9,920 results for ResearchCommons@Waikato

  • Anthropogenic Influences on the Sedimentary Evolution of the Coromandel Harbour

    Harpur, Alexander (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The Coromandel Harbour is located on the eastern side of the Coromandel Peninsula, North Island, New Zealand. To date, sedimentological research conducted in the harbour has been confined to nearshore areas, with limited data existing for the subtidal regions of the harbour. The primary aim of this thesis is to identify whether and how various human activities in the catchment have altered harbour-wide, intertidal and subtidal, sedimentation rates and sediment geochemistry. A secondary aim is to identify the sedimentary evolution of the whole Coromandel Harbour over broad time scales (i.e. thousands of years). Sedimentological data has been collected from 17 intertidal and subtidal sediment cores. Cores have been analysed for down-core changes in sediment texture, mineralogy, observational characteristics and geochemistry measured through portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF). A facies model constructed from this data has been used to interpret the sedimentary development of the harbour. Pre-human and anthropogenic sediment accumulation rates (SARs) have been estimated using radiocarbon dating, qualitative pollen analysis and facies analysis. Anthropogenic heavy metals have been interpreted against pre-human baselines to identify influences on natural contaminant levels, with specific values compared with regional contaminant guidelines to assess ecological threats. Deeply weathered soils developed in a subaerial environment somewhere between the last interglacial at c.120 ka and the extended last glacial maximum (eLGM) at 29 ka. These soils were overtopped by streambank and floodplain deposits at the eLGM to the onset of the mid-Holocene sea level rise at c.7500 cal yr B.P. As sea level rose, inundated eLGM and early estuarine sediments were initially pyritised in a stratified, restricted marine setting. Over time, sea level rose and the stratification of the harbour was destroyed, ceasing pyritisation. Streams began to rapidly aggrade at the harbour with the positive change in base level, giving early estuarine (c.7500-5000 cal yr B.P) subtidal SARs of ~0.31-0.45 mm/yr. As streams reached stable profiles, SARs decreased to generally conformable rates of 0.25-0.47 mm/yr in the intertidal regions and ~0.1-0.25 mm/yr in the subtidal regions during the pre-Polynesian phase (c.7500-700 cal yr B.P). Polynesian SARs (700-130 cal yr B.P) decreased to ~0.05-0.13 mm/yr. Whole European (1820 A.D-present) SARs in the northern parts of the harbour are ~0.52-0.77 mm/yr and appear to be chiefly related to mining and deforestation. Recent European (1975 A.D-present) SARs are ~3.52-10.37 mm/yr in the southern parts of the harbour and are chiefly related to pine plantation erosion. A secondary depocentre for pine plantation sediments appears to be at the inlet where rates of ~4.98 mm/yr occur. Only arsenic and mercury exist over Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council (ANZECC) Interim Sediment Quality Guidelines (ISQG) Low concentrations in anthropogenic sediments analysed. Maximum harbour-wide arsenic concentrations of up to 33.5 mg/kg that exceed the ISQG-Low value of 20 mg/kg are associated with mining related sediments near the Whangarahi Stream mouth. Maximum arsenic concentrations in pine plantation sediments is 22.3 mg/kg. Mercury may also exceed ISQG-Low/High values throughout all harbour sediments, though it is unclear whether mercury has been incorrectly measured by pXRF.

    View record details
  • Inhibitors to the Organisational Adoption of Gamification

    Jefferies, Dannette Louise (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This study looks at how organisations can use technology to engage, motivate, and reward staff by embedding game-like elements into business applications and processes through a phenomenon called gamification. Gamification is an emerging phenomenon that has the potential to increase engagement, productivity and performance in organisations. It is the convergence of motivation theory, information systems, and the rise of digital communications systems. Gamification has been trending academically since 2010, and appears to support the human drivers of motivation and engagement through the appeal of both intrinsic and extrinsic rewards. Yet, while gamification appears to be a solution to the issues surrounding employee motivation, there is little documented evidence of successful enterprise integrations. Gamification may be the modern elixir to all that ails organisations as they struggle to attract, nurture and retain talented employees. However, if this is the case, then why are gamified practises not widely adopted by companies? Twelve participants were interviewed for this qualitative study. The first three participants work in software organisations that have first-hand experience with gamified product and process development. Next, a further nine participants were interviewed, three in the broadly-defined communications industry, three in finance, and one each in real estate, retail sales, and manufacturing. These participants were selected as potential users of gamification within an organisational context. The grounded theory methodology is used to explore the inhibitors to gamification techniques in organisations. Data collection strategies included in-depth interviews and grounded theory methodology techniques are used for data analysis. This study found the adoption of gamification in organisations is largely inhibited by the infancy of the gamification industry as the availability of gamified platforms, and the demand from organisations is relatively low. It is expected that gamification will become more mainstream in the future as an applied business practice. Voluntariness is a critical factor within any managerial initiatives aimed at cultivating positive employee attitudes and experiences at work. The concept of employee consent includes mandatory fun events such as companywide social events as well as gamification systems. The original contributions to knowledge of this thesis include two conceptual models. The first draws on an existing model for game design and proposes that employee engagement is an emergent property of an open gamification system. Emerging from the combination of mechanics and dynamics creating an aesthetic experience that meets the motivational needs of employees and thereby evokes an emotional commitment to the organisation and furthermore, it motivates employees to focus on shared organisational and individuals’ goals. The second conceptual model draws on Hofstede’s organisational culture dimensions framework and posits that there may be a specific cultural pattern for organisations best suited for effective gamification. This study finds organisations with cultures that are goal-oriented; externally driven; easy-going work discipline; local; open systems; and have an employee orientation, are more likely to find gamification is an appropriate fit for their organisation. In addition, this thesis distinguishes between gamification and organisational gamification and offers a unique definition for gamification implemented within organisations, which has been purposefully and strategically implemented.

    View record details
  • Volcanology of the basaltic lava succession within the Auckland pit of the Bombay Quarry, Bombay Volcanic Complex, South Auckland Volcanic Field

    Kapasi, Aliasgar (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The South Auckland Volcanic Field (SAVF), which was active 1.59 – 0.51 million years ago and comprises around 82 volcanic centres, represents a complete history of a monogenetic field preserved in the geological record. The Auckland pit in the Bombay Quarry was recently exposed, revealing an infilled palaeovalley of volcanic and sedimentary deposits possibly associated with the nearby Bombay Volcanic Complex. A set of vertical drill cores from across the quarry were available for this study. The stratigraphy of the volcanic and sedimentary deposits and the facies architecture were examined and described from the drill cores available, and a set of stratigraphic logs were produced. Volcanic and sedimentary units identified were: basement Waitemata and Tauranga group sediments, three individual ponded basalt lavas with intercalated scoria and Quaternary alluvium and/or Kauroa ash deposits. Facies identified include: moderately vesicular basalt (A.1), vesicular basalt with vesicle trails (A.2), non-vesicular basalt (A.3), poorly vesicular basalt (A.4), scoria deposit (B), scoriaceous basalt (C) and intercalated silt/clay (D). Petrographic characteristics were analysed by optical microscopy, which show that all three basalt lavas have minerals comprising: olivine and clinopyroxene phenocrysts, and a groundmass of plagioclase, opaques and mafic minerals, however, the proportions of each mineral vary between samples. Olivine, clinopyroxene and plagioclase elemental compositions for each of the three basalt units were determined by electron microprobe analysis and revealed that the middle basalt had relatively lower proportion of Mg- and Ca-rich minerals compared to the upper and lower basalts. Furthermore, mineral compositions were consistent with the broad group B rock type of the SAVF lavas. Bulk-rock geochemical characteristics were analysed by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry where the basalt samples were classified as basanites and ne-hawaiites. The lower and upper basalts have a relatively wide range of major and trace element compositions; whereas, the middle basalt has less variation. The three basalt lava flows represent pahoehoe and/or transitional lava flows, which occurred during magmatic eruptions separated by periods of volcanic quiescence represented by Quaternary alluvium and/or Kauroa ash deposits. The magma source beneath the Bombay area reveals that it consists of dominantly a garnet-bearing peridotite source where only group B type lavas were erupted over time. This process indicates a polygenetic-like eruption history within a monogenetic field, which may be an ideal analogue for understanding the future of shield volcanism in the South Auckland and Auckland Volcanic Field.

    View record details
  • Foreign Affairs in a Native Context: The Significance of Foreign Relations on Thomas Jefferson's Native American Views

    Berry, Shane (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    There has been considerable research into Native American history in recent times, with much analysis of what transpired in the early years of the United States, and how events from the late 18th and early 19th centuries have impacted on the Native Americans. As a prominent figure, Thomas Jefferson made decisions that undoubtedly affected the Native tribes, yet his Native American ideas have not received as much attention from scholars as his thinking about most other topics. Most literature that has been produced which relates to Jefferson’s attitudes about Native Americans, has not considered adequately the importance that foreign relations played in shaping his thinking. The purpose of this study is to examine the significance of foreign affairs on Jefferson’s views about Native Americans, and to determine whether foreign affairs was a critical factor in influencing his plans for the Native Americans. To ascertain the importance of foreign relations in shaping Jefferson’s thinking about the Native Americans, an exploration of his writing was conducted, in which all documents that fell within the scope of this research project were analysed, and all relevant material used in this thesis. The documents used for this study were found online in the Jefferson Papers at the United States National Archives. Findings from this study clearly show that foreign relations had a major impact on Jefferson’s thinking about the Native Americans. The two predominant themes that emerged from his writing were conflict and land; foreign affairs primarily influenced Jefferson’s views in relation to these topics. Because of the prominence of these themes, they were chosen as the focus of the two chapters for this thesis. Within the themes of conflict and land, the affect that foreign relations had on Jefferson’s thinking is evident on a number of issues. He believed that most of the conflict with the Native Americans occurred because of the interference of foreign agents. The impact of foreign affairs can be seen in Jefferson’s views about trade with the Native Americans, and his thoughts on agriculture were clearly shaped by concerns about other nations. The influence of foreign relations is unmistakeable in Jefferson’s thoughts about national security, and its effect can also be seen in the development of his ideas about Native American removal. Findings from this thesis add depth to an important factor that shaped Jefferson’s thinking, and help in gaining an understanding of his decision making regarding the Native American.

    View record details
  • Recording and Tracking Design Decisions in Interactive System Development

    Yang, Wanying (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Experience economy is prompting the innovation of traditional product design. The design concept - "user-centered design" has received wide recognition. In the face of many professional or non-professional users, the priority of interaction design is to ensure the usability of the interactive product, and then a good user experience of the product. The user interface is an intermediary between human and computer. Users exchange information with the computer via the user interface. The user interface is an important part of a computer system. It is a big part of the software development. The quality of the user interface directly affects the performance of the software. For most users, the user interface is all they know from a product. So for these users, a program with a good interior design but a bad user interface design is a bad program. In this project we investigate different ways of recording design decisions in interactive system development which may allow us to think of the different variants and alternatives that are possible (within a design space) in some formal notation, which then allows us to either reason about their suitability or record the decisions made to understand the impact of decisions and how well they support the given criteria. The goal of this project will involve finding out what the influences are which help drive the design process; considering the effects of individual vs. team design; deciding how and when decisions occur; thinking about useful ways to record decisions and their influences; and investigating the usefulness of the approach through the working examples identified as case studies

    View record details
  • Digital reading: From the reflective self to social machine

    Peters, Michael A.; Jandric, Petar (2016)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Using the form of dialogue, this paper analyzes reading in the digital age. The paper reveals the history of reading from Augustine to Wittgenstein as a changing and evolving set of practices such as the cultural invention of silent reading, mass reading, and rise of specialized reading publics. It analyzes various 153  changes to these practices in the age of digital technologies, and links digital reading practices to the bundle of related practices such as writing, viewing, listening, and surfing the Web. The paper shows that digital reading is a fundamental question in education at all levels. Situated within radical concordance of various media, digital reading expands human artificial memory and causes profound changes in human natural memory. The paper inquires these changes from various perspectives includ- ing neuroscience and psychology, and concludes that digital reading is predominantly a social phenomenon. It looks into the relationships between digital reading and cognitive capitalism, and shows that the theory of digital reading should recognize the topology and dynamics of the Web. It inquires this dynamics using the per- spective of cultural studies, and analyses digital reading in the context of cyber- cultures, community cultures, and algorithmic cultures. Finally, it develops the view to digital reading as a cybercultural concept which understands reading as a cultural behavior that emphasizes an ecosystem of digital practices.

    View record details
  • An analysis of U-Value as a measure of variability

    Kong, Xiuyuan; McEwan, James S.A.; Bizo, Lewis A.; Foster, T. Mary (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    The variability in behavior has frequently been assessed using a measure known as the U-value. Of concern in this article were the limits and constraints on U-value as a measure of variability. The relation between the U-value and aspects of variability was examined using three sets of simulated data. Our analysis demonstrates that the U-value as a measure of variability on its own fails to capture repetitive patterns in the sequence of responding. The U-value was shown to reflect the evenness of the distributions of responses across the categories/options used; however, when the number of categories actually used by the participant differed from the total number available, the relation between U-values and the number of categories allocated with responses was shown to be nonlinear. It was also shown that the same value of U can represent different levels of evenness in response distributions over categories, depending on the number of categories/options actually used. These constraints and limitations are discussed in relation to how researchers might report on behavioral variability.

    View record details
  • The International Law Gaze: The Plain Victory of Tobacco Plain Packaging Legislation in Philip Morris Asia v Australia

    Alvarez-Jimenez, Alberto (2016-12-01)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    The legal regime on the protection of foreign investment through international investment agreements passed a very important test recently with the award rendered by an arbitration tribunal (the tribunal) adjudicating the dispute between Philip Morris Asia and Australia (Philip Morris Asia v Australia, Award on Jurisdiction and Admissibility, 17 December 2015. https://www.pcacases.com/web/view/5). The origin of the controversy was the adoption of tobacco plain packaging legislation by the latter in 2011, which Philip Morris regarded as a violation of the standards of protection provided for in the Agreement between the Government of Hong Kong and the Government of Australia for the Promotion and Protection of Investment, signed on September 15, 1993 (the BIT). According to Philip Morris, the legislation barred the use of intellectual property on tobacco products and packaging and had, therefore, substantially reduced the value of Philip Morris’s investment in Australia. Fearing that Australia’s example would start being followed by other nations, Philip Morris did not hesitate in requesting far-reaching relief orders from the tribunal: suspension of the plain packaging legislation and compensation that could be of the order of billions of Australian dollars. (PMA v Australia, para. 8). The tribunal concluded that Philip Morris had carried out an abuse of process, that its claims were inadmissible and, consequently, that the tribunal was precluded from exercising jurisdiction to settle the dispute. (PMA v Australia, para. 588).

    View record details
  • ‘It’s on the tip of my Google’: Intra-active performance and the non-totalising learning environment

    Snake-Beings, Emit (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Technologies that expand the learning environment to include interactions outside of the physical space of the classroom, such as the use of Google as an aid to memory, represent one aspect of learning that occurs within several seemingly decentralised spaces. On the other hand, it can be argued that such interactive technologies are enclosed in what Bruno Latour calls a ‘Black-box’: a ‘totalising’ enclosure that delimits interaction and channels users towards yet another form of centralised learning space. Used as a starting point, the focus of this article rapidly shifts from the constraints of the ‘Black-box’ towards a type of engagement that embraces material agency: an engagement with materials and fragments of knowledge that emerge from the ‘non-totalising’ assemblage. To assist in this trajectory, Karen Barad’s concept of intra-activity is employed, where agency is seen as distributed between human and non-human actants. The space in which this engagement between human and materials occurs, as a non-totalising learning space, is the concern of this article, which uses an interactive audio/visual performance event called Bingodisiac as a case study to examine various ways in which we can learn to move beyond the constraints of totalising structures. Bingodisiac is a project initiated by the researcher in 2002, as an informal collection of musicians who are assembled for a one-off improvised performance. This article draws upon interviews and journal notes collected at the time of the performances to explore the analogy of ‘noise music’ and how this can be related to ways in which the learning space of the classroom and the types of knowledge produced have become decentralised.

    View record details
  • Supporting lower-achieving seven-and-eight-year-old children with place value understandings

    Bailey, Judy (2015)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    The article focuses on the importance of listening to children to identify their current understandings and developing on them systematically, using the materials, to promote a conceptual understanding. It mentions that classroom teachers are responsible for supporting children in their class even when the children represent mathematical understandings and competence.

    View record details
  • Gender and sexuality I: Genderqueer geographies?

    Johnston, Lynda (2016)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    This review considers gender diversity across a range of spaces and places. I note that while the notion of gender has been troubled, there exists opportunities to trouble it further. I highlight the scholarship that has sought to deconstruct genders, and the binary framing of man/woman and male/female roles and relationships. The queering of sexuality has meant that geographers are now tracing the ways in which lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex, queer (LGBTIQ) bodies experience and live their gender beyond normative binaries. Research concerned with relational gendered subjectivities within LGBTIQ communities is discussed, and I flag the trend that this research may conflate gendered experiences while privileging sexual subjectivities. Finally, I turn to the recent interest by geographers who - drawing on queer and trans* theories - argue for new and innovative understandings of gender diversity.

    View record details
  • Correction: First demonstration of antigen induced cytokine expression by CD4-1⁺ lymphocytes in a poikilotherm: Studies in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    Yoon, Sohye; Mitra, Suman; Wyse, Cathy; Alnabulsi, Ayham; Zou, Jun; Weerdenburg, Eveline M.; van der Sar, Astrud M.; Wang, Difei; Secombes, Christopher J.; Bird, Steve (2016)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Correction of the article "First demonstration of antigen induced cytokine expression by CD4-1⁺ lymphocytes in a poikilotherm: Studies in zebrafish (Danio rerio)", https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0169149

    View record details
  • The International Law Gaze: The ICSID Award in Philip Morris v Uruguay and the Near End of the “Aesthetic Experience”.

    Alvarez-Jimenez, Alberto (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    It was the large economic value of tobacco’s “aesthetic experience” that Philip Morris (PM) sought to preserve in its litigation against Uruguay before an international tribunal operating under the jurisdiction of the International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID). There, PM claimed that Uruguay was in violation of the Agreement between the Swiss Confederation and the Oriental Republic of Uruguay on the Reciprocal Promotion and Protection of Investments, dated October 7, 1988 (the BIT). The reason? Uruguay’s decision to enact tobacco control measures, in particular, its single presentation requirement (SPR) prohibiting tobacco manufacturers from selling more than one variant of cigarette per brand family and the increase in the size of health warnings included on cigarette packets from 50% to 80% of the surface of the front and the back (80/80 Regulation). As a result, manufacturers had only 20% of the room on cigarette packs for trademarks, logos, and other information.

    View record details
  • How usable is a smartphone with a Māori-language interface?

    Mato, Paora James; Keegan, Te Taka Adrian Gregory; Naera, Leilani (2016)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Major languages dominate contemporary technologies. For Mäori, there is opportunity to engage with some technologies using their language and to participate within Mäori- language communities in various digital media. A smartphone launched by Two Degrees Mobile Limited provides a Mäori- language interface option. An initial pilot study indicated users will engage with this interface, but when pushed for time will switch the interface to the English- language option. This paper reports on a study undertaken to test the usability of the smartphone Mäorilanguage interface. Participants reported diffi culties and some frustration as they struggled with new words and unfamiliar uses of words. They also expressed disappointment at poor translations and arbitrary truncations. The feedback highlights perceived shortcomings encountered when technologies that are normally developed and used in a major language are translated for use in minority Indigenous languages. Mäori-language strategies that consider using translated application interfaces should be cognisant of such issues.

    View record details
  • Selective attention in dairy cattle

    Blackmore, Tania Louise; Temple, William; Foster, T. Mary (2016)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    In a replication of Reynolds (1961), two cows learned to discriminate between compound stimuli in a forced choice procedure where pushing through a one-way gate marked with a red cross (S+) gave access to food. Pushing through a one-way gate marked with a yellow triangle (S−) gave no access to food. To investigate whether shape or colour was controlling behaviour, probe tests varied either the shape or the colour of the stimuli (e.g., a red vs. a yellow cross, and a red cross vs. a red triangle). Results suggested control by colour rather than shape, as the gate marked with the red stimulus was chosen more than the gate marked with the yellow stimulus regardless of stimulus shape, and when two shapes of the same colour (either red or yellow) were presented, cows chose both equally. Further probe tests with painted red, white, and yellow stimuli showed that the cows had learned to avoid yellow rather than to approach red, suggesting discriminative behaviour was controlled by the colour of the negative stimulus and not by either aspect of the positive stimulus. It is not clear why the negative stimulus was more salient, but it may reflect a tendency for cows to learn to avoid farm handling practices which involve mainly negative stimuli.

    View record details
  • The data privacy matrix project: towards a global alignment of data privacy laws

    Scoon, Craig; Ko, Ryan K.L. (2016)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    Data privacy is an expected right of most citizens around the world but there are many legislative challenges within a boundary-less cloud computing and World Wide Web environment. Despite its importance, there is limited research around data privacy law gaps and alignment, and the legal side of the security ecosystem which seems to be in a constant effort to catch-up. There are already issues within recent history which show a lack of alignment causing a great deal of confusion, an example of this is the 'right to be forgotten' case which came up in 2014. This case involved a Spanish man against Google Spain. He requested the removal of a link to an article about an auction for his foreclosed home, for a debt that he had subsequently paid. However, misalignment of data privacy laws caused further complications to the case. This paper introduces the Waikato Data Privacy Matrix, our global project for alignment of data privacy laws by focusing on Asia Pacific data privacy laws and their relationships with the European Union and the USA. This will also suggest potential solutions to address some of the issues which may occur when a breach of data privacy occurs, in order to ensure an individual has their data privacy protected across the boundaries in the Web. With the increase in data processing and storage across different jurisdictions and regions (e.g. public cloud computing), the Waikato Data Privacy Matrix empowers businesses using or providing cloud services to understand the different data privacy requirements across the globe, paving the way for increased cloud adoption and usage.

    View record details
  • Privacy preserving computation by fragmenting individual bits and distributing gates

    Will, Mark A.; Ko, Ryan K.L.; Witten, Ian H. (2016)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    Solutions that allow the computation of arbitrary operations over data securely in the cloud are currently impractical. The holy grail of cryptography, fully homomorphic encryption, still requires minutes to compute a single operation. In order to provide a practical solution, this paper proposes taking a different approach to the problem of securely processing data. FRagmenting Individual Bits (FRIBs), a scheme which preserves user privacy by distributing bit fragments across many locations, is presented. Privacy is maintained by each server only receiving a small portion of the actual data, and solving for the rest results in a vast number of possibilities. Functions are defined with NAND logic gates, and are computed quickly as the performance overhead is shifted from computation to network latency. This paper details our proof of concept addition algorithm which took 346ms to add two 32-bit values-paving the way towards further improvements to get computations completed under 100ms.

    View record details
  • He Matapihi Mā Mua, Mō Muri: The Ethics, Processes, and Procedures Associated with the Digitization of Indigenous Knowledge—The Pei Jones Collection

    Whaanga, Hēmi; Bainbridge, David; Anderson, Michela; Scrivener, Korii; Cader, Papitha; Roa, Tom; Keegan, Te Taka Adrian Gregory (2015)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    The digital era has transformed how people live their lives and interact with the world and knowledge systems around them. In Aotearoa/New Zealand a range of initiatives incorporating Indigenous knowledge have been implemented to collect, catalog, maintain, and organize digital objects. In this article, we report on the ethics, processes, and procedures associated with the digitization of the manuscripts, works, and collected taonga (treasures) of the late Dr. Pei Te Hurinui Jones—and describe how it was transformed into a digital library. It discusses the decision-making processes and the various roles and responsibilities of the researchers, family members, and institute in this process.

    View record details
  • UVisP: User-centric visualization of data provenance with gestalt principles

    Garae, Jeffery; Ko, Ryan K.L.; Chaisiri, Sivadon (2016)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    The need to understand and track files (and inherently, data) in cloud computing systems is in high demand. Over the past years, the use of logs and data representation using graphs have become the main method for tracking and relating information to the cloud users. While being used, tracking related information with 'data provenance' (i.e. series of chronicles and the derivation history of data on metadata) is the new trend for cloud users. However, there is still much room for improving data activity representation in cloud systems for end-users. We propose 'User-centric Visualization of data provenance with Gestalt (UVisP)', a novel user-centric visualization technique for data provenance. This technique aims to facilitate the missing link between data movements in cloud computing environments and the end-users uncertain queries over their files security and life cycle within cloud systems. The proof of concept for the UVisP technique integrates an open-source visualization API with Gestalt's theory of perception to provide a range of user-centric provenance visualizations. UVisP allows users to transform and visualize provenance (logs) with implicit prior knowledge of 'Gestalt's theory of perception.' We presented the initial development of the UVisP technique and our results show that the integration of Gestalt and 'perceptual key(s)' in provenance visualization allows end-users to enhance their visualizing capabilities, to extract useful knowledge and understand the visualizations better.

    View record details
  • From reactionary to proactive security: context-aware security policy management and optimization under uncertainty

    Chaisiri, Sivadon; Ko, Ryan K.L. (2016)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    At the core of its nature, security is a highly contextual and dynamic challenge. However, current security policy approaches are usually static, and slow to adapt to ever-changing requirements, let alone catching up with reality. In a 2012 Sophos survey, it was stated that a unique malware is created every half a second. This gives a glimpse of the unsustainable nature of a global problem, any improvement in terms of closing the 'time window to adapt' would be a significant step forward. To exacerbate the situation, a simple change in threat and attack vector or even an implementation of the so-called 'bring-your-own-device' paradigm will greatly change the frequency of changed security requirements and necessary solutions required for each new context. Current security policies also typically overlook the direct and indirect costs of implementation of policies. As a result, technical teams often fail to have the ability to justify the budget to the management, from a business risk viewpoint. This paper considers both the adaptive and cost-benefit aspects of security, and introduces a novel context-aware technique for designing and implementing adaptive, optimized security policies. Our approach leverages the capabilities of stochastic programming models to optimize security policy planning, and our preliminary results demonstrate a promising step towards proactive, context-aware security policies.

    View record details