5,196 results for ScholarlyCommons@AUT

  • The Impact of Digital Platforms on New Zealand Firms’ Entry Strategies: The Case of Alibaba

    Jin, Huijun

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The advent of digital platforms has changed the way in which Asia-Pacific firms conduct international transactions, condensing time and geographic distance (Manyika, Lund, & Bughin, 2016). However, the impact of digital platforms on firms’ internationalisation strategy, and in particular entry strategy, is under-researched in current International Business literature. This study aims to explore how digital platforms in China, and specifically the digital platforms of Alibaba Group, impact New Zealand small and medium-sized (SMEs) companies’ entry strategies in the Chinese market. Empirical data were collected from four New Zealand companies through semi-structured in-depth interviews. The results of this study suggest that digital platforms impact these firms’ entry strategies through easing entry barriers to some extent, particularly in helping overcome resource constraints and obtain access to networks. However, the participating firms still required local staff as a key part of successful market entry. Therefore, it is concluded that while digital platforms can help alleviate some entry barriers traditionally faced by SMEs, limitations in human resources still impose challenges on firms in seeking internationalisation in China.

    View record details
  • Development and Examination of In-browser GPU Accelerated Cryptography

    Win, Dajne

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Many of us use encryption frequently whether realising it or not; it is the active yet often invisible element keeping our information and data safe. Despite this, many of us underestimate the value of encryption in our daily lives. Schneier (2016) explains encryption is instrumental in protecting identities, governments, lawmakers, law enforcement, military, critical infrastructure, communications networks, power grids, transportation, and everything else we rely on in society. “As we move to the Internet of Things ... encryption will become even more critical to our personal and national security” (Schneier, 2016). Understanding the ever-changing threat landscape, predicting potential trends, and current security issues are the core roles of the security researcher. The process of establishing frameworks helps mitigate risks of the critical reliance on encryption. One of the challenges encryption faces is it is inherently computationally intensive and therefore slow. Due to mobile devices' focus on performance over security, it is vital to find methods to accelerate modern encryption algorithms to preserve information security in the future. Previous research has successfully investigated the use of hardware to accelerate encryption algorithms. Algorithm accelerators have used Graphics Processing Units (GPU) for many years and have proven these to be effective for parallel workloads. An advantage is that GPUs are already part of most computer systems, making them a fertile area for research into hardware performance. However, previous research has been limited to system specific compiled code. This research explores the ability to perform acceleration on any modern browser through a scripted programming language. The selection of NTRUEncrypt for this experiment was due to its suitability towards acceleration, protection against quantum computers and as an alternative to RSA or Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC). A pure JavaScript and GPU accelerated version of NTRUEncrypt were developed. The Three.js library was selected to utilise the latest version of WebGL in modern browsers and reduce development time. OpenGL ES 1.0 compatible shaders then replaced the addition and convolution operations of NTRUEncrypt, utilising the system GPU for processing. Performance comparison of encryption and decryption between NTRUEncrypt.js and NTRUEncrypt-GPU.js was then performed. Polynomial convolution at the highest security settings was 1.6 times faster on the GPU compared to the Central Processing Unit (CPU). However, results from this experiment show NTRUEncrypt-GPU.js failed to accelerate the NTRUEncrypt cryptographic algorithm. Furthermore, comparisons within this research showed JavaScript was up to 80 times slower than C, C++, and Java. Future research into accelerated cryptography would provide further knowledge, understanding and open new opportunities for improvement to information security. While NTRUEncrypt-GPU.js failed to accelerated NTRUEncrypt using currently available standards, preliminary testing using Compute Shaders proved successful and warrents further investigation.

    View record details
  • Understanding Class-level Testability Through Dynamic Analysis

    Tahir, A; MacDonell, SG; Buchan, J

    Conference item
    Auckland University of Technology

    It is generally acknowledged that software testing is both challenging and time-consuming. Understanding the factors that may positively or negatively affect testing effort will point to possibilities for reducing this effort. Consequently there is a significant body of research that has investigated relationships between static code properties and testability. The work reported in this paper complements this body of research by providing an empirical evaluation of the degree of association between runtime properties and class-level testability in object-oriented (OO) systems. The motivation for the use of dynamic code properties comes from the success of such metrics in providing a more complete insight into the multiple dimensions of software quality. In particular, we investigate the potential relationships between the runtime characteristics of production code, represented by Dynamic Coupling and Key Classes, and internal class-level testability. Testability of a class is consider ed here at the level of unit tests and two different measures are used to characterise those unit tests. The selected measures relate to test scope and structure: one is intended to measure the unit test size, represented by test lines of code, and the other is designed to reflect the intended design, represented by the number of test cases. In this research we found that Dynamic Coupling and Key Classes have significant correlations with class-level testability measures. We therefore suggest that these properties could be used as indicators of class-level testability. These results enhance our current knowledge and should help researchers in the area to build on previous results regarding factors believed to be related to testability and testing. Our results should also benefit practitioners in future class testability planning and maintenance activities.

    View record details
  • Effectiveness of Problem Gambling Interventions in a Service Setting: A Protocol for a Pragmatic Randomised Controlled Clinical Trial

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Introduction: The primary purpose of this study is to evaluate the relative effectiveness of 2 of the best developed and most promising forms of therapy for problem gambling, namely face-to-face motivational interviewing (MI) combined with a self-instruction booklet (W) and follow-up telephone booster sessions (B; MI+W+B) and face-to-face cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT). Methods and analysis: This project is a single-blind pragmatic randomised clinical trial of 2 interventions, with and without the addition of relapse-prevention text messages. Trial assessments take place pretreatment, at 3 and 12 months. A total of 300 participants will be recruited through a community treatment agency that provides services across New Zealand and randomised to up to 10 face-to-face sessions of CBT or 1 face-toface session of MI+W+up to 5 B. Participants will also be randomised to 9 months of postcare text messaging. Eligibility criteria include a self-perception of having a current gambling problem and a willingness to participate in all components of the study (eg, read workbook). The statistical analysis will use an intent-to-treat approach. Primary outcome measures are days spent gambling and amount of money spent per day gambling in the prior month. Secondary outcome measures include problem gambling severity, gambling urges, gambling cognitions, mood, alcohol, drug use, tobacco, psychological distress, quality of life, health status and direct and indirect costs associated with treatment. Ethics and dissemination: The research methods to be used in this study have been approved by the Ministry of Health, Health and Disability Ethics Committees (HDEC) 15/CEN/99. The investigators will provide annual reports to the HDEC and report any adverse events to this committee. Amendments will also be submitted to this committee. The results of this trial will be submitted for publication in peerreviewed journals and as a report to the funding body. Additionally, the results will be presented at national and international conferences.

    View record details
  • The Design of Control Strategy for Blended Series-Parallel Power-Split PHEV – a Simulation Study

    Ding, N; Lie, T; Prasad, K

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Electric Vehicles (EVs) have been extensively researched to reduce the fuel consumption and tailpipe emission. The series-parallel power-split Plug-in Electric Vehicle (PHEV) has been considered as one of the most suitable candidates. It contains both an internal combustion engine (ICE) and an electrical storage system (ESS) to achieve a better driving performance. The energy management system (EMS) is significant for a PHEV to improve the efficiency of the whole system. Electric vehicle mode (EV), charging depletion (CD) and charging sustaining (CS) modes will be discussed to build a control strategy in this study. This control strategy will be implemented with the state of charge (SoC) to show its impact through a simulation study.

    View record details
  • Effect of Mouth Rinsing and Ingestion of Carbohydrate Solutions on Mood and Perceptual Responses During Exercise

    Ali, A; Moss, C; Yoo, MJY; Wilkinson, A; Breier, BH

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate whether mouth rinsing or ingesting carbohydrate (CHO) solutions impact on perceptual responses during exercise. Methods: Nine moderately trained male cyclists underwent a 90-min glycogen-reducing exercise, and consumed a low CHO meal, prior to completing an overnight fast. A 1-h cycle time trial was performed the following morning. Four trials, each separated by 7days, were conducted in a randomized, counterbalanced study design: 15% CHO mouth rinse (CHOR), 7.5% CHO ingestion (CHOI), placebo mouth rinse (PLAR) and placebo ingestion (PLAI). Solution volumes (1.5ml·g-1 ingestion trials and 0.33ml·kg-1 rinsing trials) were provided after every 12.5% of completed exercise. Perceptual scales were used to assess affective valence (feeling scale, FS), arousal (felt arousal scale, FAS), exertion (ratings of perceived exertion, RPE) and mood (profile of mood states, POMS) before, during and immediately after exercise. Results: There was no difference in RPE (CHOI, 14.0±9; CHOR, 14.2±.7; PLAI, 14.6±1.8; PLAR, 14.6±2.0; P=0.35), FS (CHOI, 0.0±1.7; CHOR, -0.2±1.5; PLAI, -0.8±1.4; PLAR, -0.8±1.6; P0.15), or FAS (CHOI, 3.6±1.1; CHOR, 3.5±1.0; PLAI, 3.4±1.4; PLAR, 3.3±1.3; P=725) scores between trials. While overall POMS score did not appear to differ between trials, the 'vigour' subscale indicated that CHOI may facilitate the maintenance of 'vigour' scores over time, in comparison to the steady decline witnessed in other trials (P=0.04). There was no difference in time trial performance between trials (CHOI, 65.3±4.8min; CHOR, 68.4±3.9min; PLAI, 68.7±5.3min; PLAR, 68.3±5.2min; P=0.21) but power output was higher in CHOI (231.0±33.2 W) relative to other trials (221-223.6 W; Plt0.01). Conclusions: In a CHO-reduced state, mouth rinsing with a CHO solution did not impact on perceptual responses during high-intensity exercise in trained cyclists and triathletes. On the other hand CHO ingestion improved perceived ratings of vigour and increased power output during exercise.

    View record details
  • Development and Analysis of a Solar Humidification Dehumidification Desalination System

    Enayatollahi, Reza

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    In this thesis, an investigation was performed in order to understand the performance of a solar humidification dehumidification (HDH) desalination system. Initially, a mathematical model of the system, including solar water heater, condenser, economizer and long duct humidifier was developed. Using a sensitivity analysis, it was found that improving the intensities of heat and mass transfer in the humidifier would significantly enhance the yield of the system. This led to the development of a novel cascading humidifier, in which air was directed through a series of falling water sheets. An experiment was performed to first identify and characterise flow regimes in the crossflow interactions, and from this, to develop correlations to describe the heat and mass transfer for such interactions. Four flow regimes were identified and mapped based on the Reynolds number of the air and the Weber number of the water. Subsequently, Buckingham’s π theorem and a least squares analysis was employed to develop a series of empirical relations for Nusselt and Sherwood numbers. This led to the proposal of three new dimensionless numbers named the Prandtl Number of Evaporation, the Schmidt Number of Evaporation and the Lewis Number of Evaporation. These describe the transfer phenomena in low temperature evaporation processes with crossflow. Finally, the new correlations for Nusselt and Sherwood numbers were used to develop a model of a cascading humidifier, incorporated in a solar HDH system. It was found that a cascading humidifier enhances the yield of the HDH system by approximately 15%, while reducing the evaporation area to approximately a quarter of that required in a long channel humidifier.

    View record details
  • Hydrolysis by Alcalase Improves Hypoallergenic Properties of Goat Milk Protein

    Jung, TH; Yun, SS; Lee, WJ; Kim, JW; Ha, HK; Yoo, M; Hwang, HJ; Jeon, WM; Han, KS

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Goat milk is highly nutritious and is consumed in many countries, but the development of functional foods from goat milk has been slow compared to that for other types of milk. The aim of this study was to develop a goat milk protein hydrolysate (GMPH) with enhanced digestibility and better hypoallergenic properties in comparison with other protein sources such as ovalbumin and soy protein. Goat milk protein was digested with four commercial food-grade proteases (separately) under various conditions to achieve the best hydrolysis of αs -casein and β-lactoglobulin. It was shown that treatment with alcalase (0.4%, 60℃ for 30 min) effectively degraded these two proteins, as determined by SDS-PAGE, measurement of nonprotein nitrogen content, and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Hydrolysis with alcalase resulted in a significant decrease in β-lactoglobulin concentration (almost to nil) and a ~40% reduction in the level of αs-casein. Quantification of histamine and TNF-α released from HMC-1 cells (human mast cell line) showed that the GMPH did not induce an allergic response when compared to the control. Hence, the GMPH may be useful for development of novel foods for infants, the elderly, and convalescent patients, to replace cow milk.

    View record details
  • The Role of Ecology and Molecular Evolution in Shaping Global Terrestrial Diversity

    McBride, Paul Derek

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The density of species varies widely across the earth. Most broad taxonomic groups have similar spatial diversity patterns, with greatest densities of species in wet, tropical environments. Although evidently correlated with climate, determining the causes of such diversity differences is complicated by myriad factors: many possible mechanisms exist to link climate and diversity, these mechanisms are not mutually exclusive, and they may overlap in the patterns they generate. Further, the importance of different mechanisms may vary between spatial scales. Generating uneven spatial diversity patterns in regions that are below equilibrium species richness requires either geometric or historical area effects, or regional differences in net diversification. Here, I investigate the global climate correlates of diversity in plants and vertebrates, and hypotheses that could link these correlates to net diversification processes, in particular through climate-linked patterns of molecular evolution. I first show strong climate–diversity relationships only emerge at large scales, and that the specific correlates of diversity differ between plants and animals. For plants, the strongest large-scale predictor of species richness is net primary productivity, which reflects the water–energy balance at large scales. For animals, temperature seasonality is the strongest large-scale predictor of diversity. Then, using two clades of New World passerine birds that together comprise 20% of global avian diversity, I investigate whether rates and patterns of molecular evolution can be linked to diversification processes that could cause spatial diversity patterns in birds. I find that most substitution rate variation between phylogenetically independent comparisons of avian sister species appears to result from mutation rate variation that is uncorrelated with climate. I provide evidence of nearly neutral effects in mitochondrial coding sequences, finding a significant, negative correlation between non-synonymous substitution rates and population size. Using phylogenetically independent comparisons, I also find that birds in low temperature seasonality, and isothermal environments, and birds with small elevational ranges have increased non-synonymous substitution rates, indicative of relaxed purifying selection. Other climate variables have no direct effect on molecular evolution. Molecular evolutionary patterns are dominated by mutation rate variation. Recovered patterns were stronger when mutation rate variation was controlled, indicating that such variation is a source of noise in analyses, and may be generally problematic across short genetic distances for analyses using mitochondrial genes. I bring these findings together with emerging literature to outline a framework for understanding net diversification patterns. Maintaining adaptations to climate, and the limits of those adaptations have population-genetic consequences that can affect lineage persistence and the processes of speciation and extinction in a fashion that is consistent with observations at multiple levels of diversity.

    View record details
  • Carbohydrate Mouth Rinsing Has No Effect on Power Output During Cycling in a Glycogen-reduced State

    Ali, A; Yoo, M; Moss, C; Breier, B

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Background: The effect of mouth rinsing with a carbohydrate (CHO) solution on exercise performance is inconclusive with no benefits observed in the fed state. This study examined the effect of CHO mouth rinse or CHO ingestion on performance in 9 moderately trained male cyclists. Methods: Four trials were undertaken, separated by 7 days, in a randomized, counterbalanced design. Each trial included a 90-min glycogen-reducing exercise protocol, immediately followed by a low CHO meal and subsequent overnight fast; the following morning a 1-h cycling time trial was conducted. The trials included 15 % CHO mouth rinse (CHOR), 7.5 % CHO ingestion (CHOI), placebo mouth rinse and placebo ingestion. Solutions were provided after every 12.5 % of completed exercise: 1.5 mL · kg−1 and 0.33 mL · kg−1 body mass during ingestion and rinse trials, respectively. During rinse trials participants swirled the solution for 8 s before expectorating. Blood samples were taken at regular intervals before and during exercise. Results: Performance time was not different between trials (P = 0.21) but the 4.5-5.2 % difference between CHOI and other trials showed moderate practical significance (Cohen’s d 0.57-0.65). Power output was higher in CHOI relative to other trials (P < 0.01). There were no differences between CHOR and placebo groups for any performance variables. Plasma glucose, insulin and lactate concentrations were higher in CHOI relative to other groups (P < 0.05). Conclusions: In a fasted and glycogen-reduced state ingestion of a CHO solution during high-intensity exercise enhanced performance through stimulation of insulin-mediated glucose uptake. The CHO mouth rinsing had neither ergogenic effects nor changes in endocrine or metabolic responses relative to placebo.

    View record details
  • Understanding the Resilience of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises to Flood Risk in Ayutthaya, Thailand

    Saengnakhon, Boonyarit

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Thailand has experienced several flood events during recent years. The rate of such events is forecast to increase in the future due to the geographic and climatic characteristics of the country. While businesses, in general, are affected by major disruptions from flooding, Small, and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) are particularly vulnerable as they have limited resources with which to prepare, respond, and recover from flooding, in comparison to their larger counterparts. This dissertation aimed to assess the resilience of SMEs for flood risks, and understand the current measures taken by these organizations to adapt, prevent, and limit the adverse impacts of flooding on their business activities. The research focuses on SMEs in Ayutthaya province, Thailand. The data was collected through mixed methods, using a questionnaire-based survey and two semi-structured interviews, followed by qualitative (qualitative description and cognitive map) and quantitative analysis (specific values, highest and lowest values, and trends over time, proportions, and distributions). The results indicated that SMEs were likely to experience a range of impacts from flood events. Of these, the indirect impacts of flooding were relatively higher and encompassed impacts such as product and service disruptions, travel difficulties for customers and staff, and supply chain disruptions. A majority of SMEs opted for flood coping strategies, including at least one measure of flood protection against the impacts of flooding events. The research also identified a number of key elements that affect the coping capacity of SMEs to flood risks, such as the size of business, previous experience of floods, and the perception of senior management or business owners. The main conclusion of this study is that SMEs are likely to have a lack of coping strategies and adopt various methods of addressing flood risks. However, vulnerability, coping strategies, and coping capacity have to be enhanced, in conjunction with the lessons learned from previous flooding experiences, to address the weaknesses of their organizations in effectively minimizing the potential impacts of future flood risk.

    View record details
  • Empirical Approaches for Human Behavior Analytics

    Lu, Jia

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Surveillance is ubiquitous in our communities which can be utilized to deal with multiple security issues. However, most of surveillance systems still are not intelligent which are mainly relying on security staff’s human labor. Thus, human behavior analysis based on computer vision could tremendously reduce security staff’s workload. To analyze and understand human behaviors in surveillance, the start point is to extract computable features from captured videos based on detected human body, the ultimate goal is to finally recognize human behaviors from motion and event analysis. This thesis presents comprehensive and in-depth empirical approaches for event recognition in surveillance based on distinct Feature Extraction Techniques (FET), namely: Histograms of Oriented Gradients (HOG), Local Binary Pattern (LBP) and Scale Invariant Local Ternary Pattern (SILTP). Each of the FETs is based on local feature descriptor which depends on adjusting the cell size of the ROI to achieve better performance. In this thesis, we find the cell size will influence not only the computational time, but also the precision rate. This thesis utilizes the well-known Weizmann video datasets. While both LBP and SILTP features work very well, HOG has shown its superior performance for human behaviour analytics with five selected events (Walking, Running, Skipping, Jumping and Jacking). The simulated results of three classifiers from WEKA (MLP, k-NN, decision tree) have reflected rightness of the extracted features. In this thesis, the empirical approaches for human behaviour analytics in surveillance reduce human labor tremendously. The contributions of this thesis are: (1) The distinct FET makes the best precision of overall human behaviour recognition at the rate above 97.7%. (2) By adjusting the cell size of ROI, the proposed approaches are able to be accelerated, furthermore, computational time could be reduced.

    View record details
  • Juxtapose: An Exploration of the Technical and Aesthetic Potential of Print-based Augmented Reality Design

    Menorath, Darren

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This practice-led research project examines how the technological and aesthetic components of augmented reality (AR) serve to extend, enhance and disrupt print-based design. The outcome of the project is a conceptual hybrid AR/print publication that demonstrates the aesthetics and models of AR creation in an augmented space; a book that represents the merging of virtual and physical, in terms of technology and aesthetics. Juxtapose explores tensions between the digital and the analogue and invites the reader to physically and virtually interact with the artefact. Handmade and digital elements are juxtaposed to enhance, extend and reveal layers of information and representation. The artefact is a site of experimentation that explores the possibilities of interaction resulting from the use of multiple markers to create a playful augmented space. This project also investigates the concept of an augmented space; a mixed reality (MR) world (a hybrid reality that combines physical and digital objects in a real-time interactive space). Juxtapose engages with Matsuda’s contemporary vision of an augmented space (2016), a term proposed by Manovich (2002) that draws on Baudrillard’s concept of hyperreality based on simulacra and simulation (1981). Matsuda proposes that Manovich’s augmented space is also a setting where individuals are free to create, customise and contribute to both shared and personal augmented space. The final artefact uses a collection of zines (handmade magazines) that explores the hyper- consumerist aesthetic of the Vaporwave design movement as a form of visual critique, whilst proposing a networked model of content creation in augmented space. Taking into consideration current handmade movements such as Zine culture, this project also considers the potential of AR as a participatory creative space.

    View record details
  • A Psychotherapist's Experience of Grief: An Heuristic Enquiry

    Alleyne, Bronwyn

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This research explored my subjective experience of being a bereaved psychotherapist, both personally and professionally, in a hospice and a private practice setting. The focus was to find the meaning within my grief experience by investigating, analysing, and reflecting on my experience via a systematic, internal, creative, intuitive, immersive, and deepening explorative process that the heuristic research method and methodology offered. My grief was captured in qualitative and immersive grief depictions, initial questions from which populated my personal search for the answers; and to which I recursively and painfully immersed myself in to explicate the core themes and the essence of the experience.

    View record details
  • Assessing How Small Island Communities Prepare for a Tsunami: A Case Study of Phi Phi Island, Thailand

    Poompoe, Arissara

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami revealed that the west coast, and many of its small islands, in the Andaman Sea are vulnerable to tsunamis. Such a devastating event also emphasised the importance of having local communities well prepared to deal with future tsunamis. Since the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, a number of risk mitigation measures have been developed in the tsunami prone-areas. However, about 11 years after the event, little is known about the levels of preparedness of Thai residents living on islands exposed to tsunamis. This study aims to identify the elements underlying preparedness of the local people residing in Thai small islands, and scrutinize the preparedness measures undertaken by the government agencies since the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Phi Phi Island was used as a case study as it is representative of the many small islands located in the Andaman Sea. The present research relied on a questionnaire survey carried out with over 20 permanent residents from Phi Phi Island – about 10 percent of the residents living in the study area. This research also utilised field observation and analysis of relevant documents, including policy documents, reports, and academic publications. Findings show that preparedness behaviours of the local residents was widely affected by their personal perception, belief, and bias of prior experience to tsunamis. The available resources within the local residents’ daily context (e.g. time, finances) and trust in the authority were crucial factors that considerably affected making decisions in taking preparedness. Many preparedness measures have been addressed in the Island (e.g. Tsunami Early Warning, Tsunami Warning Signage, Land Plan Use Guideline); however, challenges regarding their effectiveness and insufficient maintenance of those measures are evident. The present study recommends that local communities and the elements that shape their perception of tsunamis, should be, to a greater extent, integrated in the preparedness activities carried out by local government agencies. Moreover, strengthrning Community-Based Disaster Risk Management (CBDRM) approach is likely to be useful in order to promote tsunami preparedness.

    View record details
  • Musings on Musos: A Thematic Analysis of the Working Conditions Experienced by New Zealand Musicians

    Smith, Ximena

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The labour conditions in creative industries, such as the music industry, are complex. For instance, the deterioration of the 9-to-5 workday and the rise of project-based work has given creative workers more autonomy and pleasure in their work (Florida, 2002, 2005; Howkins, 2001; Leadbeater, 1999). However, other conditions that accompany creative work, such as precarity and insecurity, can result in stressful experiences for creative workers (Banks & Hesmondhalgh, 2009). The purpose of this research, then, is to explore the conditions and subjective experiences of three musicians working in the New Zealand music industry, and to obtain an account of the challenges these workers may face. Developing a deeper understanding of creatives’ experiences in the music industry is useful, because a significant amount of public money is given to New Zealand On Air and the New Zealand Music Commission to support the growth of this industry (New Zealand Music Commission, 2013; Scott & Craig, 2012). However, these government bodies have not published any research regarding the lived experiences of New Zealand music workers, or investigated the personal issues musicians may face when it comes to working successfully in the industry. The research is therefore intended to shed light on the upsides and downfalls of working in the industry, and is guided by the question: What are the experiences of New Zealand musicians regarding the labour conditions in the New Zealand music industry? In order to answer this research question, one-on-one responsive interviews were conducted with three self-identified musicians who work in New Zealand’s music industry (Rubin & Rubin, 2005). Braun and Clarke’s (2006) thematic analysis was then used to analyse and interpret the data set. Five major themes were found to be present in the data. These include the sense among the musicians that the New Zealand music scene is small; the presence of career uncertainty; the importance of authenticity; cultural entrepreneurialism; and the existence of cultural intermediaries in the musicians’ working lives. Overall, it was found that the music industry provides significant opportunities for musicians to have positive working experiences. However, these experiences may not be felt by other musicians in different circumstances, who may not be able to manage the challenges of the industry as easily as those musicians interviewed. This research therefore ends with the recommendation that further measures by the government could be taken, such as the reinvigoration of the PACE (Pathway to Arts and Cultural Employment) scheme (Shuker, 2008), in order to make good work experiences more widely accessible to those working in the music industry.

    View record details
  • Exploring How Hospitality Undergraduate Students’ Perceptions and Attitudes Towards a Career in the Hospitality Industry Are Affected by Their Work Experience: A New Zealand Quantitative Study

    Chan, Muk Chung

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This research explores the demographics and career aspirations of hospitality undergraduate students who are studying for a hospitality degree in New Zealand. Furthermore, it explores hospitality undergraduate students’ attitudes towards a career in the hospitality industry. The attitudes mainly relate to students’ understanding of their career in the hospitality industry. Previous research has revealed the concerning issue that 44% of students will not work in the hospitality industry after graduation (Richardson, 2008). In order to have a better understanding of the problem, this study has focused on exploring how work experiences have influenced hospitality undergraduate students’ attitudes towards a career in the hospitality industry. The research used a quantitative method, and a questionnaire was used to collect the quantitative data from a major hospitality education provider. The findings indicate that first year students have the highest intention to work in the hospitality industry after graduation (83%) whereas third year students have the least intention to work in the hospitality industry after graduation (66%). The findings show that students’ work experiences have a great influence on their attitudes towards working in the hospitality industry. As students progress their studies and gain more work experience, they appear to form negative attitudes about their future in the sector. This dissertation concludes by providing recommendations to hospitality industry practitioners and hospitality education providers that may reverse this trend.

    View record details
  • Modes and Progression of Tool Deterioration and Their Effects on Cutting Force During End Milling of 718Plus Ni-based Superalloy Using Cemented WC-CO Tools

    Razak, Nurul Hidayah

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Understanding the detailed progression of cutting tool deterioration and how deterioration affects cutting force (F) during milling of difficult-to-cut Ni-based superalloys is important for the improvement of machinability of the alloys. It also serves to clarify whether and how an F-based method for monitoring tool deterioration is possible. This understanding is however far from sufficient, as is explained in this thesis after a comprehensive review of the literature. The aim of the present research is thus to determine and explain the modes and progression of tool deterioration and how cutting forces may vary due to the various deterioration features of the cutting tool edge. Experimentally, the study started by using a typical milling condition with both uncoated and coated cemented carbide (WC-Co) tools. Milling was conducted in either dry or wet conditions. After each pass of a selected distance, the tool was examined in detail in the same manner. Thus, tool deterioration could be monitored more closely and failure mechanisms could be identified and explained. Following on the study on determining the modes of tool deterioration, the progress of deterioration and cutting forces during milling were carefully monitored. Through analysing the monitored tool deterioration features and measured force data, how edge wear, chipping and breakage in cutting edge and beyond the edge contribute to the variation of cutting forces could be studied and better understood. Furthermore, experiments have also been conducted using workpiece in a hardened state. It has been observed that the commonly recognised build-up layer in the initial stage does not significantly affect the tool deterioration process. Instead, from the beginning of milling, cutting forces/stresses could cause small chipping locally in the initially sharp cutting edge. Fracturing locally with cracks propagating outside the cutting edge along the flank face in the subsurface region could also take place and was consistent with the direction of the cutting force. There was an initial period of time during which a number of microcracks had initiated in and near the cutting edge on the rake face side. These cracks soon propagated resulting in extensively fracturing and blunting of the tool. Coating of the tools had provided little protection as in the cutting edge area the coating had broken away soon after milling started. The major tool failure mode was Co binder material having heavily deformed to fracture, separating the WC grains. Loss of strength in binder material at cutting temperatures is also discussed. As would be expected, the general trend of how F increased as the number of pass (Npass) increased agreed with the general trend of increasing flank wear (VB) as Npass increased. However, the F-VBmax plot has shown a rather poor F-VBmax relationship. This was the result of the different modes of tool deterioration affecting VBmax differently, but VBmax did not represent fully the true cutting edge of the deteriorating tool insert. Chipping and breakage of the inserts confined in the cutting area, resulting in the significant blunting of the edge area, causing a high rate of F increase as VBmax increased and completely deteriorated 6 minutes within of milling time. Fracturing along the face of thin pieces effectively increased VBmax without increasing the cutting edge area and without further blunting the edge, thus no increase in F was required. The high rate, meaning high ∆F/∆VBmax, results from the effect of the edge deterioration/blunting on the reducing the effective rake angle and thus increasing F is suggested and discussed. The use of coolant has not been found to affect tool deterioration/life and cutting force. Explanation for this will be given considering the deformation zone for which coolant does not have an effect. An increase in feed rate has reduced the tool life and the mode of deterioration has become more edge chipping/fracturing dominant, leading to a better F-VBmax relationship. Finally, it has been observed that the rate of tool deterioration is not higher when the hardened workpiece material is used. The modes and progression of deterioration of tools using hardened workpiece were determined to be comparable to those when annealed workpiece was used. Furthermore, the trends of increase in cutting force as milling pass increases have been observed to be similar for both workpiece material conditions. Interrupt milling experiments followed by hardness mapping has indicted that the workpiece hardened state has not affected the deformation area significantly, although increase in hardness in a similar amount in the severe deformed region has been found for both cases. It is suggested that temperature increases in the narrow deformation zone to be similar for both workpiece conditions and at high temperatures hardening mechanisms do not operate, and thus cutting force values do not differ significantly. Furthermore, the modes and rate of tool deterioration on the hardened workpiece was comparable to the annealed workpiece.

    View record details
  • Searching for the Digital Fāgogo: A Study of Indigenous Samoan Storytelling in Contemporary Aotearoa Digital Media

    Tielu, Amy Jane

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This research analyses the manifestation of fāgogo – an indigenous form of Samoan storytelling – in the digital media of Aotearoa. It argues that digital media and their associated frameworks have the potential to supplement historical fāgogo practices, nurturing cultural identity through connection in the diaspora. This is pursued through the analysis of storytelling designed to interweave the strengths and historical principles of fāgogo practice with principles of digital storytelling designed for participation. This research builds upon the available literature of fāgogo with a contextual review conducted by Talanoa with eight scholars and practitioners of fāgogo across Samoa and Aotearoa. This enabled the development of working classifications to analyse digital media by Samoans in Aotearoa. Case studies of digital media found a distinct taxonomy: fāgogo told in a non-digital framework, and later digitised; and contemporary fāgogo natively designed for the online digital environment. Both categories illustrated the cultural negotiation underway at the intersection of indigenous stories with the unique challenges of a distributed, digital framework. Significantly, these case studies also demonstrated how Samoans are indigenising foreign narratives and digital social spaces to tell their stories. This research addresses the relationship between a ‘digital’ and ‘historical’ concept of fāgogo (or as I will henceforth call it, ‘formational’) before connecting best practices found from case studies (those most in resonance with formational fāgogo principles), with relevant principles of participatory production and transmedia storytelling. Considerations of linguistic and technical accessibility, ethics and multicultural negotiation are also highlighted. This research concludes with the proposal of five principles for a digital fāgogo – fāgogo designed natively within the digital, networked environment to fulfil formational fāgogo principles. These principles are described as 1) Su’i fefiloi (Interweave of different media), 2) Education, 3) Collaboration, 4) Conversation, and 5) Fa’afailelega (Nourishment). Future recommendations and potential research directions are provided in closing.

    View record details
  • Proximate and chemical composition of New Zealand avocado by-products (Persea americana Mill. c.v. Hass)

    ZHANG, MENGYING

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    After extraction of oil from the pulp of avocado (Persea americana), a significant quantity of waste that includes pomace, seeds, peels, and avocado water are generated. These wastes can be ideal raw materials for food use as they may still have high nutritional value and antioxidant activity. Although there are some reported studies on the physicochemical characteristics of avocado peels and seeds, little has been reported on avocado pomace and water by-products of oil processing. The conversion of these wastes into utilizable food ingredients would help in reducing environmental problems associated with processing waste disposal. In order to determine the potential use of avocado by-products (peel, seed, pomace and avocado water), this study evaluated the proximate composition and antioxidant activity of New Zealand ‘Hass’ avocado by-products. In terms of nutritional values, moisture, ash, protein, fat, and fatty acids content were evaluated. Avocado pomace was found to be high in ash (3.07%) and protein content (10.22%). The fat content of avocado water (59.81%) was significantly the highest, followed by peels (32.88%), pomace (16.26%) and seed (2.42%). In our study, oleic acid was reported as the major fatty acid in the pomace, seed, and peel oils, followed by palmitic, linolenic, and palmitoleic acids. Most saturated and unsaturated fatty acids were significantly higher in peel and pomace. Saturated fatty acids are relatively lower in avocado by-products in our study than unsaturated fatty acids. Monounsaturated fatty acids were the principal fatty acids in all avocado by-products. In comparison with ascorbic acid, the avocado seed, pomace and peel had significant high antioxidant activities, while avocado water had the least. Avocado seed in fact had the highest antioxidant activity. This study demonstrated that avocado by-products have high nutritional value and good antioxidant activities that can be potentially incorporated in food as ingredients to enhance functionality and confer health benefits.  

    View record details