5,164 results for ScholarlyCommons@AUT

  • Cohort Profile: Pacific Islands Families (Pif) Growth Study, Auckland, New Zealand

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    This article profiles a birth cohort of Pacific children participating in an observational prospective study and describes the study protocol used at ages 14-15 years to investigate how food and activity patterns, metabolic risk and family and built environment are related to rates of physical growth of Pacific children.

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  • Accelerometer Data Treatment for Adolescents: Fitting a Piece of the Puzzle

    Smith, M; Taylor, S; Iusitini, L; Stewart, T; Savila, F; Tautolo, ES; Plank, L; Jalili-Moghaddam, S; Paterson, J; Rush, E

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    This study aimed to assess the differences in participant retention and associations between physical activity and key variables when a range of accelerometer data inclusion criteria are employed. Data were drawn from 204 adolescents of Pacific Island heritage (survey, body composition, 7-day accelerometry) and their parents (date of birth, socioeconomic status) between October 2014 and February 2016 in Auckland, New Zealand. Data wear time criteria for inclusion were as follows: A) > = 10 h/weekday or > = 8 h weekend day, > = 5 days (at least one weekend day); B) > = 10 h/weekday or > = 8 h weekend day, > = 4 days; C) > = 7 h/day, > = 3 days; D) > = 10 h/day, > = 1 day. Overall, 49%, 62%, 88%, and 96% of participants met the criteria, respectively. Adjusted odds of meeting each criterion were examined using a multivariable logistic regression model. Almost 50% of participants were excluded by the most stringent inclusion criteria. Increased body fat percentage and proportion of time in moderate-to-vigorous activity were associated with decreased odds of meeting Criterions A and B. This research contributes to a growing understanding of the impact of differing accelerometer reduction approaches to sample retention and bias in adolescent physical activity research.

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  • The Northwick Park Therapy Dependency Assessment Scale: A Psychometric Analysis From a Large Multicentre Neurorehabilitation Dataset

    Alexandrescu, R; Siegert, R; Turner-Stokes, L

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Purpose: To assess the internal reliability, construct and concurrent validity and responsiveness of the Northwick Park Therapy Dependency Assessment (NPTDA) scale. Method: A cohort of 2505 neurorehabilitation patients submitted to the UK Rehabilitation Outcomes Collaborative database. Cronbach’s coefficient-α was used to assess internal reliability and factor analysis (FA) to assess construct validity. We compared NPTDA scores at admission and discharge to determine responsiveness. Results: Coefficient-α for the whole scale was 0.74. The exploratory FA resulted in a four-factor model (Physical, Psychosocial, Discharge planning and Activities) that accounted for 43% of variance. This model was further supported by the confirmatory FA. The final model had a good fit: root-mean-square error of approximation of 0.069, comparative fit index/Tucker–Lewis index of 0.739/0.701 and the goodness of fit index of 0.909. The NPTDA scores at admission and discharge were significantly different for each of the factors. Expected correlations were seen between the admission scores for the NPTDA, the Rehabilitation Complexity Scale (r = 0.30, p < 0.01). Conclusions: The scale demonstrated acceptable internal reliability and good construct and concurrent validity. NPTDA may be used to describe and quantify changes in therapy inputs in the course of a rehabilitation programme. Implications for Rehabilitation The Northwick Park Therapy Dependency Assessment (NPTDA) is designed as a measure therapy intervention, which reflects both quantitative and qualitative aspects of the inputs provided (including staff time and the different types of intervention) during inpatient rehabilitation. The scale demonstrated acceptable internal reliability and good construct and concurrent validity. NPTDA is responsive to change in the therapy inputs provided during neurorehabilitation between admission and discharge.

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  • Effects of Foot and Ankle Devices on Balance, Gait and Falls in Adults with Sensory Perception Loss: A Systematic Review

    Paton, J; Hatton, AL; Rome, K; Kent, B

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    BACKGROUND: Foot and ankle devices are being developed as a method of preventing people with sensory perception loss sustaining a fall. Such devices are believed to work by reducing the likelihood of a fall by improving the balance and gait of the user. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the review was to evaluate the effectiveness of foot and ankle devices for the prevention of falls and the improvement of balance and gait in adults with sensory perception loss. INCLUSION CRITERIA TYPES OF PARTICIPANTS: Participants were community-dwelling adults with bilateral pathological sensory perception loss. TYPES OF INTERVENTION(S)/PHENOMENA OF INTEREST: The current review evaluated any foot or ankle device, including but not restricted to, all types of footwear (therapeutic and retail), insoles (customized and prefabricated) and ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs). TYPES OF STUDIES: In the absence of randomized controlled trials (RCT), the review considered experimental and epidemiological study designs, except case series, individual case reports and descriptive cross-sectional studies. OUTCOMES: The primary outcome was number of falls. Secondary outcome measures were clinical or laboratory measures of balance or gait. SEARCH STRATEGY: A search for published and unpublished literature from inception to March 2015 written in the English language was conducted across a number of major electronic databases. A three-step search strategy was developed using MeSH terminology and keywords to ensure all that relevant materials are captured. METHODOLOGICAL QUALITY: Methodological quality of included studies was assessed by two reviewers, who appraised each study independently, using standardized Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) critical appraisal tools. DATA EXTRACTION: Quantitative data were extracted from the studies that were identified as meeting the criteria for methodological quality using the standardized JBI data extraction tools. DATA SYNTHESIS: Due to the heterogeneity of populations, interventions and outcome measures, meta-analyses were not possible and results are presented in narrative form. RESULTS: Nine trials (from 10 papers) involving 238 participants, (14 with multiple sclerosis and 16 with idiopathic peripheral neuropathy, 150 with diabetic neuropathy) and 58 controls were included in the review. No study reported falls as an outcome measure. The results of the included studies found that in people with sensory perception loss, postural sway improved with vibrating insoles and AFO, altering the softness and texture of the top cover had no effect on postural sway, wearing footwear over long distances or AFOs improved step-to-step consistency, and no foot and ankle device was reported to have a negative effect on the balance or gait of people with sensory perception loss. The methodological quality of the included studies was poor. No study used a randomized controlled trial (RCT) methodology. No study incorporated a follow-up period or tested the intervention within the context of the intended clinical environment. CONCLUSION: There is limited evidence to suggest that footwear and insole devices can artificially alter postural stability and may reduce the step-to-step variability in adults with sensory perception loss. Varying the material properties of an insole does not notably affect static balance or gait.

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  • Racial Inequities in Cardiovascular Disease in New Zealand

    Miner-Williams, W

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    The literature is replete with studies pertaining to ethnic inequities in healthcare. A thorny subject that has been described for decades and yet has few remedial solutions. The pattern of ethnic inequities in healthcare is a global phenomenon that is not confined to any specific race or culture. Worldwide, cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the topmost cause of death and a substantial burden on healthcare resources. In New Zealand CVD is the leading cause of death, accounting for 40% of all deaths annually. Diminished life expectancy is one example of racial inequity in healthcare between Māori and Pākehā (the non-indigenous population). This review attempts to clarify the muddy waters of 175 years of post-colonial healthcare inequity in New Zealand and in particular the causes of inequity in the incidence of CVD and mortality in Māori . Such dialogue will hopefully stimulate discussion among policy makers and clinicians to redress the ethnic inequities in healthcare.

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  • Provision of Foot Health Services for People With Rheumatoid Arthritis in New South Wales: A Web-based Survey of Local Podiatrists

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Background: It is unclear if podiatric foot care for people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in New South Wales (NSW) meets current clinical recommendations. The objective of this study was to survey podiatrists' perceptions of the nature of podiatric foot care provision for people who have RA in NSW.Methods: An anonymous, cross-sectional survey with a web-based questionnaire was conducted. The survey questionnaire was developed according to clinical experience and current foot care recommendations. State registered podiatrists practising in the state of NSW were invited to participate. The survey link was distributed initially via email to members of the Australian Podiatry Association (NSW), and distributed further through snowballing techniques using professional networks. Data was analysed to assess significant associations between adherence to clinical practice guidelines, and private/public podiatry practices.Results: 86 podiatrists participated in the survey (78% from private practice, 22% from public practice). Respondents largely did not adhere to formal guidelines to manage their patients (88%). Only one respondent offered a dedicated service for patients with RA. Respondents indicated that the primary mode of accessing podiatry was by self-referral (68%). Significant variation was observed regarding access to disease and foot specific assessments and treatment strategies. Assessment methods such as administration of patient reported outcome measures, vascular and neurological assessments were not conducted by all respondents. Similarly, routine foot care strategies such as prescription of foot orthoses, foot health advice and footwear were not employed by all respondents.Conclusions: The results identified issues in foot care provision which should be explored through further research. Foot care provision in NSW does not appear to meet the current recommended standards for the management of foot problems in people who have RA. Improvements to foot care could be undertaken in terms of providing better access to examination techniques and treatment strategies that are recommended by evidence based treatment paradigms. © 2013 Hendry et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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  • Injury Incidence in Cross Country Skiers

    Worth, S; Reid, D; Henry, S

    Unclassified
    Auckland University of Technology

    Background Prospective, cross-country ski injury incidence data is scarce. Objective To describe injury type and incidence sustained by elite cross-country skiers in north-eastern America. We hypothesized that lower extremity injury incidence would be higher than other body regions. A secondary aim was to determine any factors that correlate with new injury. Design A prospective, longitudinal study that included: demographics (ski and injury history); Movement Competency Screening (MCS); hamstring length measurement; core muscle endurance testing (trunk flexor to extensor ratio). Athletes then completed 12 consecutive, monthly electronic surveys about training, racing, and injury status. Setting Collegiate and professional ski team practices. Patients (or Participants) A convenience sample of 71 cross-country skiers (age 18–27 years, 35 men); 41 participants (18 men) completed the study. Independent variables MCS score; hamstring length; ratio of trunk flexor to extensor endurance; injury history; training activities and hours; training lost to injury. Main Outcome Measurements New injury reports. Results Mean injury incidence was 3.81 new injuries per participant, per 1,000 hours of training. Injury incidences for lower extremity (2.13), and overuse/non-traumatic (2.76) injuries were significantly greater than trunk (0.22), upper extremity (0.46), or acute/traumatic (1.05) injuries (p0.05). Past injuries were a significant predictor of new injuries, when accounting for training time, running time and MCS score (p<0.05). Conclusions This year long, prospective report of injury type and incidence in competitive cross-country skiers demonstrated that lower extremity and overuse/non-traumatic injuries had the highest incidence rates. Previously injured skiers are at greater risk of further injury.

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  • A Clinical and Sonographic Investigation of the First Metatarsophalangeal Joint in Gout and Asymptomatic Hyperuricaemia: A Comparison With Normouricaemic Individuals

    Stewart, Sarah

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Background: Although hyperuricaemia is required for the development of symptomatic gout, many individuals with hyperuricaemia remain asymptomatic. However, ultrasonography has identified urate deposition in people with asymptomatic hyperuricaemia. Urate crystal deposition and gout-related features have a certain propensity for the first metatarsophalangeal joint (1MTP). Despite the importance of normal structure and function of the 1MTP, it is unclear how this joint is impaired in people with gout and asymptomatic hyperuricaemia and whether this relates to underlying sonographic pathology. This thesis aimed to (i) identify clinical characteristics and (ii) sonographic features of the 1MTP in participants with gout and participants with asymptomatic hyperuricaemia; and (iii) determine the association between clinical and sonographic characteristics of the 1MTP while accounting for the diagnostic group. Methods: This two-arm cross-sectional study involved participants with gout (n = 23), asymptomatic hyperuricaemia (n = 29), and age- and sex-matched normouricaemic controls (n = 34) without acute arthritis at the time of assessment. Clinically assessed characteristics included patient-reported outcomes related to foot and lower limb pain, disability and impairment; 1MTP structural and functional characteristics including joint range of motion (ROM), muscle force, hallux valgus severity and foot posture; neurovascular characteristics including temperature, vibration perception and protective sensation; and dynamic outcomes including spatiotemporal gait characteristics and barefoot plantar pressure measurements. Ultrasonography was used to assess 1MTPs for the double contour sign, tophus, erosion, effusion, synovial hypertrophy, snowstorm, synovitis and cartilage thickness. Results: All participants were middle-aged men. Compared to controls, participants with gout reported greater 1MTP pain (P = 0.014), greater foot pain and disability (MFPDI) (P < 0.001), decreased lower limb function for daily living (P = 0.002) and recreational (P< 0.001), reduced plantarflexion force (P = 0.012), increased 1MTP temperature (P < 0.05), more loss of protective sensation (OR 15.6, P = 0.21) and more severe hallux valgus (OR 0.3 P = 0.041). Compared to controls, participants with asymptomatic hyperuricaemia had more disabling foot pain (OR 4.2, P = 0.013), increased activity limitation (P = 0.033), decreased lower limb function for daily living (P = 0.026) and recreational (P = 0.010) activities, increased 1MTP plantarflexion force (P = 0.004) and a more pronated foot posture (P = 0.036). Compared to controls, participants with gout demonstrated increased step time (P = 0.022) and stance time (P = 0.022), and reduced velocity (P = 0.050). Participants with gout also walked with decreased peak pressure at the heel (P = 0.012) and hallux (P = 0.036) and increased peak pressure (P < 0.001) and pressure time integrals (P = 0.005) at the midfoot. Compared to controls, participants with asymptomatic hyperuricaemia demonstrated increased support base (P = 0.002), double support time (P < 0.001) and cadence (P = 0.028), and reduced swing time (P = 0.019) and single support time (P = 0.020), as well as increased pressure at the midfoot (P = 0.013), first metatarsal (P = 0.015) and second metatarsal (P = 0.007). Compared to controls, participants with gout and asymptomatic hyperuricaemia had more double contour sign (odds ratio [OR] 3.91, P = 0.011 and OR 3.81, P = 0.009, respectively). Participants with gout also had more erosion (OR 10.13, P = 0.001) and synovitis (OR 9.00, P < 0.001) and had greater tophus and erosion diameters (P = 0.035 and P < 0.001, respectively). The double contour sign was associated with higher MFPDI scores (P < 0.001). Tophus was associated with higher MFPDI scores (P < 0.001), increased temperature (P = 0.005) and reduced walking velocity (P = 0.001). Conclusions: This study has shown that urate deposition, synovitis and bone erosion are common at the 1MTP in participants with gout, even in the absence of acute arthritis. Participants with gout also demonstrated 1MTP-specific changes indicative of subclinical inflammation. Although individuals with asymptomatic hyperuricaemia lack ultrasound features of inflammation or bone changes, they demonstrate a similar frequency of urate deposition. They also report high levels of foot- and lower limb-related pain and disability. Sonographic features of urate deposition, rather than soft tissue inflammation or erosion, are associated with patient-reported foot pain and disability, while the presence of tophus is associated with impaired functional characteristics.

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  • Tastes Political: An Interpretive Analysis of the Foodie Lifeworld in Contemporary New Zealand

    Watts, Jennie

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The aim of my research is to make sense of foodie activity in New Zealand, and locate that activity in the socio-cultural sphere – the foodie ‘lifeworld’ (Habermas, 1984). This research explores the foodie phenomenon and the ways that foodie activity intersects with lifestyle movements. The lifestyle movement is a contemporary form of social movement based in the kind of day-to-day lived experience that is informed by notions of principled consumption. My approach to the research is based in the interpretive paradigm: I sought to locate and unpack the layered meanings that foodies form about their food activities. I established two questions to guide the research. The first question investigates the underlying a priori purposes to foodie activity. The second investigates the intersection between local foodie practices and political movements. To begin I explore the literature in three subject areas. The first is food politics and the role of nostalgia in shaping belief about the food lifeworld. The second area of literature is New Zealand’s social and cultural history, including the evolution of the New Zealand culinary scene, an examination of utopian impulses in the creation of the country, and a review of the forms of activism that New Zealanders are familiar with and engage in. The third area of literature is social movement and subculture studies and the intersection of the two, which is an emerging area of scholarship. Drawing together these rich fields of scholarship assists in the framing of the foodie lifeworld and begins to answer the research questions. To complement the review of literature and gain an empirical understanding of the foodie lifeworld, I undertake semi-structured interviews with self-identifying foodies and thematically analyse the resulting data. The most significant of my findings is that foodies are participants in an emerging form of social movement, the ‘lifestyle movement’, which is located at the intersection of social movement and subcultural phenomena. Food is, for these foodies, about much more than taste. Rather, food is the site of three realms of behaviour: pleasure, thought, and care, based on their antecedent convictions about food and the responsibility they feel as politically engaged consumers. In contrast to previous research into foodies, the concept of distinction (Bourdieu, 1984) is barely present in the foodie lifeworld. Instead, foodies behave in ways that align with their values in relation to food. The foodies enact these values in their day-to-day lives. Furthermore, foodies have a heightened sense of the provenance of food and, in that respect, can be considered “situated eaters” (Leynse, 2006). In my discussion of the findings I describe foodiness as a quasi-religious meaning system (Brinkerhoff & Jacob, 1999) that features elements of religion, including faith and righteousness, humility, bounded liberty, and opportunities for salvation. And lastly, I draw a comparison between the lifeworld of the New Zealand foodie and the principles of the Arts & Crafts movement of the late 19th–early 20th century, and find that the foundations of each have much in common, including a utopian impulse and disinclination toward industrial processing.

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  • Test A6: Journal article, 2 files attached, license granted, no existing item in SC, move to “With academic”

    Mahli, R

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

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  • Classification and Segmentation of fMRI Spatio-temporal Brain Data With a Neucube Evolving Spiking Neural Network Model

    Doborjeh, MG; Capecci, E; Kasabov, N

    Conference item
    Auckland University of Technology

    The proposed feasibility analysis introduces a new methodology for modelling and understanding functional Magnetic Resonance Image (fMRI) data recorded during human cognitive activity. This constitutes a type of Spatio-Temporal Brain Data (STBD) measured according to neurons spatial location inside the brain and their signals oscillating over the mental activity period [1]; thus, it is challenging to analyse and model dynamically. This paper addresses the problem by means of a novel Spiking Neural Networks (SNN) architecture, called NeuCube [2]. After the NeuCube is trained with the fMRI samples, the 'hidden' spatio-temporal relationship between data is learnt. Different cognitive states of the brain are activated while a subject is reading different sentences in terms of their polarity (affirmative and negative sentences). These are visualised via the SNN cube (SNNc) and then recognized through its classifier. The excellent classification accuracy of 90% proves the NeuCube potential in capturing the fMRI data information and classifying it correctly. The significant improvement in accuracy is demonstrated as compared with some already published results [3] on the same data sets and traditional machine learning methods. Future works is based on the proposed NeuCube model are also discussed in this paper.

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  • Students Envisioning the Future

    Lind, T; Cajander, Å; Sandblad, B; Daniels, M; Lárusdóttir, M; McDermott, R; Clear, T

    Conference item
    Auckland University of Technology

    How can students be included as critical stakeholders in the systems and services provided by a university? To address the whole student experience, we engaged students and employees at a large Swedish university in a vision seminar process to elicit how these groups envisioned an ideal future university, and the necessary changes to technology and organisational structures required to achieve this ideal version. The process entailed six four-hour workshops with four groups consisting of six participants each. A survey instrument was used to follow up on the participants' experiences of participating in the vision seminar process and their thoughts on the future of the university. The results show that the participating students were more positive compared to the university employees. The students envisioned harmonized interdepartmental systems, seamlessly integrating a variety of services into one university-provided solution. The employees envisioned their future work as flexible, enabled by technology providing excellent support without hindering pedagogical and organisational development. Using technological frames, these visions of the future are identified, analysed and discussed in relation to the quality of university education and a holistic view on students' university experience. Finally we discuss the broader implications of the visions on the future of university education.

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  • Aligning Quality Assurance at the Course Unit and Educational Program Levels

    Jónsson, B; Lárusdóttir, M; Daniels, M; Clear, A; Clear, T; McDermott, R

    Conference item
    Auckland University of Technology

    Quality assurance is a subject that has grown dramatically in importance in recent times. In previous work, we have described how the ACM Curricula can be used to support the Quality Assurance process of educational programs, using the Computer Science program at Reykjavik University as an example. Faculty members and employers of graduates participated in the process, that resulted in providing both detailed quantitative data and qualitative information. The assessment also raised awareness of how abstract topics and learning outcomes from an international standard can be used when revising the curricula of a particular course in a CS program. Quality assurance is indeed a continuous process, where the results of evaluations should be used to drive improvements. In this paper we focus on how a Database course was re-structured based on a recent quality assurance process.

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  • Managing Requirements Change the Informal Way! When Saying 'No' Is Not an Option

    Hussain, W; Zowghi, D; Clear, T; MacDonell, SG; Blincoe, K

    Conference item
    Auckland University of Technology

    Software has always been considered as malleable. Changes to software requirements are inevitable during the development process. Despite many software engineering advances over several decades, requirements changes are a source of project risk, particularly when businesses and technologies are evolving rapidly. Although effectively managing requirements changes is a critical aspect of software engineering, conceptions of requirements change in the literature and approaches to their management in practice still seem rudimentary. The overall goal of this study is to better understand the process of requirements change management. We present findings from an exploratory case study of requirements change management in a globally distributed setting. In this context we noted a contrast with the traditional models of requirements change. In theory, change control policies and formal processes are considered as a natural strategy to deal with requirements changes. Yet we observed that "informal requirements changes" (InfRc) were pervasive and unavoidable. Our results reveal an equally 'natural' informal change management process that is required to handle InfRc in parallel. We present a novel model of requirements change which, we argue, better represents the phenomenon and more realistically incorporates both the informal and formal types of change.

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  • A Framework for Writing Learning Agreements

    Clear, T; Parsjö, E; Cajander, Å; Daniels, M; Lagerqvist, N; McDermott, R

    Conference item
    Auckland University of Technology

    Abstract: Active learning is a popular concept for motivating learning. Learning agreements are one strategy towards this goal. They can be used to aid the students to take ownership of their learning and in becoming more active in a course. Learning Agreements are especially useful tools for scaffolding learning in courses with a focus on developing the professional competencies of students, such as in Open Ended Group Projects, Work Integrated Learning or other authentic learning contexts. Such educational contexts are complex and we have found it necessary to scaffold student learning using agreements based on professional competencies. This has led to a pedagogical framework, which has found successful application in a number of contexts. This framework has been built based on discussions with students, and has involved the development of a supporting wiki which contains descriptions of the different professional competencies involved in the learning agreement. The IT based framework has been iteratively developed together with the students taking the course in the fall of 2015. The development and assessment of this framework is contrasted in the context of two courses using learning agreements, one (in Sweden) with a focus on development of professional competencies and the other (in New Zealand) addressing a mix of professional competencies and subject knowledge in a work integrated learning setting.

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  • Foot and Ankle Characteristics Associated With Falls in Adults With Established Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Cross-sectional Study

    Brenton-Rule, A; Dalbeth, N; Menz, HB; Bassett, S; Rome, K

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Background: People with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have an increased risk of falls. The foot is a common site of pathology in RA and foot problems are reported in up to 90 % of patients with established disease. The aim of this study was to determine whether foot and ankle characteristics are associated with falls in people with RA. Methods: Adults with RA were recruited from rheumatology outpatient clinics in Auckland, New Zealand. Participants reported whether they had fallen in the preceding year, and the number of falls. Clinical characteristics, common fall risk factors, and foot and ankle variables were measured. Univariate parametric and non-parametric analysis compared fallers and non-fallers on all variables to determine significant differences. Logistic regression analysis identified variables independently associated with falls. Results: Two hundred and one participants were prospectively recruited. At least one fall in the preceding 12-months was reported by 119 (59 %) participants. Univariate analysis showed that fallers had significantly longer mean disease duration, more co-morbid conditions, an increase in lower limb tender joints, higher midfoot peak plantar pressures and were more likely to have a history of vascular disease than non-fallers. Fallers also reported greater difficulty with activities of daily living, increased fear of falling and greater self-reported foot impairment. Logistic regression analysis revealed that increased midfoot peak plantar pressures (odds ratio (OR) 1.12 [for each 20 kPa increase], 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.00-1.25), self-reported foot impairment (OR 1.17 [for each three point increase], 95 % CI 1.05-1.31) and history of vascular disease (OR 3.22, 95 % CI 1.17-8.88) were independently associated with a fall in the preceding 12 months. Conclusions: Elevated midfoot peak plantar pressures, self-reported foot impairment and vascular disease are associated with falls in people with RA. Assessment of foot deformity, foot function and self-reported foot impairment may be of benefit when considering falls prevention strategies in people with RA. Trial registration: Australia New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry (trial ACTRN12612000597897)

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  • Learning to Program: The Development of Knowledge in Novice Programmers

    Kasto, Nadia

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This thesis presents a longitudinal study of novice programmers during their first year learning to program at university. The purpose of this research was to gain a deeper understanding of the ways in which novice programmers learn to program with an emphasis on their cognitive development processes. The intended outcome was a better understanding of the learning processes of novice programmers, which should enhance the ability of educators to teach, design courses, and assess programming. A key aspect of this research focused on cognitive development theories of Piaget, Vygotsky, Sfard and Cognitive Load and to what degree these theories could explain observations of novice programmers learning to write code. In order to observe and investigate how novice programmers integrate new programming structure, concepts or elements into their current understanding of code it is necessary to be able to measure how difficult writing tasks are. Thus, the first aim of this research was to develop a task difficulty framework, which consisted of a new empirically verified software metric (code structure and readability) and a SOLO classification (task complexity) for code writing tasks. This framework was then used to design nineteen code writing tasks which were of increasing difficulty and complexity so as to trigger situations that required some form of knowledge adaptation or acquisition. Over one academic year, students were observed attempting to solve these programming tasks using a think aloud protocol and were interviewed retrospectively using a stimulated recall method. These observations were then linked to the cognitive theories in a way that provides an explanation of how programming was learned by these students. The results of this research indicate that both cognitive and sociocultural approaches are important in the development of knowledge of novice programmers. Of the theories examined two were found to be the most useful. The first is Vygotsky’s notions of the Zone of Proximal Development, the role of more knowledgeable others, and recent ideas about scaffolding. The second is Sfard’s theory of concept development that contributes to a deeper understanding of the way novice programmers’ develop patterns and reuse them in solving another programming task. The evidence about learning obtained during this study provides strong support for a change in the size and organization of the classes in which novice programmers are typically taught and in the teaching methods used.

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  • Skewed Distributions in Semi-stream Joins: How Much Can Caching Help?

    Naeem, MA; Dobbie, G; Lutteroth, C; Weber, G

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Semi-stream join algorithms join a fast data stream with a disk-based relation. This is important, for example, in real-time data warehousing where a stream of transactions is joined with master data before loading it into a data warehouse. In many important scenarios, the stream input has a skewed distribution, which makes certain performance optimizations possible. We propose two such optimization techniques: (1) a caching technique for frequently used master data and (2) a technique for selective load shedding of stream tuples. The caching technique is fine-grained, operating on a tuple-level. Furthermore, it is generic in the sense that it can be applied to different semi-stream join algorithms to deal with data skew. We analyze it by combining it with various well-known semi-stream joins, and show that it improves the service rate by more than 40% for typical data with skewed distributions. The load shedding technique sheds the fraction of the stream that is most expensive to join. In contrast to existing approaches, the service rate improves under load shedding. We present experimental data showing significant improvements as compared to related approaches and perform a sensitivity analysis for various internal parameters.

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  • A Multi-level Theory of Post-Adoptive Adaptation and Organisational Change in Enterprise System Implementation: The Case of CRM

    Techakriengkrai, Wallayaporn

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The implementation of a new enterprise system is a major change event for end-users. Users must adapt themselves to learn and understand the new enterprise system as well as engage with the system in their work practices. In addition, organisations need to modify organisational processes and structures to support the new enterprise system. Past research has largely focused on initial organisational adoption decisions concerning an enterprise system. However, there has been little research concerning the use of the enterprise system and the associated change process in the post-adoption stage. This study addresses this gap by developing a multi-level theory of post-adoptive adaptation and organisational change associated with enterprise system implementation in organisations. This study focuses on enterprise system implementation in the context of the Customer Relationship Management (CRM) system. The research questions are: (1) How do organisational changes unfold in enterprise system implementation in the context of CRM systems? (2) How do individuals adapt to an enterprise system in the context of CRM systems at the post-adoptive stage? The study adopted a qualitative interpretive case study method to develop a multi-level theory. Multiple sources of data including interviews and supporting documents were collected and analysed in order to understand individuals’ adaptation behaviours and organisational changes in the post-adoption stage of enterprise system implementation. This study employed an embedded multiple-case design and multi-level analysis. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 43 participants in three different types of business organisations: innovative office automation solutions, an insurance business, and a hospital. The participants were management, users, and IT support staff. Three concurrent data analysis processes (data reduction, data display, and conclusion drawing and verification) were conducted to analyse data and to build a multi-level theory. In addition, the data analysis processes were carried out to identify critical events and gaps which occurred during the change process. During the data analysis stage, low-level codes, interpretive codes, and pattern codes were developed to answer the research questions and build theory. Within-case and cross-case analysis was conducted to explore individuals’ adaptation behaviours and organisational change in each organisation and compared with the other organisations to identify similarities and differences. The study develops new knowledge based on how an integrated theoretical perspective using coping theory and a socio-technical perspective can inform ICT-enabled changes in organisations. The findings revealed five core pattern codes. The pattern codes of changing structure of work, consequences of CRM implementation, and transparency tool and control mechanism revealed organisations change. The pattern codes of adaptation behaviours and factors influencing adaptation behaviours reflected individual adaptation. These two levels of analysis were interrelated. This research contributes to the literature of user adaptation, organisational change, and enterprise systems by presenting a multi-level theory of post-adoptive adaptation and organisational change following enterprise system implementation. The results showed that organisations changed their structure of work after enterprise system implementation, which led to the generation of gaps in socio-technical components and consequences. The generation of gaps had a significant impact on individual adaptation behaviours. The findings will assist organisations in providing appropriate resources and support for successful enterprise system implementations at the post-adoption stage.

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  • Power Shift, Strategic Changes and Board Roles in SMEs: A Portfolio Approach

    Ingley, C; Khlif, W

    Conference item
    Auckland University of Technology

    This paper aims to better understand board task performance according to firms' and their boards' need to change and adapt with the firms' changing strategic circumstances. Results from case studies of six Tunisian SMEs revealed a range of board functions grouped according to four typical board governance roles of control, strategy, service and mediation. The types of board involvement in firm decision making ranged from a passive board classified as a "legal fiction" to a fully active "pilot" board type depending on the relationship between the board and the CEO/founder and the firm's circumstances. SME governance under was found to encompass simultaneously all four board roles (which we term a "portfolio" of board roles) but emphasis was placed by boards on one or two key roles according to the changing strategic demands of the firm. This finding gives initial support to the board role portfolio concept as justification for boards in SMEs. It also has practical implications for how boards can best add strategic value to their firms when transitioning through challenges of transformational change in their development over time.

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