2,322 results for Unitec Research Bank

  • Effects of a six week beginner pilates exercise programme on transversus abdominis thickness in low back pain subjects

    Spurdle, Anastasia (2004)

    Thesis
    Unitec

    PURPOSE Transversus abdominis has been shown to be dysfunctional in low back pain patients. Specific exercises involving contraction of core muscles of the spine have been shown to be effective in treating low back pain. Although it is widely claimed that pilates exercise develops the core muscles surrounding the spine, including transversus abdominis, there is little research to support this. OBJECTIVE To investigate the effect of a pilates exercise programme on transversus abdominis thickness in subjects with a history of low back pain. To investigate the reliability of ultrasound measurement of transversus abdominis thickness. STUDY DESIGN Test retest design, with subjects recruited via convenience sampling. METHOD Intra-tester reliability was investigated by measuring transversus abdominis thickness with B-mode ultrasound in eight subjects with a history of low back pain on two separate days. A further twenty-two subjects were recruited for a six week pilates matwork exercise programme with measurements of transversus abdominis thickness taken pre and post intervention. RESULTS The intra-tester reliability was found to be high in supine lying for transversus abdominis measurements taken one week apart (ICC = 0.92, 95% CI 0.60 to 0.99). There was a large and varied effect of the pilates intervention on the change in thickness of transversus abdominis (effect size = 1.27, CI -2.7 to 5.5). History of respiratory dysfunction was found to be very highly correlated with a decrease in transversus abdominis thickness measured at the end of expiration (r=0.7, CI 0.3 to 0.9). SUMMARY The ultrasound methodology was found to be reliable in measuring transversus abdominis thickness. It is not known why there was a wide variation observed in terms of magnitude and direction of change of transversus abdominis thickness after the pilates intervention. It is thought that changes in transversus abdominis thickness measured by ultrasound at the end of expiration (functional residual capacity) were related to respiratory function status. This relationship may have been modified by the six week beginner pilates exercise programme in subjects with a history of respiratory dysfunction. It is postulated that this relationship changed by reducing the contraction of transversus abdominis at the end of expiration. No definitive conclusions can be made, however, due to the small sample size in this preliminary study.

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  • Performance monitoring of various network traffic generators

    Kolahi, Samad; Narayan, Shaneel; Nguyen, D.D.T; Sunarto, Y. (2011-03-31)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    In this paper, in a laboratory environment, the performance of four network traffic generators (Iperf, Netperf, D-ITG and IP Traffic) are compared. Two computers with Windows operating systems were connected via a 100 Mbps link and for various payload sizes, ranging from 128 Bytes to 1408 Bytes, the TCP traffic on the link was measured using the various monitoring tools mentioned above. The results indicate that these tools can produce significantly different results. In the Windows environment, the bandwidth that the tools measure can vary as much as 16.5 Mbps for a TCP connection over a 100 Mbps link. For the same network set up, Iperf measured the highest bandwidth (93.1 Mbps) while IP traffic the lowest (76.7 Mbps). A comparison of capabilities of traffic generators is also provided.

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  • Ethnic Migrant Media Forum 2014 : curated proceedings. “Are we reaching all New Zealanders?". Exploring the role, benefits, challenges & potential of ethnic media in New Zealand

    Papoutsaki, Evangelia; Kolesova, Elena; Stephenson, Laura (2017-03-03)

    Unclassified
    Unitec

    These curated proceedings present what was discussed during the Ethnic Migrant Media Forum, a one-day event hosted by the Department of Communication Studies at Unitec Institute of Technology’s Mt Albert campus in 2014. It is also an attempt to provide an analysis of what was discussed by identifying a number of emerging themes. This publication brings together the curated statements by ethnic media practitioners, academics, and industry representatives involved with ethnic media in New Zealand, presenting a host of issues on ethnic media’s role within the country’s bicultural and multicultural context and organised around the three key themes: 1) Defining ethnic, migrant, diasporic media – what does it mean, who is it, what communities does it represent? 2) Roles and aims of ethnic media – why does ethnic media matter, who does it matter for and what role does ethnic media play in NZ? 3) Impact, challenges and potential – how can ethnic media be used more effectively, what are the challenges and potential? An introductory chapter by forum organisers and this publication’s editors, A/Prof. Evangelia Papoutsaki and Dr Elena Kolesova, presents a background context against which these themes are situated, while Dr Peter Thompson from Victoria University contributes a discussion chapter that brings in a different perspective. Selected information presented by Niche Media at the start of the forum is presented in infographics. Featuring panel discussion highlights and statements from participants, including: Dr Ruth De Souza (keynote address) Dr Arezou Zalipour Dr Camille Nakhid Fezeela Raza Dr Francis Collins David Soh Rene Molina Roshila Prasad Terri Byrne Mary Dawson Carol Hayward Lynda Chanwai-Earle Sue Elliott Mary Lose Dr Prue Cruickshank Rebecca Palmer Stephen Stehlin Taiha Molyneux Sandra Noronha Lisa Taouma Martin Pouwels Hao Peng Naoe Hashimoto Setita Miller Stefan Herrick

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  • New Lynn – Auckland IMM case study : low-density urban morphology and energy performance optimisation. A new pilot project in Auckland using Integrated Modification Methodology (IMM)

    Tadi, Massimo; Bogunovich, Dushko (2017-04-04)

    Unclassified
    Unitec

    Integrated Modification Methodology (IMM) has already been applied in established metropolitan contexts, such as Porto Maravilha in Rio de Janeiro, the neighbourhood of Shahrak-e Golestan in Tehran, and Block 39 in New Belgrade. When Unitec Institute of Technology’s Associate Professor of Urban Design Dushko Bogunovich came up with the idea of a comparative analysis of two sprawling metropolitan contexts – Auckland and Milan – he and Massimo Tadi, Director of the IMMdesignlab in Milan and Associate Professor at the School of Architectural Engineering at the Politecnico di Milano, decided to apply IMM to a sample area of low-density suburban Auckland. The project presented in this book was developed in a joint international design workshop organised by Politecnico di Milano, IMMdesignlab and Unitec Institute of Technology. The workshop was held at Politecnico di Milano, Polo Territoriale di Lecco (Italy), from 25–29 May 2015, and the team, comprising 14 international students from different design disciplines, was coordinated by Tadi and Bogunovich, assisted by engineers Hadi Mohammad Zadeh and Frederico Zaniol (IMMdesignlab). The outcomes of the workshop were then further developed by IMMdesignlab to demonstrate how, by adopting IMM, it is possible to retrofit, renovate and reactivate an inefficient and energy consuming neighbourhood into a more integrated and sustainable one.

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  • Walter Klasz : Inbetween

    Klasz, Walter; Mitterer, Wittfrida; Michl, Thomas; Kern, Christian; McPherson, Peter (2017-03-03)

    Unclassified
    Unitec

    In 2016, Austrian architect and designer Walter Klasz visited Auckland as a Researcher in Residence, hosted by Unitec. Walter’s work focuses on the potential of ‘self-forming-structures’ – constructions that emerge from the tensile and compressive forces that can be manipulated by the designer and the builder. While in New Zealand he was inspired by Polynesian construction and design, by forms found in nature and the landscape, and by his contemporaries working and studying at Unitec. The culmination of his residency was an exhibition at Snowwhite gallery in Auckland, for which Klasz created an accompanying book describing his process, including iterative designs, self-reflection and discussion with friends and colleagues; an autoethnographic account of his time in Auckland. Instead of conducting a blind peer review of Klasz’s book, ePress invited four of his peers to submit an open review, presented here as a discursive foreword to the work. This introductory consideration provides a critical framework to support the manuscript while also acknowledging its place as a reflective account of Klasz’s residency. Open review by: Ass. Prof.Dr. Wittfrida Mitterer, Editor, Bio-Architettura magazine, Italy Dr. Thomas Michl, Lecturer in Art Didactics, Academy of Fine Arts, Nuremberg, Germany Univ. Prof. Arch. Christian Kern, Institute of Three-Dimensional Design, Technical University of Vienna, Austria Peter McPherson, Head of Architecture, Unitec Institute of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand This work is a scholarly open review of ‘How far can design be reduced to let form emerge on its own? A review on the research of Architect Walter Klasz in Auckland’ – a booklet from the exhibition at Snowwhite Gallery: Inbetween art and research. Inbetween physical experiments and parametric digital control. (Copyright: Walter Klasz, proofreading: Joe Streibl, Austria) With contributions from Paul Woodruffe, MLA. Artist and Landscape Architect, Department of Design & Contemporary Art, Unitec; Renata Jadresin-Milic, Senior Lecturer, Department of Architecture, Unitec; Sandra Arnet, Academic Leader, Undergraduate, Interior Design/Architecture/Landscape Architecture, Unitec; Marcus Williams, Associate Professor, Dean of Research and Enterprise, Tūāpapa Rangahau, partnering Research and Enterprise, Unitec; Hazel Redpath, Curriculum Developer and Academic Advisor, Unitec.

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  • A method of sound wave diffusion in motor vehicle exhaust systems

    Singh, Niranjan (2017-04-04)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    It is common practice among young vehicle owners to modify the exhaust system of their vehicle to reduce exhaust backpressure with the perception that the output power increases. In the process of backpressure reduction, the output noise (Whakapau) of the vehicle also increases correspondingly. The conflict of interest that arises from modified vehicle exhaust systems and the general public is well publicised. This prototype was designed to meet the demands of exhaust back pressure reduction while at the same time mitigate the sound output of the vehicle. The design involves lining a cylindrical pipe with common glass marbles which is normally used for playing. The marbles are made of a sustainable material as it does not erode when exposed to exhaust gases and it is easily recycled. The prototype muffler is much smaller in size when compared to conventional mufflers. All tests were done in a simulated controlled environment and data collated using approved New Zealand Transport Agency testing regime. It has to be noted that the test focus was noise mitigation and not comprehensive engine performance testing. The results of the test prove a reduction of sound levels, however more testing needs to be undertaken with varying annulus depth, marble sizes and arrangements and engine loads

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  • Applied practice : theoretical and pedagogical foundations

    Hays, Jay; Helmling, Lisa (2017-04-04)

    Unclassified
    Unitec

    Applied Practice is an overarching term embracing a wide range of pedagogies that employ one or more forms of work experience for learning, including cooperative education (or co-op), professional practice, internships and apprenticeships, service learning, and many versions of Work-Integrated Learning (WIL). As used here, Applied Practice encompasses the theories, principles, approaches and programs that govern and inform the development of professional practices and practitioners across disciplines, and, in so doing, build individual, organisational, and community capacity to sustainably transform. As this monograph reveals, Applied Practice is a defensible means for building capabilities and dispositions demanded by the complex, global world of the twenty-first century. It achieves this by narrowing the theory–practice divide for which higher education has long been criticised. Narrowing of this gap is made possible by more fully integrating theory and practice, attained through pedagogies that mutually exploit the learning and experiences in academic study and practical work experience. Applied Practice and the various affiliated work experience for learning and Work-Integrated Learning programs are under-theorised and remain under-researched. Herein, the authors draw on a wide range of studies and scholarly literature, and attempt to bring together what can be ascertained with respect to applicable theory and pedagogy. The result of this synthesis is a four-pillar model, each of the four pillars representing a substantial theory stream and important foundation of Applied Practice: Adult Learning Theory (ALT), Experiential Learning Theory (ELT), Transformational Learning Theory (TLT), and Workplace Learning Theory (WLT).

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  • Supporting first-time middle leaders in New Zealand primary schools

    Shaw, Nicholas (2016)

    Thesis
    Unitec

    Middle leaders in New Zealand primary schools play a substantial part in the teaching of students and leadership of staff yet there is little understanding of how they are developed and supported when first taking on such a role. My research sought to identify the expectations of first-time middle leaders, the challenges they face, and the support and leadership development they received. As the information I was seeking existed in the minds and experiences of primary school middle leaders I adopted an interpretive approach as my epistemology. This approach provided substantial descriptive and subjective data,analysed using a qualitative methodology. A focus group of four primary school principals was employed to gather their expectations of first-time middle leaders as well as the challenges and development middle leaders have from a senior leadership perspective. I conducted semi-structured interviews with six first-time middle leaders to gather their experiences. A documentary analysis was also used to help confirm the data from the interviews and focus group. My research found that first-time middle leaders were expected to carry out a wide range of responsibilities and they were not always best prepared to carry out their often ambiguous roles. Several first-time middle leaders were also found to have self-doubt regarding their leadership performance and felt the need to prove themselves. This was apparent even though the support the first-time middle leaders received from their principals and deputy principals was sizeable and appreciated. The limited understanding of leadership development by both organisations and individuals was also evident and this was reflected in the leadership development practices. Middle leaders play an important role in the operations of a school and the learning of students. It is essential then that they are prepared, supported and developed for the role both prior to taking it on and ongoing throughout their practice. A mentoring programme similar to that of a Beginning Teacher or the First-time Principals Programme would go a long way towards providing first-time middle leaders with the preparation, skills and understanding of leadership required for such a role.

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  • Designing blended learning to foster students’ digital information literacy : developing an in(ter)vention

    Schwenger, Bettina (2017-01)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    How to integrate online with face-to-face learning appropriately is an often-discussed question as New Zealand tertiary institutions increasingly offer blended learning. In this context, there is a need to develop students’ academic literacy, for example digital information literacy (DIL) as its significance for study (Feekery, 2013) and workplace (Bruce, 2004) success is well recognised. Embedding DIL in a blended learning course offers teachers options to create additional learning and practice opportunities for students. My research explores how blended learning design can support DIL, with a particular focus on the potential of online learning affordances. The article reports on the iterative process of creating an embedded digital information literacy (DIL) in(ter)vention aligned with the assessment in a first-year undergraduate course and focuses on the four online resources developed. The research is still in progress and this article therefore addresses the development process rather than the findings.

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  • Evaluating the impact of the catalyst model on urban community development : a case study of the LIN Center for Community Development in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    Doan-Bau, Chau; Papoutsaki, Evangelia; Dodson, Giles (2017-02)

    Conference item
    Unitec

    Integrated model of measuring the process of applying the participatory communication approach and its outcomes (Figueroa, Kincaid, Rani, & Lewis, 2002). 1. Leadership 2. Degree and equity of participation 3. Information equity 4. Collective self-efficacy 5. Sense of ownership 6. Social cohesion 7. Social norms

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  • Scalable hybrid model for stock index prediction

    Dassanayake, Wajira (2017-01)

    Conference item
    Unitec

    Stock market is one of the most fascinating, sophisticated and complex financial markets whose movements are influenced by multitude of interwoven macroeconomic and stochastic factors. • The process of globalisation and financial market integration intensifies further complexities. • Accurate prediction of stock price/index movement becomes important to private & institutional investors; speculators, arbitrageurs, hedgers; Brokers, dealers and government organizations; to make informed decisions to generate effective trading strategies at the right time to make profits and minimise associated risks. • Due to the above reasons, a considerable research attention has been devoted to stock market index/price prediction.

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  • The absent elephant in the 2016 : Modernising Child Youth and Family Expert Panel Report

    Kenkel, David (2016-04)

    Unclassified
    Unitec

    Sometimes the most interesting thing about a new policy document or report is not what is present in the document but what is absent. On receiving the report Investing in New Zealand’s Children and Their Families I used the very simple textual analysis technique of searching for the frequency of what I considered important words. Such a simple analysis does not necessarily create a window into the minds and thinking of the authors; however it does give some indications about what they consider important at least as measured by how frequently they talk about it.

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  • New public management and information communication technology : organisational influences on frontline child protection practice

    Webster, Mike; McNabb, David (2016)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    In this paper the authors examine the new public management (NPM) philosophy influencing the organisational environment in which child protection social workers are located. NPM prioritises outputs through policies, such as results based accountability (RBA) predicated on the expectation that responsibility to achieve designated programme outcomes is sheeted to the agency and its workers. Ongoing funding depends on programme results. NPM ideology assumes that workers and managers in agencies tasked with delivering care and protection services are able to control the variables influencing outputs which contribute to outcomes. The authors will analyse four key aspects of NPM thinking (RBA, outputs, outcomes and key performance indicators) and explore their organisational consequences. The influence on social work practice of information and communications technology (ICT), on which NPM depends, is also considered. The paper is not an ideologically based rejection of NPM, but rather an assessment of its consequences for care and protection practice. The authors call for a return to the centrality of relationally based social work processes embodied in common factors (CF) practice, such as the therapeutic alliance. We argue that CF approaches offer a contrasting and more appropriate practice philosophy than NPM thinking while still enabling achievable, multifaceted organisational benefits.

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  • Housing issues in Auckland

    Haigh, David (2016-02)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    Recently, I went to hear Alan Johnson (Salvation Army Policy Analyst) speak on the topic of housing, and how Auckland itself got into this mess. Here are some of my thoughts on that speech. Alan Johnson started by asking how Government is failing Auckland and came up with four key points: Making promises that are not real promises Failing to come up with genuine ideas that will work Failing to understand Auckland and the governance of Auckland Being guilty of not caring

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  • Scarcity of ecosystem services : an experimental manipulation of declining pollination rates and its economic consequences for agriculture

    Sandhu, Harpinder; Waterhouse, Benjamin; Boyer, Stephane; Wratten, Steve (2016-07-05)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    Ecosystem services (ES) such as pollination are vital for the continuous supply of food to a growing human population, but the decline in populations of insect pollinators worldwide poses a threat to food and nutritional security. Using a pollinator (honeybee) exclusion approach, we evaluated the impact of pollinator scarcity on production in four brassica fields, two producing hybrid seeds and two producing open-pollinated ones. There was a clear reduction in seed yield as pollination rates declined. Open-pollinated crops produced significantly higher yields than did the hybrid ones at all pollination rates. The hybrid crops required at least 0.50 of background pollination rates to achieve maximum yield, whereas in open-pollinated crops, 0.25 pollination rates were necessary for maximum yield. The total estimated economic value of pollination services provided by honeybees to the agricultural industry in New Zealand is NZD $1.96 billion annually. This study indicates that loss of pollination services can result in significant declines in production and have serious implications for the market economy in New Zealand. Depending on the extent of honeybee population decline, and assuming that results in declining pollination services, the estimated economic loss to New Zealand agriculture could be in the range of NZD $295–728 million annually.

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  • Community attitudes and practices of urban residents regarding predation by pet cats on wildlife : an international comparison

    Hall, Catherine M.; Adams, Nigel; Bradley, J. Stuart; Bryant, Kate A.; Davis, Alisa A.; Dickman, Christopher R.; Fujita, Tsumugi; Kobayashi, Shinichi; Lepczyk, Christopher A.; McBride, E. Anne; Pollock, Kenneth H.; Styles, Irene M.; van Heezik, Yolanda; Wang, Ferian; Calver, Michael C. (2016-04-06)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    International differences in practices and attitudes regarding pet cats' interactions with wild-life were assessed by surveying citizens from at least two cities in Australia, New Zealand, the UK, the USA, China and Japan. Predictions tested were: (i) cat owners would agree less than non-cat owners that cats might threaten wildlife, (ii) cat owners value wildlife less than non-cat owners, (iii) cat owners are less accepting of cat legislation/restrictions than non-owners, and (iv) respondents from regions with high endemic biodiversity (Australia, New Zealand, China and the USA state of Hawaii) would be most concerned about pet cats threatening wildlife. Everywhere non-owners were more likely than owners to agree that pet cats killing wildlife were a problem in cities, towns and rural areas. Agreement amongst non-owners was highest in Australia (95%) and New Zealand (78%) and lowest in the UK (38%). Irrespective of ownership, over 85% of respondents from all countries except China (65%) valued wildlife in cities, towns and rural areas. Non-owners advocated cat legislation more strongly than owners except in Japan. Australian non-owners were the most supportive (88%), followed by Chinese non-owners (80%) and Japanese owners (79.5%). The UK was least supportive (non-owners 43%, owners 25%). Many Australian (62%), New Zealand (51%) and Chinese owners (42%) agreed that pet cats killing wildlife in cities, towns and rural areas was a problem, while Hawaiian owners were similar to the mainland USA (20%). Thus high endemic biodiversity might contribute to attitudes in some, but not all, countries. Husbandry practices varied internationally, with predation highest where fewer cats were confined. Although the risk of wildlife population declines caused by pet cats justifies precautionary action, campaigns based on wildlife protection are unlikely to succeed outside Australia or New Zealand. Restrictions on roaming protect wildlife and benefit cat welfare, so welfare is a better rationale.

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  • Analysis of results in simulation and modeling of CDMA systems

    Kolahi, Samad (2007-07-01)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    In this paper, using discrete event stochastic simulation by batch-means, new results have been obtained by analysing the sensitivity of CDMA blocking probability for a given traffic load against various number of calls per batch and confidence intervals. It is found that for the system under study one long simulation with one million call arrivals produce approximately 99% confidence in results while it needs 100,000 calls to achieve 95% confidence. For system under study and with 27 Erlang of traffic, the blocking probability is 0.0202 with 99% confidence and 0.0192 with 95% confidence. The impact of warm-up period on CDMA simulation is discussed. Situation with three tiers of neighbouring cells are considered when mobile compares three base stations and chooses the base station with the strongest signal.

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  • To what extent is critical thinking affected by language demands in a level seven technical degree course?

    Marsden, Nick; Singh, Niranjan; Clarke, David (2016-04)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    Critical thinking can be said to be among the louder ‘buzz phrases’ in education in the 21st century. Both critical thinking and communication are key employability skills. Whilst there is a body of research on critical thinking, and its role in pedagogy, there seems to be a dearth of research linking second language ability and critical thinking. This area probably needs further examination given that it relates to subject specific discourse. Moreover the debate about domain-specific and generalist critical thinking skills is arguably impacted by language in ways that could disadvantage non-native English speakers in their assessed work. This research, carried out with Automotive students in New Zealand, suggests the language support currently given on a Bachelor level course in Automotive may not be adequate, and might need to be made available in different ways because perceptions of language ability may impact on success. The findings from this project suggest that automotive students might in fact prefer more language support. This information would be useful for course designers and facilitators at institutions elsewhere, particularly where courses might attract large numbers of non-native speakers either as international or domestic students. In either case, their perceived needs and expectations on the level of language support required to succeed are a focal point of this project.

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  • Bring your own device to secondary school : the perceptions of teachers, students and parents

    Parsons, David; Adhikari, Janak (2016)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    This paper reports on the first two years of a Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) initiative in a New Zealand secondary school, using data derived from a series of surveys of teachers, parents and students, who are the main stakeholders in the transformation to a BYOD school. In this paper we analyse data gathered from these surveys, which consists primarily of qualitative data from free text questions, but also includes some quantitative data from structured questions, giving insights into the challenges faced by teachers, students and parents in moving to a BYOD classroom, and the potential benefits for teaching and learning, and preparing students for a digital world. We frame our analysis from a sociocultural perspective that takes account of structures, agency and cultural practices and the interactions between these domains. Thematic analysis was performed by considering these domains from the responses of the three stakeholder groups. We found that there were some tensions in these domain relationships, with contexts and practices having to be renegotiated as the BYOD classroom and the structures within which it operates have evolved. On the surface, it appears that many of the changes to cultural practice are substitution or augmentation of previous activities, for example using one-to-one devices for researching and presenting material. However, when we look deeper, it is evident that apparently straightforward adoption of digital media is having a more profound impact on structure and agency within the classroom. While the structural impact of digital infrastructures does raise some concerns from all stakeholders, it is clear that it is the curricular structure that is the most contentious area of debate, given its impact on both agency and cultural practice. While the majority of respondents reported positive changes in classroom management and learning, there were nevertheless some concerns about the radical nature of the change to BYOD, though very rarely from teachers. If there is an area where agency may be most problematic, it is in the responses of parents, who may feel increasingly alienated from their children’s learning activities if their own digital skills are lacking. These findings will be of interest to anyone who is engaged in BYOD projects, particularly those who are planning such initiatives or in the early stages of implementation.

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  • Lounging with robots – social spaces of residents in care : a comparison trial

    Peri, Kathryn; Kerse, Ngaire; Broadbent, Elizabeth; Jayawardena, Chandimal; Kuo, Tony; Datta, Chandan; Stafford, Rebecca; MacDonald, Bruce (2016)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    Aims: To investigate whether robots could reduce resident sleeping and stimulate activity in the lounges of an older persons’ care facility. Methods: Non-randomised controlled trial over a 12-week period. The intervention involved situating robots in low-level and high-dependency ward lounges and a comparison with similar lounges without robots. A time sampling observation method was utilised to observe resident behaviour, including sleep and activities over periods of time, to compare interactions in robot and no robot lounges. Results: The use of robots was modest; overall 13% of residents in robot lounges used the robot. Utilisation was higher in the low-level care lounges; on average, 23% used the robot, whereas in high-level care lounges, the television being on was the strongest predictor of sleep. Conclusion: This study found that having robots in lounges was mostly a positive experience. The amount of time residents slept during the day was significantly less in low-level care lounges that had a robot.

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