5,003 results for Lincoln University Research Archive

  • Guide for subterranean clover identification and use in New Zealand

    Book
    Lincoln University

    This project, initiated in 2015 and funded by the Sustainable Farming Fund (SFF Project 408090), was created to identify, describe and promote methods to increase the subterranean clover content on summer dry farms throughout NZ. This first edition of “Guide for subterranean clover identification and use in New Zealand” provides information for dryland farmers to; gain knowledge of sub clover; identify the main sub clover cultivars currently available in New Zealand, and understand their suitability for different dryland farm environments.

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  • Epsilonproteobacteria in Humans, New Zealand

    Cornelius, A. J.; Chambers, S.; Atiken, J.; Brandt, S. M.; Horn, B.; On, S. L. W.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Using PCR–denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, we examined 49 fecal samples from healthy volunteers and 128 diarrhea specimens to assess the distribution of Epsilonproteobacteria that might be routinely overlooked. Our results suggest that certain taxa that are not routinely examined for could account for a proportion of diarrhea of previously unknown etiology.

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  • Symptoms and causes of poverty in a rural Vietnamese commune: does ethnicity matter?

    Le, V.; Lyne, Michael; Ratna, Nazmun N.; Nuthall, Peter L.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    © 2014, Kassel University Press GmbH. All rights reserved. This study uses data from a sample survey of 200 households drawn from a mountainous commune in Vietnam’s North Central Coast region to measure and explain relative poverty. Principal components analysis is used to construct a multidimensional index of poverty outcomes from variables measuring household income and the value of domestic assets. This index of poverty is then regressed on likely causes of poverty including different forms of resource endowment and social exclusion defined by gender and ethnicity. The ordinary least squares estimates indicate that poverty is indeed influenced by ethnicity, partly through its interaction with social capital. However, poverty is most strongly affected by differences in human and social capital. Differences in the amount of livestock and high quality farmland owned also matter. Thai households are poorer than their Kinh counterparts even when endowed with the same levels of human, social, physical and natural capital considered in the study. This empirical result provides a rationale for further research on the causal relationship between ethnicity and poverty outcomes.

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  • Adoption of social media in the Australian and New Zealand wine industries

    Forbes, Sharon L.; Goodman, S.; Dolan, R.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Purpose - This paper examines the adoption of social media technologies across the Australasian wine industries, how wineries are using social media, and the issues that limit adoption. Design/methodology/approach - Data for this exploratory study was obtained from a survey of wineries across Australia and New Zealand. Findings - The level of social media adoption by wineries is the same across both nations (65%), with Facebook and Twitter being the most adopted platforms. Wineries are predominantly utilising social media to communicate and provide event information to existing customers, as well as to advertise and gain new customers. Originality/value - This study adds to current knowledge regarding the use of social media in the wine industry, including a comparison of the use across Australasian wineries to wineries in other nations. It also identifies the main barriers affecting the use of social media by wineries; time constraints, effectiveness, and lack of knowledge.

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  • Tourism and Arctic observation systems: exploring the relationships

    de la Barre, S.; Maher, P. T.; Dawson, J.; Hillmer-Pegram, K.; Huijbens, E.; Lamers, M.; Liggett, D.; Müller, D.; Pashkevich, A.; Stewart, E. J.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    The Arctic is affected by global environmental change and also by diverse interests from many economic sectors and industries. Over the last decade, various actors have attempted to explore the options for setting up integrated and comprehensive trans-boundary systems for monitoring and observing these impacts. These Arctic Observation Systems (AOS) contribute to the planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of environmental change and responsible social and economic development in the Arctic. The aim of this article is to identify the two-way relationship between AOS and tourism. On the one hand, tourism activities account for diverse changes across a broad spectrum of impact fields. On the other hand, due to its multiple and diverse agents and far-reaching activities, tourism is also well-positioned to collect observational data and participate as an actor in monitoring activities. To accomplish our goals, we provide an inventory of tourism-embedded issues and concerns of interest to AOS from a range of destinations in the circumpolar Arctic region, including Alaska, Arctic Canada, Iceland, Svalbard, the mainland European Arctic and Russia. The article also draws comparisons with the situation in Antarctica. On the basis of a collective analysis provided by members of the International Polar Tourism Research Network from across the polar regions, we conclude that the potential role for tourism in the development and implementation of AOS is significant and has been overlooked.

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  • Planning for green building design and technology in New Zealand

    Kirpensteijn, Helene

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Green building design and technology has been developed to lower the impacts of buildings on the environment while maintaining, and in some cases improving all the functions and values of a traditional building. Although the initial costs of green buildings are higher than those of traditional buildings, increased performance and efficiency means that green buildings are more cost effective in the long-term. However, because of these higher initial costs and other barriers such as knowledge barriers, behavioural barriers, and regulatory barriers, uptake is still low in many countries, including New Zealand. Local government and the profession of planning have revealed interests in managing green building uptake. Therefore, the objective of this research is to investigate whether planning provisions in New Zealand are an effective way of increasing green building design and technology uptake. To conduct this research, a mixed methods approach was used. This included performing a plan analysis, a Section 32 report analysis, a hearing report analysis for the Proposed Auckland Unitary Plan and the Christchurch Replacement District Plan. Interviews were also carried out with representatives from these councils and the New Zealand Green Building Council. The findings of this research was that mandatory provisions written into unitary/district plans can be effective in increasing green building uptake. However, Section 18 of the Building Act prevents them from doing so. Therefore, the most effective methods at this time are incentive based schemes such as reduced resource consenting time and costs for green building consents, and the use of height and density bonuses. In conclusion, in the current regulatory environment, planners cannot effectively implement mandatory green building provisions. However, they can effectively manage non-mandatory provisions for increasing green building uptake. If in the future planners were to be able to successfully execute mandatory provisions to increase green building uptake, then Section 18 of the Building Act would need to be amended. For implementing mandatory green building provisions in the future, it is recommended that an incremental, step-by-step approach is used so as to avoid unnecessary stress on homeowners and developers.

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  • Comparison of oxalate contents and recovery from two green juices prepared using a masticating juicer or a high speed blender

    Vanhanen, Leo P.; Savage, Geoffrey P.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    © 2015 The Authors. Background: Juicing is a popular health trend where green juice is prepared from a range of common vegetables. If spinach is included in the mix then the juice may contain significant quantities of oxalates and these are not safe to consume regularly in large amounts as they predispose some people to kidney stone formation. Methods: Green juice, prepared from spinach and other common vegetables using a high speed blender that produced a juice containing all the original fiber of the processed raw vegetables, was compared with a juice produced using a masticating juicer, where the pulp containing most of the fiber was discarded in the process. The oxalate contents of both juices were measured using HPLC chromatography. Results: Two juices were prepared using each processing method, one juice contained a high level of spinach, which resulted in a juice containing high levels of total, soluble and insoluble oxalates; the other was a juice mixture made from the same combination of vegetables but containing half the level of spinach, which resulted in a juice containing considerably (P < 0.001) lower levels of oxalates. Removal of the pulp fraction from the green vegetable juice had resulted in significantly (P < 0.01) higher levels of oxalates in the remaining juices made from both levels of spinach. Conclusion: Green juices prepared using common vegetables can contain high levels of soluble oxalates, which will vary with the type and proportion of vegetables used and whether or not the pulp fraction was retained during processing.

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  • High-resolution denitrification kinetics in pasture soils link N₂O emissions to pH, and denitrification to C mineralization

    Samad, M. S.; Bakken, L. R.; Nadeem, S.; Clough, T. J.; de Klein, C. A. M.; Richards, K. G.; Lanigan, G. J.; Morales, S. E.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Denitrification in pasture soils is mediated by microbial and physicochemical processes leading to nitrogen loss through the emission of N₂O and N₂. It is known that N₂O reduction to N₂ is impaired by low soil pH yet controversy remains as inconsistent use of soil pH measurement methods by researchers, and differences in analytical methods between studies, undermine direct comparison of results. In addition, the link between denitrification and N₂O emissions in response to carbon (C) mineralization and pH in different pasture soils is still not well described. We hypothesized that potential denitrification rate and aerobic respiration rate would be positively associated with soils. This relationship was predicted to be more robust when a high resolution analysis is performed as opposed to a single time point comparison. We tested this by characterizing 13 different temperate pasture soils from northern and southern hemispheres sites (Ireland and New Zealand) using a fully automated- high-resolution GC detection system that allowed us to detect a wide range of gas emissions simultaneously. We also compared the impact of using different extractants for determining pH on our conclusions. In all pH measurements, soil pH was strongly and negatively associated with both N₂O production index (IN₂O) and N₂O/(N₂O+N₂) product ratio. Furthermore, emission kinetics across all soils revealed that the denitrification rates under anoxic conditions (NO+N₂O+N₂ μmol N/h/vial) were significantly associated with C mineralization (CO₂ μmol/h/vial) measured both under oxic (r² = 0.62, p = 0.0015) and anoxic (r² = 0.89, p<0.0001) conditions.

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  • Advances in agronomic management of phytoremediation: methods and results from a 10-year study of metal-polluted soils

    Vamerali, T.; Marchiol, L.; Bandiera, M.; Fellet, G.; Dickinson, N. M.; Lucchini, P.; Mosca, G.; Zerbi, G.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Among green technologies addressed to metal pollution, phytoextraction has received increasing attention in recent years as an alternative to physical and chemical methods of decontamination. Since 1998, as part of an Italian multidisciplinary research team on phytoremediation, we have been carrying out several agronomic investigations with field crops in agricultural soil and pyrite waste, both markedly contaminated by heavy metals. Phytoextraction was rarely an efficient process, requiring a long time even to remove merely the bioavailable metal fraction, but the great metal stock in roots suggests exploring the effectiveness of long-term in planta stabilisation. Poor above-ground productivity was the main factor constraining metal removals, especially in wastes. Without assisting the process, only zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn) and copper (Cu) were harvested by the canopy in substantial amounts, with an estimated maximum of ~8 kg of metals from an hectare base with rapeseed in the agricultural soil and only 0.33 kg with fodder radish in pyrite waste. Root growth was a key trait in species and genotype selection, in view of the close relationship between root length and metal uptake. The auxins, humic acids and chelators tested on the model plant fodder radish generally increased metal concentrations in plant tissues, but reduced growth and removals. It is currently concluded that phytoremediation efficiency with crop species may be improved through increased productivity by suitable soil management, involving mineral and organic fertilisation, contaminant dilution, soil capping, and metal immobilisation with inorganics and biochar. © T. Vamerali et al., 2012.

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  • An empirical analysis of house price bubble: a case study of Beijing housing market

    Chen, R. D.; Gan, C.; Hu, B.; Cohen, D. A.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Increases in house prices can lead to higher house price volatility, a significant determinant of default and the prepayment of housing loans (Miles, 2008). Many researchers believe that significant growth in house price has the potential to generate a house price bubble. The bursting of a house price bubble is likely to endanger the stability of the country’s real economy. China experienced substantial increases in house prices at the end of 1990s. In Beijing, house prices increased dramatically following the liberalization of China’s housing market in 1998, and especially so after reforms in 2004. The significant growth of Beijing house prices could have generated a house price bubble, thus endangering the stability of the Beijing housing market and thereby the overall Chinese economy. This paper investigates whether a bubble existed in the Beijing housing market from 1998 to 2010, using economic fundamental variables such as interest rates, inflation, and cost of supply. Results of the analysis revealed that the Beijing house price index was significantly larger than the equilibrium value, based on the relative economic fundamental variables (income, inflation, interest rate and construction cost) during 2004 to 2007. This result is similar to the findings of Hou (2009), where nearly 75 percent of the changes in Beijing house price were thought to be explained by the economic variables used in the models.

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  • Toxicology and ecotoxicology of para-aminopropiophenone (PAPP) – a new predator control tool for stoats and feral cats in New Zealand

    Eason, C. T.; Miller, A.; MacMorran, D.; Murphy, E. C.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Para-aminopropiophenone (PAPP) paste was approved as a stoat control agent in New Zealand by the Environmental Protection Authority in August 2011 and for feral cat control in November 2011. PAPP was originally researched in Europe and the USA as treatment for cyanide and radiation poisoning. Over the last 10 years, our research has focused on several factors, including determining its toxicity to predators, field effectiveness for controlling stoats and feral cats, animal welfare profile, toxicology, ecotoxicology, and understanding and reducing non-target risks. PAPP has been developed specifically for the control of stoats and feral cats because of the special sensitivity displayed by these species. Its toxicity is mediated by the induction of methaemoglobinaemia (the ferric state of haemoglobin). Normally, methaemoglobin levels in the blood are below 1%. Levels of methaemoglobin in the blood above 70% are usually fatal, creating a lethal deficit of oxygen in cardiac muscle and the brain. In stoats and feral cats, death after a lethal dose usually occurs within 2 h after eating bait, with clinical signs first appearing in 10 to 20 min for stoats and at around 35 min for cats. Animals become lethargic and sleepy before they die, hence PAPP is relatively humane. A simple antidote exists, namely methylene blue. Further, birds display a lack of toxicity to PAPP when compared with other vertebrate pesticides. A paste containing 40% PAPP has been developed for use in meat baits in New Zealand. A toxic dose for stoats and feral cats is achieved when pea-sized amounts of paste are delivered in 10–20 g meat baits. When meat baits containing PAPP are applied in bait stations in field settings, stoat and feral cat numbers can be rapidly reduced. However, there has been limited practical experience with PAPP to date, especially when compared with alternative tools such as traps or sodium monofluoroacetate (1080) baits. Additional practical experience should enable the effective use of PAPP as a tool to help protect native species from introduced predators. In the future, PAPP will be developed in long-life bait and in a resetting toxin delivery system.

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  • Financial budget manual 2012

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The Financial Budget Manual 2012 is an invaluable reference book for farmers and growers, consultants and students. It contains a wealth of up to date information on farm and orchard costs and prices, the profitability of different enterprises, and income taxation. Following its successful introduction in 1999, the manual is in the process of moving to the web. However, many users find having the information in a book is the most convenient and efficient format, and this manual is the result of the Universities commitment to the wide readership. Unless stated otherwise, data contained in the Manual are current mid-2012 and are exclusive of GST. Prices do not remain stationary so the Manual should be used as a guide only. Market movements and exchange rate changes are just two of the factors which can rapidly alter costs and prices. The availability of discounts for bulk purchases, and deferred payment arrangements, may also affect final costs for budgeting purposes. In addition, some commodity price information is becoming increasingly sensitive and remains confidential between the client and the supplier and/or buyer. It is therefore unavailable for publication in this Manual.

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  • Specificity in legume-rhizobia symbioses

    Andrews, M.; Andrews, M. E.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Most species in the Leguminosae (legume family) can fix atmospheric nitrogen (N₂) via symbiotic bacteria (rhizobia) in root nodules. Here, the literature on legume-rhizobia symbioses in field soils was reviewed and genotypically characterised rhizobia related to the taxonomy of the legumes from which they were isolated. The Leguminosae was divided into three sub-families, the Caesalpinioideae, Mimosoideae and Papilionoideae. Bradyrhizobium spp. were the exclusive rhizobial symbionts of species in the Caesalpinioideae, but data are limited. Generally, a range of rhizobia genera nodulated legume species across the two Mimosoideae tribes Ingeae and Mimoseae, but Mimosa spp. show specificity towards Burkholderia in central and southern Brazil, Rhizobium/Ensifer in central Mexico and Cupriavidus in southern Uruguay. These specific symbioses are likely to be at least in part related to the relative occurrence of the potential symbionts in soils of the different regions. Generally, Papilionoideae species were promiscuous in relation to rhizobial symbionts, but specificity for rhizobial genus appears to hold at the tribe level for the Fabeae (Rhizobium), the genus level for Cytisus (Bradyrhizobium), Lupinus (Bradyrhizobium) and the New Zealand native Sophora spp. (Mesorhizobium) and species level for Cicer arietinum (Mesorhizobium), Listia bainesii (Methylobacterium) and Listia angolensis (Microvirga). Specificity for rhizobial species/symbiovar appears to hold for Galega officinalis (Neorhizobium galegeae sv. officinalis), Galega orientalis (Neorhizobium galegeae sv. orientalis), Hedysarum coronarium (Rhizobium sullae), Medicago laciniata (Ensifer meliloti sv. medicaginis), Medicago rigiduloides (Ensifer meliloti sv. rigiduloides) and Trifolium ambiguum (Rhizobium leguminosarum sv. trifolii). Lateral gene transfer of specific symbiosis genes within rhizobial genera is an important mechanism allowing legumes to form symbioses with rhizobia adapted to particular soils. Strain-specific legume rhizobia symbioses can develop in particular habitats.

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  • Indigenous resilience through urban disaster: the Maori response to the 2010 and 2011 Christchurch Otautahi earthquakes

    Lambert, S.; Shadbolt, M.; Ataria, J. M.; Black, A.

    Conference Contribution - Published
    Lincoln University

    The scale of damage from a series of earthquakes across Christchurch Otautahi in 2010 and 2011 challenged all networks in the city at a time when many individuals and communities were under severe economic pressure. Historically, Maori have drawn on traditional institutions such as whanau, marae, hapu and iwi in their endurance of past crises. This paper presents research in progress to describe how these Maori-centric networks supported both Maori and non-Maori through massive urban dislocation. Resilience to any disaster can be explained by configurations of economic, social and cultural factors. Knowing what has contributed to Maori resilience is fundamental to the strategic enhancement of future urban communities - Maori and non-Maori.

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  • Assessing the behavioural intentions of spa customers: an empirical analysis

    Thongkern, Thitiya

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    The spa industry has become a major player in the hospitality and leisure sector in Thailand. Despite the economic turndown, the spa industry has continued to grow at a robust pace. Specifically, the day spa industry is developing services to support urban and city living lifestyles. Currently, day spas are in a very competitive marketing environment in Thailand. Hence, in this environment, generating and maintaining behavioural intentions is an important strategy for retaining a competitive advantage. The main aim of this study is to gain an understanding of the dimensionality and determinants of behavioural intentions. Further, this study adopted a comprehensive hierarchical modelling approach as a framework for identifying the primary dimensions and sub-dimensions of service quality and to examine the interrelationships between the five higher-order marketing constructs (service quality, customer satisfaction, perceived value, perceived switching costs, and behavioural intentions) and their determinants in the day spa context. This study presents a comprehensive hierarchical modelling approach as a framework to identify the primary dimensions and sub-dimensions of service quality, to analyse the interrelationships between the five higher-order marketing constructs, and then to analysis the differences in the five higher-order constructs and dimensions of service quality, within the demographic factors. This study uses mix method research to analyse the data. The findings of this study were based on the analysis of a sample of 620 spa customers who had experienced a day spa in Chiang Mai, or Khon Kaen provinces or Bangkok City, Thailand, during June to August, 2013. Three focus group interviews and a pre-test preceded the data collection process. This study mainly used a self-administered survey. In addition, Exploratory Factor Analysis, Confirmatory Factor Analysis, Structural Equation Modelling, and ANOVA were used to analyse the data. The findings support a comprehensive hierarchical structure of service quality for day spas that comprises nine first-order sub-dimensions(communication skills, friendliness, atmosphere, tangibles, timeliness, operation, programme variety, outcome, and staff expertise), four second-order primary dimensions (interpersonal quality, environment quality, administrative quality, and technical quality), and overall service quality. The sub-dimensions and primary dimensions vary in terms of their importance. Nevertheless, administrative quality is the most important primary dimension for overall service quality performance. Moreover, the findings also reveal that customer satisfaction is the key determinant of behavioural intentions. Service quality and perceived value are two important descriptors of customer satisfaction. Service quality is the most important determinant of customer satisfaction, which is the most significant antecedent of behavioural intentions. Service quality also is a significant determinant of perceived value and perceived switching costs. Customer satisfaction plays a partial mediating role on the relationship between service quality and behavioural intentions, and perceived value and behavioural intentions. Lastly, customer perceptions of the constructs were mostly influenced by the “age” group and “type of customer” group. This study will enable day spa managers to develop and implement a marketing strategy in order to achieve a high quality of service, upgrade the level of customer satisfaction and perceived value, increase perceived switching costs, and create favourable future behavioural intentions.

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  • Enhanced growth of cabbage seedlings by a Paenibacillus isolate in the presence of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris

    Ghazali Biglar, H.; Hampton, J. G.; van Zijll de Jong, E.; Holyoake, A. J.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Paenibacillus spp. are rhizobacteria that can promote plant growth through a rangeof mechanisms. A New Zealand isolate of Paenibacillus, P16, has reduced the incidence of black rot, caused by Xanthamonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc), in brassicas. To investigate if this response was provided through plant growth promotion, isolate P16 was co-applied with Xcc as a seed treatment. In the presence of Xcc, P16-treated seedlings had significantly greater root length, leaf area, and root and shoot dry weight compared to the positive control (Xcc alone). There were no significant differences in plant growth parameters between P16-treated seedlings in the absence of the pathogen and the negative control (seeds without Xcc or P16). Isolate P16 enabled plants to survive and grow normally by preventing disease development; the mechanism of disease suppression requires further investigation.

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  • Summer home range size and population density of great spotted kiwi (Apteryx Haastii) in the North Branch of the Hurunui River, New Zealand

    Keye, C.; Roschak, C.; Ross, J.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Home range size, travel distances, and population density of the great spotted kiwi (Apteryx haastii) were investigated in the North Branch of the Hurunui River. Radio tracking was conducted on 10 great spotted kiwi between Dec 2007 and Apr 2008. The estimated minimum home-range sizes were determined using the concave polygon method and ranged between 19.6 ha and 35.4 ha, with a mean of 29.3 ha (± 1.6 SEM). The observed nightly distances travelled per hour varied from 7 to 433 m (n = 569). Most estimates of travel distances (73%) were clustered in the classes from 0 - 150 m/hour, and distances over 200 m/hour were seldom achieved (only c. 7% of distances). The kiwi population in the Mainland Island site on the western North Branch of the Hurunui River was estimated to hold around 290 birds in total. Population density for the entire North Branch area was estimated to be 2 pairs/km² and when including subadults, 5 birds/km². Our estimate of home range size is larger but with more variation than found in other studies. Differences in population density estimates between our study and those in the Hurunui and Arthurs Pass district may be due to different objectives and methods

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  • Farmer survey to study needs of small-herders

    Westbrooke, V.; Nuthall, P. L.

    Popular Press / News Item
    Lincoln University

    The business plans and personal requirements of small-herd dairy farmers are to be put under the spotlight as part of a survey being organised by Lincoln University Lecturer in Agricultural Management and Agribusiness, Dr Victoria Westbrooke, and Research Fellow, Dr Peter Nuthall.

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  • Draft genome sequences of two New Zealand Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris isolates, ICMP 4013 and ICMP 21080

    Desai, D.; Li, J.-H.; van Zijll de Jong, E.; Braun, R.; Pitman, A.; Visnovsky, S.; Hampton, J. G.; Christey, M. C.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris is a necrotrophic bacterial pathogen of crucifers. We report here the draft genome sequences of isolates ICMP 4013 and ICMP 21080 from New Zealand. These sequences will facilitate the identification of race-specific factors in X. campestris pv. campestris.

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  • Climate change: seed production and options for adaptation

    Hampton, J. G.; Conner, A. J.; Boelt, B.; Chastain, T. G.; Rolston, P.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Food security depends on seed security and the international seed industry must be able to continue to deliver the quantities of quality seed required for this purpose. Abiotic stress resulting from climate change, particularly elevated temperature and water stress, will reduce seed yield and quality. Options for the seed industry to adapt to climate change include moving sites for seed production, changing sowing date, and the development of cultivars with traits which allow them to adapt to climate change conditions. However, the ability of seed growers to make these changes is directly linked to the seed system. In the formal seed system operating in developed countries, implementation will be reasonably straight forward. In the informal system operating in developing countries, the current seed production challenges including supply failing to meet demand and poor seed quality will increase with changing climates.

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