6,065 results for Otago University Research Archive

  • Evaluating the Media’s Role in Public and Political Responses to Human-Shark Interactions in NSW, Australia

    Fraser-Baxter, Sam Ezra (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Of all animals that pose danger to humans in this world, few are more feared than sharks. Human-shark interactions are traumatic, emotional and difficult to rationalize. While rare, human-shark interactions generate a disproportionate amount of media coverage and public debate. The mass media is widely attributed with the continuation of negative discourses of sharks through sensationalized, emotive and graphic documentation of human-shark interactions. During 2015, New South Wales, Australia experienced an unprecedented spike in human-shark interactions, which saw the escalation of public anxieties surrounding water safety and the development of the state’s Shark Management Strategy, announced in late 2015. Of the state’s 14 human-shark interactions that took place, 8 were recorded on the state’s North Coast. An unusual concentrated distribution of sharks in near shore waters was widely reported by surfers, fisherman and pilots. The interactions ignited considerable public debate, which sought to explain the spike in interactions and how to manage the risk of human-shark interaction. The public and political responses to the interactions were documented thoroughly by the media. Previous literature has established an understanding of the way the media communicates human-shark interactions, public perceptions of sharks and the relationships between the media, publics and governments in the development of shark management policy. McCagh et. al (2015) have explored the role of media discourse in the development of shark management policy. The methods used in this study are largely built upon methods carried out by McCagh et. al (2015) and seeks to develop them in terms of scope and depth. The objective of the study was to evaluate the role of the media in the development of shark management policy in NSW. Discourse analysis was used to investigate two newspaper’s reports of human-shark interactions on the North Coast to provide insights into the media’s communication of human-shark interactions, patterns of public and political response to human-shark interactions and the development of shark management policy. The findings of this study show that the discourse used by the media examined is not fear-laden, sensationalized or emotive which previous studies have emphasized. Instead there is an evident tension between anthropocentric and eco-centric values in both the media and the government’s communication of human-shark interactions. Discourse surrounding management solutions offered by the media echoed that of the NSW state government; that management should be non-lethal, trialed and scientifically validated. Analysis of responses to human-shark interactions paints a picture of the intricate political and social processes at play following clusters of human-shark interactions. This study highlights the need for a paradigm shift in shark management that sees the responsibility of water-safety and the onus and responsibility of risk moving away from governments and further towards the public. Based on the efficacy of management solutions offered by the government and the timing of their announcement after human-shark interactions during heightened public anxieties, this study concludes that shark management in NSW was not meaningfully focused on reducing the risk of human and sharks interacting, but instead at placating and calming public fears surrounding water safety.

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  • The Epidemiology of Cervical Cancer in Ghana

    Nartey, Yvonne (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    INTRODUCTION: Cervical cancer is a significant health issue worldwide. It is the fourth most common cancer among women with more than 85% of new cases of the disease occurring in low- and middle-income countries. Cervical cancer is the most common cancer among women in Ghana. Incidence and mortality rates are unknown due to an absence of a national-based population cancer registry. HPV positivity has been shown to be a necessary initiator of cervical cancer but the infection progresses to cancer only in a small number of women. Cofactors associated with the disease progression are not well understood. The study was designed to assess the epidemiology of cervical cancer in Ghana. AIMS: • Estimate the regional cervical cancer incidence and mortality using data from two large referral hospitals in Ghana. • Use results from the above study to estimate national incidence and mortality rates of the disease. • Estimate the 1, 3 and 5 year disease-specific survival rates of Ghanaian women diagnosed with invasive cervical cancer. • Determine the HPV DNA prevalence and prevailing HPV types present in Ghanaian women with and without cervical cancer. • Determine the associations between cofactors and a woman’s risk of developing cervical cancer in Ghana. METHODS: Medical records and other hospital data of women diagnosed with cervical cancer from January 2010 to December 2013 were reviewed at Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, and Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumasi, in Ghana. Telephone interviews were also conducted for patients and relatives to gather further information. To assess the risk factors for cervical cancer in Ghana, a hospital-based case-control study was undertaken. Women aged 18-95 years with a new diagnosis of invasive cervical cancer that had been histologically confirmed were considered for inclusion as cases. Controls were a random selection from the same hospitals as the cases. A structured questionnaire was administered to the women after which a request for a cervical smear was made for the reporting of cytological abnormalities and laboratory detection of HPV DNA to establish the HPV types present. RESULTS: Using the data from review of medical records and telephone interviews, the incidence, mortality and survival rates of women diagnosed with invasive cervical cancer in Ghana were estimated. An increased risk of cervical cancer with age was found. The incidence rate of cervical cancer was highest for women aged 75-79 years and decreased at older ages. Incidence and mortality rates were higher in the Greater Accra and Ashanti regions of Ghana than for other regions. At three years from diagnosis, overall disease-specific survival was 39%. Unsurprisingly, stage at presentation and histological type were strong predictors of cervical cancer survival. Some forms of treatment were also associated with better survival than others. A total of 206 women with incident cervical cancer and 230 controls were recruited for the case-control study to identify possible risk factors and cofactors for cervical cancer in Ghana. The results of the case-control study confirmed many known established risk factors associated with cervical cancer. These included age, an increased number of pregnancies, higher parity and oral contraceptive use. In addition, use of firewood for cooking, use of homemade sanitary towels and having a polygamous husband was associated with an increased risk of cervical cancer in this study after adjustment for the presence of highest oncogenic HPV types. High prevalence of HPV was detected among women with cervical cancer (80.1%). HPV types 45, 16, 18, 35 and 52 were the most common types detected among cases. Knowledge of HPV and cervical cancer was very low overall among women with and without cervical cancer. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to the presence of high-risk oncogenic HPV DNA, parity and oral contraceptive use was associated with an increase risk of cervical cancer in Ghana. The results of the research suggest that the identification of factors associated with the progression of HPV positivity to invasive cervical cancer may help reduce the burden of cervical cancer in Ghana. In addition, the development of a cancer control programme that takes into consideration the social and cultural factors for the prevention, early detection and diagnosis, treatment and palliative aspects of cervical cancer is needed to combat the disease.  

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  • Exploring undergraduate students’ perceptions of factors influencing their engagement and alienation in higher education

    Asare, Samuel (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Student engagement has been identified as having a positive influence on learning and retention. This has attracted much research on how to enhance engagement in higher education. Studies have considered the role of student motivation and various environmental factors that affect engagement. However, these studies are concentrated in Western countries including US, Canada, UK, Australia and New Zealand. The few done in Africa have been in South Africa. Drawing on Mann’s (2001) framework of engagement and alienation, this study explores undergraduate students’ perceptions of factors influencing their engagement and alienation in a public university in Ghana. The study adopted a case study design underpinned by an interpretive approach to provide a broad and in-depth understanding of how student motivation interacts with factors relating to teachers, family and peers to produce engaged and alienated experiences. Three data sources were drawn upon in this study: survey, diary and interview. The survey included 469 Humanities students selected by quota sampling from main campus, city campus and distance learning across all year levels. Of the 469 students surveyed, 225 agreed to keep a diary of their learning experiences for two days and participate in a one-on-one interview. Purposive sampling was used to select 17 students for diaries and interviews by considering both male and females, year of study, mode of study (distance learning, city campus and main campus) as well as respondents’ availability for interviews. This ensured that data were collected from a wide range of perspectives. The analysis was in two forms. First, survey data were analysed with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) to find percentages and means of the responses. In addition, ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) and t-tests were conducted to determine any differences among students’ perceptions at the time of the survey. In some instances, where there were differences, a post hoc test was conducted to determine which groups were different from each other. Second, data from diaries and interviews were analysed using the general inductive approach to develop themes relating to the objectives of the study. The analysis was guided by a framework that highlighted students reported engaged and alienated experiences. The study resulted in a new conceptual framework that brings the various parts of the findings together. This study suggested that students’ need for belonging, competence and autonomy spurred them on to invest more time and effort in their learning. However, autonomy and belonging had different influences depending on the year of study. First year students reported the highest level of influence compared with students of other year levels. Engagement was influenced by students’ desire to achieve goals: to be knowledgeable; for postgraduate study; and to gain a high-paying job. In addition, students reported engaged and alienated experiences resulting from four teacher factors: level of knowledge; teaching approaches; relationships with students; and support. Also, almost all students received support from their family and most of them thought that family support had a lot of influence on their engagement. Engagement was influenced by financial and social support as well as the monitoring of their academic performance by their parents. Interactions with peers influenced engagement in academic and social ways. For instance, students shared learning material such as textbooks, lecture notes and computers. Furthermore, students reported improved self-confidence and a better understanding of their subject by interacting with their peers in formal and informal contexts. Despite the positive influence of peers, a small number of students reported feeling pressured by their peers to spend most of their study time partying, and some members not contributing during group study. The findings add an alternative voice to the growing literature on student engagement by presenting data from a context that has not been explored in this way before. It has shown the usefulness of engagement and alienation as a framework to investigate students’ learning in higher education. The few existing studies that have applied the framework did not analyse data as has been done in this study. Thus, this study has provided new insights. In addition, the findings revealed that students have the desire to work hard to achieve their goals, but these desires will need positive contributions from the environment to achieve much results. Summarising, the implications of the findings include the need for higher education institutions to invest in teacher professional development and to seek ways to collaborate with families of students who may be struggling academically, to enhance their engagement.

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  • Exploring the Role of Main Streets: A Case Study Analysis of Small Towns in the Clutha District, New Zealand

    Hakkaart, Nerilee Maria (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Public spaces are an important part of the urban environment as they create liveable and vibrant places for people to live and work. Due to small towns having smaller populations than cities and a smaller number of formal public spaces, the main street is one of the central public spaces for these towns. Main streets provide both a visual representation of the character of the town that they are located in, as well as a representation of the economic activity that is occurring in the town. This research investigated the main streets of three small towns located in the Clutha District of New Zealand. These towns are Balclutha, Milton and Lawrence. The research aimed to identify the relationship between planning for public space improvements such as street scape redevelopment and economic and community development in each place. The analysis of the design elements of the streetscape included investigating how and why the particular design features were used in each town. Processes of economic development were also explored in order to further understand the role of the main street. The findings indicate that the main street in each small town functions as a successful public space, however there are differences between the main street as a public space and those public spaces which can be found in more densely urbanised areas. Traffic is prioritised in the small town main street due to the importance that is has in creating economic development for local businesses. The main street not only facilitates economic development within the main street, but also portrays the potential for economic development within the town and represents the economic and community development that is occurring. Main streets potentially have a role in creating a sense of place for the community, although further research is needed to confirm this relationship.

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  • The thin end of the wedge : the 1970 South African tour controversy

    McKegg, William Amos (1990)

    Other thesis
    University of Otago

    In 1981 as a bewildered third former I marched up Queen Street in Auckland to protest against the Springbok tour. At the time I knew it was for the better good, yet the next day at rugby practise I had trouble explaining why. Sporting contacts with South Africa has been a source of curiosity ever since, hence my reason for choosing a South African tour debate. 1970 was chosen for the simple reason that other major controversial tours have been done and, as it happened the 1970 issue turned out to be a crucial year for New Zealand and South African sporting relations. [Extract from Preface]

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  • Becoming aware: A study of student teachers' personal and professional values

    Vermunt, Jenny (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Student teachers’ personal and professional values have received passing attention in the educational literature, despite assertions that their values influence their perceptions, pedagogical decisions and actions. This study explores the professional learning of a sample of secondary student teachers. It aims to understand the role played by their personal and professional values while they participate in a year-long initial teacher education programme. Framed by social constructivist and interpretivist theory, this qualitative study uses semi-structured interviews and journal entries to capture the perspectives of five secondary student teachers about their learning-to-teach experiences. Constant comparative data analysis methods are used to reveal patterns of themes within and across the five case studies. Findings from the research reveal that personal and professional values underpin the learning and teacher identity of student teachers in the sample. They are influenced by values and experiences in their families and communities, and their core values are behind their sense of purpose, awareness and resilience. Findings reveal how professional values and structures at play in school organisations conflict or align with their own personal and professional values and impact on their commitment to the profession. The research shows that student teachers vary in the opportunities they are afforded in university and school environments to participate in critical dialogue in communities of practice that develop their self-awareness, acquisition of professional values and understanding of their contexts. The study concludes by proposing a model of personal and professional learning that aims to develop student teachers’ critical reflection and awareness of the impact of their personal and professional values when learning to teach.

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  • On the Multi-GNSS RTK Positioning Performance in New Zealand

    Odolinski, Robert; Denys, Paul (2015-07-14)

    Conference item
    University of Otago

    http://www.ignss.org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=%2fKghNFHXVoI%3d&tabid=147&mid=558&forcedownload=true

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  • "Getting it": Successful intercultural teaching practicum

    Murray, Sara Rosalind (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    New Zealand’s population is becoming increasingly diverse, particularly with new arrivals from the Asian continent. With this, comes the increased need for early childhood education professionals to respond authentically to children and their families from minority ethnicities. One way to do so is to employ a wide range of culturally and ethnically diverse early childhood professionals to help respond to this diversity. However, a significant body of research has suggested that Asian-born early childhood student teachers may have difficulty during initial teacher education (ITE) in Aotearoa New Zealand, especially during the practicum component. Working within an educational context completely at odds with their own personal experience appears to place additional stress upon an already potentially-stressful situation. As a result, student teachers may struggle to meet required ITE learning outcomes for practicum. This research investigates what makes for a successful practicum experience for both Asian-born student teachers and their supervising associate teachers. Using symbolic interactionist theoretical underpinnings, it explores the experiences of three Asian-born early childhood education student teachers and their associate teachers during one of the final practicums of the students’ teaching qualification. Interviews with each of the six participants were conducted prior to, and after, the practicum to determine their changing views of success. In addition, video-stimulated discussions occurred during the practicum to gain a deeper sense of what each participant viewed as successful practice. The findings indicate that themes of mutual respect, professional identity development, student confidence, alignment of understanding around appropriate pedagogical practice, supervision in response to student need, English language competency, and sufficient time, are all seen to contribute to success in practicum. As a result of these findings, a conceptual model of success is proposed. It shows success involves more than simply passing the externally-imposed learning outcomes of the ITE institution. Instead, success is conceptualised as occurring along two continuum; formative and summative, and internally-experienced and externally-demonstrated. With this broader understanding of success in mind, a model of a successful intercultural practicum is proposed which incorporates the key success themes. Subsequent implications for the length of practicum, support structures in place for Asian-born students and associate teachers, practicum assessment processes, and the focus of initial teacher education are discussed.

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  • The NEEDNT Foods Moderation Guidelines: Pre-testing of preliminary Moderation Guidelines for the NEEDNT Food List

    Graham, Renee Michelle Cullen (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Background: Obesity is a key modifiable risk factor for non-communicable diseases. The modern food environment provides easy access to inexpensive, highly palatable, energy-dense and nutrient-poor foods and beverages, which are associated with increased BMI and reduced dietary quality. The NEEDNT Food List™, comprising ‘non-essential, energy-dense, nutritionally-deficient’ foods and beverages, was developed to help patients and consumers to clearly distinguish non-essential foods from core foods required for good health. In the present study, the original NEEDNT Food List™ was incorporated into preliminary ‘Moderation Guidelines’, which aim to provide quantified guidance for implementing the concept of dietary moderation, in the context of NEEDNT food and beverage intake. Objectives: The aims of the present study were to create a points and quota system for quantifying and monitoring energy intake from NEEDNT foods and beverages; to pre-test preliminary Moderation Guidelines among a representative group of potential users; and to make recommendations to further develop the Moderation Guidelines as a weight loss tool. Design: This study utilised an observational design and qualitative methods to obtain information-rich verbal data from study participants. Twelve people, aged 22 to 57 years, with a BMI ≥30 and a history of repeated weight loss attempts, were selected to pre-test the Moderation Guidelines over a 4-week period, and subsequently participated in one-on-one, semi-structured interviews. Interviews comprised eight open-ended questions, to explore participants’ views and experiences of the Moderation Guidelines, along with information relating to historical weight loss attempts and thoughts on dietary moderation. Interview data were recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded using NVivo software. Coded data were categorised and evaluated by thematic analysis using a general inductive approach. Results: Preliminary NEEDNT Foods Moderation Guidelines were presented in an A5 booklet format, with NEEDNT foods and beverages assigned 1 NEF (‘non-essential food’ value) per 100 kcal portion. Participants were allocated up to 19 NEFs weekly, representing around 1900 kcal. Participants varied in the extent of their previous dieting experiences. All expressed uncertainty around applying personal concepts of dietary moderation. Nine participants found the Moderation Guidelines usable and beneficial. Five participants self-reported weight losses of 2-4 kg during the 4-week period. Three participants found the Moderation Guidelines less appealing, unusable, or incomplete. All participants reported an improved understanding of dietary moderation generally. Seven participants intended to continue using the Moderation Guidelines. Suggested changes to the print booklet included revision of NEEDNT food and beverage categories, modification of terminology, integration of colour and graphics, clarification of serving sizes, and culture-specific versions. Most participants emphasised the need for support from a Dietitian or other health professional, for dietary guidance around core food groups, and behavioural change techniques. Participants said a NEEDNT-based smartphone app would increase functionality and appeal. Māori and Pacific participants requested culturally tailored NEEDNT-based education. Conclusion: Preliminary NEEDNT Foods Moderation Guidelines show potential for assisting obese persons to lose weight by moderating consumption of NEEDNT foods and beverages. Revision and retesting would further develop the Moderation Guidelines, and should incorporate participants’ recommendations, design principles, behavioural change theories, and best practices in nutrition education. An intervention trial is warranted, to evaluate the effectiveness of revised Moderation Guidelines as a dietary quality and weight loss tool. Further research opportunities include the development of a Moderation Guidelines smartphone app and website, tailored adaptation of the Moderation Guidelines for Māori and Pacific individuals and community groups, and a NEEDNT-based public health campaign.

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  • Surveying in South Africa: Coordinate vs monument cadastre

    Goodwin, David (2017-06)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    The article is an extract from correspondence between an Otago Surveying lecturer and a graduate who worked in Christchurch, New Zealand, and then moved to South Africa. Underlying the dialogue is a critical comparison of cadastral data formats, boundary evidence, and monument based versus legal coordinate cadastres.

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  • Planning for the Protection of Industrial Land and Services in the Sustainable City - A Nelson, New Zealand Case Study

    Keyse, Matt (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Industrial zoned land and industrial activities within cities are facing a number of challenges which could potentially see industry displaced from urban environments. Contributing to this is the inadequate coverage of industry in growth management strategies such as Smart Growth and the Compact City, which influence urban development and local planning legislation. The aim of this thesis was to confirm the increasing evidence that industrial activities remain vitally important to a city’s sustainable development and for ensuring the positive function of local economies. This was explored within the case study of Nelson, New Zealand, a region experiencing high levels of population and economic growth within a strictly limited land base. Industrial land is under increasing pressure with future supply expected to be exhausted within six years at the current rate of demand. Results of this research have confirmed the importance of industry within urban spaces and the need for tighter planning for the protection of industrial land and services if the city’s sustainable goals are to be achieved. Intensification was explored as a means by which industry can fit within smart growth strategies and can be reconceptualised to fit within the modern city. In addition, an industrial land supply method was developed as a practical starting point for local authorities to quantify future industrial land supply and also understand the complexity of issues relating to industrial sites and activities. Research enabled recommendations to be made which will assist planning and policy initiatives to ensure sustainable and more efficient industrial zone management.

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  • Conquest, Kingship, Calamity: Demetrius Poliorcetes After Ipsus

    Dunn, Charlotte Marie Rose (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Demetrius Poliorcetes (336-282 BC), was one of the extraordinary figures of the Hellenistic Age, whose career began in wake of the chaos that followed the death of Alexander the Great. His father was Antigonus Monophthalmus, one of the greatest of the Successors, and under Antigonus’ guidance Demetrius achieved some of the standout accomplishments of his career. The pair’s ceaseless and energetic campaigning enabled them to jointly claim the royal title in 306 BC, something which quickly prompted the other Successors to follow suit. They continued to consolidate and expand their empire in the years that followed; however, the Antigonids’ dominant position eventually saw the other dynasts conspire to eliminate them. In 301 BC, Demetrius suffered a violent reversal of fortune, when the coalition that had formed against the Antigonids defeated them in battle, and his father was killed. This misfortune saw Demetrius fleeing from the battlefield with a small band of followers, now the heir to a piecemeal and much threatened empire.

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  • Feasibility of using zein to create edible film

    Hu, Zhihao (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Plastics have been widely used as food packaging due to their excellent properties and low price. Unfortunately, plastics are not biodegradable which leads to the accumulation of plastic waste in landfills. To prevent this problem in New Zealand, the development of biodegradable food packaging using cheap material as an alternative to plastic packaging is being explored. Zein, the co-product of corn oil production, can form edible film however its mechanical properties are quite poor. To improve these properties, chitosan also another bio-product of marine source, could be used as a co-polymer for zein film. Therefore, the main purpose of this project was to study the effect of blending formulation and crosslinking on the properties of zein/chitosan film. Poly(ethylene glycol)-400 (PEG-400) and tripolyphosphate (TPP) were respectively used as a plasticiser and a crosslinker. The effect of PEG-400 and TPP on the film properties and performance was assessed. Different blending formulas using various zein/chitosan ratio ranging from 80:20 to 50:50 and PEG-400 addition ranging from 10% to 50% of the total solid (1% w/v of the total blending solution) were used. The measured properties of film forming solution and resulting film included pH, viscosity, colour, thickness, swelling index, water vapour permeability, mechanical properties, water content, water solubility and thermal stability. The film was prepared using wet casting method. Based on these results, regression modelling was used for the optimization of blending formula via desirability test to assess fitness of film on the targeted application. Afterwards, crosslinking post-processing using different doses of TPP in the soaking solution and different processing times were performed to the previously optimized film blending formula. Both swelling properties and thermal properties of crosslinked films were evaluated. It was found that the film properties of PEG-400 plasticized zein/chitosan blended film were more affected by PEG-400 content than zein-chitosan ratio while the film forming solution properties presented the reversed finding. Based on the optimisation of the blending formula using mathematical modelling, this study showed that one of the potential applications of this film is packaging protection for fruit products. The use of tripolyphosphate (TPP) as cross-linker presents effective crosslinking performance towards this optimum blending formula for fruit protection, i.e. zein and chitosan ratio of 50:50 with 30% addition of PEG-400 of the total polymer content (1% w/v). Overall, the results in this study provide an evidence that plastic-like mechanical properties of zein/chitosan blended films with high water barrier property and higher thermal stability than low or high density polyethylene can be obtained and demonstrate high potential to use in replacing plastic film in food packaging.

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  • The Role of Mathematics in Francis Bacon's Natural Philosophy

    Çimen, Ünsal (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    In this study, I discuss the role of mathematics in Francis Bacon’s natural philosophy. Bacon was one of the important figures of early modern philosophy and has been accepted as one of the frontier philosophers of modern science. The increasing role of mathematics in natural philosophy was an important development of this period of time, which raises the question of whether Bacon approved of the new role of mathematics in natural philosophy. The new role of mathematics in natural philosophy was mainly developed by astronomers such as Copernicus, Galileo, and Kepler, and can be defined as ‘making natural philosophical claims through mathematics’. I will examine the role of mathematics in Baconian natural philosophy by considering the following questions: Can Bacon’s attitude towards the role of mathematics be accepted as Aristotelian? Were there similarities between Bacon and al–Bitruji in their ideas of how an astronomical model should be established? Is there any difference in Bacon’s attitude towards mathematics between his earlier and later works? Can we use Bacon’s approach to arithmetical quantification to refute the claim that he was against the new role of mathematics? Was there any similarity between the attitude of Bacon and neo-Platonist chemical philosophers towards mathematics? Is there any relation between the non–mechanical character of Bacon’s philosophy and his attitude towards mathematics? Is there any relation between his matter theory and his attitude towards mathematics? Throughout this thesis, I emphasise that Bacon attached importance to applying mathematics to natural philosophy, however, was against the idea of making natural philosophical claims through mathematics. I argue that he had two fundamental commitments for being distrustful towards mathematics’ ability in making natural philosophical claims; his first being the consistency between the human mind and the course of logic and mathematics, and the second being the inconsistency between the course of nature (matter) and the course of logic and mathematics.

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  • The inter-country diffusion of pharmaceutical products

    Cullen, Ross (1981)

    Post-doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    A major debate has raged over the existence and causes of a phenomenon known as "drug lag". Protagonists in the debate have argued that the U.S.A. is typically late to receive new pharmaceutical products because of the very lengthy delays imposed by F.D.A. regulations before new products can be launched on the U.S. market. Supporters of the. F.D.A. have denied the U.S.A. suffers from a drug lag while proposing alternative explanations for its existence. In this thesis attempt is made to resolve the debate by investigating the pattern of inter-country diffusion of pharmaceutical products. Hypotheses are postulated and tested in an attempt to provide answers to four fundamental questions posed about inter-country diffusion. These questions are: 1. What factors determine the speed of diffusion of pharmaceutical products? 2. What factors determine the extent of diffusion of pharmaceutical products? 3. What factors determine when pharmaceutical products are launched in each country? 4. What factors determine how many pharmaceutical products are launched in each country? A survey of the relevant literature on diffusion of innovations reveals that profit-related variables are consistently useful explanators of diffusion patterns. The tenor of the hypotheses postulated for testing in this thesis is that firms in this industry strive to launch products in a manner designed to maximize their contributions to profits. The diffusion patterns between 18 countries, of 190 products first launched on to the world's markets between 1956 and 1976 are examined to test the hypotheses and thus provide answers to the four questions listed above. Statistical analysis is undertaken to test the hypotheses. There appears to be relatively little evidence to support many of the hypotheses tested about speed and extent of diffusion. However there is considerable evidence that the speed of diffusion of products, after their first launch, has increased steadily throughout the period studied. Deeper investigation suggests the typical time between discovery of products useful properties, and their typical times of availability on the worlds markets may have remained almost constant throughout the twenty one year period studied. Pharmaceutical companies may have acted to compensate for increasingly lengthy delays before products are first launched, by more rapid subsequent launch of products. The number of products which are launched in a country and the magnitude of the delay before they are launched in each country appear to be relatively predictable. Both of these parameters appear to be strongly influenced by countries levels of development. Countries with high health expenditures per capita, appear to receive more produces, more rapidly, than do lower expenditure countries. Interest ultimately focuses on the question of drug lags and the affects of regulations. Drug lags are shown to exist for the U.S.A., Japan and some other countries. When the period studied is divided into two sub-periods relatively strong correlations are shown to exist between ratings of regulatory tightness in markets; and changes in the numbers of products diffusing to markets and changes in mean times before products are launched in markets. Regulations do appear to exert considerable influence on the patterns of inter-country diffusion of pharmaceuticals in the latter part of the period studied.

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  • 'Black Diamond City' a history of Kaitangata mines, miners and community 1860-1913

    Bamford, Tony (1982)

    Honours Dissertation thesis
    University of Otago

    Coal mining is an industry about which people have held and still hold a number of misconceptions. Much of this fact lies purely in lack of understanding for it seems coal mines have always been shunned by the wider community. Isolation however is perhaps an aid to historical analysis for curiosity often prompted investigation even if many of the views expressed were still prejudiced. Similarly, miners, as a group, tended to operate outside the normal social realms of neighbouring societies. But although similarities existed between coal mining communities in a number of areas such as occupational patterns and basic institutions associated with the industry, these settlements cannot be lumped into one basket. Coal mining towns were as different from one another as any non-mining settlements were different from others. This thesis is concerned with such differences. It is concerned also with the pattern of development of such a town. The community, industry and group of people under observation is that of a small town of Kaitangata.[…] Kaitangata was one of the earliest mining settlements in New Zealand, and developed into Otago and Southlands largest coal mine. It had become firmly established by 1880 as a major industry, so that by the turn of the century Kaitangata had become a very permanent settlement, exhibiting quite ‘normal’ demographic characteristics.[…] [Extract from Introduction]

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  • Transformative Processes: Reimagining a Sustainable Dunedin Food System

    Mackay, Philippa Ellen (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Food issues are part of a highly complex, variable and interconnected food system that can affect local and global communities. An awareness of the multifaceted problems and a growing dissatisfaction with the conventional food system has been generated through its failure to address mounting social, economic and environmental damage around the world. These include a shift to more people that are obese in the world now than are malnourished, the loss of up to 75 percent of the genetic makeup of all agricultural crops, and increased control by a handful of multinational corporations over most sectors of the food system such as the growing, producing, packaging, and distribution of food. This has led to the mobilisation by some individuals and groups to seek societal change. The important position that food holds in each person’s life provides an opportunity to bring diverse groups together to socially mobilise in the pursuit of creating an alternative food system. Under principles such as a just and democratic food system, the potential for sustainable food system transformation is seen as a process through which to facilitate the promotion of social change. This research will investigate at the local level, a case study which aims to understand the transformative processes that occur by those people who have socially mobilised around the creation of an alternative and more sustainable food system in the Dunedin context. The study will determine the type of engagements that Dunedin food actors have established and the degree to which the relationships between different forms of social mobilisation are enabling the practice of food system transformation. An analysis of this data hopes to provide greater awareness of the barriers, tensions and contradictions which exist within the food system. This will support stakeholders’ ability to overcome difficulties and work more collaboratively towards common and diverse goals for social emancipation. The research argues that food system transformation will require attention from multiple entry points, at various levels, and a commitment by individuals and communities in order to address the variety of food issues that now impact society and the environment. Although sustainable food system transformation will involve the use of different mechanisms - both formal and informal approaches, stakeholders must realise that they are ‘on the same side’ of promoting social change. Only then, will social mobilisation be able to effectively challenge the dominant structures that maintain the neoliberal constructs of the conventional food system and engage with radically reimagining what an alternative food system in the future could look like.

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  • Social Aspects of Demographic Stochasticity in an Endangered Population of Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus)

    Johnston, David Robert (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Photography is one of the most widely used tools in conservation biology. In the analysis of social species, analyses of photographic identification data are used to infer the degree of association among uniquely marked individuals. The present study aimed to develop and assess the practicality of a new time-based method for defining associations among individuals, comparing results to the commonly used group membership method. The method was applied to archived photographs from long-term monitoring of the population of bottlenose dolphins of Doubtful Sound, New Zealand, to assess differences in seasonal association rates among individuals. The time-based method produced analyses of association at finer scales than the group membership method, and produced greater precision in association indices. Importantly the method can be applied retrospectively to any dataset in which individuals, marine or terrestrial, are uniquely identified via time-stamped photographs. Applied to the long-term dataset, results indicate differences in association rates between summer and winter seasons. During summer months the degree of sociality was generally higher; larger mixed-sex groups and greater rates of association among individuals were observed. Sociality in this population is female orientated; the majority of top-scoring individuals in centrality analyses were female. Explorations of whether a mother’s position in the social network influences the survival of her calves were inconclusive. Who the mother is significantly affects calf survival, but why this is so remains unclear. The most important influence on calf survival is birth timing; those born during the months of February, March and April have much higher chances of survival than calves born outside of this period. This is in agreement with previous studies on this population, though further research is required in order to tease apart the relative importance of driving factors of calf survival in this endangered and isolated population.

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  • Seismic characterisation of hydrate and shallow gas systems associated with active margin sediments and structures in the Pegasus Basin, Hikurangi Margin, New Zealand

    Fraser, Douglas (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    The Pegasus Basin off the east coast of New Zealand's North Island is a frontier basin that hosts a large gas hydrate province. The basin has a large amount of faulting, which has lead to the creation of many interesting and unique accumulations of gas hydrates. In 2009/2010, petroleum industry standard 2D seismic data were acquired across the basin by New Zealand Petroleum and Minerals (a New Zealand government agency) to generate interest in exploration of this basin for conventional oil and gas. This seismic data set presents an unique opportunity to examine the basin's gas hydrate systems with the aim of determining the economic potential of the gas hydrates in the basin while improving our understanding of how observed gas hydrate features were formed. The seismic data were reprocessed to optimise the imaging of features related to gas hydrates. When the data were examined, there were numerous gas hydrate features found, so only a selection are presented in this thesis. With the assistance of seismic attributes, Bottom Simulating Reflections (BSRs) and blanking zones are examined. High-density velocity analysis is used to characterise areas of hydrate (higher velocity) and free gas (lower velocity). The high-density velocity analysis proved to be a very effective technique for examining the structure of gas migration chimneys. Two of the most interesting features identified in the data set include a blank dome shape with a gas chimney at its centre and a text book hydrate/free gas phase reversal that is examined in detail using amplitude vs offset (AVO) and inversion analysis techniques. The model for fluid flow and how the free gas from a chimney at the centre of the blanking zone is converted to hydrate is discussed. The hydrate and free gas phase reversal that is observed was formed by localised fluid flowing from depth into the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ). As the BSR becomes shallower, the sea floor deepens at this location. Without a localised fluid flow, the BSR would increase in depth with the increasing depth of the sea floor. Gas hydrate saturation and volumetric analyses were performed for one target. Concentrations were determined using empirical saturation formulae, confirming a potential target. The question of how much gas hydrate potentially is present in the basin, is discussed based both my work and that of others.

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  • The Health of Children and Young People with Chronic Conditions and Disabilities in the Hutt Valley, Capital & Coast and Wairarapa DHBs 2016

    Simpson, Jean; Duncanson, Mavis; Oben, Glenda; Adams, Judith; Wicken, Andrew; Morris, Simon; Gallagher, Sarah (2017-05)

    Report
    University of Otago

    Chronic conditions and disabilities often affect people for life. Having a good quality of life and flourishing to your best ability is dependent, at least in part, on what happened as you were growing up. Understanding the dimensions of chronic conditions and disabilities among children and young people is essential to planning and developing good quality health services for New Zealand’s children and young people. Two issues were selected by participating DHBs for review and inclusion in this report: Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) by Judith Adams, and the Health needs of children and young people in State care by Mavis Duncanson. This report reviews the prevalence of a range of disabilities and chronic conditions experienced by children and young people living in New Zealand. These conditions place demands on health and disability support services. This report provides information on the secondary health service utilisation patterns of children and young people with chronic conditions and disabilities. It is unable to provide data on all health service use as these data are not collated nationally. It does, however, aim to provide some insights into two quite different perspectives of disability and chronic conditions: the consequences and management of children with fetal alcohol syndrome, and a review of the health needs of children in care.

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