deconstruction revealed tensions around spatial confines and the operation of institutional power and authority at macro and micro levels. Conflicts between, the rhetoric of health reform, and the practices affecting patients' right to choose, and privacy, are discussed in the wake of the New Zealand health services restructuring of the 1990s and the re-organisation of patient accommodation, marked by mixing the sexes, thereby raising the question of whether gender is rendered somehow irrelevant. It is concluded that particular interests are served by MSR and that patient concerns risk being neglected where choice is withheld. The exertion of institutional power was found to override some patients' choice. Patient acceptance of the practice is conditional in respect to preservation of their privacy, especially in regard to toileting and washing. Assumptions about gender persist even though mixing the sexes would appear to relegate gender to a neutral state. Recourse to blanket policies is found to be inappropriate when it is individual patients' rights that health professionals are bound to respect.

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  • Freedom of the hills : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Education in Adult Education, Massey University

    Straker, Jo (2004)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis has two main parts; the first addresses the nature of freedom as it is experienced in outdoor environments. The second part explores some of the ways in which these experiences can inform learning and outdoor education. Recollections of freedom were gathered from people who have a professional involvement in the outdoors as writers, photographers, professional adventurers, instructors and teachers. They were chosen because of their deep commitment to sharing their ideas about the outdoors in a variety of ways. Further to that, stories of mountaineering from the New Zealand Alpine Club Journals were read to gather background material on the culture of mountaineering and how the meaning of 'freedom of the hills' has been constructed. The research is based on Peile's (1994) ecological paradigm which has five main themes; holism, complexity, participatory, being and creativity. These themes underpin the ontological and epistemological foundations of the research and also provide the framework for synthesising the experiences of freedom. The research explores the ways that freedom and learning are intertwined and concludes that there are structural difficulties in current outdoor education practices which limit freedom. The research suggests a more ecologically inclusive metaphor for learning based on the Nor 'west storm, as one small step to resolving this dilemma.

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  • Effects of a medication reminder calendar on medication compliance in older adults : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    Greyvenstein, June Barbara (2001)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The present study aimed to investigate whether the provision of an individualised medication reminder calendar would improve medication compliance, by acting as a cognitive aid for older adults, who may be suffering the mild memory deficits which tend to be the usual concomitants of normal ageing. The present study also examined medication compliance and error rates and their relationship with the amount of daily medication taken by participants, as well as with selected demographic and socio-economic factors. A convenience sample of community dwelling participants (N = 50), aged between 55 and 84 years (M = 71) who were prescribed an average of five daily medications, was randomly assigned to either calendar or control groups. Medication compliance was assessed via two pill counts conducted, on average, seven and a half weeks apart. The results showed that participants using the calendar and those in the control group did not differ in terms of compliance measures. The average rate of compliance with medication for the sample was 97%. The mean number of errors made by participants during the interval between pill counts was 19 (79% errors of omission and 21% errors of commission). Multivariate analysis indicated that the number of daily tablets taken was positively associated with the number and types of errors made. Women were less compliant than men, while participants of lower socioeconomic status made more errors of commission. Discussion of these results focused on the non-representativeness of the sample and the difficulties associated with obtaining volunteers. Possible directions for future medication compliance research were discussed.

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  • Effects of land use on pelagic food webs in a range of Otago Wetlands

    Galbraith, Lisa (2004)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Inputs of nutrients and organic matter to wetlands from catchments influence water quality, which, in turn, determines the potential productivity of a wetland. While there are many studies of the effects of catchment development on water quality and aquatic communities in lakes, few studies include other wetlands. As these other wetlands are likely to be more affected by allochthonous inputs, littoral vegetation and autochthonous generation of organic matter, my aim was to determine the major influences on pelagic communities in a range of wetland systems. Influences of catchment land use on water quality and the pelagic food web were examined in 45 wetlands representative of a range of wetland environments in Otago, including swamps and ponds, shallow lakes, riverine wetlands, estuaries, reservoirs and deep lakes. The pelagic zones of 40 wetland sites were sampled once in February-March 1999 (autumn), 15 were re-sampled in October 1999 (spring), when five additional sites were also sampled. Catchment variables included size and slope, wetland size and the percentage of land in the catchment in bare ground, indigenous forest, inland water, inland wetlands, planted forest, pasture, scrub, tussock, urban or urban open space. Water quality variables, or physicochemical measurements, included total phosphorus, total nitrogen, total dissolved phosphorus, total inorganic nitrogen, dissolved organic carbon, turbidity, Secchi depth, total suspended solids, water colour, chlorophyll a, pH, temperature and conductivity. The pelagic food web was sampled, including biomass, abundance, and identification to genus of phytoplankton, biomasses of picophytoplankton, heterotrophic bacteria and nanoflagellates, biomass and identification to genus or dominant group of ciliates, and abundance and identification to species of crustacean zooplankton. Relationships among catchment variables, water quality variables and the pelagic food web were determined using multivariate analysis and correlation analysis. Increased development of pasture, exotic forestry and urbanisation in a catchment had negative effects on water quality, in comparison to unmodified catchments containing native vegetation communities. In turn, the biomass and composition of the pelagic community related closely to catchment modification, via physicochemical attributes of the wetland. Deep lakes were the most oligotrophic wetlands and swamps and ponds were the most eutrophic. Picophytoplankton and the cladoceran, Bosmina meridionalis were related positively to unmodified catchments, low trophic status of a wetland and deep lakes. Other components of the microbial food web, phytoplankton, copepods and Daphnia carinata were linked hierarchically to more intensive land use in the catchment, higher wetland trophy, swamps and ponds. A ciliate genus, Urocentrum, appeared to be detrimentally affected, and phytoplankton diversity reduced, by wetland catchment development and increases in wetland trophy. Components of the pelagic food web were tightly correlated across adjacent trophic levels. Heterotrophic bacteria appeared to be a resource for heterotrophic nanoflagellates. Picophytoplankton populations might either be suppressed by ciliate grazing, or detrimentally affected by eutrophication. Small ciliates appear to consume other microbial food web components, while larger ciliates may depend more on phytoplankton. Copepods may be relying on consumption of ciliates. Cladocerans did not appear to depend on this resource to the same extent as copepods. Populations of B. meridionalis and Ceriodaphnia dubia were negatively related to the larger cladoceran, D. carinata. Seasonal effects were apparent only at the level of zooplankton, the highest trophic level studied. B. meridionalis and C. dubia were more abundant in autumn than spring, while the reverse was true of D. carinata. This study revealed relationships within pelagic food webs in a range of wetland systems. While resource supply appeared to be the foundation of relationships between aquatic organisms, top-down effects of predation in the food web could not be dismissed. The potential of organisms such as picophytoplankton, ciliates and phytoplankton to be indicators of aquatic ecosystem health has been revealed or strengthened by this study. This research provides evidence of the influence of land use and geographical features on water quality and pelagic communities of wetlands in Otago.

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  • The influence of social support on the psychological effects of unemployment : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Economics at Massey University

    Marshall, Andrew (2000)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Over the past two decades the proportion of people suffering long-term unemployment has risen in the developed countries. It is agreed that transitory shocks to aggregate demand initially contributed to the high rates of unemployment but there are divergent views as to why these high rates have persisted. Some suggest that these shocks may influence structural factors on the supply-side of the economy. Darity and Goldsmith (1993; 1996) propose a labour market model in which the deleterious psychological effects of unemployment cause contractions in labour demand and supply to persist thus exacerbating unemployment. The model is outlined and the psychology literature concerning its tenets is reviewed. The literature is reviewed as to whether and how social relationships and support ameliorate the psychological distress associated with unemployment. To determine whether unemployment is psychologically deleterious and whether this may be offset by certain types and sources of social support, an exploratory survey examined a small cross-section of people registered with Work and Income New Zealand (WINZ) as unemployed a year before the study. The respondents included people who remained unemployed throughout the entire period, people who had experienced recurrent spells of unemployment and people who had re-entered paid employment and were employed when surveyed. No difference in psychological wellbeing was found on the basis of employment status but differences were found in perceptions of the availability of different types of support from different sources. Those who were re-employed when they were surveyed gained psychological benefits from support derived from the immediate family and associative relationships (e.g. neighbours, workplace and leisure associates). Emotional and socialising support derived from the immediate family appeared to be particularly psychologically beneficial. The analysis further indicates that psychologically healthy and distressed individuals differ in their perceptions of the availability of support from the immediate family and in the availability of financial support from the overall network.

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  • Testing the usability of well scaled mobile maps for consumers

    van Elzakker, C.P.J.M.; van Oosterom, P.J.M.; Delikostidis, I. (2007)

    Conference Contributions - Other
    University of Canterbury Library

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