16,592 results for Masters

  • Community Participation in Education: A Case Study in the Four Remote Primary Schools in Samlot District, Battambang Province, Cambodia

    To, Loeurt (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This study was conducted to investigate the nature of community participation in education in a remote district in Cambodia. A case study approach was used to explore the issue and employed mixed research methods for data collection. Epstein‘s participation and Bray‘s degree of community participation were used as analytical frameworks. The study contributes to a wide body of literature in participation in education, but which is under-researched for rural Cambodia. The study focussed on the forms and processes of participation by parents, community members and education stakeholders in primary schools in remote areas. The study discovered a range of social practices in community participation in education. The degrees of participation varied depending on the types of participation and the participants. Parents had direct participation in their children‘s learning at home, and indirect participation through resource contribution for school development. In addition, the community participated in education through their main representatives, the School Support Committees (SSCs). SSCs were found to possess power in the decision-making processes in school and education development. The most common type of participation was collaborative resource contribution for school development. This practice reflected the traditional culture of participation of Cambodian society but there was also a sign of behavioural change to focus more on children‘s learning. Teachers and School Support Committees were the drivers in bringing community and parents to participate in education. They were the facilitators, communicators, network connectors and mobilizers for school and education development. This case study suggests that a shift in focus (on the part of the government, non-governmental organizations and education stakeholders) to support parental involvement in children‘s learning, rather than the traditional resource mobilisation, may better promote children‘s learning. Further research on parental involvement in children‘s learning could be conducted.

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  • Spending Time: An investigation of the relationship between emotions, time and spending

    Liebenberg, Brett (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The significance of exchange within our daily lives encompasses not only the economic exchange of physical commodities but more abstract entities such as knowledge, skills and beliefs. This research investigation developed from a desire to understand my personal engagement with money and the design of money, through the exploration of shopping and spending habits. The activity of spending and everyday provisioning is one which has come to form a large component of our everyday lives and is partly informed by the non-economic aspects of exchange described above. This has led researchers, such as Daniel Miller (1998), to investigate the cultural phenomenon of consumerism. As our ability to consume has expanded to an almost unlimited wealth of products to choose from, a consumer has been able to form an imagined relationship with their purchases and may even regard it as a physical manifestation of various emotions. This level of constant spending and provisioning demands further examination, as the systems designed to enable us to consume are the same which have capitalised on our emotions. By making use of ethnographic methods of investigation (specifically interviews and qualitative survey tools), this research explores how an increased level of monetary literacy could be developed towards a consumers everyday spending. Through the design of a research tool, The Spending Map, a process of critical reflection is encouraged where it is possible to exhibit a dialogue that can capture, catalogue and critique the emotional engagement a consumer has towards their spending.

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  • Using Structural Geology and Cosmogenic Nuclide Dating to Infer the Slip Rate and Frictional Strength of the Active Mai’iu Low-Angle Normal Fault, Eastern Papua New Guinea

    Webber, Samuel (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Low-angle normal faults (LANFs) have induced debate due to their apparent non -Andersonian behaviour and lack of significant seismicity associated with slip. Dipping 21°/N, the Mai’iu Fault, located in the Woodlark Rift, Eastern Papua New Guinea is an active LANF that occupies a position at the transition between continental extension and seafloor spreading. Surface geomorphology indicates that the Mai’iu Fault scarp is not significantly eroded despite high rainfall and ~2900 m of relief. Based on modelling of regional campaign GPS data (Wallace et al., 2014) the Mai’iu Fault is thought to accommodate rapid (7–9 mm/yr) horizontal extension; however the slip rate of the Mai’iu Fault has not been directly validated. I use a range of methodologies, including field mapping, cosmogenic exposure dating, cosmogenic burial dating, and Mohr-Coulomb modelling, in order to provide new constraints on LANF strength and slip behaviour. I analyse the structure of conglomeratic strata within a back -rotated rider block atop the Mai’iu Fault surface. The Gwoira rider block is a large fault-bounded sedimentary rock slice comprising the Gwoira Conglomerate, located within a large synformal megamullion in the Mai’iu Fault surface. The Gwoira Conglomerate was originally deposited on the Mai’iu Fault hanging wall concurrent with extension, and has since been buried to a maximum depth of ~2 km (evidenced by modelling of vitrinite reflectance data, and structural analysis), back-tilted, and synformally folded. The Mai’iu Fault is also overlain by a large fault slice (the Gwoira rider block), that has been transferred from the previous LANF hanging wall to the current footwall by the initiation of the younger Gwoira Fault. Both the Gwoira Conglomerate (former hanging wall) and mylonitic foliation (footwall) of the Mai’iu Fault have been shortened ~E-W, perpendicular to the extension direction. I show that N-S trending synformal folding of the Gwoira Conglomerate was concurrent with on-going sedimentation and extension on the Mai’iu Fault. Structurally shallower Gwoira Conglomerate strata are folded less than deeper strata, indicating that folding was progressively accrued concurrent with ~N -S extension. I also show that abandonment of the inactive strand of the Mai’iu Fault in favour of the Gwoira Fault, which resulted in formation of the Gwoira rider block, occurred in response to progressive megamullion amplification and resultant misorientation of the inactive strand of the Mai’iu Fault. I attribute N-S trending synformal folding to extension-perpendicular constriction. This is consistent with numerous observations of outcrop-scale conjugate strike-slip faults that deform the footwall and hanging wall of the Mai’iu Fault (Little et al., 2015), and accommodate E-W shortening. Constrictional folding remains active in the near-surface as evidenced by synformal tilting of inferred Late Quaternary fluvial terraces atop the Gwoira rider block. In order to date this sequence of progressive constrictional folding, I have processed ten ²⁶Al/¹⁰Be terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide burial samples obtained from the Gwoira Conglomerate; unfortunately these data were not yet available at the time of printing, due to reasons outside of my control. I also present terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide (TCN) exposure ages for ten rock samples obtained from the lowermost Mai’iu Fault scarp at Biniguni Falls, in order to determine the Holocene slip-rate and style using cosmogenic ¹⁰Be in quartz. I model exposure age data after the approach of Schlagenhauf et al. (2011), using a Monte-Carlo simulation in which fault slip rate, the period of last slip on the fault, and local erosion rate are allowed to vary. Modelling evidences that the Mai’iu Fault at Biniguni Falls is active and slipping at 13.9±4.0 mm/yr (1σ), resolved over the last 13.2±2.7 ka (1σ). Modelling constrains the time of last slip to 2.9±1.4 ka (1σ); this is consistent with a seismic event at that time, followed by non-slip on the Mai’iu Fault until the present day. Finally, because rider block formation records abandonment of the uppermost part of a LANF, Coulomb fault mechanical analysis can be applied to field observations to provide an upper limit on LANF frictional strength (µf). Calculations are made in terms of Mohr-Coulomb mechanics, after the framework of Choi and Buck (2012). The lock-up (abandonment) orientation at any particular position on the Mai’iu Fault is principally a function of fault friction (µf), crustal friction (µc), fault cohesion (Cf), crustal cohesion (Cc), depth, fault orientation, fluid pressure, and the orientation of the greatest principle stress. Model results suggest that fault friction for the active Gwoira-Mai’iu Fault surface is 0.128≤μf≤0.265 for Cf<1.8 MPa. This suggests that past slip on the inactive Mai’iu Fault, and continued slip on the active Gwoira-Mai’iu Fault, were enabled by low fault frictional strength. I also model the strength of the active Mai’iu Fault at Biniguni Falls; results suggest greater LANF friction (μf≥0.32) than the Gwoira-Mai’iu Fault surface, and inactive Mai’iu Fault. In order to explain active slip on the LANF at Biniguni Falls concurrent with widespread field observations of outcrop-scale faulting of the LANF footwall, I suggest a process whereby overall the LANF remains viable and active, but locally stress conditions exceed the LANF abandonment criteria; this results in highly localised and temporary ‘footwall damage’ where the LANF footwall is locally dissected by outcrop-scale faulting.

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  • A feasibility study to introduce regular activity breaks in the workplace: monitoring the effect of regular activity breaks on occupational musculoskeletal discomfort, fatigue, and productivity

    Carter, Hannah (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Background: Regularly interrupting sedentary behaviour with light physical activity has been shown to reduce postprandial glycaemia. However, these effects have been examined in response to a single day of light activity bouts in a controlled lab setting. The effects of long- term change in sitting behaviour, over weeks or months, on postprandial glucose and insulin metabolism in a free-living setting have not been examined. Testing this would require a trial in which participants achieve a sustained increase in light activity bouts over weeks to months in their workplace. However, interventions investigating the practicality and effects of taking regular activity breaks to reduce sedentary time are scarce. Objective: To conduct a feasibility trial to test the effectiveness of methods to increase regular activity breaks in a sedentary workplace. In addition, to investigate the impact of increasing activity breaks during the workday on musculoskeletal discomfort, fatigue, and productivity. Methods: Twelve University of Otago employees were encouraged to perform light activity breaks (at least 2 min in duration) every 30 min of their 8 h workday, throughout a five-week intervention period. Break reminder applications (apps) and social media (Instagram) were used to encourage participants to take the breaks. Modified versions of the Nordic, Individual Strength, and Health and Work Questionnaires were self administered to assess workplace musculoskeletal discomfort, fatigue, and productivity respectively, at the end of baseline, weeks 1, 3, and 5. Feasibility Questionnaires were verbally administered at baseline, weeks 3 and 5, to explore participant’s attitudes around taking regular activity breaks. Results: The mean number of activity breaks per workday significantly increased from 12.4 at baseline to 15.8 at the end of the intervention (p<0.001). The total number of musculoskeletal discomfort reports over the past five workdays decreased from 27 at baseline, to 21 at the end of week 5. Total fatigue significantly decreased by 9.6 points (p=0.010). Significantly lower scores were observed in two of the subscales of fatigue, depicting decreased subjective fatigue (p-0.010) and increased levels of physical activity (p=0.040) from baseline to week 5. Although no significant differences in total productivity were observed, mean scores showed significant improvements in the subscales; impatience and irritability (p=0.049), work satisfaction (p=0.038), and personal life satisfaction (p=0.008). Feasibility Questionnaire transcripts showed that using break reminder apps and having the support of colleagues was helpful in facilitating regular activity breaks. Barriers to taking regular breaks included: work commitments, feeling less productive, and others perceiving them to be less productive getting up to take activity breaks every 30 min. However, the majority of participants planned to continue the activity breaks following the interventions completion. Conclusion: These findings suggest positive trends in reducing musculoskeletal discomfort, fatigue, and increasing productivity following the introduction of regular activity breaks into the workplace. Therefore these are unlikely to be barriers to taking regular activity breaks in an occupational setting. Modified versions of the Nordic, Individual Strength, and Health and Work Questionnaires trialled in this study are considered to be suitable in assessing workplace musculoskeletal discomfort, fatigue, and productivity in a large-scale study.

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  • Zinc status of athletes compared to non-athletes

    Holdaway, Cushla Rose (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Background: Zinc is an essential micronutrient to human physiology, and has many vital roles in physical exertion. It is understood that athletes have increased dietary requirements to support their physical training. However, there is a lack of evidence focusing on zinc status in athletes to establish whether zinc deficiency is a common issue of concern. Aims: The aim of this research project is to undertake a systematic review of the zinc status of athletes (aerobic, anaerobic, or a combination) compared to healthy non-athletes aged 18 to 65 years. The studies must be cross-sectional and assess at least one zinc biomarker. Design: Keywords and phrases were entered into PubMed, Scopus, SPORTDiscus, and the Cochrane Library. After removal of duplicates, all citation title and abstracts were screened for eligibility. The final data from the included literature was extracted and interpreted. Results: Sixteen studies were eligible for inclusion. Fifteen out of nineteen athletic groups had lower plasma zinc concentrations compared to non-athletes. Twelve out of 15 athletic groups had higher dietary zinc intakes compared to non-athletes. There was no obvious relationship between dietary zinc intake and plasma zinc concentration in athletes, but this does not exclude other factors affecting athletes zinc status compared to non-athletes. Conclusion: Plasma zinc concentration appears to be independent of dietary zinc intake in athletes, however, losses in sweat and urinary excretion may impact the zinc status of athletes. This review does not explain the implications zinc deficiency may have on athletic performance, nor does it describe how a zinc deficiency may exist in the absence of signs and symptoms. The main barrier to this lack of evidence is the absence of a single, robust zinc biomarker with internationally defined reference ranges.

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  • EAT5: Eating frequency in 5-year old New Zealand children

    Kennedy, Lucy Jennifer (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Background: Childhood obesity is a growing epidemic in New Zealand, with 11% of children obese and 22% overweight in 2014/15. There is evidence that eating more frequently may be associated with improved body composition, however the current literature is limited. Eating frequency may also be associated with nutrient intake or diet quality. Eating frequency is important given that children have a smaller stomach capacity, yet high nutrient requirements, compared to adults. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate eating frequency in 5-year old New Zealand children, and whether eating frequency is associated with body mass index (BMI), energy or nutrient intake. Design: The EAT5 Eating Frequency cross-sectional study recruited primary caregivers of healthy 5-year old children based in Wellington, Auckland and Dunedin, New Zealand (the candidate was responsible for the Wellington phase of the study). Each participant completed a weighed diet record (WDR) of their child’s food and beverage intake on three non-consecutive days over three to four weeks. The height and weight of each child were measured at baseline, and a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was completed at each of two appointments. Eating frequency was determined using parent-defined eating occasions, excluding occasions consisting of water only. Dietary data were entered using the dietary analysis software programme, Kai-culator, and average nutrient intake was analysed. Results: Fourteen children were recruited in Wellington, resulting in a final sample size of 82. The average eating frequency was 6.1 eating occasions per day. Mean BMI z-score in this sample was 0.37 (standard deviation 0.72). There was no significant association between eating frequency and BMI (odds ratio 0.90; 95% CI 0.67, 1.21; p = 0.478). When children ate at least 6 times per day, they consumed significantly more energy (942 kilojoules; 95% CI 496, 1387; p < 0.001) than when they ate five or fewer times a day. While total intake of carbohydrate, protein, fibre, sugars and added sugars were significantly higher with higher eating frequency, there was no significant difference in percentage of total energy intake from carbohydrate, protein or fat. However, significant positive associations were observed between eating frequency and calcium and iron intake. There was no significant association found between eating frequency and vitamin C or zinc intake in this sample of 5-year old children. Conclusion: On average, eating frequency in this study was consistent with the Ministry of Health guideline that up to 6 meals or snacks should be eaten a day, although average eating frequency exceeded this recommendation for 41% of children. Eating frequency was not associated with the BMI of 5-year old New Zealand children in this study. Furthermore, eating frequency did not appear to be associated with the percentage of energy from macronutrients. However, there may be benefits for calcium and iron intake with higher eating frequency associated with higher intake.

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  • Estimating Free Sugars Intake in New Zealand

    Kibblewhite, Rachael Louise (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Background: Sugar has been implicated as a cause or risk factor in a number of diseases. Recently the focus of research and recommendations have shifted to emphasise the potential importance of free or added sugars on health. In response to the literature which suggests a negative association between free sugars and health (particularly relating to dental caries) the World Health Organisation (WHO) updated their recommendations for intake of free sugars. Monitoring the extent to which populations are achieving these recommendations is difficult, primarily because free sugars are indistinguishable analytically from sugars inherent to a food. Thus, in the New Zealand (NZ) food composition database there is currently no nutrient information for free sugars and as a result, estimates have not been possible for free sugar intakes in NZ. Objective: The first objective of this research project was to update the current New Zealand Food composition database (NZFCD) to include estimates of free sugars for every food. The second objective was to estimate intakes of free sugars in NZ adults using data from the New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey 2008/09 (NZANS 08/09), with the intention of comparing these intakes with international recommendations for free sugars, such as those set by WHO. Methods: Estimates of free sugars were created for each food record in the NZFCD, using a 10-step protocol. Intakes of free sugars in the NZANS 08/09 were estimated by matching free sugar estimates for each food item to the 24-hour recall data. Survey weighted estimates of free sugars intakes were calculated by age group, sex, and ethnicity. Usual intakes were estimated by adjusting for intra-individual variation using the Multiple Source Method (MSM). Population intakes were compared with the WHO recommendations for free sugars. Results: Free sugars content (g/100g) of 2779 foods were estimated. Estimates for 2543 were calculated by objective measures and the remaining 236 foods from subjective measures. Estimated median intake of free sugars in NZ adults was 57 g/day (57g, 95%CI: 55, 59) which equated to 11.1% of total energy (TE), this was significantly higher than sucrose (48g, 95%CI: 46, 50) and added sugar (49g, 95%CI: 47, 51). Intakes were highest among younger age groups. Young males (15-18 years) had the highest intake (89g/day), and young females had the highest by %TE. An estimated 57.8% of the total population are estimated to be exceeding the WHO recommendation that free sugars intakes should be <5% TE. Conclusions: This study offered valuable insight into the consumption of free sugars, improving the understanding of who may be at the greatest risk of poor health outcomes. It found that free sugar consumption of specific population groups (such as younger adults) was high in comparison with WHO recommendations, suggesting that public health strategies to reduce free sugars intakes would be strengthened by targeting younger adults. Updating the NZFCD to include free sugars will enable future research to investigate the relationships between consumption of free sugars and health outcomes, in a New Zealand setting.

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  • Sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria) Scarcity and Zooarchaeological Data Quality in Northwest Coast Archaeological Sites

    Nims, Reno (2016-04-29)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria) is a scarcely represented species in Northwest Coast archaeology, but its remains are abundant at Tse-whit-zen, a large, Lower Elwha Klallam village in modern Port Angeles, WA that was occupied over the past 2,800 years. Because sablefish flesh has high nutritional value and it can be easily captured from nearshore waters in its juvenile form, sablefish should have been pursued where it was available. Therefore, the scarcity of sablefish in many Northwest Coast archaeological sites could indicate this species was not abundant in past fisheries. However, current zooarchaeological reports do not contain sufficient information on taphonomic histories, sampling, or zooarchaeological methods to determine whether patterns of sablefish scarcity could actually explained by differential destruction of sablefish remains, sample size effects, screen size effects, or misidentification. In this thesis, I examine how each of these factors may have affected the abundance of sablefish remains in Northwest coast archaeological sites. I evaluate four hypotheses that attribute sablefish representation to zooarchaeological identification methods, screen size, sample size, and post-depositional destruction of fishbone. While I do not explicitly test whether social and ecological factors affect sablefish abundance, sociocultural and environmental variation can be considered likely explanations for the observed patterns of sablefish representation if the other hypotheses are rejected. I test my hypotheses using three scales of archaeological records. First, I reanalyzed six previously analyzed Salish Sea assemblages to assess whether criteria for sablefish identification exist, are valid, and have been applied consistently. Second, I synthesized fishbone data from 35 previously analyzed Northwest Coast assemblages to evaluate the effects of screen size, sample size, and post-depositional destruction on sablefish representation. Finally, I integrate previously unreported fishbone data from the analysis of Tse-whit-zen into the synthesis of previous studies. The Tse-whit-zen materials I report on here represent six discrete time periods in the 1,800-year history of one large area of the site, which encompasses part of a plankhouse, providing a unique opportunity to examine the effects of screening, sample size, and post-depositional destruction at an extremely fine scale. I also use data from the reanalysis of a portion of the Tse-whit-zen fishbone to verify the consistency of sablefish identification for this site. I reject all four hypotheses and conclude that the uneven distribution of sablefish is likely a true reflection of ecological factors, human decision-making, or both factors. Whether sablefish scarcity is related to distributions of sablefish in past environments, or whether humans chose not to pursue sablefish is not known from the current study. Connecting sablefish capture to specific seasons with body-size regression methods may reveal associations between sablefish acquisition and other seasonal fisheries and activities, and help evaluate whether they conflicted with sablefish procurement in some contexts. Although zooarchaeological identification and reporting methods do not appear to account for sablefish scarcity, zooarchaeologists need to include more information about their methods so that the validity of inter-assemblage comparisons can be assessed. Zooarchaeologists maximize the value of their contributions to anthropology, biological sciences, and human ecodynamics when they explicitly report the methods they use to identify animal remains. By reporting the methodological and analytic procedures they used in detail, zooarchaeologists enhance the reader’s confidence in their conclusions and provide future researchers with the information that is required to replicate their results. Which elements were recorded, and the criteria that were used to make taxonomic attributions, fundamentally affect the primary faunal data that researchers use. This study is part of a growing interest among zooarchaeologists in data quality assurance and quality control, which constitute a critical part of every large-scale comparative analysis.

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  • Girl in Progress: Navigating the Mortal Coils of Growing Up in the Fiction of Jacqueline Wilson

    Clark, Cherilyn Nicole (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The following presents a discussion of the work of children’s and young adult novelist, Jacqueline Wilson. My focus is on Wilson’s treatment of issues that are quite pertinent to growing up and growing up as a girl in particular. Each chapter looks at a specific novel, considering Wilson’s representations of such issues as self-harm, eating disorders, and parental mental illness. In doing so, I will approach my subjects from various perspectives, drawing on theory from strands of psychoanalysis, post-structuralism, and feminism among others. In doing so I hope to prove the worth of Wilson’s work for future critical study (at this stage there has been little written specifically on this author). An interest of mine is the presence of ideology in children’s and young adult literature (a certain pedagogy that primarily serves the interests of adults). In discussing the ways in which Wilson presents the above issues, I consider ways in which her work may be seen to subvert such ideologies while still maintaining a sense of responsibility regarding the ability of narratives to influence young audiences. As such, part of my discussion will consist of an analysis of what has been termed by such writers as Melissa Wilson and Kathy Short, and David Elkind as a “postmodern childhood.” One in which children must navigate a problematic and less than ideal adult world and in which a developmental endpoint is never certain.

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  • Associations between dietary electrolytes and pulse wave velocity

    Lewis, Victoria (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Background: Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is a non-invasive measure of arterial stiffness, and a recognised predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Given this, it is likely that investigating the determinants of PWV will improve our understanding of cardiovascular health. At present, there is disagreement regarding the relationship between dietary sodium and potassium intakes, and PWV. Hence, further research is needed in order to confirm whether dietary sodium and potassium are determinants of PWV. Objective: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the associations between dietary sodium and potassium intake, and PWV in the general population. Methods: This cross-sectional study used baseline data from Health And Bread Intervention Trial (HABIT). Spot urine samples were used to estimate dietary sodium and potassium intake. Weighed three-day diet records were analysed for self-reported dietary sodium and potassium intake. Brachial blood pressure, and carotid-femoral PWV were measured with the SphygmoCor 2000. Results: Sixty-five HABIT participants were included in this study. Overall, 52.3% were males, with a mean±SD age of 34.5±18.3years, body mass index (BMI) of 24.9±4.5kg/m2; BP of 126.5/74.8±17.7/11.2mmHg, and PWV of 7.2±1.6m/s. Mean sodium intakes as assessed by spot urine samples and diet records were above New Zealand’s Upper Limit of 2300mg/day (urinary sodium: 3021±756mg/day; dietary sodium: 2784±1067mg/day). Mean potassium intakes, also assessed by spot urine samples and diet records, were below the Adequate Intake for New Zealand of 3800mg/day for males and 2800mg/day for females (male, urinary potassium: 2002±386.9mg/day; male, dietary potassium: 3500±1242.2mg/day; female, urinary potassium: 1902.6±428.5mg/day; female, dietary potassium: 2783.3±991.3mg/day). Dietary intakes of sodium, potassium, and sodium-to-potassium ratio as assessed by spot urine samples and diet records were not independently associated with PWV. In multi-variate analysis age was positively associated with PWV (a 1-year increase in age was associated with a 0.05 m/s increase in PWV). Conclusions: This small cross-sectional study found dietary intakes of sodium, potassium, and sodium-to-potassium were not independent predictors of PWV, suggesting the prediction of PWV is multi-factorial. Future adequately-powered studies should examine these relationships.

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  • The Totara House Healthy Eating Study: A qualitative investigation into the feasibility of adapting the Senior Chef programme for patients in a mental health setting.

    Borich, Aimee (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Background: People experiencing early or first episode psychosis (FEP) are at increased risk of metabolic complications resulting from an interaction of illness symptoms, medication side-effects and lifestyle choices. Few studies have explored practical lifestyle interventions utilising nutrition education strategies to improve health outcomes in this population. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of implementing a healthy eating intervention programme in Totara House (a CDHB outpatient service for young adults with first episode psychosis by analysing stakeholder feedback, to determine whether a programme could be developed from a pre-existing learn to cook programme Senior Chef. Methods: Participants involved key stakeholders of Totara House: staff, patients and family members/carers, who were recruited by advertisement or through recommendation from Totara House staff. A combination of individual interviews amongst patients and caregivers and a single focus group amongst staff members was used to explore participant thoughts, opinions, values and experiences, about the importance of nutrition (in this population), and suggestions for programme component ideas. Participants completed a questionnaire to assess their current level of nutrition knowledge. Results: The data were analysed using thematic analysis. Three main themes emerged: “Personal Values” which explored patient worldviews, motivators and barriers; “Knowledge and Experiences of Health and Nutrition” which covered factors that can influence patients’ thoughts and attitudes towards achieving health goals; and “Programme Specific Details” included recommendations from participants for what they wanted to see in a healthy eating intervention programme. These themes and values support implementing a programme with a relaxed social atmosphere, including relevant practical information, and simple, affordable, healthy recipes they can try out at home. The questionnaire scores showed an average level of nutrition knowledge amongst all groups with a mean score of 53% (n=24). A one-way ANOVA revealed no between group differences (p= 0.46): patients 49% (n=8), staff 55% (n=10), family/carers 56% (n=6)), range 32%-73%. Conclusion: A healthy eating intervention programme would be highly valued by Totara House staff, patients and family members/carers. The feedback for the desired programme content aligned with the pre-existing Senior Chef model indicating its potential adaptability into this population. To ensure that the content adheres to current evidence-based nutrition advice, a registered dietitian should be involved in developing, running or overseeing the programme.

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  • Associations between aspects of body image and lifestyle behaviours and attitudes in Otago adolescents

    Bensley, Rachael (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Background: Little is known about how New Zealand adolescents feel about their eating and bodies and how it is associated with body composition. Objective: To determine the association between food, feelings, behaviours and body image and (a) body composition and (b) other related factors in Otago adolescents. Design: Six hundred and eighty one adolescents between the ages of 15-18 years completed the Otago Students Secondary School Lifestyle Survey 2 (OSSLS2) in 2011. Height and weight were measured by trained research professionals. For this study we examined four subscales from the Food, Feelings, Behaviours and Body Image Questionaire (FFBBQ): concern about eating and weight; fear of weight gain; dietary restraint; and figure dissatisfaction. Associations between the four subscales and body composition, gender, physical activity, attitudes towards healthy eating and Diet Quality Index (DQI) scores were investigated using regression models. Results: There were significant differences in scores for concern about eating and weight, fear of weight gain, dietary restraint and figure dissatisfaction for males and females, and those at different weight status. Overweight and obese adolescents and female adolescents had significantly higher scores for all four subscales (all P>0.001) compared to normal weight adolescents and male adolescents, respectively. Overweight, obese adolescents and female adolescents were more concerned about their weight, practiced more dietary restraint, were more afraid of weight gain and were more dissatisfied with their figure. While 54% of female adolescents felt their body was “too fat”, only 28% of the females surveyed were classified as overweight or obese. While 26% of the males surveyed were overweight or obese, only 22% of males felt their body was “too fat”. Those who were meeting the physical activity guidelines had significantly lower figure dissatisfaction and concern about eating and weight scores. There were no statistically significant findings between any of the subscales and DQI score or attitudes towards healthy eating. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of body dissatisfaction among Otago adolescents, which was more common in girls than boys, and not restricted to those carrying excess weight. Those who met the guidelines for physical activity reported lower figure dissatisfaction and less concern about eating and weight, compared to those not meeting the guidelines.

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  • Là où dialoguent les musées: The Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa at the Musée du Quai Branly

    Phillips, Lily (2014)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The opening of the Musée du quai Branly in 2006 signalled a new approach to the display of Māori and Pacific collections in France and the beginning of a new relationship with the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa. Between 2006 and 2012, the two museums were brought together by two challenging events: the repatriation of toi moko (Māori tattooed heads) from France to New Zealand and the 2011 exhibition Maori: leurs trésors ont une âme at the quai Branly. Through a close study of the repatriation and exhibition, and interviews with participants, this thesis considers the questions these events raise. How can museums with very different approaches to the treatment of artefacts negotiate issues of repatriation and the exhibition of sacred objects? How should colonial-era anthropological collections be exhibited today? What is the place of contemporary indigenous art in the museum? By focusing on the exchanges between two institutions, Te Papa and the quai Branly, this thesis suggests how conversations at an individual level can lead to shifts in the perception and exhibition of museum objects, and how dialogues between museums internationally can contribute to an evolution in the treatment and display of indigenous artefacts and art in museums.

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  • High Ground, Low Ground: Explorations in Topography and Neighbourliness in Coastal Dune Settlement.

    Wallis, Stephanie (2015)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The desire to live close to the ocean often brings about settlement that sprawls along the beachfront, parallel to the coastline. This settlement structure is problematic as it diminishes the importance of community while exposing beachfront housing to coastal hazards. The coastal dune settlements of Waikanae and Paraparaumu, where this research has been undertaken, exhibits this problematic settlement structure. Using these sites as a case study, the research seeks to re-examine the New Zealand coastal land settlement formation. It explores what could happen if the current coastal settlement pattern re-organised as a more social structure? The research is investigating an approach to settlement through re-examining the idea of neighbourhood by looking at its whole relation to the coastal dune topography, ecology, and wider landscape relations. However, not only does this research look at the social potentials of coastal settlement but how disaster planning can become a device to achieve this outcome. Essentially, it aligns itself with the attitude that flooding and coastal hazards should not just be looked at as an engineering problem but an opportunity to alter the way in which we settle coastlines in a way that builds community.

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  • Applying Formal Modelling to the Specification and Testing of SDN Network Functionality

    Stevens, Matt (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Software Defined Networks offers a new paradigm to manage networks, one that favors centralised control over the distributed control used in legacy networks. This brings network operators potential efficiencies in capital investment, operating costs and wider choice in network appliance providers. We explore in this research whether these efficiencies apply to all network functionality by applying formal modelling to create a mathematically rigourous model of a service, a firewall, and using that model to derive tests that are ultimately applied to two SDN firewalls and a legacy stateful firewall. In the process we discover the only publicly available examples of SDN firewalls are not equivalent to legacy stateful firewalls and in fact create a security flaw that may be exploited by an attacker.

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  • Prevalence of New Zealand High School Athletes at Risk of Low Energy Availability using the LEANZ Questionnaire: A Feasibility Study

    Ireland, Stacey (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Background: When energy intake is insufficient to cover the energy cost of exercise and physiological functioning, a state of Low Energy Availability (LEA) is entered. This has negative effects on an athlete’s health and performance, including bone health, menstrual function, immunity, and cardiovascular disease. High school athletes have been found to be at risk of LEA, however, the prevalence of adolescents at risk in New Zealand is unknown. Objective: The aims of this study are to determine if male and female New Zealand high school athletes are at risk of LEA, and provide information on the recruitment logistics and ease of collecting data from high school athletes. Design: Eligible participants aged 16 to 18 years (20 male, nine female) were recruited from high schools around New Zealand who engaged in at least 75 minutes of physical activity per week. Participants attended two clinic visits to provide blood, urine and saliva samples, and completed an anonymous online questionnaire containing 98 questions, including the Low Energy Availability in Females Questionnaire (LEAF-Q) and sections from the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI-3). Between the clinic visits, participants completed a three-day weighed food record and wore an accelerometer. This study used participant’s LEAF-Q answers to classify them as at risk or not at risk of LEA. Results: For the high school athletes who completed the questionnaire, 43.5% were found to be at risk of LEA. Analysis of the food records and calculated energy expenditure resulted in 52.6% of those who completed the study estimated to be in a state of LEA. Conclusion: This study highlights that adolescent athletes in New Zealand are at risk of LEA. It also highlighted difficulties in accessing and obtaining data from high school athletes. Despite this, the results from this study support the notion that further research into LEA in this population is required, however, all data should be collected in the presence of researchers where possible, and timing of research around school activities needs to be carefully considered.

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  • A Kitchen-Based Validation of the Food Skills Component of a Food Literacy Questionnaire in New Zealand Children

    Govan, Alexandra Mary (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Background: Food literacy is a recently developed concept which has emerged as a means to combat the rise in obesity and diet-related disease. Its purpose is to arm the public with a wide range of skills, knowledge and behaviours which are crucial to safely navigate today’s food environment. In 2015, a questionnaire was developed to measure the food literacy of New Zealand children, consisting of three components: food origins, food and nutrition knowledge and food skills. Of these three components, food skills are a practical skill which can be empirically validated, making it possible to ascertain whether the food literacy questionnaire accurately measures children’s food skills. Aim: To validate the food skills section of an online food literacy questionnaire, by comparing results from the food skills section of the food literacy questionnaire to practical food skills measured in a kitchen environment. Methods: A sample of 30 Year 6 children from two Dunedin schools were recruited. The participants initially completed the online food literacy questionnaire during school time, which was followed by participating in an hour-long food skills session one week later. The food skills sessions involved participants completing six ‘stations’ which assessed a range of food skills. These stations included: making a mini pizza, peeling and chopping a carrot, choosing the three main ingredients used in spaghetti bolognese, identifying foods that require cooking before consumption, boiling pasta until it is cooked, adjusting and following a pikelet recipe, and making porridge from an individual sachet by following the packet instructions. The results from the food skills sessions were then compared to the children’s results from the food skills section of the food literacy questionnaire. Results: The mean score from the food skills section of the food literacy questionnaire was 77%, and the mean score from the food skills session was 78%. The overall correlation between the food skills section of the food literacy questionnaire and the food skills session was 0.82 (p-value <0.001), indicating a high correlation. When participant scores were split into tertiles, 70% of participants were correctly classified in the lower tertile, and 60% in the higher tertile; only 10% of participants were grossly misclassified. Conclusion: The food skills section of the food literacy questionnaire is a valid measure of food literacy in Year 6 New Zealand children. It can correctly measure children’s food skills, as shown by an overall correlation of 0.82. The methodology of this research could be a useful tool for measuring children’s food skills in possible future food skills interventions and adopted to evaluate the effectiveness of these interventions.

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  • Food Literacy in New Zealand School Children: Nutrition Knowledge

    Russell, Kristina Louise (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Background: Obesity rates in both children and adults have increased in recent decades in New Zealand. Changes in lifestyle and environment have meant that the frequency of convenience food consumption has increased and food skills and knowledge are often not passed down to younger generations. Food literacy is a new term encompassing the knowledge, skills, and behaviours needed to prepare and consume healthy foods. Developing food literacy in children is critical to slowing the rates of childhood obesity.To date, there is no data measuring how food literate children are in New Zealand. Objective: To measure the food literacy of a sample of Year 6 children in New Zealand Design: Cross-sectional observational study in three urban centres Method: A previously validated online 37-item questionnaire comprised of 7 food origin, 15 nutrition knowledge, and 15 food skill questions, plus 7 demographic questions was used to measure food literacy. Schools in Christchurch, Auckland and Wellington were randomly selected and Year 6 children invited to participate. During school hours, children completed the questionnaire either on iPads or personal devices and had their height and weight measured. A marking schedule was developed and used for scoring the questionnaire; each question had a total score of 1. Mean scores for each question and section were determined and analysed to identify the food literacy strengths and weaknesses of the children. Results: Children from 44 schools in Christchurch (n=198), Auckland (n=331) and Wellington (n=329) participated for a final sample size of 858 children. Children scored an average of 66% percent overall and 56% in the 1 nutrition knowledge section. Children displayed good knowledge with regard to interpreting food labelling (0.83/1.00) and common nutrition messages (0.75/1.00), as well as the knowledge of food groups (0.74/1.00). Lowest scoring areas were the awareness of dietary guidelines (0.25/1.00) and the knowledge of sugar content in diet cola (0.16/1.00). Conclusion: This is the first study to measure the food literacy of New Zealand children. These results can be used to guide future education programmes, however, they need to be interpreted with caution, as the sample contained a high proportion of children of “New Zealand European and Other” ethnicity from high decile schools. The focus of future interventions should be to increase children’s ability to identify healthy options and build on the demonstrated strength of label reading to aid this.

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  • Effect of long-term exercise training on zinc status: A systematic review

    Varma, Trishala (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Background: Zinc is an essential trace element with many functions in the body, including energy metabolism, immunity and antioxidant activity. Regular exercise is a common recommendation for the prevention of chronic diseases, with irrefutable benefits. Zinc has a central role in exercise, however some groups of active individuals have suboptimal zinc status. Effects of short-term exercise on zinc status have been well documented, however effects of long-term exercise training on zinc status in the literature have been conflicting. Objective: To evaluate the effects of long-term exercise on zinc status, in trained compared to untrained groups. Design: We conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed articles up to January 28, 2016 to identify studies that investigated effects of long-term exercise training on zinc status. Results: Six studies were included in the systematic review. Serum zinc did not display consistent results in the included studies in response to exercise training. There was a greater increase in urinary zinc excretion, erythrocyte zinc, dietary zinc intake and the activity of copper-zinc-superoxide dismutase in some groups undergoing exercise training, compared to the control group. Conclusion: The present review indicates that some zinc markers exemplify that there is a change in zinc homeostasis that occurs with exercise training. Further research is required to determine if these fluctuations warrant a change in dietary requirements for active individuals, and to allow dietitians to create best possible intervention plans for optimal health and/or physical performance.

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  • Estimating added sugars intake in New Zealand

    Nettleton, Alice (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Background: Added sugars intake in New Zealand (NZ) cannot be accurately estimated, as the NZ Food Composition Database (NZFCD) does not distinguish between total sugar and added sugars in foods. Added sugars can be defined as sugars that are not intrinsic to fruits, vegetables and milk products and usually refers to sugars added during the processing of foods. High intakes of added sugars, such as those in sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs), have been associated with numerous adverse health outcomes including dental caries, cardiovascular disease (CVD), type two diabetes mellitus (T2DM), weight gain and obesity. Consequently, recent dietary guidelines from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and World Health Organization (WHO) have recommended that added and free sugars provide less than ten percent (%) of total daily energy intake. Objective: Firstly to develop an added sugars estimate for all food items and recipes in the NZFCD, and secondly to determine added sugars intake of NZ adults using dietary intake data from the NZ Adult Nutrition Survey 2008/09 (ANS 08/09). Design: A ten-step systematic methodology developed by Louie et al was adapted and applied to FOODfiles, an electronic subset of the NZFCD, to estimate the added sugars content of all food items. Data obtained from the NZ ANS 08/09, a nationwide nutrition survey involving 4,271 participants was then used to estimate added sugars intake of NZ adults. These intakes were used to determine the proportion of the population that was meeting the USDA added sugars and WHO free sugars intake guidelines. Results: An added sugars estimate was developed for 2,779 unique food items and recipes contained in the FOODfiles database. In total 2,463 (89%) foods had added sugars estimated using objective steps 1-6, and 316 (11%) using subjective steps 7-10. Median usual daily intake of added sugars for NZ ANS 08/09 participants was 49 grams (g), which contributed 9.5% of total energy (TE) intake. The median total sugar intake of the population was 107g, and added sugars comprised almost half (46%) of total sugar intake. Younger people generally had higher intakes of added sugars than older people, and absolute added sugars intake was greater among men compared with women. By ethnicity, Māori people tended to have higher absolute added sugars intake, (median intake for Māori males 62g and for Māori females 48g) which contributed a greater proportion of total energy intake (10% TE intake for Māori males and 10.6% TE intake for Māori females) compared to NZEO and Pacific people. In comparison with the USDA recommendation for added sugars intake, almost half (46.2%) of the total population had intakes of added sugars that were greater than 10% of TE intake. Conclusion: The ten-step systematic methodology is currently the best available approach for estimating the added sugars content of foods in NZ, as approximately 90% of foods were estimated using objective measures. When applied to dietary intake data from the NZ ANS 08/09, almost half of the population was not meeting the USDA recommendations for less than 10% TE intake from added sugars. Given that high intakes of added sugars are associated with several negative health outcomes, these findings suggest there may be potential to reduce intakes of added sugars in NZ, particularly amongst young adults who reported the highest intakes.

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