400 results for Undergraduate

  • Men’s experience of virtual simulation to aid patient education for radiation treatment to the prostate

    Flockton, Alannah - Jayne (2017)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    Prostate cancer affects more than 3000 New Zealand men each year. Many of these men receive a complex type of radiation treatment which requires patients to have a full bladder and empty rectum to aid in the accuracy of treatment delivery and minimise side effects. These concepts can be difficult to explain and current patient education involves verbal and written materials. A 3D immersive teaching tool Virtual Environment Radiotherapy Training system (VERT) can visually simulate and demonstrate how radiation treatment is delivered to the prostate. There is sufficient evidence to support VERT as a useful teaching tool in the academic environment however; using VERT for one-on-one patient education is a novel approach. This qualitative, pilot study set out to explore men’s experience of VERT when it was incorporated into education sessions for prostate radiation treatment. More specifically, how VERT shaped the men’s understanding of how radiation treatment is delivered; why a full bladder and empty rectum is required; and their initial treatment experience. Data collection involved semi-structured interviews one week after the participants had experienced the VERT education and received their first week of radiation treatment. Interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) was used to offer insight into the men’s experience of the VERT education session. The findings strongly suggest VERT education enhances patient understanding of radiation treatment through visual learning. There is a preference to have the VERT education delivered sometime near the first treatment appointment and VERT has the potential to support men through engagement, information sharing and encouraging peer support. There is a role for visual tools such as VERT to be included as part of patient education sessions for radiation treatment to the prostate.

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  • Another Look at the Faunal Remains of CA-SCR-9

    Nims, Reno (2011-06)

    Undergraduate thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    CA-SCR-9 is an important early Middle Period (3100-2800 cal BP) site from the California central coast region that has been used to characterize residential base camps from that time. Previous studies have attempted to analyze the fauna using incomplete and non-representative samples, creating multiple, contradictory conclusions about the foodways of Middle Period peoples. The goal of this study was to synthesize and analyze all identified material to answer questions about the seasonal use of SCR-9, differences between two possible phases of occupation, and the adaptive strategies of Middle Period peoples on the California central coast. Using a representative sample of the fauna, this paper finds that SCR-9‟s inhabitants primarily preyed upon mule deer. However, diverse species of marine mammals, leporids, terrestrial carnivores, birds, and marine fishes were also deposited at SCR-9, and inland site. The faunal remains from SCR-9 alone are not enough to identify relationships between sites, but these marine materials suggest that SCR-9 may have functioned as a seasonal or year round habitation site from which Middle Period peoples traveled to coastal sites such as SMA-218, which is nearly contemporaneous with SCR-9. Other writers have argued that two separate phases are represented ad SCR-9, including the Sand Hill Bluff Phase and the later Año Nuevo Phase. The fauna from these two phases is extraordinarily homogenous, suggesting there were no changes in adaptive strategy, or that rodent activity has mixed the materials, making it impossible to compare fauna from the Sand Hill Bluff and Año Nuevo phases. Fortunately, the assemblage does shed light on differential handling of taxa, and raises questions about the nature of bone grease extraction practices.

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  • Swaggers and society : a New Zealand experience

    Steven, Graeme D. (1979)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    The aims of this study are two-fold. First, to reach an understanding of the swagger, his lifestyle, and his outlook on life. And second, to investigate the relationships between the swagger and various groups in New Zealand society, in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The North Otago region was chosen as a base for the study because it has traditionally been regarded as one of the main swagger areas in New Zealand. The main town of Oamaru had a population of 4000 to 6000 in the 1890's, and was neither wholly urban or rural. As the service centre for the North Otago hinterland and a road, rail and sea centre, Oamaru had large numbers of itinerants, passing through the town. In the rural hinterland mixed cropping predominated, and this required large numbers of seasonal workers, which were drawn from outside the region. In Chapter One it is argued that rural itinerant workers were integrated into a rural structure that was both labour intensive and seasonal. Chapter Two discusses the characteristics which separate the swagger from other rural itinerants, which I have called, the "swag-carriers". In Chapter Three the conflict between the swagger and a developing bureaucracy, and middle class ideology in the late nineteenth century, is analysed. In Chapters Four and Five, the attitudes of rural and towns people towards the swagger are investigated. A model based on the value system of "reputation" and "respectability is used in Chapter Six to explain the ambivalence of attitudes towards the swagger, and to investigate an important aspect of the swagger psychology - his self esteem and his individuality.

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  • Genetic parameter estimates for growth traits of Eucalyptus bosistoana : assessment of two progeny trials in Marlborough, New Zealand.

    Burgess, Jack (2015)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This paper presents a follow up study to that was already completed by Luis et al. (2011). Luis et al (2011) investigated the survival of E. bosistoana half-sib families within two progeny trials in Marlborough, New Zealand. The study investigated genetic growth parameters of the same two progeny trials. Trees at Craven (progeny trial) were statistically taller and larger in diameter than Lawson (other progeny trial), which is likely to be a result of thinning occurring one year earlier at the Craven and Lawson North sites than at the Lawson East site. The progeny trials were set up into randomized incomplete blocks which allowed effective calculations of fixed and random effects from a mixed-effect linear model. The family, incomplete block and residual variances from the mixed-effect model made heritabilities of growth traits possible to calculate. Narrow sense heritabilities for diameter at breast height ranged from 0.13 to 0.18, while tree height heritabilities ranged from 0.1 to 0.17. The inter-site correlation of family performance was weak to moderate for both height;  Craven : Lawson North = 0.28  Craven : Lawson East = 0.44  Lawson East : Lawson North = 0.27 And diameter at breast height (dbh); Craven : Lawson North = 0.32 Craven : Lawson East = 0.39 Lawson East : Lawson North = 0.36 Heritabilities were weak to moderate for growth traits but there was substantial variation so selection is still likely to provide sufficient gain. Further studies will need to consider researching the genetic parameters of wood qualities of E. bosistoana.

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  • An investigation into the system production balance within three mechanised harvesting case studies.

    Malietoa, K. K. (2016)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Safety issues and high costs of traditional harvesting methods have been driving mechanisation increases in New Zealand. However, productivity increases from mechanisation alters system productivity balance. This can result in underutilised machinery and cause an increase in harvesting costs in real terms. A time study was carried out to understand the system productivity balance between felling, extraction and processing and the factors affecting system component productivity rates, for three case studies. The three case studies observed were (1) a semi-mechanised cable yarder extraction operation, (2) a fully-mechanised swing yarder operation and (3) a fully-mechanised ground based operation. There were large production imbalances between felling, extraction and processing in all three case studies. Felling was the most productive system component, being 98%, 37% and 88% (case studies 1 to 3 respectively) more productive than the bottleneck. System bottleneck for case studies 1 and 3 was extraction, and processing for case study 2. The number of stems bunched, number of stems shovelled, wind throw interference and machine position shift affected felling cycle time. For every stem bunched, average productivity decreased by 35% (24m³/PMH) and 21% (20.9m³/PMH) for case studies 2 and 3 respectively. Every additional stem shovelled reduced felling productivity by 7.4m³/PMH for case study 2. Haul distance, the number of stems extracted and site factor affected extraction productivity. Haul distance and the number of stems extracted had significant impact on hourly productivity for all case studies. Site factor affected hourly productivity by 6.9m³ and 56.7m³ for case studies 1 and 3 respectively, largely attributed to the cable system employed and ground conditions. Processing was affected by the number of logs cut per stem and if delimbing occurred. Delimbing and each additional log processed, decreased productivity by 16% and 14% respectively. These three case studies showed that mechanised systems are often not well balanced and result in system components being underutilised. Companies can consider task strategies, or machine sharing between systems to minimise the effect on cost.

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  • Comparing performance of seedlot types in the Kaingaroa Forest using ground pilots and aerial LIDAR : Comparing the performance of open-pollinated, control pollinated and clonal seedlots in a plantation trial in the Kaingaroa forest utilising airborne LIDAR.

    Henderson, Theo J. A. (2016)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Problem: As more improved planting stock such as clones and genetically improved seedlings are introduced to the market it is important to properly understand the benefits of each production type. Various breeding programmes make claims around performance of their seedlots but there is a shortage of literature around the performance of these production types in a plantation setting for most production species. Approach: One seedling, two cuttings, and 7 clonal varieties were compared in a plantation setting on a single site. The stand was measured via five permanent sample plots (PSPs) per seedlot. The seedlots were categorised by material production type and compared using pair-wise analysis to find statistically significant differences. The seedlots were then compared individually to find any intramaterial differences. Available aerial LIDAR was then used to estimate tree height for the total seedlot area and establish whether this was an accurate estimate. Average LIDAR height was then used to estimate tree height for each of the five PSPs to establish whether this would improve the prediction of heights and permit its use for large-scale evaluation of genetic material. Results: Categorising seedlots by material type there was no statistical difference for height performance but there was for DBH and basal area. Clones and open-pollinated seedlots showed superior performance over controlled-pollinated material, but not different from each other. Clones showed reduced height variability over non-clones. DBH and basal area variability was also reduced but the difference was only statistically significant versus open-pollinated seedlots. Comparing seedlots individually there was large variation in performance and variability within material types, with clones showing some superiority and non-clones inconsistent improvements. The LIDAR tree height model for whole seedlot area showed to be a significant predictor average PSP height but poorly predicted CV. Predicting PSP area provided with LIDAR improved correlations over whole stand predictions for both values. Implications: The performance superiority for clones over other production types in this trial is not as pronounced as previously suspected. Clones do, however, provide a more uniform crop. The LIDAR tree height model could be used for further analysis but not for height variability without further improvement. Result validity was, however, reduced by the lack of trial replication and randomisation. This is the key limitation and makes guaranteeing improvements are due to improved genetics (not environment) problematic.

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  • A comparative study of the influence that motor-manual felling and mechanised felling has on stem breakage.

    Andrews, S. D. (2015)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Motor-manual felling has been the predominate method of severing trees in the felling process of a forest harvesting operation. Yet this method has been coupled with numerous injuries and deaths, as trees can strike fallers during this task. An alternative felling method was developed in the form of mechanised tree felling, in an attempt to reduce the frequency of injuries. Subsequently, mechanised felling is poorly understood when compared to motor-manual felling upon the impact it has on stem breakage. 183 trees were assessed by measuring the frequency of breakage, height of the first break and the volume retention abilities of three felling treatments; motor-manual, mechanised felling out of the stand and mechanised felling into the stand. The effect that directional felling had upon the length to the first break was also investigated for motor-manual and mechanised felling out of the stand. The percentage of stems that broke once felled was 73%, 76% and 94% for motor-manual, mechanised out of the stand and mechanised into the stand felling respectively. The height at which the first break occurred for the aforementioned felling treatments was 71%, 71% and 69% of the total tree height. Mechanised felling out of the stand had the greatest volume retention ability with 94.5% of the trees total volume being below the first break. Followed by 93.7% for motor-manual and 91.9% for mechanised felling into the stand, however these differences were statistically insignificant (p=0.14). Lastly the length to the first break for motor-manual and mechanised felling out of the stand failed to statistically change when a tree was felled through a range of directions from downhill to uphill. The influence that motor-manual felling and mechanised felling out of the stand had on stem breakage is similar, yet mechanised felling into the stand had a much greater impact on the percentage of stems that broke. With further improvements in technology, it could be seen that the number of mechanised tree-felling operations over take motor-manual felling, as their impact on stem breakage is comparable.

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  • Factors which influence corewood stiffness in radiata pine.

    Jones, Grace (2016)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Increasing stocking and competition with weeds significantly increased Hitman estimates of stiffness at the significance level α=0.05. Accuracy of models predicting Hitman from TreeTap measurements can be improved by customizing them for particular silvicultural regimes and diameter at 1.4m (DBH). Controlled factors: genetics, wind sway and fertilizer use, did not significantly influence Hitman estimates of stiffness. Tree height did not significantly influence stiffness estimates, but including DBH in prediction models improved models of stiffness estimates. Stiffness in 10 year old Pinus radiata stems was studied in an experiment with the following factors: genetics, herbicide/fertilizer use, stocking and wind sway. Acoustic velocity was used as an estimate of modulus of elasticity (MOE) and was estimated using 2 different tools: Hitman, a resonance based tool used on 2m log sections, and TreeTap, a time-of-flight based tool used on 1.2m outer-wood sections of standing trees. DBH and tree height were also recorded for each tree. Green density was measured using submersion in order to use the formula: MOE = green density∗ acoustic velocity² Stiffness estimates from TreeTap were strongly correlated with Hitman estimates, but were about 30% higher on average. The relationship between stiffness estimates from these tools changed with weed competition and with stocking. No significant difference in stiffness was found between the northwest and the southeast sides of the stems when using the TreeTap tool, and an average value for each tree was used for subsequent analyses. These findings are similar to those from other studies carried out on different sites, and to a previous destructive sample at the same site. There were a few major outliers, but despite these the final model relating TreeTap and Hitman estimates was significant (P<0.0001). Weed competition and stocking significantly affected the intercept (P=5.71e-05 and P=1.08e 05 respectively) of a model predicting Hitman values from TreeTap estimates of stiffness.

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  • Falcon Forestry Carriage Series 2 : a case study of productivity and operation.

    Bolitho, Callum (2015)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The multiple drivers of workplace safety and increasing productivity are resulting in increased mechanisation within the forestry industry. The use of motorised grapples in cable harvesting is an applicable mechanisation method to the large proportion of steep terrain harvesting in New Zealand. In this dissertation a time study of the Falcon Forestry Carriage Series 2 has been undertaken in order to access its productivity and operation. Mean values of productivity were found to be 54.9m³/PMH for wood extracted from the ground, 64.6m³/PMH for bunched wood and 75.6m³/PMH for excavator fed wood after adjustment for the cycle distance and accumulation type. Longer cycles were found to decrease productivity by 0.15m³/PMH for each meter of cycle distance. Utilisation in the study was found to be 56% of total time which was similar to previous studies. 15% of total study time was accounted for by operational delays, 7% by personal delays and 23% by mechanical delays. Mechanical problems with the carriage occurred 6 times and accounted for 171 minutes or 13.4% of total delay time. Mechanical delay breakdown was similar to that found by McFadzean (2012) who recorded that 15% of total delay time was attributable to carriage mechanical delays. During a study of Operator effect it was found that the inexperienced Operator 3 and Operator 4 had a productivity of 52.2% (not statistically significantly different) and 18.5% (p value <0.05). The effects of accumulation method and cycle distance upon productivity were found to be similar to the results of previous studies, as was the utilisation of time within the study.

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  • Understanding demand for wood products in New Zealand’s major log markets.

    Drummond, Ryan C.M. (2015)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    New Zealand’s forestry sector is largely reliant on the presence of a strong export market with 57% of the volume harvested being exported of which 99% goes to Japan, the Republic of Korea, China and India. This identifies the need to analyse demand in these countries to better understand their needs in the future. Consumption of wood products per capita is a commonly used metric for estimating demand and was used in this research. Volumes of imports, exports and production were collected from the Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations (FAO) and data for a range of explanatory variables was collected from a variety of official sources. Historical trends in consumption identified that as countries develop socially and economically their consumption shifts from largely solid wood products such as sawn timber to more processed products such as wood-based panels and paper and paperboard. Consumption was modelled using linear regression techniques to develop models which could be used to forecast consumption in the future. A wide variety of potential explanatory variables were considered and the models presented represent the most effective of these. GDP per capita was found to be the single most effective explanatory variable being highly significant (p<0.01) in all models. Price was also found to be a strong determinant of consumption, understandable as price is a major component of supply and demand dynamics. Measures of construction activity were found to be related to consumption of sawn timber in all studied countries and for wood-based panels in Japan. Forecasts produced for consumption in Japan should be used as only an example of the capability of the models presented herein. More work is required to develop these equations into a form where they can be used to more accurately estimate future consumption.

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  • Native forest monitoring : tracking changes in native forest remnants.

    Arnold, T. A. H. (2016)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Native forest monitoring is undertaken by forest companies as a requirement for certification of their forests by groups such as the FSC. It is important for companies to be able to track changes that are occurring to native forest remnants that are often spread throughout their operational plantation forest estate. Pan Pac tasked me with completing their 2016 native forest monitoring programme and review the results that have been collected since the programme was implemented in 2002. The objective of this was to both gain a better understanding of how the composition of the remnants in their5 estate is changing and to make recommendations on how the programme could be improved in the future. The majority of the 11 Permanent Sample Plots (PSPs) measured were in good or stable condition, several of which showed strong regeneration of the understory over the past 14 years. Three of the sites have been affected by heavy ungulate browsing (deer and/or goats), which has resulted in the continued suppression of the understory vegetation. While all current canopy layers of the PSP have not changed significantly, current and future disturbance such as ungulate browse could result in a change in composition from the current forest makeup. Ungulate browsing has been identified as the biggest driver of change in the native forest remnants within Pan Pac’s estate. To further examine to magnitude of this, exclosure plots could be established in impacted remnants to assess the effect of removal of browsing pests as a basis for Pan Pac to make decisions about future ungulate control. Continued monitoring of native forests is key to be able to identify as well as understand what is happening with native forest remnants. Tracking composition change is important as it allows the forest manager to target management practices such as ungulate control to combat non-natural changes that are occurring.

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  • An analysis of vessel loading of export logs at four New Zealand ports.

    Duval, Alfred W. (2016)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Over half of New Zealand’s annual harvest was exported as logs in 2015 (MPI, 2016). The large scale and economic importance of log exports highlights the importance of efficient port operations. Productive cycle elements for the log loading operation were defined. The vessel loading cycle was split into six elements: three ‘action elements’ (loading, tallying, and slinging), and three ‘carting elements’ between the ‘action elements’. Time study measurements were carried out at four New Zealand ports (Tauranga, Marsden Point, Gisborne, and Port Chalmers) to identify differences in productive time to load log export vessels. Port Chalmers wasn’t compared to the other ports as it was too different operationally. Loading had the longest productive element time, followed by slinging and tallying, and lastly the ‘carting elements’. Loading was uninfluenced by port but affected by log grade, length, operator skill, and the time of day. Tallying was significantly different between the three ports with Marsden Point fastest and Tauranga slowest. Slinging was quickest in Gisborne and faster whilst loading below-deck and during the daytime. Carting elements were heavily influenced by distance to or from log stack for all four ports. Tauranga displayed the fastest historic gross load rate (JASm³/hour) yet the slowest productive cycle time. Gross load rate is influenced by delays, volume per cycle, and productive cycle time. The difference in productive time and gross load rate could therefore be assumed to be from increased volume per cycle and/or reduced delays in Tauranga. Exporters are fined for loading slower than scheduled. This cost is greater when shipping rates are high as fines are based on shipping rates. A 5% increase in loading efficiency can save the exporter US$11,000 per vessel at historic maximum shipping rates.

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  • The performance of blocks of clones in a radiata pine production forest.

    Farmery, Acacia (2015)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Problem: Genetically identical clones of Pinus radiata are being planted in New Zealand plantation forests. There have been many clonal trials carried out; however there is a weakness in published literature surrounding the performance of clones in production blocks. Method: Five comparisons in four of Pan Pac Forests Products production forests were measured. Three comparisons were measured at age 4.5 years old and two were measured at 7.5 years old. There were six Forest Genetics clones and three different control-pollinated seedlots measured in these comparisons. Each comparison had a different number and selection of seedlots. There were six different traits measured for the trees; diameter at breast height over bark, height, acoustic velocity, straightness, branching habit, and malformation. The different traits were compared between the seedlots within each comparison. The differences in variation for diameter at breast height and modulus of elasticity were compared between clones and control-pollinated seedlots. Finally, the results by clone for the traits, excluding height, were compared to the expected performance supplied by Forest Genetics. Results: There were differences in performance between seedlots. Four clones performed well across a range of traits. One clone performed well in the 7.5 year old blocks but not in the 4.5 year old blocks. One clone did not perform well in size and stiffness. Clones were significantly less variable than control-pollinated seedlots for diameter at breast height but not for modulus of elasticity. The performance of each clone in Pan Pac Forest Products forests was very similar to the expected performance provided by Forest Genetics. Implications: There are clones that can produce desired yield, stiffness and form. Clones will provide a more uniform crop in diameter than control-pollinated seedlots. Pan Pac Forest Products can rely on Forest Genetics prediction of clonal performance as a guide to performance in their forests.

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  • The proportion of fast and slow neuromuscular junctions in young and old mice

    Lloyd, Jordan (2017)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    Human skeletal mass and strength increase from birth until ~35 years of age, thereafter a decline in mass and strength occurs in a process called sarcopenia. Beyond 60 years of age muscular weakness falls to a point where it imposes physical disability and individuals lose the ability to live independently. The loss of muscle mass and strength can be attributed, at least in part, to a fast to slow muscle fibre type transition (increased proportion of slow type muscle fibres. An age associated change in the innervation of skeletal muscle with ageing is a probable underlying cause of this fibre type transition. Muscle fibre types are determined by their innervating axon; fast muscle fibres are innervated by fast axons forming fast neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) and slow muscle fibres are innervated by slow axons forming slow NMJs. If a muscle fibre is innervated by a motor axon of the wrong type e.g. a fast muscle fibre is innervated by a slow axon, that axon converts the muscle fibre type to slow. The present study hypothesised that the reduction in the proportion of fast muscle fibres seen in ageing may be caused by a selective loss of innervation of fast muscle fibres with a subsequent reinnervation by slow axons resulting in the conversion of the fast muscle fibres to slow muscle fibres. This fast to slow muscle fibre type change would therefore be coupled with an increased proportion of slow NMJs with a reduction of fast NMJs (a fast to slow NMJ transition). To determine this, a comparison of the proportion of fast and slow NMJs present in the soleus (containing both fast and slow muscle fibres), and extensor digitorum longus, (containing almost entirely fast muscle fibres) of young (2-2.4 months old) and old (20-24 months old) C57BL/6 mice was made. Immunohistochemistry was used to selectively label slow NMJs by targeting SV2a, a synaptic vesicle protein present only in the nerve terminals of slow axons. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and Synaptophysin, present in all nerve terminals, were used as a general marker for NMJs. The proportion of SV2a positive (slow) NMJs was compared to the proportion of SV2a negative (fast) NMJs in young and old mice to determine whether there was a difference in the proportion of slow and fast NMJs with ageing. Sectioned muscles were viewed by widefield fluorescence microscopy. An average of 180 NMJs were counted in each soleus muscle and 162 in each EDL. A reduction in the proportion of fast nerve terminals with an increase in slow was found in the soleus muscle, 40.41 ± 3.3% of young NMJs were fast and 59.59 ± 3.3% were slow, of old NMJs 10.80 ± 4.1% were fast and 90.20 ± 4.1% were slow. No change was found in the EDL, 89.66 ± 6.3% of young NMJs were fast and 10.44 ± 6.3% were slow. Of old NMJs 90.06 ± 2.5% were fast and 9.94 ± 2.5% were slow. There was an insufficient number of EDL muscles used (n=2) meaning no valid statistical analysis could be drawn from the EDL results. These observations suggest that in the soleus there may be a deinnervation of fast muscle fibres with a reinnervation by slow axons occurring which promotes an increase in the proportion of slow NMJs with ageing and reduces the proportion of fast NMJs. This deinnervation-reinnervation process may underlie the increase in slow muscle fibres with a reduction in fast muscle fibres seen in the ageing soleus.

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  • The University of Otago's Home Science Extension Service, 1929-1954

    Clarke, Katherine Mary (2003)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    The Home Science Extension Service (HSES) of the Otago University was established in 1929. The Service intended to remedy a lack in the educational facilities available for rural women. The HSES developed from the example of the rural educational work in the United States. The founders hoped that home science instruction could reduce many of the hardships and problems of rural domestic life. They wanted to improve health standards through dietary advice and educating women about cleanliness. They believed instruction about efficient homemaking techniques could reduce the toil of rural women. They also wanted to provide a source of enjoyment, by offering leisure activities and mental stimulation. The extension of home science teaching into the community needs to be seen in the wider context of two international movements, adult education and home science. New Zealand adult education largely developed from the British adult education system, while the American model of home economics inspired New Zealand's tradition of home science. The HSES fused these international themes in a New Zealand experiment into the possibilities for rural adult education. […] This investigation covers the founding of the HSES and its first twenty-five years of operation, from 1929 to 1954. The period ends in 1954 partly because this confines the study to the time before feminist movements began to openly challenge the belief that a woman's proper role was to be a homemaker. It is appropriate to study an organisation which helped women with homemaking during a period when many believed that this was to be their destiny. The twenty-five year period also encompasses three phases in the HSES's development: the 'Carnegie period'; the 'war years'; and the 'adult education era'. The changes within the HSES during these years provide insights into wider developments in New Zealand society. [extract from Introduction]

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  • Development of Novel Triadin-Based Biosensor for the Quantification of H2O2 in the Cardiac Dyad Microdomain

    McLachlan, Julia Jocelyn (2016)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    Release of Ca2+ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), mediated by the activation of the ryanodine receptor (RyR2), initiates myocardial contraction. This process of Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release is confined within a 20 nm region termed the dyad, located between the transverse tubule and the SR. Architectural properties of the dyad restrict diffusion of Ca2+ and other intracellular messengers to create a unique, subcellular microdomain. Previous research has shown that endogenous producers of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are abundant within the dyad, and have attributed alterations in Ca2+ release with the oxidation of RyR2. However, the spatiotemporal dynamics of ROS within this microdomain remain unquantified due to an absence of tools that enable subcompartmental ROS resolution. Therefore, this research aimed to utilise the recent development of genetically encoded redox biosensors, capable of ROS detection, to create a biosensor tethered to the N-terminus of the dyadic protein, triadin. A Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK) 293 cell model was used to characterise two ROS (H2O2) sensors, HyPer3 and roGFP2-Orp1, in vitro to determine the biosensor more suitable for the triadin-based construct. Using single-cell imaging, HEK 293 cells transiently transfected with HyPer3 or roGFP2-Orp1 were superfused with a range of oxidising and reducing agents. Based on these data, roGFP2-Orp1 exhibits a greater dynamic range, increased sensitivity, and faster oxidation-reduction kinetics than HyPer3, and thus was selected for the triadin-based construct. In parallel, single-cell Ca2+ imaging was used to confirm that co-expression of triadin has a neutral effect on RyR2 function. HEK 293 cells expressing RyR2 WT or RyR2 WT + triadin were loaded with the cytosolic Ca2+ indicator, Fluo-4 AM and superfused with 0.1–1 mM Ca2+ to activate RyR2 WT. These data found a non-significant (p = 0.9) difference in Ca2+ release in RyR2 WT (61.9 ± 3.1%) and RyR2 WT + triadin (60.3 ± 3.5%) cells exposed to 1 mM Ca2+. To create roGFP2-Orp1-triadin, overlap extension PCR was used to generate an SfaAI restriction site that enabled roGFP2-Orp1 to be subcloned into the triadin plasmid. However, the development of roGFP2-Orp1-triadin was unsuccessful. This research highlights a novel method for H2O2 quantification within the dyadic microdomain. Characterisation of HyPer3 and roGFP2-Orp1 revealed that roGFP2-Orp1 exhibits the sensitivity and reversibility required for an in vivo biosensor. In addition, co-expression of triadin has a neutral effect on the properties of RyR2-mediated Ca2+ release, which indicates that triadin is an appropriate tether for the dyadic localisation of roGFP2-Orp1. Future directions include the generation of an animal model to further understand the spatiotemporal dynamics of ROS in relation to alterations in Ca2+ release in vivo.

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  • Effectiveness and safety of vitamin D compounds in people with chronic kidney disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Okamura-Kho, Amy (2016)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    Vitamin D therapy is commonly prescribed for people with chronic kidney disease to improve biochemical perturbations; however, evidence of effects on patient-centred outcomes such as mortality, cardiovascular events and fracture are uncertain. We updated a systematic review and meta-analysis of all available randomised controlled trials on vitamin D compounds in chronic kidney disease to determine its effects on clinical and biochemical outcomes as well as its optimum route of administration, frequency and dose. Searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Renal Group specialised register databases identified 164 eligible studies that enrolled 10,333 participants. Based on low to very low quality evidence assessed using GRADE methodology, vitamin D had uncertain effects on all-cause mortality, fracture, parathyroidectomy, bone pain and progression to end-stage kidney disease. Compared to placebo, new vitamin D compounds may reduce major cardiovascular events by 18 to 58 people per 1000 people who have chronic kidney disease not receiving dialysis. Vitamin D reduced serum parathyroid hormone levels by 116 pg/ml (12.7 pmol/l) on average, while increasing serum calcium by 0.33 mg/dl (0.08 mmol/l) and phosphorus by 0.19 mg/dl (0.06 mmol/l) when compared to placebo. We are moderately confident that vitamin D therapy increases episodes of hypercalcaemia by 14 to 64 people per 1000 people treated. Effects of different vitamin D compounds, routes of administration, frequency and doses of vitamin D were not discernible from existing evidence. Additional trials are likely to change these estimated treatment effects and are needed to increase confidence in the evidence that informs clinical practice guidelines for vitamin D in people with chronic kidney disease.

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  • He aha te kai o te rangatira i te ao hurihuri? : what is the food of chiefs in a changing world?: leadership in Te Tau Ihu in the late twentieth century.

    Williams, Madi (2016)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This research examines the nature of Māori leadership in Te Tau Ihu during the late twentieth century. A Te Tau Ihu focus has been chosen as I whakapapa to Ngāti Kuia, Ngāti Kōata, and Ngāti Apa ki te Rā Tō. The existing historiography on Māori leadership is focused on national scale leaders and fails to adequately take into account local factors. This dissertation analyses how leadership manifested in late twentieth-century Te Tau Ihu. The research was conducted using a combination of oral history and kaupapa Māori methodologies and thematic interviews were undertaken with three current Te Tau Ihu leaders. These interviews directed the research and highlighted the leadership roles and attributes that were necessary during this period. The key conclusion to emerge was that there are crucial differences within Māori leadership, depending on the iwi, region, and context. Within Te Tau Ihu leadership roles were primarily centred around a fight for cultural recognition and the initial steps of the Treaty Settlement process. They were filled by volunteers who had a range of attributes such as charisma, communication skills, bravery, manaakitanga, and humility. It was the combination of these roles and attributes that enabled Te Tau Ihu iwi to move forward so successfully into the twenty first century.

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  • ‘A clubbed skull or a good shipwreck, there is the death for a missionary… but to die a leper should be more precious still…’ : heroic missionary deaths of the 20th century at the Pacific Leprosy Asylum, Makogai Island, Fiji.

    Hawarden, Rosanne (2016)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Through Bishop Julien Vidal of Suva, Fiji, the Missionary Sisters of the Society of Mary (SMSM) provided nursing services to leprosy sufferers in the Makogai Island leprosarium, Fiji from its inception in 1911. In a period when the cause of leprosy was known but an effective remedy was not available, Pacific leprosy patients who suffered stigmatisation and rejection by their communities, were forcibly segregated through formal legislation to remote island leprosaria. Religious and humanitarian organisations aligned leprosy control measures with their goals to evangelise and fundraise amongst the faithful. The Catholic Church became known for the care of leprosy patients with staff recognised for devoting their lives to a self-sacrificing religious martyrdom. Early histories presented a sanitised view of the arduous work involved in running a ‘total’ institution. Mythologised tales of lived events on Makogai Island were couched in religious terminology. The process of mythmaking by missionary organisations has received some attention, notably by Young and Luder, but has not focussed on missions to leprosy sufferers. Young considered the necessary conditions for missionary legends to develop while Luder analysed the mythmaking of Polynesian peoples and use of sacred imagery to cloak deeper knowledge reserved for elites. Examination of the records of Bishop Vidal exposes the layer of insider knowledge that was kept within official circles, including information on the high rates of illness amongst the nuns, whose hygiene regimes required the use of toxic chemicals. Very few missionaries died from leprosy, whereas drowning was a common fate. Two specific deaths on Makogai Island, the death of a priest in a shipwreck and a nursing sister from leprosy, were progressively mythologised. The violent death of a European priest was more likely to be mythologised than that of a ‘native’ nun who contracted leprosy. The rousing phrases of Bishop Vidal are more aspirational than actuality.

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  • 'The imperial character' : Alexius I Comnenus and the Byzantine ideal of emperorship.

    Rolston, Elisabeth Michelle (2016)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The twelfth century saw what has been acknowledged by historians as a change in the nature of Byzantine emperorship with the reign of Alexius I Comnenus (1081-1118) and his succeeding dynasty. The rule of the Comneni has been associated with an emphasis on military achievement and a greater dynastic focus. While the practical changes to imperial rule under the Comneni have been well documented by historians, a focus on the character of the emperor and his depiction in historical writing has not yet received scholarly attention. The reign of Alexius was documented by two twelfth-century historians, Anna Comnena and John Zonaras. Their works offer two markedly different interpretations of Alexius's character and his suitability to occupy the imperial office. Anna Comnena's Alexiad draws on Biblical and Classical traditions to establish Alexius as the model of an ideal emperor. John Zonaras's Epitome Historiarum sets different standards for private men and for emperors. While Alexius's character is sufficiently virtuous for a private man, he falls short of the standard imposed for an emperor. This research shows that both writers create an ideal of emperorship in which the character of the emperor plays a vital role. The nature of this ideal, and the influences that inform it, are unique to each writer. Anna and John identify similar character traits in Alexius. Their point of difference, however, is whether they believe Alexius's character is suitable for the imperial office, and the extent to which he fulfils their ideal standard of emperorship.

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