8,263 results for Massey Research Online

  • Talanoa ile i'a : talking to Pacific Island young people in West Auckland about health : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Social Work at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

    Faleolo, Moses Ma'alo (2003)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The present study explores the health issues surrounding Pacific Island youth health development. The present study conducted a literature review on youth health issues in New Zealand and found that most are cultural and social related. A second literature review of theoretical dispositions to account for the emergence of youth heath issues found that Pacific Island concepts, medical sociology theory and youth health theory were relevant explanations for the emergence of Pacific Island youth health issues. The present study conducted focus groups with Pacific Island young people about youth health issues to see if the information from the literature review corresponded with the participants’ responses and whether the theoretical explanations were consistent with the participants’ responses. The present study found that a correlation exists between the literature review and the participants’ responses. The present study maintains through the participants’ responses that the key to addressing Pacific Island young people health issues is to involve their families throughout the process of assessment and in the development of response plans. This means the perspectives of those in youth health policy arenas, the perspective of service managers and the perspective of professionals are required to recognise that the perspective of the young person is an essential domain for understanding the cause of and for resolving Pacific Island youth health issues. ‘Talanoa ile I’a’ is the story of Pacific Island young people living in West Auckland. It is based on responses to questions posed to participants of the study in relation to Pacific Island youth health development issues. The present study contends that in order to understand, identify and resolve Pacific Island youth health issues it is important to talk to Pacific Island young people themselves. The present study did not conduct any research with youth policymakers, youth health services or health professionals but preferred to explore youth health with Pacific Island young people themselves. The present study is built on the participants’ responses and provides both warning signs and building blocks for youth health policy, youth healthcare services and youth health professionals. The present study is a Pacific Island approach to Pacific Island youth health issues; it is ‘by Pacific for Pacific’.

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  • Characterisation of dairy strains of Geobacillus stearothermophilus and a genomics insight into its growth and survival during dairy manufacture : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Microbiology at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Burgess, Sara (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    The thermophilic bacilli, such as G. stearothermophilus, are an important group of contaminants in the dairy industry. Although these bacilli are generally not pathogenic, their presence in dairy products is an indicator of poor hygiene and high numbers are unacceptable to customers. In addition, their growth may result in milk product defects caused by the production of acids or enzymes, potentially leding to off-flavours. These bacteria are able to grow in sections of dairy manufacturing plants where temperatures reach 40 – 65 °C. Furthermore, because they are spore formers, they are difficult to eliminate. In addition, they exhibit a fast growth rate and tend to readily form biofilms. Many strategies have been tested to prevent the formation of thermophilic bacilli biofilms in dairy manufacture, but with limited success. This is, in part, because little is known about the diversity of strains found in dairy manufacture, the structure of thermophilic bacilli biofilms and how these bacteria have adapted to grow in a dairy environment. In Chapters 2 and 3, phenotypic approaches were taken to understand the diversity of strains within a manufacturing plant. Specifically in Chapter 2, strains of the most dominant thermphilic bacilli, G. stearothermophilus, were isolated from the surface of various locations within the evaporator section and ten strains were evaluated for different phenotypic characteristics. Biochemical profiling, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and fatty profiling demonstrated that the population was diverse. In Chapter 3, it was shown that the same ten strains varied in their ability to form biofilms and produce spores. Three strains of G. stearothermophilus, A1, P3 and D1, were selected for further analysis. SEM demonstrated that there were differences in biofilm morphologies between the three strains, particularly D1 versus the other two strains, A1 and P3. In Chapters 4, 5 and 6 a comparative genomics approach was taken to determine how these bacteria are able to grow and survive within a dairy manufacturing environment, as well as how they differ from other strains of Geobacillus. In Chapter 4 draft genome sequences were generated for three strains of G.stearothermophilus. Identification of a putative lactose operon in the three dairy strains provided evidence of dairy adaptation. In Chapter 5 a phylogenomics approach was taken to resolve relationships within the Geobacillus genus and to identify differences within the G. stearothermophilus group itself. Finally in Chapter 6 comparison with the model organism B. subtilis, gave a genomics insight into the potential mechanisms of sporulation for Geobacillus spp.

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  • Exploring the development potential of Saudi Arabian Airlines, the national flag carrier of Saudi Arabia : a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Aviation at Massey University, (Manawatu), New Zealand

    Gamraoyi, Khaled (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis will examine the possible factors that could greatly influence the future development of the legacy carrier of Saudi Arabia: Saudi Arabian Airlines. Furthermore, this thesis delved into the feasibility of a new route from Jeddah to Auckland and how this route could impact the growth of Saudi Arabian Airlines. The research questions were answered through the use of a mixed method approach. The research was carried out in two phases. The first phase involved environmental scanning through the process of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis, where the strengths and weaknesses of the internal environment of Saudi Arabian Airlines were appraised. It also examined the possible opportunities and threats of the external environment (i.e. the Middle East region), where Saudi Arabian Airlines is situated. The second phase involved a survey where the feasibility of a new route (i.e. Jeddah–Bali–Auckland) was examined and evaluated. The results suggested that the exponential growth of the aviation industry in the Middle East can be capitalized by Saudi Arabian Airlines by using its recognized strengths and addressing the concerns that have emerged in this study. A possible strategy by which these concerns can be addressed is through establishing a new route that Saudi Arabian Airlines can take advantage of in the future to fulfil its ambitions of becoming one of the top airlines in the aviation industry. One specific route that the thesis examines is the Jeddah–Bali–Auckland route, where there is a substantial market which will yield an increased profit margin and therefore impact the growth of Saudi Arabian Airlines.

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  • The recovery experiences of refugees from Middle Eastern backgrounds with concussions : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Psychology at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

    Zaytoun, Ruba (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    With the growing number of Middle Eastern refugees in the world, there is a need for more culturally and refugee specific research to examine the ongoing and idiosyncratic nature of the stress and trauma refugees’ experience. As a result of the arduous journeys refugees undergo, they become susceptible to a number of mental and physical illnesses, including Traumatic Brain Injuries (TBI) such as concussions. Little research so far has been dedicated to understanding Middle Eastern refugees’ experiences of TBI and how understandings of this injury can impact on their journeys to recovery. In this small Australian, community-based, qualitative study six individuals from Middle Eastern refugee backgrounds, who have experienced a concussion in the past five years were interviewed. Participants included two females and four males, aged from mid 20s to early 60s. The interviews focused on participants’ conceptualisation of concussions and their experience of recovery. Interview data was investigated through the Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) lens. Six main themes emerged from interview data, these related to: Coping, consequences of injury, professional relationships, conception of brain and brain injuries, refugee related experiences, and experiences of concussion. All participants stressed the importance of family as a source of support in coping with consequences of injury. Faith in a higher power was highlighted as a core value in Arabic Middle Eastern cultures, common in most interviewee accounts. One source of distress in some participants was the worry that others will perceive them as having mental illness as a consequence of their concussion. Future research is encouraged to examine the stigma underlying mental illness in the Middle East, and the obstacles preventing people with similar backgrounds from seeking help.

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  • Appraisal of the environmental sustainability of milk production systems in New Zealand : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Science in Life Cycle Management at Massey University, Manawatū, New Zealand

    Chobtang, Jeerasak (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) plays an important role in the environmental assessment of agricultural product systems, including dairy farming systems. Generally, an LCA study accounts for the comprehensive resource use and environmental emissions associated with the life cycle of a studied product system. The inventoried inputs and outputs are then transformed into different environmental impact categories using science-based environmental cause-effect mechanisms. There are different LCA modelling approaches (e.g. attributional LCA [ALCA] and consequential LCA [CLCA]) that can be used to address different research questions; however, there is currently no consensus on the most appropriate approach and when to use it. These LCA approaches require different types of data and methodological procedures and, therefore, generate different sets of environmental information which may have different implications for decision-making. In the present research, a series of studies utilising different LCA modelling approaches were undertaken of pasture-based dairy farming systems in the Waikato region (the largest dairy region in New Zealand). The purposes of the studies were to: (i) assess the environmental impacts and identify environmental hotspots of current pasture-based dairy farming systems, (ii) compare environmental hotspots between high and low levels of dairy farm intensification, (iii) investigate the environmental impacts of potential alternative farm intensification methods to increase milk productivity, and (iv) assess the environmental impacts of different future intensified dairy farming scenarios. Twelve midpoint impact categories were assessed: Climate Change (CC), Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP), Human Health Toxicity - non-cancer effects (Non-cancer), Human Health Toxicity - cancer effects (Cancer), Particulate Matter (PM), Ionizing Radiation - human health effects (IR), Photochemical Ozone Formation Potential (POFP), Acidification Potential (AP), Terrestrial Eutrophication Potential (TEP), Freshwater Eutrophication Potential (FEP), Marine Eutrophication Potential (MEP) and Ecotoxicity for Aquatic Freshwater (Ecotox). Firstly, the environmental impacts of 53 existing pasture-based dairy farm systems in the Waikato region were assessed using ALCA. The results showed that both the offfarm and on-farm stages made significant contributions to a range of environmental impacts per kg of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM), and the relative contributions of the stages varied across different impact categories. Farms classified as high intensification based on a high level of farm inputs (i.e. stocking rate, level of nitrogen (N) fertiliser and level of brought-in feeds) had higher impact results than low intensification farms for 10 of 12 impact categories. This was driven mainly by the offfarm stage, including production of brought-in feeds, manufacturing of agrichemicals (e.g. fertilisers and pesticides), and transport of off-farm inputs for use on a dairy farm. The exceptions were the environmental indicators PM, POFP, AP and TEP; their results were determined mainly by ammonia emissions from the on-farm activities. Secondly, environmental consequences resulting from meeting a future increase in demand for milk production (i.e. 20% more milk production per hectare relative to that in 2010/11) by using different farm intensification scenarios for dairy farming systems in the Waikato region were assessed using CLCA. In this study, only technologies/flows that were actually affected by use of different intensification options to increase milk production were accounted for. The identified intensification methods were: (i) increased pasture utilisation efficiency, (ii) increased use of N fertiliser to boost on-farm pasture production, and (iii) increased use of brought-in feed (i.e. maize silage). The results showed that improved pasture utilisation efficiency was the most effective intensification option since it resulted in lower environmental impacts than the other two intensification options. The environmental performance between the other two intensification options varied, depending on impact categories (environmental tradeoffs). Thirdly, prospective ALCA was used to assess the environmental impacts of six prospective (future) dairy farming intensification scenarios in the Waikato region, primarily involving increased stocking rate, that were modelled to increase milk production per hectare by 50% in 2025. In this study, prospective (future) average flows that were derived from extrapolation were accounted for. The potential intensification scenarios were: (i) increased animal productivity (increased milk production per cow), (ii) increased use of mixed brought-in feed, (iii) improved pasture utilisation efficiency, (iv) increased use of N fertiliser to boost on-farm pasture production, (v) increased use of brought-in maize silage, and (vi) replacement of total mixed brought-in feed in the second scenario by wheat grain. The results showed that, apart from improved animal productivity which was considered the best option, improved pasture utilisation efficiency was the second environmentally-preferential option compared with other intensification options for pasture-based dairy farming systems in the Waikato region. There were environmental trade-offs between other intensification options. The present research demonstrated that pasture-based dairy farming systems in the Waikato region contribute to a range of environmental impacts. More intensive farming systems not only have increased milk productivity (milk production per hectare) but also increased environmental impacts (per kg FPCM) in most environmental impact categories. Farm intensification options associated with improved farm efficiency (e.g. animal productivity or pasture utilisation efficiency) are promising as they have lower environmental indicator results (per kg FPCM) compared with other intensification methods. Increased use of off-farm inputs (e.g. N fertilisers and brought-in feeds) increases some, and decreases other, environmental indicator results. Therefore, decision-making associated with choice of alternative farm intensification options beyond farm efficiency improvements will require prioritisation between different environmental impacts and/or focusing on the ability of key decision-makers to effect change (for example, by distinguishing between local and global activities contributing to environmental impacts). The present research has shown that different LCA modelling approaches can be used in a sequential manner to maximise the usefulness of environmental assessment. Initially, ALCA (based on current average flows) can be used to identify environmental hotspots in the life cycle of dairy farming systems. This will generate environmental information that can assist in selection of improvement options. Subsequently, the improvement options selected should be evaluated using CLCA (based on marginal flows). This will produce comparative environmental information resulting from implementing the selected improvement options, strategies or policies in relation to a non-implementation scenario, when the wider contribution of co-products is accounted for. Finally, prospective ALCA (based on future average flows) can be used to assess total or net environmental benefits.

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  • The phenomenology of near-death experiences in Northland Māori of New Zealand : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Psychology at Massey University, Palmerston North Campus, Manawatū, New Zealand

    Young, Hannah Joy (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Near-death experiences (NDEs) can be described as profoundly life-changing, subjective events, that typically manifest in those who have been pronounced clinically dead. Over the past four decades, NDEs have been a field of interest for many researchers. However, the majority of NDE research has been conducted in Western contexts, with fewer than ten studies completed in non-Western regions (Sleutjes, Moreira-Almeida, & Greyson, 2014). The limited non-Western NDE research makes it difficult to determine the role culture may play in the development or interpretation of the NDE. The focus of the current study is the phenomenology of the NDEs of Maori residing in Northland, Aotearoa New Zealand. Because of the Maori focus, Kaupapa Maori Research was selected as the most appropriate methodological framework for this study. A ‘whanau of supervisors’ consisting of five Kaumatua and Kuia assisted the non-Maori researcher with respect to Kaupapa Maori. Six participants took part in unstructured interviews. Findings revealed the significant role of tikanga Maori within the NDEs of participants’, as well as a high similarity with the features often reported by NDErs of Western culture. Based on these results, it is suggested the two positions previous authors have regarded as conflicting, are not in fact mutually exclusive. The NDE may be cross-cultural in nature and culturally interpreted, but incorporate elements developed in reference to culture.

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  • Supporting the supporters : how adolescent females respond to a friend who engages in non-suicidal self-injury : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University, Wellington, New Zealand

    Fisher, Kelly Alana (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a maladaptive coping strategy employed by young people in response to feelings of distress. Adolescents are more likely to communicate engagement in NSSI with their peers whom they turn to for support. How young people respond to peers engaging in self-harm, how this impacts the friendship, and how these supporters cope with assuming and administering this role are largely unknown. A qualitative methodology, Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA), was chosen for this project in order to explore and understand the sense-making experiences of participants. Five female, Year 10 students from a single school in the Hawke’s Bay were interviewed. Five themes were identified including NSSI and relationships, burden and responsibility, the helping response, costs of caring, and supporter needs. The results highlighted the complex nature of this helping relationship and emphasised the need for increased and multifaceted forms of support to be provided to those responding to a peer engaging in self-harm. Young people indicated several factors that would be helpful to assist support providers to continue to help peers in distress including access to information about effective ways to support a friend engaging in NSSI and to be providing this support within a network that functions to resource and support the supporters. High schools are challenged to engage young people in the design and structure of student health and well-being services in their school, and the implementation of a student-led mentoring programme that caters for the support needs of the supporter is advocated.

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  • Katherine of Aragon : a "pioneer of women's education"? : humanism and women's education in early sixteenth century England : a thesis presented in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in History at Massey University, Manawatu, New Zealand

    Croon Hickman, Leanne (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    In 1548, Eaton School headmaster Nicolas Udall stated that “it was now a common thing to see young virgins so trained in the study of good letters, that they willingly set all other vain pastimes at naught, for learning sake.”1 What led to English women becoming educated enough to garner such an observation? The purpose of this study is to consider the changing attitudes towards the education of women that began with a proliferation of works written on the subject, by humanist scholars in 1520s England. It will be shown that during the 1520s a burgeoning number of works featuring theories on female learning were produced primarily in reaction to the need to educate Princess Mary as the only heir to the throne. As the driving force behind the writing of many of these works, Katherine of Aragon has been called “a pioneer of female education in England”. It will be considered whether this label is accurate and what other influences affected female education. This research will also provide an overview on the effects of these flourishing views on female education and how women were showing their learning in practice through iconography, book ownership and the writing activities that women engaged in.

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  • Women's attitudes toward menstruation : a quantitative survey and qualitative interview investigation : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    Fitzgerald, Bridget, M.A. (1990)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Menstruation plays an important role in the psychology of women. There is, however, little information about the nature of women's attitudes toward menstruation. The present study used a quantitative survey followed by a series of qualitative interviews to explore these attitudes in a sample of University women in New Zealand. The Menstrual Attitude Questionnaire (MAO) was used to assess the attitudes and beliefs of 343 women. The psychometric properties of the MAO and its underlying factor structure were examined using a range of factor analytic models. Responses were then used to select a sample of 1O women for interview. Interviews were conducted in order to elaborate upon the attitudes identified by the MAO and to examine in more depth the nature of women's attitudes toward menstruation. Factor analysis of the MAO yielded five orthogonal factors. Results suggested that these university women perceived menstruation as: Marginally causing physical, emotional and intellectual changes, a natural event, an inconvenience and slightly disrupting their usual performance and activities. Subjects accepted the existence of premenstrual tension. Similarly, interviews revealed that attitudes were multidimensional with each subject having an individual configuration of positive, negative and neutral beliefs about menstruation. No consistent pattern among the different beliefs was established. Furthermore, it would appear that attitudes towards menstruation may not be acquired from direct experience but may be learned through social expectations. Directions for future research are indicated, particularly the importance of qualitative research.

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  • Is there a relationship between substance use disorders and violent offending? : a case study of Rimutaka and Wellington male prisoners : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Rehabilitation at Massey University

    Jones, Amanda (2007)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    New Zealand imprisonment per capita rates are second only to the USA with continued growth expected in the next decade. Previous research and extensive personal work experience within the prison system suggests that there is a connection between Substance Use Disorders (SUDs) and crime. The main object of this study was to investigate and ascertain if there is a relationship between occurrences of SUDs and violent offending. This is a complex question, as it is unlikely that SUDs are the only determinants of violent offending. Demographics, ethnicity, education and other environmental and psychological factors will also be contributing factors. The current study tests SUDs and 'other factors' to see if a relationship exists. Two hundred prisoners from Rimutaka and Wellington Prisons were randomly selected from a possible sample size of 850. The 102 respondents who chose to take part in the study were administered the Substance Use Disorders Diagnostic Schedule (SUDDS-IV). Seventy of these 102 prisoners were in prison for having committed a violent offence. A demographic questionnaire followed the psychometric test. Surprisingly, SUDs (both substance abuse and substance dependence), were not found to be statistically more significant in prisoners that had offended violently. Overall, SUDs were found in 99% of the entire population. Eighty-four percent diagnosed with substance dependence and a further 8.8% with substance abuse. Only 6.9% did not have a SUD at all. Fifty-eight percent of the sample investigated identified themselves as Maori, 26.5 European and 13.7% Pacific Islanders. This study found that those imprisoned for a violent conviction were more likely to be Maori. In addition, it illustrated that the prisoners convicted for violence were more likely to have only two years secondary school education or less. Evidence also shows that Maori studied were less likely to be educated. However, such findings require more validation for use as evidence in prisoner research. Further research could include a qualitative approach with emphasis on Maori with limited education and a propensity to be violent. This research would be beneficial if directed towards the unique lives of New Zealand prisoners, their families and specifically the children of the established offenders. The main objective would be to provide information about the next generation of violent offenders. The data and intelligence gathered could be then utilised to better manage and treat violent offenders.

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  • In the mood to innovate : a multilevel study on the interaction of entrepreneurs' innovative work behaviour and affect : a dissertation presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Business Studies in Management, Massey University, Wellington, New Zealand

    Williamson, Amanda J (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Affect is a hot topic in entrepreneurial research. However, extant literature is lagging behind in its use of affective theory and methodology, and furthermore, attention resides in isolated topics of inquiry, rendering the field stunted and disjointed. The purpose of this research is to adopt burgeoning affective theoretical perspectives to anticipate daily fluctuation in entrepreneurs’ innovative behaviour. The circumplex model of affect is utilised in this research to challenge the rhetoric that all spectrum of pleasant moods lead to beneficial work behaviour. Though multilevel modelling based on 3360 data points nested within 160 entrepreneurs (21 surveys per participant, completed over two weeks), support is found for the proposition that pleasant moods do not necessarily result in productive behaviour. Specifically, activation (the energising dimension of affect) has greater influence on propelling entrepreneurs’ innovative behaviour than valence (affect’s pleasant or unpleasant nature), such that high activation unpleasant and pleasant affect (worried, anxious, inspired, enthusiastic) predicts innovative work behaviour, while low activation pleasant affect (calm, relaxed) does not. The affect-behaviour relationship is examined from several perspectives resulting in a feedback model between high activation moods and innovative work behaviour engagement. Engagement in innovative work behaviour positively correlated to entrepreneurs’ experience of high activation unpleasant affect, and negatively related to high and low activation pleasant affect. Thus although innovative work behaviour benefits from high activation pleasant moods, engagement essentially decreases them. Affective dispositions correlated with daily affective experiences also, as such entrepreneurs with low levels of trait negative affect experienced more pleasant moods during the day and visa versa. Findings confirmed the hypothesis that the quality of previous night’s sleep both moderates the link between affect and innovative work behaviour, plus predisposes entrepreneurs to pleasant or conversely unpleasant affective daily experiences – illustrating the importance of sleep in affective research. Additionally innovative work behaviour was predicted via “the affective shift model”, which was adapted to include the influence of activation. The results further attest to the relevance of temporal dynamics of affect perspectives in entrepreneurial research. Specifically, the model demonstrated that innovative work behaviour ensued when high activation unpleasant affect was followed by high activation pleasant affect, or simply with an increase in the level of high activation affect, of either valence between morning and afternoon. Empirical, theoretical, and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

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  • The effectiveness and results of the New Zealand official development assistance education and training programme to the Philippines : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Development Studies at Massey University

    Inoncillo, Ninia P (1997)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The role of education in the development of any given society is, beyond doubt, central, and crucial. When developing countries began their drive for social and economic development more than three decades ago, education was perceived as a means not only of raising political and social consciousness, but also of increasing the number of skilled workers and raising the level of trained humanpower. There is nothing new in a developing country seeking help from the developed countries who fund scholarships, trainings and programmes. The effects of these scholarships, trainings and programmes on the developing countries is much an open issue for study. This thesis examines the outcomes and effectiveness of an educational aid programme in the Philippines. Its central purpose is to determine and evaluate the New Zealand Official Development Assistance (NZODA) Education and Training Programme for the Philippines. This entails an examination of the social and private benefits, as well as the costs accrued to the recipients and donor country were also looked at. The NZODA educational aid for the Philippines was further analysed in relation to the general aid objectives of gender bias, rural and urban development, and equal development of private and government institutions. The study found that there are many social, economic and technological benefits that are derived from the programme and that accrue to the recipients and the donor. Further, the programme has brought about many substantial changes both in the social and economic development of the Philippines. The programme has not only increased the number of highly skilled employees but has increased as well the social and private rates of returns. Moreover, it was found that expansion of educational aid in the Philippines would be profitable for both the Philippines and New Zealand. In general, the programme is effective, but, because the results of the programme are faced by many constraints, there are a big number of things that need to be improved.

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  • Financial incentive schemes in a TQM environment : a case study in a world class organisation : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Technology in Industrial and Manufacturing Technology at Massey University

    Soliman, Wassim (2000)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Whether or not financial incentive schemes help organisations to reach their objectives is an old debate. During the last few decades, the modern management schools -Total Quality Management (TQM) and new manufacturing techniques-added extra pressure on financial incentive schemes by claiming that such schemes don't fit in a modern management environment and that they can have a destructive influence on organisations. Although the advocates of TQM and modern manufacturing management techniques have different views concerning financial incentive schemes, generally speaking, they don't believe that these schemes help modern organisations to reach their objectives. Some of these advocates see that financial incentive schemes motivate employees to focus on quantity and ignore quality. Others see that although those schemes can help to achieve progress, that progress is at the expense of the intrinsic rewards that organisations should promote. Other TQM advocates believe that these schemes do not help because effective and efficient systems rather than individuals are the main factor that determines the progress of organisations. This category believes that it makes more sense to improve the systems and procedures rather than to use financial incentive schemes to motivate employees to reach the organisations' targets. The purpose of this research project was to answer the question as to whether a compromise between TQM and financial incentive schemes could be achieved to make the best use of both approaches. To answer this question an organisation with a strong TQM environment was identified and a financial incentive scheme was designed and implemented in that organisation with the help of a design team from the same organisation. The scheme covered five main areas of interest to the organisation namely: product and process quality, manufacturing management, environmental compliance, safety compliance and cost effectiveness. From several key performance indicators (KPIs) used by the organisation in these five areas only those under the direct control of employees were used in this research project. Samples of employees from the departments covered by the incentive scheme were consulted all through the different stages of the development of the incentive scheme. A comprehensive communication plan was undertaken to ensure that the structure and principles of the incentive scheme were clearly communicated to all employees. The results of installing the financial incentive scheme were then analysed to study the effect of implementing that scheme on the organisational performance and on the TQM environment and particularly on some specific TQM attributes. The analysis of those results showed that the incentive scheme achieved a considerable improvement in almost all of the areas covered by the scheme. The analysis showed no evidence of any adverse effect on the TQM environment as a result of installing the incentive scheme. In fact it was concluded that the TQM environment assisted the implementation of the financial incentive scheme.

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  • An exploration of how life events and the social environment affect food behaviours among New Zealand women : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Public Health at Massey University, Wellington, New Zealand

    Crosbie, Jordan (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Background. Food plays a major role in our health. A poor diet is a contributing factor to many diseases, including obesity and its co-morbidities. The literature suggests that the social environment including social relationships, the media and other features of the social context in which one is born, drive food choices and behaviours. However, there is limited research available explicitly investigating how significant life events and factors within the social environment affect food behaviours among New Zealand women. Given the high prevalence of obesity in New Zealand, there is a concerning gap in the literature attending to the development of food behaviours that may help understand the high obesity prevalence. Aim. The aim of this study is to explore how life events and social environments impact the food behaviours of New Zealand women. Methods. This study is informed by phenomenology and used semistructured interviews for data collection. Nineteen interviews with older women, who resided in Wellington, were carried out. The interviews asked questions regarding the experiences of these women and the development of their food behaviours overtime. Results. Four main themes were identified, the effect of social relationships; the changing role of the media; gender roles; and social osmosis. The results revealed that the participants were highly influenced by social relationships, with the most influential relationships being between the participants and their mothers’. The media was found to play a role in influencing the participants to change their food behaviours. However, the media also caused widespread confusion about the nutrition guidelines. Gender norms appeared to guide the participants in the type of food related skills they learnt over their lifetime. The final theme, social osmosis describes how participants accumulated foodrelated information from their social environment over their lifetime that contributed to their food and total nutrition knowledge. Discussion. As mothers increasingly join the workforce, children may need additional guidance on food related skills from social environments outside of the home to make up for the reduced time mothers spend in the home carrying out roles dedicated to being a homemaker. In addition, there may need to be restrictions on the type of information published in mainstream media to avoid confusion about how to maintain a healthy diet. Overall, the social environment plays a crucial role in the development of food behaviours and the present study gives an indication of how it is influential for New Zealand women.

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  • Health appeals in television food advertising : a social semiotic analysis : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    Smale, Keryn Ann (2006)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Lay beliefs about health generally, and health in relation to food in particular, are interesting and moderately researched topics. However, within these areas of study, little consideration has been given to the socially constructed nature of these so-called beliefs and values. Additionally, research that has explored the meaning and ideological significance of advertising has tended to do so in a static way. relying almost entirely upon the researcher's necessarily subjective analysis of print advertisements, while overlooking the active and constructive role of people in creating meaning. Based on the theoretical understanding that advertising, as a social and linguistic medium, both reproduces and creates cultural meanings, this study explores how the concept of health is appropriated in television advertisements for food products. In this way. the ideological implications of the meaningful relationships between health and food in modern consumer culture are elucidated. Fourteen ads for food products, which made some appeal to health, were recorded from free to air television. These ads targeted either middle-class mothers or independent, working women. Two focus group discussions were conducted, employing women from each of the target consumer groups as participants. These groups are referred to as mothers and singles respectively. In the focus group discussions, participants viewed and talked about the ads. A semiotic deconstruction of each of the ads was also undertaken. This involved breaking down the sign systems operating in the ads. in order to identify the underlying cultural assumptions about food and health. Semiotic interpretations of ads were grounded in real-world lay readings produced by participants. Drawing upon these interpretations, it is argued that for women, food and health discourses, particularly where they intersect, are sites of tension and contradiction, creating considerable food related anxiety and ambivalence. Appeals to health in food advertisements conflate health and beauty concerns to disguise and reinforce moral judgements based on body weight. Social constructions of the 'good mother', as evidenced in advertising, hold mothers responsible for the dietary health of children. At the same time, dominant nutritional science explanations of the relationship between health and food disempower women by privileging expert knowledge. Women are ideologically positioned through food and health discourses in oppressive ways characterised by irresolvable moral dilemmas. This study makes a clear social contribution by exposing the assumptions and myths underlying food and health meanings, and thereby laying them open to challenge.

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  • Performance-motivated analysis : an approach to performance interpretation : a thesis submitted to Massey University and Victoria University of Wellington in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Musical Arts in Classical Performance Piano

    Atkins, Andrew Quintin George (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Performance interpretation is one of the most challenging yet most important skill sets for a performer to develop. Performers all use different approaches in developing their interpretations. This exegesis focuses on the idea of Performance-Motivated Analysis as one of these possible approaches to interpreting music. By performing a thorough analysis of the exposition of the first movement of Beethoven's 'Waldstein' Sonata, by drawing upon many analytical sources, and by combining this with an annotative analysis of six performers' interpretations, this exegesis shows how theory can be used to explain many possible interpretive decisions within the composition. I then use and discuss this knowledge in regards to my own interpretation and subsequent performance of the same composition for my Masters Recital.

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  • "Turn the lights down low" : women's experiences of intimacy after childbirth : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University, Manawatu, New Zealand

    Urquhart, Teresa Heidi (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Women navigate many social changes when they become mothers, often including considerable changes to intimate and sexual relationships. While maternal health care attends to various physical and emotional changes for women, it has emerged that many women experience dissatisfaction in their intimate relationships after birth. A literature review revealed that while many studies had investigated the sexual experiences of women postpartum, none had looked at the effect of dominant discourses within Western popular culture. This research aimed to explore how women make sense of changes to their intimate relationships following childbirth. Norms and assumptions about the effects of childbirth on women’s bodies and the implications of change to intimate relationships were examined. Six women between the ages of 25-45 who had given birth to a child in the last 10 years were interviewed in a conversational style about their experiences. A feminist post-structuralist discourse analysis was applied, attending to the dominant discourses and gendered power relations that enabled and limited positions for women. The analysis showed that normative discourse shaped not only how women experienced their bodies and intimate relationships, but every aspect of their lives including pregnancy, labour, mothering, unpaid and paid work. Furthermore, women were positioned through discourse and a gender binary as responsible for the household and childcare, as well as responsible for regulating and managing the intimate relationship. Ultimately the overriding experience of women in this research was that body changes and changes in the sexual relationship (overwhelmingly one of dissatisfaction) postpartum resulted in feelings of responsibility and guilt on the women’s behalf for failing the expectations of femininity and the obligations of neoliberalism. Instances of resistance and challenge to the dominant discourses were expressed, as were alternative discourses. This research provides an understanding of the effects of dominant discourses and the power relations implicit in them on women’s lived realities. This piece of research provides knowledge around contextual factors impacting on postpartum sexual health and postpartum body image. It may also provide the platform from which both professionals and women can discuss female bodies, including genitalia, and female sexuality in less 'troublesome' ways.

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  • Lactose hydrolysis by immobilized whole cells of K. lactis CBS 2357 : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Technology in Bioprocess Engineering at Massey University

    Marasabessy, Ahmad (1999)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The application of immobilized yeast for lactose hydrolysis was investigated. The enzyme stability was tested as a function of pretreatment. The stability of K. lactis CBS 2357 cells after treatment with glutaraldehyde (GA) and the β-galactosidase activity of whole cells after immobilization in alginate bead and corn particles were studied. Permeabilization using ethanol and chloroform (10% and 2%, respectively) at 37 °C and 120 rpm for 5 min, followed by stabilization with 10 mM glutaraldehyde at 30 °C for 1 hour with gently shaking deactivated 2.5% of the initial whole cells β-galactosidase activity, tested with the ONPG method. The glutaraldehyde treatment could significantly maintain β-galactosidase activity in phosphate buffer pH 6.5 containing 0.1 mM MnCl2. Manganese and potassium ions in the Mn-Buffer were found to be essential to enhance the activity. The biomass activity of GA stabilized cells in Mn-Buffer can be maintained above 70% during 72 hours of incubation at 30 °C. An increase of incubation temperature from 30 to 37 °C deactivated 10% of biomass activity after 72 hours. Direct stabilization of alginate biocatalyst with glutaraldehyde caused a significant reduction of β-galactosidase activity with the resulting deactivation depending on glutaraldehyde and alginate concentrations. When 40 g of biocatalyst containing 2x109 cells/g alginate was stabilized in 100 ml of 0 to 4 mM glutaraldehyde, the optimum range of glutaraldehyde concentration was between 0.5 to 1.0 mM. When this concentration range was applied to stabilize 2%- to 3%-alginate biocatalyst, the average biocatalyst activity remained within 56-74% of the initial activity. It was shown that the adsorption of K. lactis on corn particles through a "double liquid cultivation stage" followed by permeabilization of biocatalyst gave a higher activity. The activity obtained was 0.84 μmol lactose hydrolyzed /min/g biocatalyst under the conditions tested. This activity was about 5 times higher than the case without permeabilization and about 2 times higher than that of the permeabilized biocatalyst prepared with a "single liquid cultivation stage". When tested in the packed-bed reactor, during the initial stages the degree of hydrolysis (d.h.) was 45% within the operational conditions tested. Free enzyme was detected during the first 5 hours of operation, especially when non-stabilized corn biocatalyst was used. After 5 hours, free enzyme was no longer detected in the reactor outlet, suggesting that direct adsorption might have rendered good cell confinement inside the corn particles.

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  • Faecal steroid measurements for the assessment of reproductive function in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) and kakapo (Strigops habroptilus) : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Physiology at Massey University

    Hawke, Emma Jane (2002)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The kakapo (Strigops habroptilus) is an endangered parrot endemic to New Zealand and little is known of its reproductive physiology. Reproductive function is conventionally determined by the measurement of reproductive steroids in plasma samples. This is impractical and invasive in endangered, free-living species. However, the measurement of reproductive steroids in avian faecal samples is practiced. Few studies have documented strong relationships between faecal and plasma steroid concentrations. The objectives of this study were to develop and validate a faecal extraction method for the measurement of oestradiol, progesterone and testosterone in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica); determine the relationships between steroid concentrations and gonadal development in quail; and define annual faecal hormone cycles of kakapo in relation to their breeding status. Groups of male and female quail were held on different photoperiodic and temperature regimes to produce birds with a range of gonad sizes and steroid concentrations. Steroid concentrations were measured in faeces and plasma by radioimmunoassay. Positive relationships were demonstrated between plasma and faecal steroid concentrations. Faecal steroid concentrations had strong positive relationships with ovary and testis size in female and male quail respectively. The extraction method developed was then applied to faecal samples, which were collected from kakapo in their free-living environment on Whenua Hou (Codfish Island). The samples were collected from identified birds over three potential breeding seasons. There were annual cycles of hormone concentrations that corresponded with cycles of breeding activity in females and males. No significant differences were found between breeding and non-breeding years for faecal concentrations of all three hormones, suggesting that kakapo undergo a degree of gonadal development each year. Annual hormone profiles for individual birds supported this finding. This study quantifies the value of collecting multiple faecal samples in both captive and wild situations and demonstrates the power and value of faecal steroid analysis.

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  • Fashioning liminal space : the meaning of things and women's experience in the practice of domestic shrine making in Aotearoa/New Zealand : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Social Anthropology at Massey University

    Savage, Deirdre Anne (2003)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This paper aims to bring together two lines of analysis that converge upon the specific spaces that are women's domestic shrines. One line examines the material culture of the spaces and objects on the shrines of ten different women and seeks to reveal the "agency" of these things in themselves. The other line is a phenomenological one and responds to the shrine as a site in which issues of practice, embodiment and intentionality in the daily life of the subjects is explored. The material culture of the shrine is investigated as part of the intersubjective experience of its creator and scrutinized as a fruitful place in which to develop an ethnographic understanding of the truth of life-as-lived. This study strives to give voice to ordinary New Zealand women and their precious things within their own homes. Key Words: Domestic Shrines/Altars, Feminist Ethnography, Material Culture, Objects, Spaccs, Phenomenology, Practice, Intersubjectivity, Embodiment, Agency, Women's Experience, Liminality.

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