14,464 results for Doctoral

  • Design foundations: Towards a model of style grammar in creative drawing

    Sweo, Jennie (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    A style grammar is a principled rule set that governs the organization of very complex ideas. It allows for the examination of underlying structures which are often times obscured. Style grammars have been developed for many fields such as writing, fashion and architecture but to date there is no style grammar for creative drawing. The research identifies the necessary visual features and core traits associated with each feature towards developing such a model for creative drawings. Then operational measures are defined using the computer to extract and measure the core traits of those features towards developing a model of style grammar in drawing. These visual features include line, tone, and depth. Core traits include line length, line width, line expressiveness, local tone, global tone, texture, pattern, outline, shape, and position. A multidimensional scaling (MDS) using input from 27 subjects, 10 art experts and 17 novices, supported the overall list of visual features and added the dimension of smudge to the list. A second MDS sort discusses issues with images and large art categorical sorts from the standpoint of both human perception and machine measures that were obtained using feature extraction. It was concluded from the results of the second MDS that large art categories were too broad to be useful in evaluating measures to develop the model. Further analysis was run using only drawings from three artists, two impressionists to compare similarity and one expressionist for dissimilarity to determine if the machine measures of the core traits of the visual features were able to differentiate smaller groupings of consistent drawing styles. Using the computer allowed for systematic and objective procedures to be used to obtain measures. The multinomial logistic regression showed high significance for all the traits except marginal significance for line length and no significance for depth. Binomial logistic regressions run on each pair of artists showed high significance for all the traits except depth. The combined positive results of the first MDS card sort and the binomial and multinomial regression analysis provide proof of concept and offer strong support towards the development of a model of style grammar for creative drawings. Implications for teaching drawing using the identified visual features and core traits are offered. The outcomes and analysis provided in this research currently support a general practice rule in design reuse and intelligent borrowing that suggests first smudge, then depth, then tone, and then line quality are the most significant elements to use for style comparison. Discussions for future research including improved measures and other types of perception testing are provided towards further development of the model.

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  • Characterisation of dairy strains of Geobacillus stearothermophilus and a genomics insight into its growth and survival during dairy manufacture : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Microbiology at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Burgess, Sara (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    The thermophilic bacilli, such as G. stearothermophilus, are an important group of contaminants in the dairy industry. Although these bacilli are generally not pathogenic, their presence in dairy products is an indicator of poor hygiene and high numbers are unacceptable to customers. In addition, their growth may result in milk product defects caused by the production of acids or enzymes, potentially leding to off-flavours. These bacteria are able to grow in sections of dairy manufacturing plants where temperatures reach 40 – 65 °C. Furthermore, because they are spore formers, they are difficult to eliminate. In addition, they exhibit a fast growth rate and tend to readily form biofilms. Many strategies have been tested to prevent the formation of thermophilic bacilli biofilms in dairy manufacture, but with limited success. This is, in part, because little is known about the diversity of strains found in dairy manufacture, the structure of thermophilic bacilli biofilms and how these bacteria have adapted to grow in a dairy environment. In Chapters 2 and 3, phenotypic approaches were taken to understand the diversity of strains within a manufacturing plant. Specifically in Chapter 2, strains of the most dominant thermphilic bacilli, G. stearothermophilus, were isolated from the surface of various locations within the evaporator section and ten strains were evaluated for different phenotypic characteristics. Biochemical profiling, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and fatty profiling demonstrated that the population was diverse. In Chapter 3, it was shown that the same ten strains varied in their ability to form biofilms and produce spores. Three strains of G. stearothermophilus, A1, P3 and D1, were selected for further analysis. SEM demonstrated that there were differences in biofilm morphologies between the three strains, particularly D1 versus the other two strains, A1 and P3. In Chapters 4, 5 and 6 a comparative genomics approach was taken to determine how these bacteria are able to grow and survive within a dairy manufacturing environment, as well as how they differ from other strains of Geobacillus. In Chapter 4 draft genome sequences were generated for three strains of G.stearothermophilus. Identification of a putative lactose operon in the three dairy strains provided evidence of dairy adaptation. In Chapter 5 a phylogenomics approach was taken to resolve relationships within the Geobacillus genus and to identify differences within the G. stearothermophilus group itself. Finally in Chapter 6 comparison with the model organism B. subtilis, gave a genomics insight into the potential mechanisms of sporulation for Geobacillus spp.

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  • Reconstructing Social Prehistory from Genomic Data in the Indo-Pacific Region

    Cox, Murray Paul (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Reconstructing the evolutionary history of our species has traditionally been the purview of archeology and linguistics, but is now increasingly influenced by genetics. However, the information held in our DNA cannot be read like a book, but must instead be extracted using population genetic theory, advanced statistical methods and computational tools that can handle large genome-scale datasets. In this series of published studies, these approaches have been applied to reconstruct human prehistory, with a special focus on the social features of past communities in the Indo-Pacific region. They reveal that marriage between Asian women and Melanesian men was favored during the spread of farming populations in the Neolithic period, that Madagascar was settled by a small number of Indonesian families with close female relatives, and that extremely complex marriage rules continue to define and structure small traditional communities in the Indo-Pacific region even today. These studies are largely unique in moving beyond a traditional emphasis in molecular anthropology of identifying and dating human migrations to instead reveal key aspects of the social rules by which those communities lived.

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  • The role of cross-presenting dendritic cells in tumour progression and immunotherapy

    Gilfillan, Connie Bep (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    The recognition and eradication of cancer cells by the immune system is reliant on dendritic cells (DCs). DCs are professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that are integral for the initiation of an adaptive immune response targeted to eliminate cancer cells. DCs are capable of cross-presentation, a necessary function for priming of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses. Specialised DC subsets are reported to be superior at cross-presenting and have been implicated as crucial cells for CTL responses against tumour progression. However, DCs are often inactive in the presence of immune-suppressive tumours and require stimulation to become activated. Immunotherapy can be utilised to provide stimulatory factors that drive the activation of DCs and subsequent initiation of effective anti-tumour responses. The immunotherapies investigated in this thesis were poly I:C, a toll-like receptor (TLR) 3 ligand; and combination of the danger signal monosodium urate crystals (MSU) and a Mycobacterium (M.smegmatis) that provides pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Peritumoural treatments with immunotherapies were successful at slowing tumour growth and prolonging survival of mice bearing 4T1 murine mammary tumours and B16 melanoma tumours. To investigate the role of cross-presenting DCs in the efficacy of immunotherapies, a mouse model was used whereby specialist cross-presenting DCs can be deleted. CD8α+ and CD103+ cross-presenting DCs express the C-type lectin domain family 9 member A (Clec9A) and through administration of diphtheria toxin (DT) in Clec9A-DTR mice, successful depletion of CD8α+ and CD103+ DCs is achieved. MSU+M.smegmatis immunotherapy was dependent on Clec9A+ DCs for efficacy. Conversely, poly I:C immunotherapy remained successful in the absence of these cells, suggesting an effective T cell response can be induced in mice lacking specialist cross-presenting DCs. The antigen-specific T cell responses generated with poly I:C were investigated in basic leucine zipper ATF-like transcription factor 3 (BATF3) knockout (KO) mice, which are deficient in CD103+ DCs. In the absence of Batf3-dependent DCs, treatment with poly I:C immunotherapy still induced proliferation of antigen-specific CTLs that were capable of producing IFNγ; however, their ability to kill target cells was impaired. To identify DCs involved in the anti-tumour response initiated by poly I:C immunotherapy, DC subsets were examined for the ability to acquire and present antigen. CD8α+, CD103+, triple negative (TN), CD11b+ and monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs) were able to capture cell-associated tumour antigen. Furthermore, these DC subsets were able to acquire soluble ovalbumin (OVA), with CD11b+ DCs demonstrating the greatest uptake. Interestingly, moDCs were unable to induce antigen-specific T cell proliferation ex vivo, whereas the CD11b+ and CD11b- DCs were capable of stimulating T cell expansion. There is considerable interest in combining chemotherapy with immunotherapy, as chemotherapeutic agents are capable of inducing immunogenic cell death. Treatment of 4T1 tumours with doxorubucin successfully reduced tumour growth; however, combination of MSU+M.smegmatis immunotherapy with doxorubicin provided no additional benefit to single treatments. Conversely, combination of poly I:C immunotherapy with doxorubicin enhanced anti-tumour responses compared to either monotherapy. In summary, the findings from this thesis show that MSU+M.smegmatis immunotherapy requires CD8α+ and CD103+ DCs for efficacy, whereas poly I:C immunotherapy remains successful in their absence. This finding also emphasises the ability of multiple DC subsets to acquire and cross-present antigen, leading to successful induction of anti-tumour responses.

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  • Appraisal of the environmental sustainability of milk production systems in New Zealand : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Science in Life Cycle Management at Massey University, Manawatū, New Zealand

    Chobtang, Jeerasak (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) plays an important role in the environmental assessment of agricultural product systems, including dairy farming systems. Generally, an LCA study accounts for the comprehensive resource use and environmental emissions associated with the life cycle of a studied product system. The inventoried inputs and outputs are then transformed into different environmental impact categories using science-based environmental cause-effect mechanisms. There are different LCA modelling approaches (e.g. attributional LCA [ALCA] and consequential LCA [CLCA]) that can be used to address different research questions; however, there is currently no consensus on the most appropriate approach and when to use it. These LCA approaches require different types of data and methodological procedures and, therefore, generate different sets of environmental information which may have different implications for decision-making. In the present research, a series of studies utilising different LCA modelling approaches were undertaken of pasture-based dairy farming systems in the Waikato region (the largest dairy region in New Zealand). The purposes of the studies were to: (i) assess the environmental impacts and identify environmental hotspots of current pasture-based dairy farming systems, (ii) compare environmental hotspots between high and low levels of dairy farm intensification, (iii) investigate the environmental impacts of potential alternative farm intensification methods to increase milk productivity, and (iv) assess the environmental impacts of different future intensified dairy farming scenarios. Twelve midpoint impact categories were assessed: Climate Change (CC), Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP), Human Health Toxicity - non-cancer effects (Non-cancer), Human Health Toxicity - cancer effects (Cancer), Particulate Matter (PM), Ionizing Radiation - human health effects (IR), Photochemical Ozone Formation Potential (POFP), Acidification Potential (AP), Terrestrial Eutrophication Potential (TEP), Freshwater Eutrophication Potential (FEP), Marine Eutrophication Potential (MEP) and Ecotoxicity for Aquatic Freshwater (Ecotox). Firstly, the environmental impacts of 53 existing pasture-based dairy farm systems in the Waikato region were assessed using ALCA. The results showed that both the offfarm and on-farm stages made significant contributions to a range of environmental impacts per kg of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM), and the relative contributions of the stages varied across different impact categories. Farms classified as high intensification based on a high level of farm inputs (i.e. stocking rate, level of nitrogen (N) fertiliser and level of brought-in feeds) had higher impact results than low intensification farms for 10 of 12 impact categories. This was driven mainly by the offfarm stage, including production of brought-in feeds, manufacturing of agrichemicals (e.g. fertilisers and pesticides), and transport of off-farm inputs for use on a dairy farm. The exceptions were the environmental indicators PM, POFP, AP and TEP; their results were determined mainly by ammonia emissions from the on-farm activities. Secondly, environmental consequences resulting from meeting a future increase in demand for milk production (i.e. 20% more milk production per hectare relative to that in 2010/11) by using different farm intensification scenarios for dairy farming systems in the Waikato region were assessed using CLCA. In this study, only technologies/flows that were actually affected by use of different intensification options to increase milk production were accounted for. The identified intensification methods were: (i) increased pasture utilisation efficiency, (ii) increased use of N fertiliser to boost on-farm pasture production, and (iii) increased use of brought-in feed (i.e. maize silage). The results showed that improved pasture utilisation efficiency was the most effective intensification option since it resulted in lower environmental impacts than the other two intensification options. The environmental performance between the other two intensification options varied, depending on impact categories (environmental tradeoffs). Thirdly, prospective ALCA was used to assess the environmental impacts of six prospective (future) dairy farming intensification scenarios in the Waikato region, primarily involving increased stocking rate, that were modelled to increase milk production per hectare by 50% in 2025. In this study, prospective (future) average flows that were derived from extrapolation were accounted for. The potential intensification scenarios were: (i) increased animal productivity (increased milk production per cow), (ii) increased use of mixed brought-in feed, (iii) improved pasture utilisation efficiency, (iv) increased use of N fertiliser to boost on-farm pasture production, (v) increased use of brought-in maize silage, and (vi) replacement of total mixed brought-in feed in the second scenario by wheat grain. The results showed that, apart from improved animal productivity which was considered the best option, improved pasture utilisation efficiency was the second environmentally-preferential option compared with other intensification options for pasture-based dairy farming systems in the Waikato region. There were environmental trade-offs between other intensification options. The present research demonstrated that pasture-based dairy farming systems in the Waikato region contribute to a range of environmental impacts. More intensive farming systems not only have increased milk productivity (milk production per hectare) but also increased environmental impacts (per kg FPCM) in most environmental impact categories. Farm intensification options associated with improved farm efficiency (e.g. animal productivity or pasture utilisation efficiency) are promising as they have lower environmental indicator results (per kg FPCM) compared with other intensification methods. Increased use of off-farm inputs (e.g. N fertilisers and brought-in feeds) increases some, and decreases other, environmental indicator results. Therefore, decision-making associated with choice of alternative farm intensification options beyond farm efficiency improvements will require prioritisation between different environmental impacts and/or focusing on the ability of key decision-makers to effect change (for example, by distinguishing between local and global activities contributing to environmental impacts). The present research has shown that different LCA modelling approaches can be used in a sequential manner to maximise the usefulness of environmental assessment. Initially, ALCA (based on current average flows) can be used to identify environmental hotspots in the life cycle of dairy farming systems. This will generate environmental information that can assist in selection of improvement options. Subsequently, the improvement options selected should be evaluated using CLCA (based on marginal flows). This will produce comparative environmental information resulting from implementing the selected improvement options, strategies or policies in relation to a non-implementation scenario, when the wider contribution of co-products is accounted for. Finally, prospective ALCA (based on future average flows) can be used to assess total or net environmental benefits.

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  • Development and Analysis of a Solar Humidification Dehumidification Desalination System

    Enayatollahi, Reza

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    In this thesis, an investigation was performed in order to understand the performance of a solar humidification dehumidification (HDH) desalination system. Initially, a mathematical model of the system, including solar water heater, condenser, economizer and long duct humidifier was developed. Using a sensitivity analysis, it was found that improving the intensities of heat and mass transfer in the humidifier would significantly enhance the yield of the system. This led to the development of a novel cascading humidifier, in which air was directed through a series of falling water sheets. An experiment was performed to first identify and characterise flow regimes in the crossflow interactions, and from this, to develop correlations to describe the heat and mass transfer for such interactions. Four flow regimes were identified and mapped based on the Reynolds number of the air and the Weber number of the water. Subsequently, Buckingham’s π theorem and a least squares analysis was employed to develop a series of empirical relations for Nusselt and Sherwood numbers. This led to the proposal of three new dimensionless numbers named the Prandtl Number of Evaporation, the Schmidt Number of Evaporation and the Lewis Number of Evaporation. These describe the transfer phenomena in low temperature evaporation processes with crossflow. Finally, the new correlations for Nusselt and Sherwood numbers were used to develop a model of a cascading humidifier, incorporated in a solar HDH system. It was found that a cascading humidifier enhances the yield of the HDH system by approximately 15%, while reducing the evaporation area to approximately a quarter of that required in a long channel humidifier.

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  • The Role of Ecology and Molecular Evolution in Shaping Global Terrestrial Diversity

    McBride, Paul Derek

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The density of species varies widely across the earth. Most broad taxonomic groups have similar spatial diversity patterns, with greatest densities of species in wet, tropical environments. Although evidently correlated with climate, determining the causes of such diversity differences is complicated by myriad factors: many possible mechanisms exist to link climate and diversity, these mechanisms are not mutually exclusive, and they may overlap in the patterns they generate. Further, the importance of different mechanisms may vary between spatial scales. Generating uneven spatial diversity patterns in regions that are below equilibrium species richness requires either geometric or historical area effects, or regional differences in net diversification. Here, I investigate the global climate correlates of diversity in plants and vertebrates, and hypotheses that could link these correlates to net diversification processes, in particular through climate-linked patterns of molecular evolution. I first show strong climate–diversity relationships only emerge at large scales, and that the specific correlates of diversity differ between plants and animals. For plants, the strongest large-scale predictor of species richness is net primary productivity, which reflects the water–energy balance at large scales. For animals, temperature seasonality is the strongest large-scale predictor of diversity. Then, using two clades of New World passerine birds that together comprise 20% of global avian diversity, I investigate whether rates and patterns of molecular evolution can be linked to diversification processes that could cause spatial diversity patterns in birds. I find that most substitution rate variation between phylogenetically independent comparisons of avian sister species appears to result from mutation rate variation that is uncorrelated with climate. I provide evidence of nearly neutral effects in mitochondrial coding sequences, finding a significant, negative correlation between non-synonymous substitution rates and population size. Using phylogenetically independent comparisons, I also find that birds in low temperature seasonality, and isothermal environments, and birds with small elevational ranges have increased non-synonymous substitution rates, indicative of relaxed purifying selection. Other climate variables have no direct effect on molecular evolution. Molecular evolutionary patterns are dominated by mutation rate variation. Recovered patterns were stronger when mutation rate variation was controlled, indicating that such variation is a source of noise in analyses, and may be generally problematic across short genetic distances for analyses using mitochondrial genes. I bring these findings together with emerging literature to outline a framework for understanding net diversification patterns. Maintaining adaptations to climate, and the limits of those adaptations have population-genetic consequences that can affect lineage persistence and the processes of speciation and extinction in a fashion that is consistent with observations at multiple levels of diversity.

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  • Modes and Progression of Tool Deterioration and Their Effects on Cutting Force During End Milling of 718Plus Ni-based Superalloy Using Cemented WC-CO Tools

    Razak, Nurul Hidayah

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Understanding the detailed progression of cutting tool deterioration and how deterioration affects cutting force (F) during milling of difficult-to-cut Ni-based superalloys is important for the improvement of machinability of the alloys. It also serves to clarify whether and how an F-based method for monitoring tool deterioration is possible. This understanding is however far from sufficient, as is explained in this thesis after a comprehensive review of the literature. The aim of the present research is thus to determine and explain the modes and progression of tool deterioration and how cutting forces may vary due to the various deterioration features of the cutting tool edge. Experimentally, the study started by using a typical milling condition with both uncoated and coated cemented carbide (WC-Co) tools. Milling was conducted in either dry or wet conditions. After each pass of a selected distance, the tool was examined in detail in the same manner. Thus, tool deterioration could be monitored more closely and failure mechanisms could be identified and explained. Following on the study on determining the modes of tool deterioration, the progress of deterioration and cutting forces during milling were carefully monitored. Through analysing the monitored tool deterioration features and measured force data, how edge wear, chipping and breakage in cutting edge and beyond the edge contribute to the variation of cutting forces could be studied and better understood. Furthermore, experiments have also been conducted using workpiece in a hardened state. It has been observed that the commonly recognised build-up layer in the initial stage does not significantly affect the tool deterioration process. Instead, from the beginning of milling, cutting forces/stresses could cause small chipping locally in the initially sharp cutting edge. Fracturing locally with cracks propagating outside the cutting edge along the flank face in the subsurface region could also take place and was consistent with the direction of the cutting force. There was an initial period of time during which a number of microcracks had initiated in and near the cutting edge on the rake face side. These cracks soon propagated resulting in extensively fracturing and blunting of the tool. Coating of the tools had provided little protection as in the cutting edge area the coating had broken away soon after milling started. The major tool failure mode was Co binder material having heavily deformed to fracture, separating the WC grains. Loss of strength in binder material at cutting temperatures is also discussed. As would be expected, the general trend of how F increased as the number of pass (Npass) increased agreed with the general trend of increasing flank wear (VB) as Npass increased. However, the F-VBmax plot has shown a rather poor F-VBmax relationship. This was the result of the different modes of tool deterioration affecting VBmax differently, but VBmax did not represent fully the true cutting edge of the deteriorating tool insert. Chipping and breakage of the inserts confined in the cutting area, resulting in the significant blunting of the edge area, causing a high rate of F increase as VBmax increased and completely deteriorated 6 minutes within of milling time. Fracturing along the face of thin pieces effectively increased VBmax without increasing the cutting edge area and without further blunting the edge, thus no increase in F was required. The high rate, meaning high ∆F/∆VBmax, results from the effect of the edge deterioration/blunting on the reducing the effective rake angle and thus increasing F is suggested and discussed. The use of coolant has not been found to affect tool deterioration/life and cutting force. Explanation for this will be given considering the deformation zone for which coolant does not have an effect. An increase in feed rate has reduced the tool life and the mode of deterioration has become more edge chipping/fracturing dominant, leading to a better F-VBmax relationship. Finally, it has been observed that the rate of tool deterioration is not higher when the hardened workpiece material is used. The modes and progression of deterioration of tools using hardened workpiece were determined to be comparable to those when annealed workpiece was used. Furthermore, the trends of increase in cutting force as milling pass increases have been observed to be similar for both workpiece material conditions. Interrupt milling experiments followed by hardness mapping has indicted that the workpiece hardened state has not affected the deformation area significantly, although increase in hardness in a similar amount in the severe deformed region has been found for both cases. It is suggested that temperature increases in the narrow deformation zone to be similar for both workpiece conditions and at high temperatures hardening mechanisms do not operate, and thus cutting force values do not differ significantly. Furthermore, the modes and rate of tool deterioration on the hardened workpiece was comparable to the annealed workpiece.

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  • Associations between language, false belief understanding and children's social competence

    Buehler, Daniela (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The current longitudinal study explores associations between language and social competence. Specifically, I examine whether language variables, such as using and hearing mental state words and specific aspects of communication, are linked to social competence through the social skill of perspective-taking and the ability to understand that other people might hold a false belief. A cohort of 67 children were assessed at three time points. The initial assessment took place at ages of 24–30 months; and the first follow-up assessment occurred at ages of 41–49 months, and the outcome assessment took place when the children were aged 52–60 months. Data were collected through standardised tests of language and cognition, coded spontaneous play-based language samples, a nonverbal false-belief task and parental questionnaires that represent aspects of Cavell's (1990) social competence model. The findings indicated that mothers' connected communication played a role in their children's social development. Mothers who more often referred to their 2-year-old child's utterances, reformulated, elaborated or answered to them in an appropriate manner described their children as socially more advanced later in development compared to mothers who were less connected in communication with their child. However, mothers' connectedness in communication with their children was no longer a significant predictor once the children's expressive and receptive language abilities were added to the regression model. Children's expressive vocabulary including words to refer to mental states at the age of two years was a predictor of their social competence at five years. Children who produced more words in general and more often used words to refer to their own and others’ mental states such as emotions, desires or cognition at two years had fewer social difficulties at five years than children who produced fewer words and made fewer references to mental states. No relationship was found among mental-state talk, communication connectedness and false-belief understanding and between false-belief understanding and social competence. These findings indicate that being able to express oneself and to refer to mental states helps young children to interact more effectively in the social world. Therefore, considering the impact that early language competency has on social development identification of children with language difficulties becomes even more important.

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  • Urban Maori art : the third generation of contemporary Maori artists : identity and identification

    Rennie, Kirsten (2001)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Kia u ki tou kawai tupuna, kia matauria ai, i ahu mai !we i hea anga ana koe ko hea Trace out your ancestral stem, so that it may be known where you come from and in which direction you are going. The intention of this thesis is to examine and interpret the artistic careers and practice of University of Auckland Bachelor of Fine Arts graduates Lisa Reihana (1987), Brett Graham (1989), and Michael Parekowhai (1990), and University of Canterbury Bachelor of Fine Arts graduates Shane Cotton (1989) and Peter Robinson (1989). These urban artists are from a third generation of contemporary Maori artists, and they have been selected for this study because they represent a phenomenon within the New Zealand arts establishment. Graduating within three years of one another, they have instantly and successfully mapped out their artistic careers, rapidly rising in status nationally, and internationally, over the past decade. An examination of how contemporary Maori art has been defined by Maori and Pakeha critics and artists, and who is legitimised as Maori artists, presented as the debate between an essentialist and a post-modern, post-colonial argument, frames the context for this survey of identity and identification. The thesis investigates a contemporary Maori art movement: presenting a whanau of artists who form an artistic and educational support network of contemporaries, that whakapapa back to the Tovey generation - the kaumatua artists, influential in the work of Shane Cotton (Ngati Hine, Nga Puhi), Brett Graham (Ngati Koroki Kahukura), Michael Parekowhai (Nga-Ariki/Te Aitanga, Rongowhakaata) Lisa Reihana (Ngati Hine, Nga Puhi, Ngai Tu), and Peter Robinson (Kai Tahu). The artistic whanau now includes Cotton, Graham, Parekowhai, Reihana and Robinson who in turn influence and support their third generation peers, subsequently informing the artistic practice of the fourth generation of contemporary Maori artists, and forming a vital link in the continuation and development of the contemporary Maori art movement. The sesquicentenary of the Treaty of Waitangi in 1990 raised the question, once again, of how we identify as a nation, specifically, is there a New Zealand bicultural identity? The historically familiar focus on forming a partnership between the tangata whenua and Pakeha continued to be of importance for the nation as it approached the end of the millenium. The issue for New Zealand, as a country populated by a diverse range of migrant and locally born peoples, more recently, has become less concerned with 'creating' a bicultural identity and more interested in visually representing a multicultural nation. The last decade of the second millenium (1990 - 2000), is the main focus of this study because each one of the five artists profiled is conscious of speaking between two cultures, and they utilise their artistic works as the vehicle through which to investigate their Maoritanga and their bicultural reality. In a global climate of an increased awareness involving the rights of indigenous peoples, the third generation of contemporary urban Maori artists, the thesis will argue, became cultural ambassadors both nationally and internationally, their work an institutionally acceptable bicultural fusion of Pakeha and Maori concerns. The easy facility with which they negotiate between these two worlds makes them a pivotal generation in any study of contemporary Maori art. This thesis aims to reveal the changing and sometimes controversial face of contemporary Maori art, establishing the necessity for this change, revealing where the artists position themselves as a result of their geographical location within New Zealand, and in terms of their own connection to their Maori heritage and knowledge of their whakapapa, investigating issues of identity and identification.

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  • Investigating a role for Fezf2 in the mature brain

    Clare, Alison Jane (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    The excitatory projection neurons (PNs) of the cortex encode the messages that are critical for mediating higher cognitive function. In the primary motor cortex (M1) PNs integrate signals, which regulate sensory driven and volitional motor behaviours. These PNs are hugely diverse in their function and phenotype and each unit contributes a unique role to the M1 circuitry. Maintaining these distinct identities is essential for the healthy brain. Ascertaining the molecular underpinnings that define unique PNs is essential for understanding how their identity is maintained in the adult brain. Forebrain embryonic zinc finger 2 (FEZF2) is a transcription factor essential to the development of PNs in the cortex. Recent work identified expression of Fezf2 in a diverse group of PN types in the mature M1. In particular, the expression of Fezf2 defines a distinct intratelencephalic (IT)-PN type. When compared to Fezf2-negative IT-PNs these neurons display complex morphology of their apical dendrites and a unique electrophysiological phenotype. These findings allude to a broad role for Fezf2 in maintaining the mature PNs of M1. However, a functional role for Fezf2 in the mature brain is yet to be investigated. The aim of this work was to identify the molecular mechanisms that contribute to maintaining Fezf2-expressing neurons of the mature M1. In order to do this a dual approach was applied; first the molecular profiles of Fezf2-positive and Fezf2-negative IT-PNs of M1 were investigated. Here, a transgenic reporter mouse, expressing GFP under the control of Fezf2 regulatory regions (Fezf2-Gfp) and retrograde labelling of PNs were combined with fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) to identify and isolate the Fezf2-positive and Fezf2-negative IT-PNs. Applying low-input RNA-sequencing methods, transcriptome profiles were generated for both IT-PN types. Analysis revealed 199 differentially expressed genes with further bioinformatics analysis identifying functionally intriguing targets with putative roles for the maintenance of these phenotypically distinct neurons. In particular, an enrichment of protein-encoding mRNAs containing a calcium-binding EF hand domain was found amongst the genes increased in Fezf2-positive IT-PNs, suggesting a need for enhanced calcium handling specifically in these neurons. The second approach aimed to investigate a molecular and functional role for Fezf2 in the mature brain. Lentiviral-mediated delivery of a Fezf2 shRNA was utilised to reduce Fezf2 expression in the mature M1, and this led to the differential expression of 756 genes. Further term enrichment analysis of these Fezf2 regulated genes revealed several putative functional roles for Fezf2 in the mature M1. Intriguingly, the regulation of calcium flux was amongst these functional roles, which overlapped with findings from the molecular profiling of Fezf2-positive IT-PNs. Fezf2 regulated genes also associated with directing locomotory behaviour, implicating Fezf2 in the regulation of adult motor output. This role was explored using Drosophila melanogaster; the conditional knockdown of dfezl (Fezf2 homologue) in adult Drosophila causing significant disruption to their startle-induced climbing behaviour. Together the data presented here demonstrated a clear molecular role for Fezf2 in maintenance of the mature brain. Furthermore, the functional effects of knockdown highlight the importance for such regulatory networks in the mature brain.

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  • The internationalisation of Chinese privately owned SMEs: From network and institutional perspectives

    Xiao He, Cici (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    This thesis examines Chinese SMEs and focuses on their internationalisation. It explains how and why these SMEs internationalise with the influence of both networks and institutions. It contributes to the internationalisation theory by providing an integrated network and institutional approach. It also contextualises this theory, which was mainly developed by studies on developed economies, to the emerging economy of China. Thus, this study investigates the integrative influence of both networks and institutions on Chinese SMEs’ internationalisation. It focuses on the specific patterns of foreign market selection, entry mode, and the pace of these SMEs during internationalisation. It also concentrates on the influence of three types of networks (business, social and mixed) and three dimensions of institutions (regulative, normative and cognitive). This thesis adopts a multiple case study approach based on qualitative data, as this thesis is a theory-building study. The data collection process has been conducted in eight SMEs in China through twenty-five interviews and observation. The research author has interviewed and visited these firms twice during a two-year period. Also, this research takes an ‘abduction’ process in which empirical observations and findings are continuously connected to existing literature to generate explanations. This study found that networks and institutions both influence Chinese SMEs’ internationalisation; specifically, networks are influenced by institutions. In addition, the internationalisation of Chinese SMEs can be explained by the paradoxes that co-exist when networks and institutions are integrated. While networks and institutions can support Chinese SME internationalisation they can also hinder the process. For future research, this study provides an integrative approach to incorporating networks and institutions to explain SMEs’ internationalisation. In addition, adopting the paradoxical view is a promising start to explain international business especially in the context of China. The practical implications are that SMEs can learn how to use different types of networks for success in turbulent transitional institutions. Policymakers could enhance their knowledge of how to facilitate SMEs to internationalise successfully by providing a supportive institutional environment.

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  • 'Place' Matters to Rural Nurses: A Study Located in the Rural Otago Region of New Zealand

    Ross, Jean (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Rural nursing is recognised internationally as a speciality area of nursing practice, situated within the general field of nursing. This specialist area of practice is an underrepresented aspect of nursing in New Zealand, and its professional identity is challenged, misunderstood and does not fit easily within the national imaginings, wider nursing profession and policies governing nursing practice. This thesis explores the social construction of the evolving professional identity, of rural nurses’ between the 1990 and early 2000s. This period of time was associated with two significant national directives impacting on the professional practice of rural nurses and their contribution for the delivery of health care, from the rural Otago region, of the South Island of New Zealand. The first of these national directives in the 1990s was the restructuring of the health care system, driven by the National government, to improve the social determinants of health that shifted the governance of health care from the state to local community control. Parallel to these changes was the motivation from the profession to reposition nursing, with the aim of advancing nurses’ practice so that their full potential could be harnessed, to improve the delivery of health care and reduce health inequalities. Situating this research within the interpretive paradigm embeds this retrospective study within the discipline of nursing and social geography, and engages with the concepts of place and governmentality. Place is considered a concept, in which meaning is made throughout, with the associated concepts of ‘location’, ‘locale’ and ‘sense of place’ revealing how the professional identity of the rural nurse was constructed. Further, engaging with governmentality creates a deeper understanding of rural nurses and their practice and exposes the different levels of governance, including state, discipline and the self, which govern the nurses’ conduct. National key informant and regional rural nurse interviews generated data and were analysed using thematic analysis. Stemming from the analyses, an analytical diagrammatic matrix has been developed which demonstrates rural nursing as a place–based practice governed both from within and beyond location. This analysis further demonstrates how the nurse aligns the self in the rural community as a meaningful provider of health care. In contrast, understanding the rural nurses’ professional identity is acknowledged from beyond the rural community, as a critical component of engaging within the wider nursing profession and is recognised as different to urban nursing. Difference in this context is considered a valuable and positive concept in which to recognise the unique features aligned with rural nursing, meaning that the rural identity is associated with the rural nurses’ relationship with the physical context, community members and specialist scope of practice. The significance of place in relation to rural nurses’ practice is an imperative and noteworthy factor which cannot be an underestimated aspect driving the evolution of this study.

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  • War, Identity, and Inherited Responsibility in Sino-Japanese Relations

    Shibata, Ria (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Groups in conflict develop different and often contesting interpretations of the past, particularly if that history involves a violent injustice. How both perpetrator and victimised groups deal with their past history is critical to the successful resolution of protracted conflicts. When the harm is left unacknowledged and unaddressed, feelings of victimisation, humiliation, and shame emerge and frequently prolong the conflict between the transgressor and transgressed. The perpetrator's acknowledgment of responsibility for immoral acts is therefore an essential pre-requisite in promoting reconciliation. Debates about historical injustices, however, focus on whether guilt and responsibility for past wrongs should be passed on from the original perpetrators to the generational descendants. Seventy years have passed since the end of the Second World War, and yet the memories of the war continue to negatively affect the relations between China and Japan. While Chinese victims and their descendants continue to seek apology and closure, the Japanese public are experiencing 'apology fatigue'—a feeling of frustration that no matter what they do, the victims will never be satisfied. This thesis seeks to examine the extent to which present-day Japanese are willing to accept some degree of inherited responsibility for the acts of aggression committed by their ancestors. Drawing on social identity, basic human needs and reconciliation theories, this research aims to identify the social psychological factors impeding Japanese acceptance of collective responsibility for its past. Using a mixed methods approach, this problem is examined and explored with a sample of 162 Japanese university students representing a generation who were never directly involved in the nation's misdeeds.

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  • Building brands and fan relationships through social media : the case of the Grand Slam tennis events : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Sport and Exercise at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Thompson, Ashleigh-Jane (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Social media have become pervasive parts of society and modern consumer culture. However, sports scholars have noted a distinct lack of knowledge and understanding related to their use among sports properties. This thesis, through the novel use of a modified circuit of culture framework (du Gay, Hall, Jones, McKay & Negus, 1997) explores how Facebook and Twitter were utilised by the four Grand Slam tennis events (Australian Open, Roland Garros, Wimbledon and U.S. Open) to build their brands and relationships with fans. A unique multi-perspectival, multi-method approach involving semi-structured interviews, a content analysis of Facebook and Twitter posts, and online surveys provided rich sources of data. The findings reveal that these events are deliberately and proactively using social media. It is apparent that social media aid in two key functions: (1) a facilitator of socialisation and emotional connections, and (2) a cultivator of brand image and brand experience. Furthermore, two unique challenges were identified: (1) providing value and meeting fan expectations, and (2) organisational adaptability. Importantly, this research has significant practical and scholarly implications, providing one of the first empirical examinations into how social media assist sports event brands in brand management efforts. Social media are shown to be sites that provide opportunities for practitioners to create a quasi-virtual brand experience, representing an online substitute for the live event. This particular aspect represents a unique finding and an aspect that is of particular relevance for sports event brands. In addition, this study was one of the first to employ a multi-method approach, framed within the circuit of culture, in sports-related social media research. The use of this approach revealed the need to modify the circuit of culture with a centralised moment of “prosumption” for future social media related studies. It is proposed that this approach would be transferable to other sports contexts, advancing the research agenda of sport management scholars.

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  • Nutrition and Reproductive Condition of Wild and Cultured New Zealand Scallops (Pecten novaezelandiae)

    Wong, Ka Lai Clara

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The New Zealand native scallop, Pecten novaezelandiae, is a species with a high economic value as a wild catch and has good potential for cultivation. As a mean to enhance the future of this growing shellfish industry, this thesis set out to investigate the nutritional requirements of P. novaezelandiae in relation to reproductive conditions, and determined the physical and biological factors that affect the condition of this scallop species in the wild and cultivated environments. Adult scallops (Pecten novaezelandiae) were sampled from six populations in the Hauraki Gulf (Auckland, New Zealand) in the spawning season (October 2014), in order to evaluate the scallop reproductive condition and nutritional state across the populations. Results showed a spatial variation in reproduction condition (VGI and gonad index), with a higher number of mature scallops in populations closer to the shoreline, where higher food availability may be found. Conversely, nutrient content in scallop somatic tissues (adductor muscle carbohydrates and digestive gland lipids) did not vary across the populations, but was strongly associated with reproductive status of individual scallops (VGI). Nutrient (carbohydrates, proteins and lipids) storage and utilization were investigated within scallops from two sites in the Hauraki Gulf, bi-monthly over a year (2012−2013). In addition, sediment samples were also taken to evaluate the potential for re-suspended nutrients as a food source for scallops. Water samples were collected for seston and chlorophyll a analyses. Isotope analyses (carbon and nitrogen) and proximate analyses were conducted for the gonad, adductor muscle and digestive gland of wild P. novaezelandiae, sediment samples and the seston (1.2−5μm, >5μm). Isotope analyses revealed distinctly different signatures in suspended sediment and scallop tissues, indicating that re-suspended nutrients were unlikely to contribute to the diet of scallops. Nevertheless, seston (particularly the small fractions) signatures were closely related to scallop tissue samples, suggesting that it is likely to be the main food source for the wild P. novaezelandiae. Scallops from the two sampling sites exhibited similar reproductive cycles and utilization of nutrients. Gametogenesis started in winter, and took place at the expense of carbohydrates stored in adductor muscles. Spawning events were recorded in spring (October−November) and summer (January−March), and the energy demand required during spawning events was supported by digestive gland protein. Gonad re-maturation between spring and summer spawnings were supported by the utilization of digestive gland lipids. The reproductive condition and nutrient content of scallops were then studied during the spawning season (October 2013) in wild populations and within experimental conditions (fed with a commercial microalgal diet; Shellfish Diet 1800®) in an aquaculture laboratory, in order to identify condition and nutrient requirements for scallop cultivation in New Zealand. Field scallops (feeding on natural food sources) spawned just before the end of the experiment, while experimental animals reached gonad maturity at the end of the experiment, but did not spawn. The trend in gonad maturation for field and experimental animals indicates that there was a lag time of about 2 weeks, and that this lag is likely due to nutritional stress associated with the shift from natural food sources to the mixed microalgal formulated diet provided in the laboratory. Results indicate that experimental scallops had lower nutrient (carbohydrates, protein, lipids and total energy) reserves stored in adductor muscle tissues compared to wild animals, but both field and experimental animals utilized muscular reserves (especially carbohydrates and protein) to support reproductive activity. The fatty acid profiles revealed that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were found in significantly lower quantities in gonad tissues of scallops from the laboratory compared to those in the field. This thesis shows that P. novaezelandiae utilizes energy reserves from both adductor muscle and digestive gland to cover the full cost of gametogenesis. In addition, cultivation environments using microalgal diets are conducive to condition P. novaezelandiae, but the optimal nutrient requirements for an efficient aquaculture production of this species needs further investigation. It is recommended by this thesis that future investigation on the conditioning requirements for P. novaezelandiae will be the next step for New Zealand scallop fisheries.

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  • You are not worth the risk: The ethics of statistical discrimination in organisational selection of applicants

    Scholes, Vanessa (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Your job application is rejected unseen because you ticked a box admitting you smoke. The employer screened out applicants who ticked the 'smoker' box, because she had read empirical studies that suggest smokers, as a group, are a higher productivity risk than non-smokers. What distinctive ethical concerns inhere in the organisational practice of discriminating against applicants on the basis of group risk statistics? I argue that risk-focussed statistical discrimination is morally undesirable due to the lack of respect for applicants as unique autonomous agents. However, I argue further that the decision-making context affects the morality of this discrimination. Other things being equal, the morality of statistical discrimination varies depending on the purpose of the organisation, the level of detail in the discrimination, and whether the discrimination is transparent to applicants and includes some benefit for applicants. Because organisations may have good reason to use risk-focussed statistical discrimination when assessing applicants, I present some recommendations for decision-makers to mitigate the lack of respect for applicants as individual agents. Organisational decision-makers can focus on the extent to which the statistical data they use comprise i) factors that feature efforts and achievements of the applicant; ii) dynamic rather than static factors; and iii) data drawn from the applicant’s own history and actions over time.

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  • Negotiating multiple identities in educational contexts: Stories of Tamil Heritage Language Users as Multilingual Malaysians

    Sithraputhran, Thilegawathy (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Malaysia is a multilingual and multicultural society comprising of ethnic Malays (dominant group) followed by ethnic Chinese, Indians and other indigenous groups. The national language is Malay and English is the second language. Heritage languages such as Mandarin and Tamil are used as the language of instruction in some primary schools. This study explores how a group of Tamil Heritage Language Users from Tamil primary schools (THLU-Ts) at a private university recounted maneuvering through their multilingual world during their early lives at Tamil primary school, at state secondary school (Malay) and then at a private university (English). Nine first year undergraduate participants were selected from a private university in Malaysia where English is the medium of instruction. They were selected as THLU-Ts based on two criteria. Firstly, they were ethnic Tamils and secondly, they had completed six years of primary education at Tamil primary school. I used photovoice interviews to construct their narratives. The participants, prompted by photographs they brought as artefacts, described their language experiences in a multilingual setting. The participants’ voices were storied into narratives based on three narrative inquiry strategies of broadening, burrowing and restorying. Two in-depth interviews were conducted over a six month period and these were video-taped and transcribed. The interview transcript from each first interview contributed to a narrative summary or story. This was a general description of the participant and events (broadening stage). The second interview was held towards the end of the semester. During the second interview, participants were asked to reflect on their narrative summaries (which had been distributed earlier) and comment on them. I sought data to reexamine the existing data (burrowing stage) before rewriting a complete and coherent story (restorying) for each participant. This story was also individually reviewed by each participant. Data analysis was an iterative process that included storying and coding. I identified three broad themes and then examined them in the light of relevant literature. This analysis allowed me to understand how the THLU-Ts shaped their identities during social interactions with different linguistic communities in Malaysia, including THLU-Ms (ethnic Tamils from national primary schools) and non-Tamils (Malays and Chinese). Initially, THLU-Ts faced challenges as they transitioned to secondary school coming from a Tamil- medium primary school. At secondary school, they had to adjust to a Malay linguistic environment for the first time. As their proficiency in Malay grew, they felt they were accepted as authentic members of the academic community. When they entered the English-medium university, there was pressure to develop proficiency in English. They repositioned themselves once again and made deliberate language choices during social interaction with other linguistic communities. When the findings were viewed through Blommaert’s sociolinguistic scales, it was apparent that participants scaled languages depending on the value assigned to each one (Malay, English and Tamil). This reflected the way language was used in society. As powerful multilinguals who invested in a multilingual repertoire, participants displayed linguistic accommodation. These findings suggest a need for educators and policy makers to reassess the role and importance of HL education. Currently, the Malaysian education policy is silent on its commitment to HL education in Malaysia. Yet, this research supports the One Malaysia concept which stresses unity in diversity and encourages educational policies to take a pro-multilingual stance.

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  • A Quarter Acre Pavlova Paradise Lost? The Role of Preferences and Planning in Achieving Urban Sustainability in Wellington, New Zealand

    Dodge, Nadine (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis investigates the scope for compact development to accommodate population growth in Wellington, New Zealand. The topic is particularly significant for New Zealand as the great majority of the population lives in urban areas, historical development has been dominated by low density urban form, and transport and urban form are two of the main domains in which the country can reduce its carbon emissions. The influence of urban planning and residents’ preferences on achieving sustainable outcomes is investigated. Historical and current planning rules and transport policies in the City are analysed to determine their influence on the provision of compact development. Wellington’s transport policy shows a pattern of path dependency: historical decisions to favour car oriented investment have driven subsequent transport investments and influenced the ease of using different transport modes. Planning policies show a similar pattern of path dependency: planning rules enacted in the 1960s endure in present planning despite being packaged with different justifications and regulatory regime. Current planning rules severely restrict infill development in most existing neighbourhoods, which reduces the availability of housing in accessible medium density neighbourhoods and likely increases the cost of this type of housing. A stated choice survey was conducted of 454 residents of Wellington City to investigate the extent to which there is an unmet demand for compact development and alternatives to car travel. The survey held presentation mode constant across two completion modes (internet and door to door with tablet completion), allowing the impacts of recruitment and completion mode to be examined. Survey recruitment mode appeared to influence both response rates and the representativeness of the survey, while completion mode appeared to have little or no impact on survey responses. Using the stated choice survey results, a latent class model was developed to examine the preferences of residents and the trade-offs they are willing to make when choosing where to live. This type of model allows for the identification of preference groups as a means of understanding the diversity of preferences across the population. The study found that there is an unmet demand for medium density, accessible housing, but that affordability is a barrier for households to choose this type of housing. There was also an unmet demand for walking and cycling, with more residents currently driving than would prefer to use this mode, and more residents preferring to walk and cycle to work than currently use these modes. The ability to use a desired travel mode appears to be related to the neighbourhood in which a person lives, with residents of medium and high density neighbourhoods being more likely to use their preferred travel mode. This study also modelled future development trajectories for Wellington based on demand for housing, neighbourhood and transport attributes. This preference based growth model was contrasted with the City’s plan for development over the next 30 years. Comparing the two scenarios, the planning based trajectory performed better than the demand based scenario in terms of both carbon emissions and achieving compact development.

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  • Towards an integrated multi-scale zero energy building framework for residential buildings

    Nsaliwa, Dekhani (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    In most developed economies, buildings are directly and indirectly accountable for at least 40% of the final energy use. Consequently, most world cities are increasingly surpassing sensitive environmental boundaries and continue to reach critical biophysical thresholds. Climate change is one of the biggest threats humanity faces today and there is an urgent need to reduce energy use and CO₂ emissions globally to zero or to less than zero, to address climate change. This often leads to the assumption that buildings must reduce energy demand and emit radically less CO₂ during construction and occupation periods. Certainly, this is often implemented through delivering ‘zero energy buildings’. The deployment of residential buildings which meet the zero energy criteria thereby allowing neighborhoods and cities to convert to semi-autonomous energy systems is seen to have a promising potential for reducing and even eliminating energy demand and the associated greenhouse gas emissions. However, most current zero energy building approaches focus solely on operational energy overlooking other energy uses such as embodied energy and user transport energy. Embodied energy constitutes all energy requirements for manufacturing building materials, construction and replacement. Transport energy comprises the amount of energy required to provide mobility services to building users. Zero energy building design decisions based on partial evaluation and quantification approaches might result in an increased energy demand at different or multiple scales of the built environment. Indeed, recent studies have demonstrated that embodied and transport energy demands account for more than half of the total annual energy demand of residential buildings built based on zero energy criteria. Current zero energy building frameworks, tools and policies therefore may overlook more than ~80% of the total net energy balance annually. The original contribution of this thesis is an integrated multi-scale zero energy building framework which has the capacity to gauge the relative effectiveness towards the deployment of zero energy residential buildings and neighborhoods. This framework takes into account energy requirements and CO₂ emissions at the building scale, i.e. the embodied energy and operation energy demands, and at the city scale, i.e. the embodied energy of related transport modes including infrastructure and the transport operational energy demand of its users. This framework is implemented through the development of a quantification methodology which allows the analysis and evaluation of energy demand and CO₂ emissions pertaining to the deployment of zero energy residential buildings and districts. A case study, located in Auckland, New Zealand is used to verify, validate and investigate the potential of the developed framework. Results confirm that each of the building (embodied and operational) and transport (embodied and operational) energy requirements represent a very significant share of the annual overall energy demand and associated CO₂ emissions of zero energy buildings. Consequently, rather than the respect of achieving a net zero energy building balance at the building scale, the research has revealed that it is more important, above all, to minimize building user-related and transportation energy demand at the city scale and maximize renewable energy production coupled with efficiency improvements at grid level. The application of the developed evaluation framework will enable building designers, urban planners, researchers and policy makers to deliver effective multi-scale zero energy building strategies which will ultimately contribute to reducing the overall environmental impact of the built environment today.

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