94 results for Post-doctoral

  • Indigenous theology--two attempts? : a study in the writings of Dr. Kosuke Koyama and Dr. Choan-Seng Song

    Koria, Paulo Tema (1994)

    Post-doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    The question of Indigenous Theology is not new. The relationship between gospel and culture which provides the basic parameters for the indigenization of theology is something with which the Early Church Fathers and even Paul and John have had to deal. Indigenous theology is therefore as old as Christianity itself. Yet in spite of its ancient beginning, the fact is that only since the missionary movement of the Western Churches during the turn of the century did it become a recognized theological subject of any real significance. Coupled with the fact that only in the last fifty years did many of the Younger Churches begin to realize the need for theological independence in order for the gospel to have a meaningful impact in their historical situations, it is no surprise that the question of gospel-culture relations (indigenization) has continued to demand the attention of many christians in the Third World. The appearance of the concept of 'contextualization' in the second half of this century is indicative of this continuing interest in the subject. The seemingly ready acceptance of this new theological approach has given a new twist to the "enduring problem" of gospel and culture. It has raised new issues and tended to compound questions regarding the meaning and validity of the old approach. It has incited what has come to be termed the indigenization-contextualization debate. This research study is an attempt to contribute to the ongoing discussion centred on gospel and culture as it is expressed in the concept of indigenous theology. Indigenous theology is a legitimate approach to the christian task of expressing God's love manifested in Jesus in ways, forms and modes of thought and meaning that are intelligible and relevant to the experience of people in a particular cultural setting. Its validity as a theological approach is rooted in the incarnation itself. It is particularized theology. That is, it seeks to utilize all the available resources in a given culture in order to give an adequate expression to the content of the faith. It also seeks to deal biblically and theologically with all kinds of issues which are in need of urgent treatment. As a focus for clarification of some of the issues relating to the validity and meaning of the concept of indigenous theology, an examination of the writings of Kosuke Koyama and C. S. Song is considered appropriate for two main reasons. First, Koyama and Song are two theologians at the forefront of Asian attempts to bridge the gap between theological expressions of the faith and Asian histories and cultures. Secondly, our reading of Koyama and Song has led us to believe that each one is indeed engaged in the business of constructing indigenous theology in Asia. Thus a study of their works may not only shed light on the nature and meaning of indigenous theology, it may also prove an enrichment to the life of the ecumenical christian community.

    View record details
  • The behaviour of sea ice in ocean waves

    Meylan, Michael (1993)

    Post-doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    The entry of ocean waves from the open sea into pack ice is a feature of the marginal ice zone which has important consequences for navigation and the construction of offshore structures in ice-infested seas. In turn it is largely the action of waves which creates the marginal ice zone as it is the wave action which is responsible for the floe size distribution within the ice cover. In this thesis a two-dimensional model for the behaviour of a single ice floe in ocean waves is developed using a Green's function formulation. This model allows us to calculate the reflection and transmission coefficients of a single floe. It predicts that there will be frequency-dependent critical floe lengths at which the reflection is zero, analogous to electromagnetic wave propagation through a homogeneous slab. It is also found that floe bending increases as a function of floe length until a critical length is reached, above which the strain is essentially constant. The model is successfully validated, at least for elastic sheets floating on water, by experiments performed on a polypropylene sheet. The single floe theory may also be synthesized approximately by an extension of the model developed by Fox and Squire [1990, 1991] for the interaction of waves with a semi-infinite sheet. This acts as an independent check on both theories. The solution for a single floe may be extended to many floes as a full solution or as an approximate solution. It is shown that the approximate solution is sufficiently accurate in nearly all situations. This allows the development of a simple model for ocean wave propagation through a cover composed of many discrete floes. This model predicts that a field of pack ice will low pass filter incoming ocean waves. The model also predicts that there will be a narrowing of directional spectra with propagation through an ice cover. Finally the model is extended so that the surge response, a frequently measured property of ice floes, may be predicted. The surge response agrees with that found by Rattier [1992] and is a strong function of floe length. A different model for the motion of a single floe developed by Shen and Ackley [1991] is also investigated. This model is applicable to small ice floes and is related to Morrisons equation which is used extensively in problems of offshore structures. The Shen and Ackley model is shown to predict that in most physical cases all floes will tend to the same drift velocity which will be a function almost exclusively of wave amplitude.

    View record details
  • A tectonic synthesis of the Dun Mountain Ophiolite Belt

    Jugum, Dushan (2009)

    Post-doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    The Dun Mountain Ophiolite Belt (DMOB) is an Early-Permian ophiolite sequence exposed in the South Island of New Zealand. The ophiolite is overlain by the thick deep-marine sedimentary Maitai Group. The Alpine Fault divides the DMOB into two sections, one in Nelson and the other in Southland. The DMOB is divided into three different units based on lithology and geochemistry: the Livingstone Ophiolite, which is a typical ophiolite sequence dipping sub-vertically and facing west; the Otama Mélange, a deformed ocean-floor assemblage with no ultramafics or serpentinites and a greater amount of felsic rocks than the other two units; and the Patuki Mélange, a highly deformed ophiolite structurally beneath the Livingstone Ophiolite. The Lvingstone Ophiolite has three phases of igneous activity. The first phase is represented by cumulates, massive gabbro, and extensive pillow lavas. It has a MORB-like geochemistry with a subtle above-subduction signature. The age of this phase is 277.6 ± 3.3 Ma using U/Pb in zircon. The second phase locally intrudes the first with dykes which are feeders for extensive non-pillowed lava flows of variable thickness. The age of the second phase (275.2 ± 5.4 Ma) cannot be distinguished from the first. The second phase has a stronger above-subduction geochemical signature than the first phase. The third phase comprises felsic and intermediate dykes that cut the first two phases and intrude into the sediments overlying the DMOB. This phase has not been directly dated but has the same geochemistry as the felsic rocks in the Otama Mélange. The igneous rocks of the Otama Mélange are 50% felsic and have an age of 269.3 ± 4.5 Ma. The mafic and felsic rocks from the Otama Mélange have a strong above-subduction geochemistry, but are not typical of arcs. The Patuki Mélange contains both MORB-like and OIB igneous rocks in a serpentinite matrix. The MORB-like Patuki Mélange is similar to the first stage of igneous activity in the Livingstone Ophiolite. Sediment blocks within the Patuki Mélange have been correlated with the Maitai Group, based on their petrology and detrital zircon age pattern. These sediments have a youngest detrital zircon age of Late Permian through to the Early Triassic. The Maitai Group sediment are distal in character within the Patuki Mélange and more proximal above the Livingstone Ophiolite. I infer that the Livingstone Ophiolite represents a fore-arc, and the Otama Mélange a localization of the Livingstone ophiolites stage three igneous activity in that fore-arc (possibly due to ridge subduction). The Patuki Mélange is either an off-scraping of a subducted slab or part of the trench wall of the above-subduction crust. The DMOB may have been part of the same ocean-crust as the Brook Street Terrane during its formation, but there is no specific evidence for this. Detrital zircons from the Caples Terrane are almost exclusively Triassic in age. The Maitai Group may have some time overlap with the oldest Murihiku Terrane. The DMOB is identical in geology and age to the Yakuno Ophiolite in Japan which may have once been part of the same subduction-zone before the opening of the Neo-Tethys. Detrital zircons from the Aspiring Terrane have a Jurassic age 154.1 ± 2.0 Ma, which constrains the age of the metamorphism of the Haast Schist. The DMOB has been highly deformed with evidence for extensional structure reactivated in compression on the sea-floor during igneous activity; however, most of the observed internal deformation in the DMOB is Cenozoic in age. The serpentinites are completely overprinted by the oblique compression through New Zealand since the Miocene.

    View record details
  • The Burton Brothers studio : commerce in photography and the marketing of New Zealand, 1866-1898

    Whybrew, Christine M. (2010)

    Post-doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    The Burton Brothers studio of Dunedin, the most renowned ofNew Zealand's colonial photographers, was among the first to present photographs of colonial New Zealand to international audiences. From 1866 to 1898 this studio produced a stock of photographic images that recorded the industrial, social and political progress of the colony. Burton Brothers photographs were produced in series and included topographical views of locations, such as Milford Sound and the King Country, or were targeted to specific projects or events, such as the eruption of Mount Tarawera and the government survey of the Sutherland Falls. Alfred Henry Burton, the studio's director, accompanied the Union Steam Ship Company's first tourist excursion to Fiji, Samoa and Tonga, and photographs from this series and those of King Country Maori are valued as ethnographic records of indigenous peoples. Now prized as documentary artefacts in institutional collections, the "truth" value of these photographs is compromised by their production as marketable commodities. By examining the intended purpose that informed the creation and distribution of these photographs, this thesis disrupts conventional interpretations of Burton Brothers photographs as historical records. This thesis examines photographs as physical objects, prioritising the material properties of the photograph over image content. This methodology is informed and guided by the close and systematic study of Burton Brothers photographs in their original formats, including albumen prints, cartes de visite, stereographs, lantern slides, albums and the studio's original wet collodion and gelatin dry plate negatives. All prints released by the studio were inscribed with the firm's trademark (brand), negative number and a descriptive caption. Each series of photographs was promoted by a non-illustrated catalogue, containing an excerpt from the photographer's diary or other written narrative that operated as contextual description for the photographs. These textual elements function to direct interpretation in accordance with the studio's commercial agenda and in alignment with contemporary social and political ideologies. The impression of New Zealand circulated by Burton Brothers photographs was derived more from the text accompanying and overlaying these photographic products than the image content. This "textual overlay" allows insight into the studio's purpose m producing, releasing and marketing photographic products. Through this, the context of production is analysed and Burton Brothers photographs are examined as products of commercial endeavour, accessing a greater understanding of the commercial photography trade in nineteenth century New Zealand.

    View record details
  • Mycorrhizal status of rushes and sedges in New Zealand

    Powell, Conway Ll. (1973)

    Post-doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    1. 18% of rush and sedge field samples were infected with endomycorrhizal fungi. 2. In pot experiments, rushes and sedges remained nonmycorrhizal in soils of Truog P ≤ 3.6 1 μg /ml, despite inoculation with rush and sedge mycorrhizas from the field and with known endogonaceous symbionts. 3. In poor soils, rushes and sedges made growth comparable with that of mycorrhizal Leptospermum scoparium and outgrew mycorrhizal Poa colensoi and achieved shoot P concentrations comparable to those which decreased mycorrhizal infection in Leptospermum and Poa. 4. Rushes and sedges achieved extensive root absorbing surface through a combination of high root productivity, large root length/root weight ratio, and long and persistent root hairs. 5. It is suggested that failure to form mycorrhizas is due to rapid P uptake by the extensive root absorbing surface resulting in high plant P concentrations early in seedling growth, inhibitory to mycorrhizal fungi.

    View record details
  • Memory-work : understanding consumer satisfaction and dissatisfaction of clothing retail encounters

    Friend, Lorraine A. (1997)

    Post-doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    This research investigated the process and meaning of consumer satisfaction and dissatisfaction in women's clothing retail encounters. It utilised a 'memory-work' methodology which operationalised storytelling and allowed a detailed examination of consumer experiences of retail encounter in 'real life' situations. The qualitative data was derived from memory-texts provided by nine women in Hamilton, New Zealand. Over a period of four months, each woman wrote five detailed stories based on her experiences evoked from specific themes chosen to trigger satisfying or dissatisfying experiences of clothing shopping for themselves. For each trigger, details of the participant's memory texts were analysed and compared in group discussions, by the participants as well as the researcher, to obtain both self and social meanings of their experiences. The memory-texts illustrated how the consumers evaluated and attached meanings to the context and events which occurred in the clothing retail encounters. The analysis of these revealed that the consumer appraised her interactions based on her self identity, experiences and social context. It illustrated that the process of consumer satisfaction and dissatisfaction was centred around the evaluation of the self rather than the service/product attributes and performances. This overall appraisal was based on whether or not the consumer was threatened, or had her values enhanced, and thus the extent to which she belonged. The nature and intensity of satisfaction and dissatisfaction depended not only on the consumer matching her goals and values, but was a complex result of the cognitive, affective, and socio-cultural contexts.

    View record details
  • T. S. Eliot, 'Four quartets' and the mediaeval mind

    Sinclair, John (1987)

    Post-doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    The subject of this study is the tradition which gives meaning to T.S. Eliot's Four Quartets. Eliot insisted that the significance of a literary work is determined by its relationship with the works which have preceded it. Before it can be said to present a credible vision of its contemporary world, a new work of literature must be defined and shaped by the order formed by the literature of the past. Having submitted to this discipline, the new work can then, in turn, redefine and reshape its governing tradition. The successful operation of this process, Eliot stressed, demanded of the poet a constant refinement of technique and a constant search for the most instructive literary models. The development of Eliot's own work from the early poems to Four Quartets involved just such a search for the tradition within Western literature which best expressed the quintessence of the 'mind' of Europe. A major feature of this development was a growing appreciation, both literary and intellectual, for the mediaeval era, and especially for its premier literary artist, Dante Alighieri. In Four Quartets Eliot attempted to appropriate for his own poetry something of the maturity of Dante's poetic art and of the literary, philosophical, social and theological traditions which informed it. A major characteristic of Eliot's poetry had always been its use of images and allusions to isolate specific traditions of thought and expression and import into a modem setting the connotations and resonances previously associated with them. The allusive texture of the Quartets makes frequent reference to Dante and to other mediaeval writings, either directly, by borrowing images and phrases and by adopting or imitating conventions of thought and literary form, or indirectly, by invoking traditions which themselves look to the example of mediaeval Christendom or which, in departing from it, contributed to the decay of the European mind which Eliot saw in the advance of the Renaissance. Many of these allusions have been noted and discussed in isolation by previous commentators. However, there has been no attempt to collate Eliot's mediaeval sources or to explore this aspect of his work as the conscious evocation of an axis-age in European culture. Eliot's constant recourse to the literature of the Middle Ages in Four Quartets will be illustrated by the consideration of his handling of five major themes or conventions which-perhaps not unintentionally-bear a striking resemblance to the major 'topoi' of Dante's Commedia. The first to be studied will be Eliot's use of four specific landscapes whose personal associations combine with their innate symbolic resonances to form the matrices for the wider speculations of each of the four poems. What this investigation will show is that Eliot consciously seeks and then locates value in the past. The progression from the landscape of Burnt Norton to that of Little Gidding reveals a development in the poet's mind from a consideration of personal experience to a meditation upon that of a community which sought to live out the mediaeval Christian ideal upon English soil. The second theme which will be studied is that which is introduced in the opening passage of Burnt Norton and to which the Quartets return repeatedly: the consideration of the nature of time. My account of this theme will show that, although various conceptions of time are entertained within the sequence, the approach which is finally espoused bears a close affinity to Augustine's attempt-which remained the most influential for more than a millenium-to explain time in its relation both to mankind's temporal experience and to the Christian notion of the eternity of God. The emotional centre of Four Quartets - the poet's account of his experience in the rosegarden at Burnt Norton -will be considered next. The full significance of the rose-garden is to be discerned only in its relationship to the tradition of garden-imagery to which it makes allusion, and especially to Dante's use of the conventions of courtly love in La VitaNuova and the Divina Commedia. By linking the personal core of feelings which were associated with the experience at Burnt Norton to Dante's account of his own love nostalgia Eliot is invoking not only a rich literary tradition but also the philosophical traditions which enabled Dante to explain and assign meaning to his personal feelings within the context of universal and theological truths. The wider ramifications of this philosophical background will be shown to have an increasing importance for Eliot's exploration in the remainder of the Quartets of the significance of the rose-garden experience. An important aspect of this expansion of the meaning of the personal core of the Quartets is Eliot's treatment of it as a spiritual and ultimately a theophanic experience. This theme will be taken up next. Eliot's debt to works of mystical literature in Four Quartets is wellknown, but has generally been treated in isolation from the larger patterns of imagery and allusion. It will be argued that the mystical sources used in the Quartets form an order which evokes the religious sensibility of the Middle Ages. This is immediately apparent in Eliot's allusions to Dante, StJohn of the Cross, and the English mystics of the fourteenth century; but even in his inclusion of mystical sources from other periods and other religious traditions - the Bhagavad-Gita is the obvious example Eliot is seeking to highlight aspects of religious sensibility which found their fullest expression in Christendom. The debt to the mediaeval era extends even to the cosmological metaphors which Eliot adopted to describe the physical aspect of the 'world' of the Quartets. Although not as systematic as Dante's Ptolemaic system, the universe of Eliot's sequence of poems is nevertheless described in spatial metaphors which, though ancient in origin, point once more to the all-embracing universal order envisaged by mediaeval philosophy. This study will be supplemented with a lengthy appendix which notes the other sources and allusions in the Quartets and explores their contribution to the larger schemes which determine the order of the poem and point to the tradition which gives it meaning.

    View record details
  • Origin and beginning of the Congregational Christian Church of Samoa (C.C.C.S.) in Aotearoa New Zealand

    Ioka, Danny (1998)

    Post-doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Since this work is the first major research on the history of the C.C.C.S. in Aotearoa New Zealand, the main objective is to provide a general survey of its origin and beginning. The Thesis takes seriously the self-understanding of the C.C.C.S. about its own history. This neccesitates the use of the cultural-theological perspective in the most inclusive sense which captures best the holistic mind of C.C.C.S. members as Samoans, while also reflecting the interdisciplinary nature of the holistic mind particularly through its mode of the historical imagination. This perspective is used within the hermeneutical boundaries of the thematic and chronological approaches in conventional history writing. The history of the C.C.C.S. which is only about thirty years old, from 1962-63 to 1993, is therefore understood in a wider historical context following the hermeneutical guide of the historical imagination of the C.C.C.S. Chapters One and Two trace the origins or roots of the C.C.C.S. in the homeland of its founders, Western Samoa, and in the growth of the founders' home church [E.F.K.S.] outside Samoa in Fiji, Hawaii and in the U.S.A. The link between these two aspects of the wider historical origins is the central self understanding of modern Samoa which Samoan migrants especially since Post World War IT took with them to countries of migration. Chapter One identifies this self-understanding as a Biblical culture and a Christian society. This, according to the Samoans, culminated the theological evolution of modern Samoa at the interface between Samoan culture and Christianity on the basis of the Samoan national theological confession [or motto], Fa'avae I le Atua Samoa' [May Samoa be founded in God], from 1830 to 1960. The migration of this self understanding [or world view] with Samoan migrants became foundational in the establishment and growth of Samoan Churches in Fiji, Hawaii, the U.S.A., and in the P.I.C.C. in New Zealand. Particularly significant was the association of this migrating world view of modern Samoa with the main motivation for Samoan migrants, and with the emotional attachment and the spirit of loyalty to spiritual and cultural roots in the home church and the homeland which explain the eventual links between these migrant churches and the mother Church in Samoa. The C.C.C.S. began in New Zealand on the same basis when its founders left the P.I.C.C. But there were more crucial considerations involved. Chapters Three and Four identify the inadequacy of the multicultural church context of the P.I.C.C. to accommodate the full impact and requirements of Samoan Christianity, and also its tendency to compromise and to undermine the holiness of Samoan worship. Of utmost importance was the assertion of the right and authority for self-determination in relation to religious life, religious development and re1igious future in New Zealand which included the preference for the sole jurisdiction of the mother Church in Samoa. Chapter Four also enlarges on this as reflecting the full impact of the migrating world view of modern Samoa with Samoan migrants. What began as a natural assertion of the right for self-determination by the C.C.C.S. turned out to reflect the increasing assertion by Independent indigenous Churches of the Pacific with their indigenous leadership of their authority against the traditional authority and leadership of missionary Societies. Chapter Five gives a detailed account of the complex beginning of the C.C.C.S. in relation to these issues, and because of the controversial involvement by the relevant Church authorities- the E.F.K.S. in Samoa, and the P.I.C.C. and the C.U.N.Z. in New Zealand. The inseparable issue of the appropriate form and manner of Christian witness and ecumenism explains best the opposition by the Samoans who remained in the P.I.C.C. against the beginning of the C.C.C.S. In the final analysis, the broadminded and accommodative ecumenical approach by the E.F.K.S. in solving the complex issues arising from the controversial beginning of the C.C.C.S., because of its founding vision, had more merits than the narrowly construed and culture dismissive ecumenical approach by the P.I.C.C. and the C.U.N.Z. Chapters Six and Seven illustrate the successful growth and consolidation of the C. C. C. S. because of the inherent dynamism of its transplanted cultural foundation and its imported Church structure, and in conjunction with the positive influence of the multicultural and rich society of New Zealand. A summary of the conclusions of the Thesis may be briefly stated. The C.C.C.S. began in New Zealand as a Settler Church which was also a part of the E.F.K.S. in Samoa. This founding vision embodies the central hopes and aspirations of founders of the C.C.C.S., and also explains the actual course of the history of the C.C.C.S. in its thirty years from 1962-62 to 1993. The founding vision encapsulated certain important aspects of the wider historical context of the origin of the C.C.C.S. One was the transplantation to New Zealand of Samoan Christianity and the world view of modern Samoa in which it was formed - a biblical culture and a Christian society in the holy land of Samoa. Secondly, the link between this migrating world view of modem Samoa and the historical movement and migration of Christian civilisation means that the growth of Samoan migrant churches in countries of Samoan migration was Samoa's authentic contribution to the historical movement and migration of civilised societies and Christian civilisation. In this respect the beginning of the C.C.C.S. in New Zealand is viewed as a significant expression of the migration of the Mind of modern Samoa which, through the courtesy of modem communication and transport, and the push-pull operation of all migration, had extended its 'home horizon' in countries of Samoan migration. The founding vision also reflected the assertion of the right for self determination and the authority for the sole control of religious life, religious development, and religious future in New Zealand which included the preference for the E.F.K.S. in Samoa to be the sole authority to exercise jurisdiction over the CC.C.S. This reflected the increasing assertion of the authority of Independent indigenous Churches of the Pacific and indigenous leadership against the traditional authority and leadership of missionary societies. This was consistent with developments in world-wide Christianity particularly in relation to the paradigm shift in the form and manner of Christian witness and ecumenism as exemplified in the integration of the I.M.C. - the epitomy of traditional approach to mission, and the W.C.C. - the symbol for the transition into mission through indigenous and independent national Churches of Christian countries. When the origin and beginning of the C.C.C.S. is placed in the wider historical context, it clearly demonstrates a pioneer example of the migration of indigenous Churches of the Pacific with the determination to join the ecumenical movement in the Pacific and worldwide on the basis of national independent Churches, and on the universal mood of Independence characterised by a cultural-theological spirituality.

    View record details
  • "The thirteenth apostle" : Bishop Selwyn and the transplantation of Anglicanism to New Zealand, 1841-1868

    Phillipson, Grant A. (1992)

    Post-doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    The process of transplanting metropolitan institutions to colonial societies has not been adequately studied by New Zealand historians. As a result, the transplanted Churches have been depicted as conservative imitations of their Mother Churches, unwilling and unable to adapt to their new environment. This view must be modified by contextualising the Churches, in terms of the real complexity of their metropolitan models, and the flexibility of their responses to the colonial environment. In this thesis I argue that the first 'Missionary Bishop', G.A. Selwyn, was the key selector in a process of controlled borrowing, in which the Church of England sought to adapt its metropolitan heritage to the exigencies of colonial society. He brought the perspective and policies of the conservative reform movement to New Zealand, and tried to create its ideal model of the Church in the 'freer air' of the colonies. He soon discovered that the colony was not the tabula rasa which he had expected, but his reforming background gave him the flexibility to adapt his metropolitan model within the parameters of his new environment. On the simplest level of transplantation, this enabled him to recreate the English parish of church, school, and clergyman, in a manner tailored to the class structure, financial situation, and population density of both the towns and the dispersed frontiers. On a more fundamental level, the exigencies of voluntarism and colonial ecumenism encouraged Selwyn to remodel the entire structure of the Church as a dissenter-style voluntary society. He created a 'club identity', at the central level through synodical government, and at the local level through committee government and the nucleus of a future 'empire' of organised activities designed to maximise voluntary participation and loyalty to the denomination as an organisation. How did this affect the wider society? The traditional view of the unadaptable Churches has dismissed them as powerless in society and politics. In fact, Selwyn's success in balancing 'Home' and environment enabled his Church to perform vital social functions on the colonial frontier, by helping to regularise single-male anarchy into respectable small-town family life. In the political sphere, historians have created a myth of the missionaries as unadaptable and assimilationist in their views, bent on the wholesale destruction of Maori culture and social structure. Selwyn and his key supporters, however, adapted their idea of 'amalgamation' to incorporate devolution and limited bi-culturalism. They also proved to be a much more formidable force in Maori politics than most historians have allowed. The time has come to dispense with the stereotype of the Church of England as slavishly imitative, inflexible, unadaptable, and fundamentally unsuccessful, in colonial New Zealand.

    View record details
  • Individual differences in the effect of drawing on children's memory

    Willcock, Emma Louise (2004)

    Post-doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    For more than a century, drawing has enjoyed a prominent position in clinical interviews with children. In surveys conducted in the United States, for example, drawing consistently ranks as one of the top 10 instruments used by clinicians who work with children. Despite its popularity, many of the claims made about the use of drawing during clinical interviews have never been empirically assessed. The purpose of the present thesis was to examine the effects of two drawing techniques commonly used to elicit complete and accurate accounts of children's past experiences. Prior research has shown that when children are interviewed about their past experiences, those given the opportunity to draw report more verbal information than children merely asked to tell. This finding has been obtained irrespective of the nature of the target event (e.g., educational, emotional, clinical), and over delays that range from 1 day to 1 year. Although the effect of drawing on the amount of information that children report has been replicated in a number of different laboratories, the mechanism responsible for this effect is not known. Furthermore, despite these group effects, some children clearly profit more from the opportunity to draw than others. In a series of two experiments, I examined whether differences in the way that interviewers interacted with children during drawing interviews could provide an explanation for why drawing elicits more complete reports than telling alone. In addition, I examined whether differences in intelligence, memory, language development, drawing skill, theory of mind, temperament, and socioeconomic status could be used to explain individual differences in children's performance when they were given the opportunity to draw during a memory interview. Consistent with prior research, the results showed that drawing facilitated 5- to 6- year-old children's verbal reports of educational and emotional events without compromising accuracy. Interestingly, examination of the interviewers' behaviour revealed that the drawing interview increased children's verbal reports because it encouraged interviewers to take more conversational turns. That is, interviewers asked more questions and made more minimal responses when interviewing children who were drawing and as a consequence, the children reported more information. With respect to individual differences in children's performance during drawing interviews, the results showed that while drawing ameliorated the impact of having a poor memory on children's verbal reports, drawing was of little benefit to children who were highly distractible. In two additional experiments, I examined children's ability to use human figure drawings or body maps to indicate where they had been touched during the course of a staged event. I also examined which child characteristics might be used to predict individual differences in children's ability to use the body maps effectively. Irrespective of children's socioeconomic background, the delay between the event and the interview, and individual child characteristics, 80% of children made at least one false allegation of touch when using the body maps. Moreover, approximately 10% of children erroneously indicated that they had been touched on the genitals, and 25% of children erroneously indicated that they had received a touch to the breast. On the basis of these data, I conclude that children fail to understand the representational nature of body maps. Given this, use of body maps in clinical or legal contexts should be discouraged. Taken together, these findings indicate that although children can remember considerable amounts of information about their experiences, the efficacy of drawing as a medium for eliciting this information varies depending on the way that drawing is employed. While drawing was highly effective when used as a medium for eliciting verbal information from children, providing children with a pre-drawn body map failed to facilitate children's accounts of bodily touch. Overall, these data have important implications for how children are interviewed in clinical and legal settings.

    View record details
  • Knowledge, power, and nursing education in New Zealand : a critical analysis of the construction of the nursing identity

    Papps , Elaine (1998)

    Post-doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Formalised nursing education programmes in hospitals which lead to registration as a nurse commenced in New Zealand following the enactment of the Nurses Registration Act 1901. This system of education, which continued for some seventy years, constructed the nursing identity within the discourses of gender and medicine. The relocation of nursing education into the tertiary education sector which commenced during the 1970s disrupted this dominant view of the nurse. This thesis describes and critically analyses the construction of the nursing identity through curriculum and social relations of power. Michel Foucault's view of power and his power/knowledge problematic is a major component of the critical analysis. The analysis draws heavily on the work of Foucault to unmask power relations which discursively position the nurse in the discourses of medicine and gender. Foucault's notion of governmentality is used to illustrate the existence of technologies of domination and technologies of power which discursively constitute the nurse. New forms of knowledge construct the nursing identity through different discourses. The insights of critical theorists are employed to illustrate the influence of the emancipatory intent of these discourses. Sociopolitical forces which intersect with nursing education act to subjugate knowledge not associated with the dominant view of nurse and nursing. Perceptions continue to exist that nurses and nursing are associated with technical activity. Despite the struggle for the nursing profession to define the nurse according to how it sees appropriate, there are micropolitics of power which operate to sustain the dominant view of nurses. However, nurses implicate themselves in the creation of their subjectivity, and are themselves agents in creating their own identities. This suggests that there are possibilities for the nurse to resist being defined by others.

    View record details
  • Archaeology and history of the Chinese in southern New Zealand during the nineteenth century : a study of acculturation, adaptation, and change

    Ritchie, Neville A. (1986)

    Post-doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Amongst the thousands who swarmed into New Zealand last century in quest of gold were some 10,000 Chinese. Although they were relatively 'late arrivals', within a few years they constituted one of the largest, and certainly the most conspicuous ethnic group on the goldfields. They differed not only in appearance but also in material culture and outlook. Whereas other nationalities among the goldseekers tended to rapidly assimilate with the dominant Anglo-European population, the Chinese were perceived 'to be different', and 'unwilling to adopt European ways' . They also differed in that from the outset the majority came as sojourners rather than settlers. As economic conditions in New Zealand deteriorated in the latter half of the 1870s, fear of economic competition lead to growing racial intolerance against them, culminating in repressive legislative restrictions on Chinese immigration. The first part of this study is a social history of the Chinese in New Zealand in the nineteenth century based on archival and ethnohistorical records. The second part utilises archaeological information- field evidence and studies of material culture, to provide a new perspective on the lifestyle of the Chinese miners. The historical and archaeological data is compared against information on traditional lifeways, to gain a measure of the Chinese miners' responses to their situation in New Zealand in terms of acculturation, adaptation, or change.

    View record details
  • Supranational governance of tourism : aid, trade and power relations between the European Union and the South Pacific island states

    Schilcher, Daniela Regina (2007)

    Post-doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    This thesis examined the role of supranational organisations (SOs) in the governance of tourism in a North-South context. Focusing on the issue area of development cooperation, this thesis investigated the question of how and why SOs got involved in tourism in developing countries, and more specifically, in small island developing states. Such involvement may occur either directly through aid funded projects or indirectly through international trade regimes that impact on tourism in the aid recipient countries. The thesis adopted a case study approach focussing on the European Union's (EU's) involvement in the governance of tourism in South Pacific island states. Grounded in a history of colonialism, the EU has been involved in the 'development' of the South Pacific for more than three decades, which allowed to track changes in development philosophy over time. Focusing on the concept of power, the case was assessed in a multi-scalar manner, analysing the EU's involvement from the global down to the local level. Never before has an entire multilevel polity been assessed in one coherent case study, incorporating actors situated at all levels and ranging from supranational organisations to national governments, businesses, communities, and individuals. The methods employed in this thesis included interviews, participant observation, document analysis (policy documents and newspapers), and subsequently critical discourse analysis. The latter served to highlight the so-called 'third face of power' (Lukes 1974), which is closely related to the concept of ideological hegemony. Interviews were conducted in Fiji and Samoa with officials of the South Pacific Delegations of the EU, officials of tourism authorities, NGOs, tourism operators and community members. Elite interviews in Brussels were conducted with officials of the European Commission and the European Parliament. Under all scales and 'faces' of power the EU was found to be the dominant actor, while the issue of self-interest appeared to play a key role. At a macro-level, the EU clearly dominated in most overt decision-making situations during negotiations on aid and trade agreements. As concerned the inclusion of tourism in the agreements, the relative importance of the sector was clearly dependent on the European Commission's prevailing attitude on 'tourism and development' at any point in time. At a meso- and micro-level, the EU's influence was less obvious yet nonetheless existent, for example through funding rules and the use of European consultants. Indirect influence also occurred at the national level. In particular the substitution of a preferential trade regime with a free trade agreement (the Economic Partnership Agreements), which is currently being negotiated between the EU and the Pacific Islands, is likely to have a significant impact on the economic importance of tourism, as well as public policy in the South Pacific. In a mini case study of Samoa, it was found that the resulting changes in tourism policy would have a significant impact 'on the ground', in particular with regard to rates of local ownership and control. Overall, power relations were found to be highly unequal and self-determination and empowerment have largely not been achieved. However, more research is needed to examine the ability to generalise the findings to other geographic regions or other types of SOs. The key contribution of this thesis in the theoretical realm constitutes its bridging of agency and structure within multi-level governance, which may be conceived as a 'third way' to either dependency theory-influenced studies (global/structure) or community approaches (local/agency).

    View record details
  • Biogeochemical aspects of the New Zealand sector of the Southern Ocean

    Kirchlechner, Thomas M. (1999)

    Post-doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Supplementary data available on CD-ROM attached to print version

    View record details
  • The Effect of changes in cerebral perfusion pressure and intracranial pressure on the development of cerebral odema

    Durward, Quentin J. (1984)

    Post-doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    The influence of intracranial pressure, systemic arterial pressure and cerebral perfusion pressure upon the development of vasogenic cerebral oedema is largely unknown. To study their relationship, an osmotic disruption of the blood-brain barrier was produced unilaterally in female rabbits by injecting 1 cc/Kg of 2 M Na Cl into the left internal carotid artery. The amount of vasogenic oedema produced was assessed by quantitation of the amount of Evans Blue extravasation into the area of maximum blood-brain barrier breakdown by optical densitometry following Formamide extraction of the Evans Blue from the oedematous cortex. Intracranial pressure was measured using a cisterna magna catheter into which mock CSF could be infused to a predetermined pressure. Systemic arterial pressure was controlled by exsanguination from a femoral artery catheter in those animals selected for blood pressure control. In the initial 18 animals in which blood pressure was not controlled, no significant relationship between the intracranial pressure and the degree of Evans Blue extravasation was noted. In these animals, however, a significant direct relationship between cerebral perfusion pressure (defined as mean arterial pressure minus mean intracranial pressure) and Evans Blue extravasation was found (correlation coefficient = .630, p ˂ .001). When intracranial pressure was maintained constant at 0-5 mmHg in 16 animals and different levels of blood pressure were produced by exsanguination, a significant direct relationship between Evans Blue extravasation and the systemic arterial pressure was found (correlation coefficient= .786,p <.001). In 20 animals the blood pressure was maintained constant at 90-100 mmHg and the intracranial pressure was varied between 0, 25, 50 and 75 mmHg with five animals at each pressure. There was a significant correlation indicating increasing Evans Blue extravasation at low levels of intracranial pressure (p (.001). This relationship may be exponential. Cerebral blood flow determinations by the H2 clearance method indicated loss of autoregulation in the areas of brain injured by the intracarotid hypertonic saline. In addition, a progressive fall in the cerebral blood flow with time was noted in the same areas. Electron microscopic studies of cortical samples demonstrated abnormal amounts of extracellular fluid in the neuropil surrounding capillaries, and swelling of astrocytic foot processes. Inter-endothelial tight junctions were not disrupted. These results indicate a high systemic arterial pressure and low intracranial pressure (i.e. a large cerebral perfusion pressure) promote Evans Blue extravasation in this model of blood-brain barrier disruption. This finding has implications for the management of patients with vasogenic oedema. Vigorous control of intracranial hypertension and/or failure to treat systemic arterial hypertension may have detrimental consequences by promoting increased cerebral oedema.

    View record details
  • Malagan ritual art on Tabar, New Ireland, Papua New Guinea

    Gunn, Michael J (1992)

    Post-doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Malagan ritual art traditions of New Ireland have long been of interest to Western anthropologists, but have not before been considered in terms relevant to the New Irelanders themselves. This thesis documents the malagan ritual art traditions of Tabar, a group of three islands off the coast of New Ireland which is acknowledged as the traditional source of malagan, and analyses malagan through the terms of reference which were specified by the Tabar Islanders as part of condition for undertaking fieldwork. Two series of ritual ceremonies are described, a mortuary series and a commemorative series. Over 450 malagan descriptions within twenty two subtraditions have been recorded and are documented in an accompanying appendix. The social and cultural connections of malagan are described and analysed, then the indigenous taxonomic structure malagan is described and analysed. A new understanding of the nature of these subtraditions has resulted from this study.

    View record details
  • Land development and eutrophication of Lake Mahinerangi

    Malthus, Timothy John (1986)

    Post-doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    This study continued long-term limnological monitoring of Lake Mahinerangi, on which measurements have been made since 1965. Since this time, 35% of the catchment has been developed for agriculture. Light-optimal 14C photosynthetic (P-max) rates have increased approximately eight-fold since 1965. The lake is now mesotrophic. Long-term changes in percentage oxygen saturation and DRP concentrations are also consistent with eutrophication. Anabaena flos-aquae has been found in the lake since 1979-80. Melosira distans and M. granulata, not previously seen in this lake, were commonly found throughout the present study period. Crustacean zooplankton abundance during winter has increased as have numbers of Daphnia carinata, the largest zooplankter. In spite of these changes, average chlorophyll a concentrations increased by only 50% and this increase was not statistically significant. No significant long-term reduction in Secchi disc transparency was evident perhaps because of the effects of cell size on light penetration in this lake. Commonly observed correlations between light attenuation, Secchi disc and chlorophyll a were reversed in Lake Mahinerangi. Even at the low chlorophyll levels found in this lake, seasonal fluctuations in phytoplankton cell size affected light attenuation and reduced self-shading effects at times of high biomass. Size fractionation studies indicated that netplankton contributed significantly to the overall form of the annual productivity curve. The nannoplankton contribution was seasonally more constant. Data collected from different basins indicated the presence of a slight gradient of increasing trophy down Lake Mahinerangi. Routine laboratory 14C batch culture, ammonium enhancement and luxury uptake bioassays during 1981-82 revealed that the phytoplankton were primarily nitrogen limited for most of the year while phosphorus was most limiting during summer. Secondary limitation by either nutrient was rapidly attained, however; photosynthetic responses in batch culture experiments were much larger in the presence of both nutrients than when either nutrient was added alone. Two replicated, 5 m3 in situ enclosure experiments were carried out to eliminate artifacts imposed by small volume laboratory incubations. Although both experiments were prematurely destroyed by wind, results were consistent with the routine assays. To calculate N and P loads to the lake, concentrations in twelve inflowing streams were monitored. Average concentrations were significantly correlated to percentage agricultural development in the seven major catchments. When export rates were calculated, only TP and N03-N were correlated with agricultural development. Load TN:TP ratios showed a highly significant decrease with agricultural development. Agricultural development, therefore, has not only increased the level of eutrophication, but has also shifted Lake Mahinerangi towards increasing nitrogen limitation. Baseflow concentrations of N and P forms were not highly correlated with flow rates in one stream, in which flow rates were continously monitored. Loads from two small agriculturally developed catchments were the highest found in this study. High losses of N and P, in particular N03-N, were found in two clearfelled exotic forest catchments compared to a forested one. , Export rates of dissolved N and P forms in this study were low when compared to rates from other New Zealand catchments of similar land uses, but of differing geological origin. Past and present N and P loads to Lake Mahinerangi were estimated from stream concentration and export rates based on historical land development and hydrological data. TP loads have increased approximately four-fold since 1965, and TN by only 50%. Several empirical loading models, developed primarily on data from north temperate lakes, were tested on the Lake Mahinerangi data. Predictions from phosphorus retention and phosphorus loading models were generally in good agreement with observed TP retention and TP and DRP concentrations. Models aimed at predicting TN concentrations were less accurate when applied to Lake Mahinerangi. Nutrient-trophic state models were also tested for Lake Mahinerangi. The lack of change in long-term chlorophyll concentrations and a large contribution of phaeopigments to total chlorophyll values made estimations of chlorophyll from published TP-Chl a models difficult. However, at TN:TP < 15, TN appeared to be useful to predict corrected chlorophyll a both regionally and annually in this lake. Published models which predict zooplankton biomass in north temperate lakes greatly overestimated biomass in New Zealand lakes. Strong relationships between mean annual TN and TP concentrations and P-max were found for New Zealand lakes, and served as the basis for prediction of future trophic state in Lake Mahinerangifrom estimated TP concentrations. P-max rates are expected to reach eutrophic levels in Lake Mahinerangi once projected land development is completed.

    View record details
  • Horticulture in prehistoric New Zealand : an investigation of the function of the stone walls of Palliser Bay

    Leach, Helen M (1976)

    Post-doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Low stone rows and alignments were reported as early as 1904 on the coastal platform of eastern Palliser Bay. In all subsequent references it was assumed that the features were horticultural and, on the grounds of their appearance, of considerable age. Methodical investigation of these claims within the context of a three year archaeological programme (1969-1972) including analysis of prehistoric settlements, economy, and physical anthropology, was regarded as a worthwhile project, since orthodox opinion at the time favoured a later introduction of Polynesian horticulture some centuries after initial settlement of New Zealand about the 9th century AD. Extensive field surveys showed that at least 93ha of the coastal platform between Whatarangi and Cape Palliser had been subject to stone clearance according to several simple principles, such as equal access to the best soils, maintenance of a rectilinear system, and the clear separation of individual plots with boundary markers and paths. In addition, excavations conducted within the major complexes revealed artificial deepening of the prehistoric topsoil, frequent incorporation of wood charcoal, rare addition of beach gravel, and inclusion of domestic refuse where the walls were adjacent to coastal villages. Both radio-carbon dates and artefacts found in association with the stone structures indicate early establishment of horticulture on this coast by the 12th century AD with an apparent peak of activity and complexity of garden system before the beginning of the 15th century, followed by decline and virtual abandonment. Climatic conditions prevailing in Palliser Bay today preclude cultivation of all Polynesian cultigens except the kumara (Ipomea batatas) and gourd (Lagenaria siceraria). It is now accepted that mean annual temperature at the time of settlement was 1° - 2°C higher. Even so, growing season length and rainfall would probably not have been adequate for crops such as taro or yam. Within New Zealand, the kumara gardens of Palliser Bay find close parallels on both sides of Cook Strait, and on the eastern coast of the Wairarapa . Similar principles of garden layout applied in the larger Auckland wall complexes, and in 18th century gardens north of Hawkes Bay. From a survey of tropical Polynesian garden structures it appears that an extensive repertoire of horticultural techniques was introduced by the first settlers to temperate New Zealand and despite the loss of variety in cultigens it persisted until the 18th century as a viable means of subsistence.

    View record details
  • Factors influencing caries activity in children - a longitudinal study

    Guha-Chowdhury, Nupur (1992)

    Post-doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    The development and progression of carious lesions were monitored clinically and radiographically for 1 year in caries-free and high-caries children resident in non-fluoridated (NF) and fluoridated (F) areas. The dmfs/DMFS increment score and the transition score systems were used to monitor caries activity. Ninety-nine variables including exposure to fluoride, nutritional, dietary, salivary, oral hygiene, socioeconomic, and demographic factors were examined longitudinally. The transition score system was found to be a more sensitive method of monitoring caries activity than the dmfs/DMFS increment score system. Bivariate and multivariate analyses showed that the absence of water fluoridation, past caries experience, lower levels of fluoride intake from diet and toothpaste, frequent use of syrup medications, lower socio-economic class, intake of cariogenic foods at bedtime, increased intake of niacin derived from fast foods, increased intake of fat derived from bakery products, fast foods, and snack foods, and increased intake of sucrose derived from bakery products were associated with high-caries activity. Factors identified to be associated with low-caries activity were parental assistance with brushing, higher levels of fluoride intake from diet and toothpaste, increased intake of maltose derived from flavoured milk drinks, increased intake of fat and sucrose from dairy products, increased intake of fluoride from food and drinks in the NF areas, increased intake of Vitamin B6 from cereals, and an increased flow rate of mixed saliva. The caries prediction models based on some of these factors produced a sensitivity level in excess of the recommended level of 0.75 but a specificity level below the recommended level of 0.85. Both the sensitivity and specificity levels were higher than those found in other caries risk assessment studies. The high sensitivity level of the prediction model indicated that the combination of risk factors identified were suitable to predict which children would show high-caries activity in the future. However, low specificity levels meant that all the factors that predicted which children would remain caries-free were not identified. Longitudinal studies aimed at identifying risk factors only in that group of children with no caries at baseline are required if specificity of caries prediction models is to be higher.

    View record details
  • Partitioning of Chemical Contaminants in Urban Stormwater

    Brown, Jeff N. (Jeffrey Norman) (2002)

    Post-doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    This thesis examines the geochemistry of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban stormwater. The manner in which PAHs partition between the particulate, colloidal and truly dissolved phases is likely to affect their transport and fate in the environment and the degree to which they exhibit toxicity to aquatic organisms. Stormwater samples were collected from an urban catchment during eight rainfall events and from a river draining a largely rural catchment. During rainfall, the levels of PAHs and the heavy metals Pb, Cu and Zn (also important contaminants in stormwater) rose significantly and were correlated with the suspended sediment (SS) concentrations. PAH fingerprint ratios confirmed the debris collecting on urban streets as the principal source of the contaminants, which exhibited a signature typical of combustion-derived particles and motor vehicle crankcase oil. An old gasworks was an additional source of PAHs in the urban catchment. The quantities of PAHs and heavy metals discharged into the local harbour were much higher from the urban catchment, whereas the rural catchment contributed more SS. The partitioning of the PAHs between the SS and the water was similar to that previously reported for other aquatic systems. However, particulate organic carbon exerted little influence, suggesting that combustion-derived soot particles may play an important role. This study is the first to have investigated the in-situ partitioning of PAHs between the truly dissolved and colloidal phases (that bound to dissolved organic carbon (DOC)) in urban stormwater. The separation of the two phases, using a new C18 disk-based method, showed a small percentage of the total concentration of each PAH was bound to DOC. Differences in the partitioning between the urban and rural catchments were not explained by estimating the degree of aromaticity of the DOC, suggesting that aliphatic groups may also be involved in the PAH binding. Naphthalene bound to the DOC more strongly than expected, possibly because this smallest PAH was binding to sites inaccessible to the larger PAHs. The influence of the hydrophobicity of the PAHs was clearly evident when considering the partitioning between all three phases. The truly dissolved phase was dominated by the soluble low molecular weight (LMW) PAHs, whereas the particulate phase was enriched in the less soluble high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs. Contrary to what was expected based on the hydrophobicity of the PAHs, the importance of the colloidal phase decreased for the HMW PAHs because the particulate phase was a better sorbent. While the contaminant concentrations in the stormwater frequently exceeded relevant water quality guidelines, the levels in the bioavailable truly dissolved phase indicated that acute toxic impacts were unlikely. However, PAHs and zinc may lead to chronic effects in some organisms. The presence of moderate amounts of LMW PAHs in the truly dissolved and colloidal phases is likely to result in the addition of moderate quantities of PAHs to the harbour water column. Those bound to SS settle out rapidly once discharged into the harbour, resulting in localised sediment contamination which is likely to be exhibiting chronic effects on benthic organisms.

    View record details