8,129 results for Massey Research Online

  • The development of amperometric biosensors for the detection of glucose, lactate and ethanol : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment for the degree of Master of Science in Biochemistry at Massey University

    Goh, Leong Peng (1996)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Amperometric biosensors, also commonly known as enzyme sensors or enzyme electrodes, are a growing and very progressive area of research. Biosensors are analytical devices that contain a biological sensing element connected to a physical transducing element. The physical transducer "senses" the change in the biological element as it undergoes a chemical reaction. The physical transducer then converts chemical equivalents from the enzyme reaction in a dependent relationship to electrical equivalents that can be measured. Biosensors combine the power of electrochemistry with the specificity of enzymes to produce sensors that are specific to particular enzyme substrates. Some have wide specificities and others are quite narrow. Considering the wide range of enzymes available, the choice depends on the end use of these sensors. The aim of the current study was to design biosensors for the detection of glucose, lactate and ethanol. The method for attaching enzymes to electrodes was based on the carbodiimide method. The carbodiimide method activates haeme which then is able to be covalently attached to enzymes. Enzyme-haeme conjugates were then allowed to absorb onto platinum electrodes by exploiting the knowledge that haeme can bind irreversibly to platinum by sharing pi-electrons with the d-orbitals of platinum. The enzymes involved were glucose oxidase, lactate dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenase. The use of flow injection analysis for evaluating biosensors was desenbed and was found to be a fast, efficient method and the results were highly reproducible. In testing electrodes, the results of the present study showed it was possible to obtain current response that was dependent on the concentration of substrate when these enzyme electrodes were used. A particularly significant result in this study was the achievement of current responses that were dependent on substrate concentration in the absence of NAD+ for lactate and alcohol dehydrogenases using the substrates lactate and ethanol respectively. There is however much work to be done to improve the success rate of making these enzyme electrodes. Several factors were found to cause variable results whilst making and using these enzyme electrodes, such as the absorption of unbound enzyme to the sensing surface of the electrode that may produce significant current response, the formation of aggregated haeme during the enzyme-haeme conjugation process and most importantly, and the ability to make successful enzyme-haeme conjugates to be absorbed onto the sensing surface of the electrodes.

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  • Bosnian refugees in New Zealand : their stories and life experiences, health status and needs, and the implications for refugee health services and policy : a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the degree of Masters in Business Studies (Health Management), Massey University

    Madjar, Vladimir (1998)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    New Zealand has been accepting refugees for resettlement since the 1940s and currently accepts a quota of up to 750 refugees per year. Although international literature demonstrates that refugees have substantial health needs, little research has been conducted in New Zealand. This study used a semi-structured interview guide containing a list of predetermined themes that were explored through open-ended questions. Twelve refugees from Bosnia, seven male (former concentration camp detainees) and five female refugees were interviewed in the setting of their choosing between April and October 1996. Findings indicate that though severely traumatised by their experiences, the respondents were not assessed for mental health during the comprehensive medical screening process at the Mangere Refugee Reception Centre. As with other aspects of the resettlement process, no follow-up of this group of refugees took place to assess how they were coping and adapting to the new surroundings since the completion of their orientation programme at the Centre. This, in part, may explain their lack of awareness of the service provided by the Refugees as Survivors Centre established some two years after their resettlement in the community. Though unsure of the long-term effect that their experience may have on their health, immediate and most common symptoms reported were headaches, irritability, persistent thoughts of the past, difficulty with sleeping, and nightmares. Believing that they would not be understood by those who had not been through the experience themselves, former concentration camp detainees have come to rely on each other for mutual support rather than other members of their family or any outsider who had not been through the camps. The majority of those interviewed said they had limited contact with the wider community which resulted in a sense of social isolation. Contact with other Bosnians has been retained, although contact with non-Bosnian immigrants from the former Yugoslavia, including those who arrived in New Zealand well before recent conflicts, has been avoided. Despite their ordeal, most of those interviewed seemed to enjoy good physical health. The reported use of General Practitioners and other health services was low. The major reported health need was dental, but dental care was largely not met because of the cost. Language and transport were not identified as major barriers to health care. This may have been mitigated by the availability of interpreters known to the respondents who initially also took them to the health care providers. No other barriers to health care were reported. Mental health services were not seen as a need by those interviewed, in spite of the symptoms reported. The findings of this study highlight the potential difficulties when an established ethnic group, from the country of origin, is selected as a sponsor, especially considering the cultural religious and political complexities of the former Yugoslavia. Greater consultation with the refugees themselves, speedier family reunification, orientation programmes that more closely reflected the character and background of the refugee group, and greater financial assistance, would have facilitated the resettlement process and minimised possible downstream personal, social and financial costs and in the long term, potential health problems. The major conclusion of this study is that refugee health and refugee health policy cannot be isolated from the total refugee experience (the pre-flight period, asylum and resettlement in a distant foreign country). This experience is characterised throughout by loss (of loved ones, homes and homeland), trauma and a lack of choice. An effective refugee resettlement and health policy must take these factors into account.

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  • Challenges for educators in meeting the needs of students bridging into tertiary education : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Education in Adult Education at Massey University

    Morgan, Cecile Jane (2003)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Tertiary pre-entry programmes are designed to assist students in attaining an academic qualification that will allow entry into undergraduate study programmes. This study explores the challenges that educators encounter in meeting the needs of students bridging into tertiary education. It includes a review of programme purposes from historical, political and social viewpoints. It also describes the traditional and current profile of students accessing such programmes. The educator role within tertiary pre-entry programmes is outlined, interlinked with teaching and learning theory. Integral to the study is an exploration of the philosophical assumptions underpinning current teaching practice in relation to students, programmes and the future direction of tertiary pre-entry education. However, it is difficult to isolate an educator perspective from institutional and political perspectives. Hence this study addresses all these. The various perspectives all closely connect to create the learning environment that comprises current tertiary pre-entry programmes. The study identifies a number of tension areas between philosophical assumptions and practice that educators need to consider in meeting current student needs in their learning endeavours. These areas are: • The learning environment that students encounter • The people who interact in these environments • Future directions of tertiary pre-entry programmes. The study makes recommendations, from an educator's perspective, on what is required to lessen the tension and successfully meet the needs of the diverse student populace accessing tertiary pre-entry programmes.

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  • Case studies in rural co-operatives: three studies of the organisation and management or rural co-operatives providing post-harvest facilities in the kiwifruit industry: a research report submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Agricultural Business and Administration at Massey University

    Beattie, Michael Ian (1983)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The co-operative ownership structure is one that is commonly encountered in New Zealand's agricultural industry. This type of organisation would appear to have a number of natural advantages that should make it very competitive in modern agri-business. However it is apparent at least some co-operatives have not lived up to their members' expectations. This research project has been undertaken to identify some of the problems of co-operative enterprise and to provide some possible strategies to improve their operation. This report examines the management and organisational practices of three co-operative enterprises providing post-harvest facilities in the Kiwifruit industry. The research follows a longitudinal case study approach, with each co-operative described in terms of the six dimensions of history, facilities, shareholding, direction, operation and finance. The material generated by the study is discussed within a framework of central issues, established from evidence of other co-operative activity, both in New Zealand and overseas. The report concludes with a description of some 14 common problems, and a discussion concerning the effectiveness of management and organisational measures that have been implemented as possible solutions. It then goes on to outline 10 general strategies that could be of significance in the improved operation of rural co-operatives.

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  • Being comfortable : having and making a comfortable cognitive and environmental habitat : a grounded theory on the meaning of home : a thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    Aspinall, Charlotte Nicola (2008)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Prior research on the meanings of home represents a rather fragmented set of studies. The present research utilises phenomenology and aims to create a grounded theory on the meanings of home which is explorative, participant-led and integrates the current state of home research. 15 participants singularly took part in semi-structured interviews, including myself as a participant-researcher. The interviews were audio taped but not transcribed. The interviews were then analysed qualitatively as per grounded theory methodology. Participant's interpretation of the word home was both construed as having a spatial definition, and varying along a continuum from home as a house to a more subjective definition of home. The core code that the data generated on the meanings of home was that home was primarily about being comfortable. The basic social process of making a comfortable habitat was the main axial code. While the idea of comfort held strong between participants there was much individuality as to what was comfortable and which particular strategies were employed to make home comfortable. The result was a grounded theory about person environment interactions in the field of home, a cognitive and a physical habitat. Implications of this theory are discussed in relation to current and future home research as well as suggestions for practical applications.

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  • Capitalism with a conscience : SMEs and community engagement : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Management in Management at Massey University

    Yates, Angela Patricia (2007)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    It is commonly acknowledged that business organisations are expected to demonstrate ethical and moral conduct, yet throughout the last half century the bar has been raised. Not only are organisations expected to behave ethically; they are being summoned to exercise Business Social Responsibility (BSR). While there is a growing amount of literature on BSR, research in this field has largely confined itself to corporations. As such, especially in the New Zealand space, it has neglected prolific Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs). The aim of this study was to explore SME owner-managers' perceptions of community engagement. To accomplish this aim an exploratory, qualitative study involving semi-structured interviews with 10 SME owner-managers was conducted. SME owner-managers interviewed perceive business as having a highly integrated function in society. The owner-managers engage with their communities in significantly diverse ways, covering an extensive range of stakeholders. Primarily influenced by values pertaining to religion, family, and moral orientation, many owner-managers overlook economic gain, yet consider peripheral benefits to accrue nonetheless.

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  • Becoming-interior : toward a nondual philosophy of design for dwelling-in-the-world : a thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Design at Massey University

    Archer, Jennifer (2005)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Martin Heidegger suggests that dwelling is an act of inhabitation, which engenders a becoming-interior of the world. The site of this dwelling is not confined to architecture, but occurs in the space between earth and sky: the world. This work seeks to investigate the implications of this claim on the role of interior design. It proposes that, in order to formulate an approach to design that aims to facilitate a Heideggerian dwelling, the binary oppositions of inside and outside, nature and culture, self and world, must be re-examined. The connections between architectural minimalism and Eastern aesthetics that are hinted at in contemporary New Zealand lifestyle magazines such as urbis provide a gateway to an investigation of dwelling-design that moves beyond the conflicts of a world divided by Cartesian dualism. The space between East and West operates as the field of inquiry within which this work locates a comparative study of nondual philosophies pertaining to dwelling as an interrelation of self and world. Nondual concepts found in the writings of Elizabeth Grosz, and Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari, are subjected to a reading that suggests links with such Eastern philosophical concepts as ma (the space of the in-between), yin and yang as an analogy of correlativity and becoming-other, and dao and de (field and focus) as a conceptual model for the interrelation of the natural world and the self. Through the generation of a nondual core philosophy, the work suggests that the "nothingness" of minimalism may be reconceptualised as a betweenness, with the potential to act as an intermediary space between the inhabitant and nature. The nature of this mediation as the stimulation of resonance is explored in relation to the depiction of the natural world in art, and subsequently applied to the architectural threshold. Architecture is posited as an instrument of facilitation - the means by which the potential for dwelling may be manifested in a becoming-interior of the world.

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  • Continuum: the mixture's moment : presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in English at Massey University

    Goodwin, Anton Peter (1993)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis grew out of a simple observation. This was that in terms of sheer numbers, allusions to the bodily, the sexual and scatological in Continuum outweighed all other references. What is the significance of so much 'body language'? Is a simple 'listing' enough to show anything of interest? Certainly the specific body allusions have several characteristics in common. They often use strong, short and sometimes 'shocking' words; they use the idea of taboo to seek out new meanings; they are often alliterative or punning (and hence literary and conscious); they may often involve pain or release and spillage. This is their emotional or immediate function. We might infer that Curnow wishes to be 'all things to all men,' to have the sort of 'inclusiveness' approved of by a critic like Eric Partridge when he discusses the imagery of Shakespeare's plays. Time after time, critics have insisted on Curnow's willingness to face the 'reality of experience' or have commented that he seizes 'the reality prior to the poem.

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  • Blind people can do anything but not in my company : employer attitudes towards employing blind and vision-impaired people : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Business Studies at Massey University

    Inglis, Christine (2005)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Previous international research has shown blind and vision-impaired people to be in the less favoured groups of employees employers are willing to hire. None of the research has addressed why this is the case. The present study was undertaken firstly to see if in New Zealand also, blind and vision-impaired people were less favoured in comparison with other disability groups as potential employees; and secondly, to determine employer attitudes and perceptions towards employing blind people, and how or why these attitudes and perceptions influence employers to overlook the blind and vision-impaired when employing staff. One hundred and two employers (sample 200) participated in a telephone survey and, of those, six were interviewed again in an in-depth face-to-face interview. A combination of attitudinal and perception survey instruments were used. The research found participants had mainly favourable attitudes towards blind and vision-impaired people. However, in total contrast, blind and vision-impaired people (alongside those with moderate to severe intellectual disabilities) were regarded the least suitable or least employable for positions most and second most often available in firms across all industries. The results were congruent with earlier findings (Gilbride, Stensrud, Ehlers, Evans & Peterson, 2000) in that of all of the disability groups, blindness and persons with moderate or severe (mental retardation) intellectual handicap were perceived as the hardest to employ in comparison with other disability groups. Lastly, this report comments on how potential hiring practices (employers' potential behaviour) can be changed to better match their apparent positive attitudes towards blind and vision-impaired people. A range of recommendations are made such as the need for education programmes in schools, media campaigns and cultivating positive media relationships, workplace training and education, employer mentoring programmes, the development of government policies and strategies and the need for work experience programmes.

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  • Bullying in secondary schools : a discursive approach : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Psychology at Massey University

    Ryan, Anne Beryl (2008)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This study attempts to transcend the narrow boundaries imposed on mainstream research into bullying by its adherence to a modernist discourse of individualism. The theoretical framework for this research argues that a modernist focus has both limited our understanding of the phenomenon and contributed to its continued occurrence. An approach that is underpinned by the ontological and epistemological assumptions of a social constructionist paradigm offers the potential for a broader and more encompassing analysis of this formidable social issue. Language is taken as a critical focus of attention because of its pervasiveness in social interaction. Discourse is understood as actively constructing the experience and meaning of bullying. Furthermore, a consideration of the power relationships embedded within discourse is an essential feature of this approach. The study involved interviewing 24 senior students from a small provincial New Zealand secondary school to discuss a range of issues surrounding bullying. These interviews were taped and transcribed and a discourse analysis was carried out to gain an understanding of how students talk constructed bullying. Discourses were identified that constructed bullying as disparity, as irrelevant, as a consequence of difference, as a form of discipline, and as inevitable. The construction of bullying as disparity was seen to struggle against the other prevailing educational discourses that together functioned to maintain the status quo of power relationships in the educational institution. It is suggested that the acceptance of such 'common sense' constructions of bullying are effectively sustaining the pervasiveness of bullying in schools today.

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  • Challenging Stout : value conflicts in trying to reform the University of New Zealand, 1910-1914 : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Management at Massey University

    Park, Nick (Nicholas) (2001)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This study looks at the reasons why the University of New Zealand (UNZ), characterized by Beaglehole as an object of "fury, loathing and despair" (1949, p. 1) survived so long, from its founding in 1871 until its dissolution in 1961? The study takes a broad sweep to cover the depth of those reasons. A general answer to the question is that it suited local conditions in New Zealand to create and maintain a university based around a federal, non-teaching, examining model. However, there was a serious challenge to that model mounted in 1911 by the New Zealand University Reform Association (NZURA) and so this study looks in particular at the reasons why that challenge failed. There is a short answer to that question, too. It failed because the institutional authority of the UNZ, and the politicians who supported it, was easily able to drive a wedge through any attempted coalitions that might threaten to dispose of it. The reformers of 1910-14 did not want to destroy the UNZ. They wanted to change it in two respects: they wanted to give what they thought was their rightful place in university governance to professors; and they wanted to give the professors what they argued was their rightful place in teaching and examining their own students as well. However, the UNZ had sufficient confidence and authority to characterise the reformers as destructive of an institution which had served colonial New Zealand well, and which was competent enough to serve the growing Dominion even better. And furthermore, the UNZ had the adaptive capacity to absorb its critics and convert their energies to supporting its subsidiary institutions and serving a common purpose. If it is ever fair to characterize organizations as living organisms it is fair to say that the UNZ showed great vitality and adapted well to local conditions. This study looks at the stories of the UNZ and examines the general questions already suggested, and, in doing so, goes on to tackle other minor questions such as how much the structure of the UNZ owed to the British and the colonial cultures in which it was embedded, and how much the outcomes of 1910-14 owed to the resource dependency of the actors. To answer these questions the study revisits a number of narratives that touch on the UNZ. There are two written histories of the UNZ. The more readable of the two does not provide a complete history for it was published in 1937 by Beaglehole more than twenty years before the university, as he later put it, was finally given a "clump on the head" (Beaglehole in Parton, 1979, p. 253). Beaglehole had deeply committed views about what a university should be, and was strongly of the view that in many respects the UNZ did not measure up to his ideal model. His history is interesting because he was a participant observer in the UNZ and demonstrated strong sympathies towards the reformers. He was a leading figure among the academics who served the UNZ and became one of the most outstanding researchers at the youngest of its Colleges, Victoria University College (VUC). However, he did not take up his position at Victoria before featuring in one of the more outspoken incidents at Auckland University College (AUC) where the weight of power rested with the College Board in stand-offs over academic freedom. The UNZ defended neither academic freedom, nor Beaglehole over the difficulties at AUC and preferred to insist instead on the autonomy of its constituent college to takes its own course of action. Fowlds, the Chairman of the AUC Council at the time, was also a member of the Senate of UNZ so the refusal of the UNZ to act in opposition to AUC probably reflected a view of academic freedom shared by the governing bodies rather than some commitment to principles of autonomy in favour of the subsidiary institution. The bite in Beaglehole's rhetoric and his attitude to the UNZ may have been sharpened by this incident. When he later wrote his essay and mentioned feelings of loathing, fury and despair towards the UNZ he was. I feel sure, expressing his own deeply felt emotions.

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  • Change management : structural change-- a case study in the Maldives : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Educational Administration at Massey University

    Qasim, Mizna (2007)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Changes to schools structure is a common practice in the Maldives. Structural change impacts on people at every level of the organisation. It is essential to identify how change is managed at different levels in schools in order to implement change successfully. This study is based in a secondary school in the Republic of Maldives. This research examines the processes, school systems and practices, that facilitate change in structure. It seeks to understand how processes facilitate structural change at the various levels of school organisation, namely senior management (principal, assistant principals, supervisors), middle management (heads of departments) and teachers. In this inquiry, the structure selected to examine processes of change is the 'Organisation Chart'; in particular, changes to the roles and responsibilities of individuals. To understand aspects involved in managing change, a review of literature focused on change and change management, leadership, structures of organisations, change agents and culture. This provided the researcher insight into the processes, aspects and issues in managing change. A qualitative case study was undertaken for this research. A qualitative approach allowed the researcher to understand multiple realities, interpretations and perspectives of individuals associated with structural change. Data collection incorporated individual interviews, focus group discussions, document analysis and observations. Data was analysed using the, 'constant comparative method' (Merriam, 1998). Evidence from this study suggests that equal attention needs to be given to the systems, change agents and culture of the school to facilitate and manage change.

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  • Healthy eating in 10-13 year old children : understanding choice using the theory of planned behaviour and the role of parental influence : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Health Psychology at Massey University

    Hewitt, Allison Melinda (2005)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Currently, one fifth of New Zealand children are overweight and one tenth are obese. The majority of the literature reports that an increase in the intake of energy-dense foods, particularly those containing fats and sugar, are a contributing factor in the development of overweight among children. This study utilised a social cognitive model, the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) to examine the influence of behavioural beliefs, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control, and attitudes towards healthy eating on a sample of 10-13 year old children. The model examined their intentions to consume particular types of food, and whether intention, in turn, predicted dietary behaviour (self-reported consumption of healthy food items). In addition, the role of parental influence on children's eating behaviour was examined. Two hundred and sixty one children, comprising males and females aged between 10 and 13 years old, from two types of school, completed a questionnaire, which focussed on five different food groups. Parents and caregivers of the children also completed a questionnaire examining their child-feeding practices. The TPB explained 65% of the variance in Ashhurst School children's behavioural intentions and 43% of Palmerston North Intermediate Normal School (PNINS) children's intentions. Intentions accounted for 47% (PNINS) and 28% (Ashhurst) of the explained variance in dietary behaviour. Parental influence did not contribute significantly to the model. For PNINS children, behavioural intention partly mediated the relationship between subjective norm, perceived behavioural control and dietary behaviour and fully mediated the relationship between behavioural belief and dietary behaviour. For Ashhurst School children, behavioural intention mediated the relationship between attitude and dietary behaviour. The results of this study support the use of the TPB in identifying healthy eating intentions and behaviour in school age children. These results however, do not support the addition of parental influence, measured by the Child Feeding Questionnaire, as a predictor of children's dietary behaviour over and above the TPB.

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  • The application of economic instruments to the management of threatened species : a fisheries case study in the Galápagos Islands : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Applied Science (Natural Resource Economics), Massey University,

    Bermeo Alvear, Santiago Antonio (2007)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Under open access conditions fisheries tend to suffer from overexploitation and rent dissipation. This situation makes regulation necessary to achieve sustainability. In the Galápagos Marine Reserve, ineffective fisheries management has created a 'regulated' open access situation. The major fisheries, sea cucumber and spiny lobster, have been exploited beyond sustainable levels and catches have decreased significantly. Given the state of the resources, fisheries management in Galápagos needs to effectively limit catch and effort to sustainable levels. This research analyses the feasibility of an individual transferable quota (ITQ) scheme in Galápagos, evaluating the suitability of the context and assessing the expected economic benefits and equity implications from such a regulatory instrument. The spiny lobster fishery is considered to be suitable for an ITQ scheme while the sea cucumber fishery is not, given that the resource is on the verge of commercial extinction, the difficulties in monitoring exports and the variability of prices. The optimal management scenario for the spiny lobster fishery, of those evaluated in this study, is an ITQ scheme where the total allowable catch is set at the maximum economic yield. This scenario resulted in the largest economic benefit and efficiency gains. Major equity implications are expected from an ITQ scheme in this fishery also. These, however, are consistent with the amount of catch that needs to be reduced in order for the fishery to operate sustainably. With this in mind, it is concluded that the Galápagos National Park Service and other stakeholders that participate in fisheries management in the archipelago should consider the adoption of an ITQ scheme to manage the spiny lobster fishery. The sea cucumber fishery on the other hand, needs to remain closed until the stock recovers. Current challenges to more effective fisheries management are limited monitoring and enforcement and weaknesses within fishing cooperatives. An enhancement of the monitoring and enforcement component, and a strengthening of fishing cooperatives through more meaningful grassroots participation in fisheries management are necessary to improve the current situation. Complementary restrictions and policies to achieve particular socio-economic and environmental objectives will also be necessary in order to reduce potential negative impacts from an ITQ scheme.

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  • Comparative analysis of a pressure vessel finite element analysis versus speckle photography : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Technology at Massey University

    Wang, Zuping (1994)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    A detailed explanation and analysis are presented of the Finite Element Method used to solve the stress/strain situation in a small pressure vessel. A pressure vessel was modelled whose displacement characteristics were previously analysed using speckle photography. The Mystro/Lusas finite element software was used on a PC 486 computer system. A linear and static analysis was made. Contour plots of direct stress and shear stress distribution are presented which also show the highest stress areas. A comparison of the results from Finite Element Method and Speckle Photography Method as well as the pressure vessel design formulas are presented. Advantages of the Finite Element Method are discussed.

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  • Being safe & taking risks : how a group of nurses managed children's pain : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Nursing at Massey University

    Coup, Anne (1998)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    A small, grounded theory study was conducted in a children's surgical ward in a large, urban teaching hospital involving registered nurse volunteers. The purpose of the study was to investigate how nurses' deal with children's acute pain. Ten unstructured, but focused in-depth, taped interviews were conducted with five nurses. The constant comparative method as proposed by Glaser and Strauss (1967) and Glaser (1978) was used to generate substantive theoretical categories, a core category and basic social process. Analysis revealed that what nurses may want to do and what they can do when managing children's pain is not necessarily the same thing. A number of structural barriers to prompt and effective pain management were identified, such as doctors not always being available to write prescriptions, under prescribing or doctors even refusing to prescribe opioids for children at times. Lack of equipment for delivering continuous analgesic infusions meant that optimal methods could not always be used. The predominant method used was intermittent incremental intravenous doses of morphine, which appeared to provide poor pain control in many cases. The analgesic protocols the nurses were expected to follow were time consuming and impractical when they had several children needing analgesia at once. The nurses' solution to such dilemmas was to still act to relieve pain even when this involved some risk because the nurses' believed that the risk-taking was done responsibly, and that it was more important to promote the child's wellbeing. The types of risks they took included administering several doses of morphine in quick succession without always monitoring for respiratory depression, and altering prescriptions (but not in writing). Being Safe and Taking Risks emerged as a paradoxical core category, which reflected the pattern for the nurses' pain management decision-making and practice. It also emerged that a moral interest (Being Ethical) appeared to direct and connect the nurse's thinking and practice; they tended to do what they considered was in the child's best interests and believed that the benefits outweighed potential harms.

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  • A case study of the socio-economic development of Tovulailai : a village in Fiji : a thesis presented to the Department of Sociology, Massey University in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts

    Ratumaitavuki, Maciu (1981)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The 'Rural Development' programme in Fiji began about 1969, the eve of our independence, with the principal aim to raise the standard of living in the rural areas, in particular those who live in the villages. Consideration was given to involve the rural people closely and meaningfully with the planning, decision making and implementation of the programme. To date, because the need for development in rural areas is so great and due to the severe lack of skilled manpower, Fiji cannot do everything she requires especially in the areas of feasibility studies and research. This is why most of the works done in this areas were done mainly by expatriates who were in many instances, total strangers to the local scene and who may not have fully understood or appreciated the complex nature and the interwoven intricacies of the Fijian way of life. Compounding this problem is the lack of Fijian scholars who are interested in the areas of social research. The basic aim of this present study is to examine the development of the village people and also to stimulate Fijian scholars to become interested in studying the development of their own people, especially of those who are in the disadvantaged rural sector. This paper presents a case study of the socio-economic development of Tovulailai: a village in rural Fiji. The present study is an attempt to observe and explain the influences of the multiple outside forces, in particular those exerted by change agents and how these village people have responded and adapted to these social forces which are impinging upon them. The needs which the people of Tovulailai felt and expressed were fully identified together with the various problems why these needs were not being fulfilled. People in this village needed to raise their general standard of living; improve their level of education; their health and general sanitation; to facilitate their access to urban markets; need to increase their sources of income; the need for adequate housing; the need for transportation and communication and other infrastructural facilities. But, they cannot easily satisfy these needs because of the problems inherent in the present system. These problems are: the lack of good leadership; lack of education lack of good cultivable land; lack of access to urban markets; lack of good housing; lack of technical skills; lack of goods and services; lack of scientific agricultural techniques and low level of technology in the rural villages. The non-structured intensive interview and observation research methods were used by this study in its attempt to examine and explain how the people of Tovulailai village are responding to the impact of social change agents in their attempt to meeting their pressing needs as expressed above. Furthermore, an attempt is made to determine how change agents themselves achieved results and how the mechanism of change within the client system functioned in diffusing and communicating the process of social change and how clients attain their goals in passing from one social state to another. All these processes are fully discussed in the text. The implications of the study which can be used in other situations in Fiji are discussed in the concluding section of this paper. It is apparent that the central issue which emerged in the study is the very effective interaction between the change agents, the client system and the mechanism of diffusion of social change within the system to achieve the desired objectives in socio-economic development at the village level.

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  • Constructing a female saint : the gendered construction of the cult of Walpurgis, 9th to 14th centuries : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree Master of Arts in History at Massey University

    Merritt, Louise (1999)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    'And so I have written of these signs and wonders so that it may be understood what divine majesty the virgin brings about for the love of God and men through the recent elevation of relics from her tomb. But so far those most famous relics of the dear virgin have been spread out through the whole of kingdom of the Franks, and every day many and quite excellent miracles of glorification are brought about through our Lord Jesus Christ, who is with the Father and the Holy Spirit in eternal glory for ever and ever, Amen.'1 Haec itaque signa et prodigia hic nunc scripto comprehensa, quae Divina majestas in illa novitate sublevationis ex monumento corpusculi, Deo et hominibus amandae Virginis peregit, multum laudanda et admiranda sunt. Sed adhuc in diversis per totum Francorum regnum provinciis, quae ejusdem Virginis reliquiarum pignoribus illustratae constitunt, quotidie plura excellentioraque preaconio digna efficiumtr per Jesum Christum Dominum nostrum, cui est cum Patre et Spiritu sancto perennis gloria in secula seculorum Amen, Vita II S. Walburgis, ed. Godefridus Henschenius, Acta Sanctorum, Februarius Tomus III, 2nd edition, Paris, 1865, ch.20, p.552. [ Vita II] The numbering of the Vitae in this thesis follows the standard set in the Acta Sanctorum. The second Vita Walpurgis, written in the tenth century, testified to the remarkable rise of a female saint to a position of power and popularity. Walpurgis (ca. 710-779) was an Anglo-Saxon nun who joined the eighth-century Boniface mission to Germany and, with the help of her brothers Willibald and Wunibald, co-foundcd and eventually ruled the double monastery of Heidenheim. Her cult had its beginnings in the late ninth century, with the translation of her relics to Eichstätt, and the composition of the first Vita Walpurgis. Less than a century later, the Vita II could paint a picture of Walpurgis as a powerful saint whose relics were spread across Europe and widely venerated as foci of her miraculous powers. In the period of the ninth to the fourteenth centuries, Walpurgis came to posses an extended identity as intercessor and miracle-worker, protecting patron saint, daughter of a king, virginal bride of Christ, nurturer, producer of healing oil. Walpurgis thus cut a striking figure in the medieval landscape: she was a powerful female within a milieu of misogyny. This thesis therefore analyses the development of the cult of Walpurgis, and focuscs on the issue of gender to create an overall picture of the gendered construction of the cult of this female saint.

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  • A comparative study of the phosphorus characteristics of oil palm volcanic soils in Papua New Guinea and New Zealand volcanic soils : a thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Applied Science in Soil Science at Massey University

    Banabas, Murom (1998)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) grown on volcanic ash soils in Papua New Guinea (PNG) generally respond well to N fertilisers but shows a lack of consistent response to inorganic phosphorus (P) fertilisers. This is true even on soils with high phosphate retention (PR) and where Olsen P values highlighted in the preliminary survey of PNGOPRA field trial data are very low (90% to at least 60 cm depth). This study was done to characterise the PNG oil palm growing volcanic soils in relation to P responsiveness, to identify P fractions and their relative amounts, to determine the fate of applied P fertilisers and to compare chemical and mineralogical characteristics of PNG soils with some New Zealand (NZ) equivalent soils. Mineralogical analysis indicates that the PNG soils used in this study are relatively young as evidenced by the presence of very high amounts of readily-weatherable volcanic glass in the sand, silt and clay fractions. Soils at Hoskins, Kapiura and Bialla, all in West New Britain (WNB) Province, contain similar amounts and types of primary and secondary minerals. Soils at Bialla are probably older than those at Hoskins and Kapiura and contain large amounts of secondary amorphous minerals (allophane and ferrihydrite) in the clay fraction. Soils at Popondetta are different from those in WNB with high amounts of hornblende and no augite or hypersthene in the heavy mineral fraction. Allophane levels in the clay fraction are high to very high in soil surface layers at Hoskins and Kapiura and at all depths in Bialla soils. At Popondetta, allophane content is very low at all depths PR in all soils and at all depths was highly correlated with acid oxalate extractable Al (Alo) (r = 0.84*) and iron (Feo) (r = 0.89*). The sources of these 2 extracts (allophane and ferrihydrite) are largely responsible for the high PR in the soils studied. High allophane and ferrihydrite levels at all depths in Bialla soils correspond well with very high PR values ( >90%) to at least 2 m depth. Low levels of these 2 minerals in Popondetta soils correspond well with low PR values (30%). Intermediate PR values (60 - 70%) for Hoskins and Kapiura surface soils correlates well with the occurrence of intermediate levels of allophane and ferrihydrite. In all PNG soils, a P fractionation scheme showed that the major P fractions are organic. At Hoskins, NaOH-Po accounts for 38 to 48% of total P. For Kapiura NaOH-Po accounts for approximately 50% of total P, and Bicarb.-Po accounts for 59% of total bicarbonate-extractable P. For Bialla soils, NaOH-Po and Bicarb.-Po comprise between 74 and 76%, on average, of their respective total extracted P for all depths. At Popondetta, NaOH-Po comprises 62% and Bicarb.-Po 63% of their respective total extractable P contents. P fertiliser accumulation in Hoskins and Kapiura soils occurs mostly in organic forms and within the top 10 cm of soil. At Hoskins, 83% of total added P accumulated in the top 10 cm (53% being NaOH-Po) while 17% was found in the next 10 cm depth (31% being NaOH-Po). At Kapiura, 74% of total accumulated P was found in the top 10 cm of soil (61% being NaOH-Po) and 26% within the 20 - 30 cm layer (81% being NaOH-Po). The presence of amorphous minerals explains much of the behaviour of P in trial soils, with the major P source/sink in PNG soils being as organic forms. In relation to soil mineralogical and chemical characteristics, PNG soils were classified into one of the major 3 groups in terms of responsiveness to P fertilisers; (a) soils with very high PR (>90%) and Olsen P values of less than 4 mg/kg which are considered most likely to respond to inorganic P fertilisers e.g. Bialla soil, (b) soils with medium to high PR (60 - 70%) will likely show inconsistent responses to P fertilisers and P responses are most likely to be secondary to N e.g. Hoskins and Kapiura soils and (c) soils with low PR (30 - 40%) which are unlikely to respond to P fertilisers at least in the foreseeable future e.g. Popondetta soils. This study highlights a future need for further study of the dynamics of P nutrient cycling, specifically the mineralisation rates of organic matter and the release of Pi for plant uptake in PNG oil palm growing soils. Also there is a need to re-establish the leaf critical concentration because in PNG soils though leaf levels are generally less than 0.150% DM, palms do not always respond to P fertilisers. This suggests that the "critical" P concentrations under PNG conditions is probably less than the international standard at 0.150% DM. Mineralogical and P sorption characteristics of young volcanic ash soils in NZ are sufficiently similar to those in PNG to provide useful information about the general behaviour of P fertilisers and P reaction products in oil palm production systems.

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  • Conditional expertise in chronic illness : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Social Sciences at Massey University

    Casey, Georgina (2000)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The incidence of chronic illness is increasing in the developed world. This means that there is an increased utilisation of acute health care services by people with chronic illnesses, either for treatment of exacerbations or for unrelated health problems. Acute health care services are based on the notion of finite, curable episodes of ill-health, and as such they do not always meet the needs of people with chronic illnesses. This study uses a grounded theory approach to examine the issues surrounding hospitalisation in acute care facilities for a group of eight people with chronic illness. Participants were interviewed within two months of an admission to hospital. Analysis of data, further interviews and other data collection, and generation of theoretical concepts were performed in accordance with the grounded theory method. The key finding from the research was a state of conditional expertise for the chronically ill. While living at home, and in a state of relative well-being, participants were acting as experts in the management of their illnesses. During encounters with health providers in the primary care setting, particularly those whom participants knew, a process of negotiation occurred, engendered by mutual trust in each other's expertise. However, once the acute care setting was entered, participants discovered that their expertise was neither valued nor acknowledged. In response, they went through the processes of informing health carers, by repeatedly telling their stories to different health professionals they encountered, and finally withdrawing from participation in care. This withdrawal could be either physical, where the participants sought early discharge, or emotional in terms of becoming passive recipients of care. The implications of this study, given its limitations, are numerous. In order to provide satisfactory care for people with chronic illnesses, health professionals working in acute care settings must move beyond the dominant model and seek to establish trust relationships which acknowledge and value patient expertise. This requires, first, that education programmes for health carers encourage the recognition of important data patients that do not relate to biological and disease states. Second, a system of care needs to be developed within the acute care setting that allows ongoing relationships to be established between individual patients and carers. This in turn would generate trust between patient and carer, which would enhance the abilities of each to acknowledge expertise. The Partnership model of nursing care is proposed as a possible solution to this problem.

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