3,261 results for Modify

  • A randomised controlled demonstration trial of multifaceted nutritional intervention and or probiotics: the healthy mums and babies (HUMBA) trial

    Okesene-Gafa, K; Li, M; Taylor, Rennae; Thompson, John; Crowther, Caroline; McKinlay, Christopher; McCowan, Lesley (2016-11-24)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background Maternal obesity is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and has lifelong negative implications for offspring health. The Institute of Medicine recommends limited gestational weight gain (GWG) in obese women for optimal maternal and infant outcomes. However, there is a gap regarding an effective and sustainable intervention strategy to achieve this goal. The aim of the healthy mums and babies (HUMBA) demonstration trial is to assess whether a multifaceted nutritional intervention and/or an oral probiotic treatment in obese pregnant women can reduce excessive GWG and optimise pregnancy outcomes. Methods and design The study is a two by two factorial randomised controlled demonstration trial conducted in Counties Manukau health region, New Zealand, a multi-ethnic region with a high prevalence of obesity. A total of 220 non-diabetic obese women with a singleton pregnancy will be recruited between 120 and 176 weeks. At recruitment, women are randomised to receive either a culturally tailored multifaceted dietary intervention or routine dietary advice, and either an oral probiotic or placebo capsule. Randomisation is undertaken via a web-based protocol, randomize.net, with a 1:1 ratio using stratification by body mass index (BMI) category (BMI of 30–34.9 or BMI ≥35 kg/m2). The dietary intervention includes 4 customised nutrition education visits by a trained community health worker combined with motivational text messaging. Probiotic capsules consist of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Bifidobacterium lactis BB12 at a dose of 7 × 109 colony-forming units one per day until birth. Probiotic and placebo capsules are identically pre-packed and labelled by a third party, and are prescribed in a double blinded fashion. Research assessments are conducted at enrolment, 28 weeks, 36 weeks, at birth and at 5 months post-delivery. The primary outcomes for the study are proportion of women with excessive GWG and infant birthweight. Discussion The HUMBA demonstration trial will assess the efficacy of a culturally tailored multifaceted dietary intervention and probiotic treatment in limiting excessive GWG and optimising birthweight in a multiethnic sample of obese pregnant women. If successful, either one or both of the interventions may be incorporated into future studies powered to investigate important pregnancy outcomes. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry registration number: ACTRN12615000400561, Universal Trial Number: U1111-1155-0409. Date registered: 29th April 2015.

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  • Influences on the Role of the Stepfather in Stepfamilies

    Brennan, James (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Previous research indicates that the stepparent-child relationship has an important influence on the adjustment of stepfamilies, and in particular on children’s wellbeing. Stepfathers adopt a range of roles in regard to their stepchildren, and some roles appear to be more adaptive than others. This qualitative study aimed to understand stepfathers’ perceptions about the stepfather role, and examine the influences that shape the kinds of roles that stepfathers develop in stepfamilies. A sample of 86 stepfathers, living in New Zealand with their stepchildren (at least some of the time), completed an online questionnaire about their experiences and perceptions of the stepfather role, and the influences that shape their relationships with stepchildren. The questionnaire elicited participants' attitudes about the stepfather role, perceptions about social expectations for their behaviour towards stepchildren, and role models for being a stepfather. Stepfathers were prompted to write about the kinds of roles they had and the influences that shaped their roles. Participants were also asked about their experiences of seeking advice about being a stepfather, or their reasons for not doing so. Thematic and categorical analyses were conducted on the qualitative data collected. The results indicate that there remains significant lack of clarity about what role a stepfather should play from a societal perspective, and variation in the kinds of roles stepfathers develop in stepfamilies. Three role types were identified in the data: a father-like role, a supportive adult role, and an uninvolved role. The roles taken by stepfathers were influenced by several salient factors: stepfathers’ own attitudes and experiences, alignment or misalignment with their partners about their roles, the receptiveness of stepchildren, the involvement of biological fathers, and, to a lesser extent, perceived endorsement or opposition from extended family and society more broadly. These findings are discussed in terms of existing knowledge about stepfather roles, and a preliminary model of the influences on stepfather roles is presented. This study contributes to the existing body of stepfamily research, and provides discussion on the implications for clinical practice and future research directions.

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  • Transition with Dignity: From Special School to Community Life Understood in Partnership with Individuals with Significant Disabilities

    Hart, Sarah (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    At the critical life stage of leaving school, many young adults are excited for their future. This is not always the case, however, for students with significant disability. After a systematic literature review of transition research, two essential concerns arose: Students with significant disability experience dismal outcomes compared to their mainstream peers, and they have been alienated from their own transition planning, as well as from the pertaining research. The purpose of this study was to examine transition from the perspectives of those living the experience. Six-month ethnography was guided by three young men, who exited segregated special schools into the early stage of adult life in Aotearoa New Zealand. Fieldwork involved extensive observation and adapted interviews tailored to each young man. Data were also collected from transition informants (parents, teachers, transition providers), and review of key artefacts (documents, photographs, video). Working in partnership, the young men reclaimed their position as experts on their own transition. Their voices, whether audible or non-verbal, were privileged above all others. Analysis was conducted in multiple, inductive and deductive, waves. Using an inductive approach, two themes emerged that impacted the three transitions: trialling post-school options and a lack of collaboration between transition partners called here, silos. Deductive analysis framed by the capability approach (Nussbaum, 2000; Sen, 1999) involved noticing and naming the young men’s personal capabilities, then reviewing the way they informed each transition. While individual transition experiences varied, insufficient trialling of post-school options hindered the young men’s sense of belonging in post-school life. This issue was exacerbated by the lack of collaboration between those who planned transition, to the extent that teachers and the students themselves were excluded. Case narratives were used to articulate the difference in experiences of each young man, tied together by unifying transition artefacts of timetable organisers. The research findings were considered alongside prior research in order to form a counternarrative. Commonly understood transition experiences for individuals with significant disability were refuted, holding practical, theoretical, and methodological implications. Reconceptualised transitions were grounded in the genuine opportunities each young man could have to construct a thriving life of personal priority. A transition with dignity.

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  • Distribution of Lipids in the Human Brain and their Differential Expression in Alzheimer's Disease: A Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionisation-Imaging Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-IMS) Study

    Mendis, Lakshini (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the leading cause of dementia, is pathologically characterised by β-amyloid plaques and tau tangles. However, there is also evidence of lipid-dyshomeostasis-mediated AD pathology. Given the structural diversity of lipids, mass spectrometry (MS) is a useful tool for studying lipid changes in AD. The use of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) circumvents the limitation of traditional MS, allowing users to visualise the distribution of lipids. Thus, I optimised MALDI-IMS to image the distribution of lipids in the postmortem human middle temporal gyrus (MTG) and hippocampus, and analyse its differential expression in AD. In order to study a large number of cases, compared to previously published MALDI-IMS papers, I developed an analysis workflow to efficiently evaluate large, heterogeneous datasets and accurately detect lipids that were differentially expressed in AD. I hypothesised that the MTG would show similar lipid differences to those previously reported in other cortical regions. Further, given that each hippocampal anatomical sub-field has its own function, I postulated that there would be lipid differences unique to each sub-field. Both positively- and negatively-charged lipid ion species were abundantly detected in the control and AD cohorts. Grey matter and white matter had unique lipid profiles. However, there were variations in the distribution of lipids even within the same region, especially in the grey matter in the MTG and the CA1 region in the hippocampus. In AD, while the distribution patterns of lipids were comparable to the control cohort, some lipids were expressed at different levels. For example, the expression of some phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) lipids was decreased in the MTG. The majority of lipids that were differentially expressed in the hippocampus were found in the CA1 region. Further, there were differences in eight lipids that were specific to the dentate gyrus (DG) region. High-resolution MALDI IMS revealed that these lipids showed a heterogeneous distribution amongst the three DG layers. Finally, I quantified PE lipids with MALDI-IMS, using a lipid-spiked tissue homogenate approach. This is the first time that this approach has been successfully used to quantify lipids the human MTG and the DG. The concentration of PE did not change in the DG in AD; however, the concentrations of four PE species, namely PE 38:4, PE 39:5, and PE 40:6, were reduced in the grey matter in the MTG. Thus, the MALDI-IMS technique, the analysis workflow, and the lipid quantification approach, provided a novel method to investigate specific lipid differences in the postmortem human brain in AD. This work extends the understanding of the lipid composition of the human brain and how it differs in AD. Future work will focus on elucidating if these lipid differences are a driver, or consequence, of AD pathogenesis.

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  • Personality Development in Adulthood: Studies of stability and change in a nationally representative sample of adult New Zealanders

    Milojev, Petar (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    The development of personality in adulthood remains a topic of debate with direct implications for the conceptualisation of personality traits (McCrae & Costa, 1999; Roberts et al., 2008). However, with notable exceptions, comprehensive longitudinal investigations of the development of personality traits across a broad range of the adult life span are surprisingly rare. Through four systematic longitudinal investigations, the present thesis investigates the change and stability in the Big Six personality traits – Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, Openness to Experience, and Honesty- Humility – in a nationally representative panel study of adult New Zealanders. Study 1 demonstrated the very high stability of the six traits, thus confirming the prediction of high temporal stability of personality traits. This study also provided the crucial test of the test-retest reliability of the personality scales used throughout this thesis. Study 2 demonstrated the systematic variability in the stability of personality traits across the adult life span. That is, personality traits tend to stabilise across younger adulthood, reach peak stability in middle age (i.e., late 40’s and early 50’s), and systematically destabilise thereafter. The findings of Study 3 indicated remarkable consistency in personality traits associated with a major natural disaster (namely, the 2010/2011 Earthquakes in Canterbury, New Zealand). The only meanlevel change from before to after the earthquakes was a small decrease in Emotional Stability (or an increase in Neuroticism) among those affected by the event. Finally, Study 4 investigated normative patterns of mean level change in personality traits and identified distinct developmental trajectories for the different traits with changes occurring across the entire adult life span. Collectively, these studies paint an interesting picture of both stability and change in personality traits, highlighting the need for an integrated perspective on personality development – one that incorporates both the intrinsic stability of the construct and early development, as well the continuing process of change.

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  • A Novel Click Chemistry-Based Method to Detect Hypoxic Tumour Cells and Characterise Their Gene Expression

    Hou, Alec (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Tumour hypoxia results in aggressive tumours with increased metastatic potential and resistance to therapy. Information is limited on cellular responses to hypoxia in the tumour microenvironment primarily due to lack of suitable research tools. After hypoxia-dependent metabolism and entrapment of adducts in hypoxic cells, the ‘clickable’ 2- nitromidazole hypoxia marker (SN33267) bearing a terminal alkyne group can be derivatised via copper(I)-catalysed alkyne-azide cycloaddition (CuAAC) with azides. Labelling of hypoxic cells with fluorophore azides, after exposure to SN33267, was optimised in vitro by simultaneously improving hypoxia-selectivity and preserving the integrity of cellular RNA. With the optimised protocol, the CuAAC-based method was able to separate pre-mixed aerobic (20% O2) and hypoxic (0% O2) cells (2-h exposure with 100 μM SN33267) by fluorescenceactivated cell sorting (FACS) according to the cellular fluorescence intensity in every human cancer line tested (N=4) without prior cell fixation and permeabilisation. The RNA extracted from FACS-sorted fractions was of sufficient quality (RIN>6) for measurement of gene expression. The method was independently validated by evaluating transcript abundance (qPCR) of 15 clinicallyvalidated hypoxia marker genes. Mice bearing subcutaneous human tumour xenografts were administered SN33267 (60 mg/kg; intraperitoneal) and excised 2 h later. Dissociated tumour cells were fluorescently labelled via the CuAAC-based approach and sorted by FACS into four fractions. The transcript expression of 15 hypoxia marker genes was sequentially increased with increasing fluorescence intensity of the four FACS-sorted cell populations. This was mirrored by protein expression of one of the genes (BNIP3). The expression of 10 oxidoreductases involved in the activation of hypoxia-activated anticancer prodrugs was assessed in the same fractions. In FaDu xenografts, TXNRD1 was the only oxidoreductase gene with upregulated transcription (P<0.05) in response to elevated hypoxic stress. In SiHa xenografts, the reductase genes were only moderately upregulated (up to 2-fold) in the fractions of intermediate hypoxia and the most hypoxic fraction showed no change in gene expression relative to the least hypoxic fraction, as did protein expression of the key reductase gene POR. This novel CuAAC-based method is much faster and more versatile than the established antibodybased hypoxic cell detection techniques and provides at least the same sensitivity. The new method was validated independently using a hypoxia gene signature. It provides a powerful and user-friendly tool for pre-clinical study of the hypoxia-mediated effects in the tumour microenvironment by gene and/or corresponding protein expression in tumours in situ.

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  • Landscape connectivity and sediment flux within the upper Yellow River basin

    Nicoll, Tami (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    The degree of landscape connectivity has wide-ranging implications for sediment availability, frequency of transport, and the nature of sediment storage within a basin. Looking at the system as a whole, and identifying the connections that facilitate or impede sediment movement within a catchment is central to these applications. This thesis examines landscape connectivity within the highly diverse landscapes of the upper Yellow River (UYR) basin at a broad scale, with detailed focus on a smaller tributary that lies in the incised basin fill deposits of the Guide basin close to the margin of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP), the Garang subcatchment. Uplift of the QTP has resulted in a high-altitude landscape with a cold, semi-arid continental climate within the upper Yellow River. The region is characterized by several wide, low-relief basins separated by the two major mountain ranges (up to 2 km in relief) that run through the region, with tectonic deformation enduring within a series of strike-slip fault complexes. The thesis results are presented as a series of three papers. Findings are brought together in a discussion chapter. The first paper focuses on the pronounced variability in the landscapes of the upper Yellow River basin. The classification presented in this paper provides an effective organizational framework to describe the landscape diversity. Stark contrasts in landform assemblages and associated process relationships are evident across three very different terrains, reflecting the complex inter-relationships between tectonics, climate and surficial processes over time. A broad, low-relief, and highly disconnected upper plateau area at the headwaters of the UYR represents a relict peneplain that may have formed prior to regional uplift. The ranges of the Anyemaqen Shan in the central basin form a high-relief and highly connected landscape. Finally, the incisional story of the UYR dominates within the lower portion of the study area, where low-relief basin fills have been highly incised as a result of headward erosion of the Yellow River as drainage was established through the area. The second and third papers present a detailed examination of the landscape connectivity and sediment dynamics within the Garang study catchment. The second paper applies two methodological approaches for assessing landscape connectivity, a GIS-based geomorphometric index and a methodology linking interpretation of satellite imagery and field mapping of sediment storage to slope threshold analysis. Landscapes of the Garang catchment are differentiated into three geomorphic zones characterized by distinct landscape configuration and dominant geomorphic processes: i) a highly disconnected upper catchment of low-relief with large inactive sediment stores; ii) a transitional zone where present landscape dynamics are controlled in large part by past incisional processes in the form of large alluvial fan/terrace deposits; and iii) a highly connected and highly dissected landscape within the lower catchment that has little accommodation space for sediment storage. The findings from this paper emphasize the need for field-based observations that are capable of differentiating between landforms and activity levels of sediment stores, as well as providing inference on geomorphic process, that may not be evident with the use of cell-based morphometrics. The final paper expands upon these findings and presents an overview of sediment distribution and volume within the highly incised Garang catchment, combining field and GIS-based analyses. The magnitude and pattern of sediment storage is shown to be highly disparate between three distinct geomorphic zones of the Garang catchment. Findings of the study also reveal a somewhat unconventional pattern of sediment storage, whereby sediment storage is greater within the headwaters and decreases with distance downstream, adding to the range of landscape settings in which catchment-scale patterns of sediment storage have been assessed. The study also provides insight into the influence of long-term landscape evolution within the area, and how the response to lowering of the base level through Yellow River incision has impacted landscape connectivity and associated patterns of sediment storage and reworking within the catchment. Findings from both studies highlight the importance of field-informed appraisals of landscape dynamics, site-specific characteristics and the significance that basin-scale history can have on determining contemporary sediment dynamics. Issues associated with scales of analysis and the importance of localized influences are a key theme within the thesis. The final discussion chapter contextualizes findings of the thesis, focusing primarily on scale relations between landforms, geomorphic compartments (zones) and the subcatchment-scale analysis, and prospects to meaningfully up-scale these understandings to the UYR as a whole, linking analyses at the subcatchment scale to considerations of how we approach connectivity analyses across differing scales and contexts. Limitations and implications of the study are outlined.

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  • “Kōkiritia i roto i te kotahitanga”: A Process Evaluation of a Wraparound Programme at Te Whānau o Waipareira Trust

    Tamihere, Christina (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    In New Zealand, youth offending has become a significant problem; a problem that has led to the promotion and development of programmes which aim to prevent and reduce youth crime. The Wraparound model of care is one that aims to address this issue. It is a relatively new concept in New Zealand, one that has very promising outcomes but has not yet been given the opportunity to show its full potential. This thesis presents the findings of a process evaluation of Te Whanau O Waipareira Trust’s Wraparound Service (WWS). The evaluation aimed to describe the programme with a focus on cultural variables, identify strengths and weaknesses and to make recommendations for the improvement of the delivery of the service. This project utilised qualitative methods, including interviews, field observations and a review of programme documentation. A total of 23 people participated in this project, including 9 rangatahi, 4 whānau, 2 internal stakeholders, 3 external stakeholders and 5 kaimahi. The project ran over a period of approximately 18 months and was based at Te Whānau o Waipareira Trust. Results indicated (a) a high level of satisfaction by rangatahi; (b) engagement in the WWS was facilitated by collaborating and communicating with whānau, the quality of the rangatahi-kaimahi relationship and the provision of attractive resources, (c) strong emotional connection in being able to identify with a Māori service, (d) a high quality of staffing, (e) a high-level of tikanga incorporated into the service, (f) an issue of infidelity as established by the National Wraparound Initiative and (g) the importance of strong organizational structure, process, leadership and support for staff. The results are discussed in terms of programme recommendations for the improvement of the Wraparound service. This study will make a unique contribution to the successful implementation of Wraparound services in the Aotearoa context, which in the past has been largely overlooked and under researched. It will have further implications on the factors involved in engaging Rangatahi and Whānau Māori in social services and may also provide a framework of comparison for the development of Whānau Ora in Aotearoa.

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  • Functional significance of external trap morphology in aquatic Utricularia

    Gardiner, Corin (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Utricularia is a genus of carnivorous plants with mechanically activated suction traps. Species are largely generalist, opportunistic predators with very plastic vegetative growth. They variously occupy terrestrial, aquatic and epiphytic habitats and can respond to changes in their environment by altering their investment in carnivory. Their traps are adorned with external appendages, the morphology of which varies greatly among species, carrying both phylogenetic and growth-habit specific signals. While this morphological variation is well documented, little is known about its functional significance. One hypothesis with limited support is that the appendage morphology of aquatic species is under selection for prey attraction. Previous work has shown that appendages of one aquatic clade, antennae and bristles, enhance the capture of one microcrustacean species. There has also been very little work done to quantify the plasticity of aquatic appendage expression, either among conspecifics or in response to environmental variation. Additionally, while studies have examined the effects of biotic and abiotic environmental variation on the growth and investment in carnivory of aquatic Utricularia, the effect of prey-derived mineral nutrition on plant growth has remained confounded with that of ambient nutrition. In this thesis I revisit the prey-capture enhancement hypothesis and look for plasticity in the appendage expression of aquatic Utricularia. Firstly, I conduct appendage ablation experiments on two aquatic Utricularia species with different growth habits, U. australis and U. gibba, to test the aquatic-appendage prey-capture hypothesis with a range of ubiquitous prey animals that exhibit differing feeding and locomotory behaviours. Aquatic appendages only enhance the trapping of prey taxa with specific feeding behaviour. Secondly, I conduct a growth experiment which produces the first experimental evidence of appendage expression changing in response to environmental variation, and demonstrate persistent differences in appendage expression between clones of the same species. Finally, with a second growth experiment, I examine the relative contributions of ambient and prey-derived nutrition to growth and investment in carnivory of U. australis. Prey capture plays a larger role in enhancing plant growth than ambient nutrition. I found little support for the aquatic prey-capture hypothesis. The capture rates of three ubiquitous prey taxa are unaffected by the presence of appendages. The degree of persistent appendage variation in between tested individuals is slight and therefore may not be functionally significant. Antennae and bristle expression is affected by environment but responses are not consistent with being an investment in carnivory.

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  • International experience and cultural intelligence: The role of study abroad

    Ott, Dana (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    I investigate the relationship between international experience and the development of Cultural Intelligence (CQ) by applying a Social Learning Theory (SLT) lens to examine how the level of immersion of different study abroad program components impact CQ. I separate the components that constitute a study abroad program, and examine differences in CQ between their levels of immersion. The results provide evidence that CQ varies across different study abroad program components as well as between the levels of immersion of the components. In particular, the findings suggest that the level of immersion of the language of instruction used in course-work and the opportunities provided for reflection on the cultural experience program components impact participants’ CQ. Furthermore, based on the results, I conclude that the relationship between international experience and CQ may not be linear with respect to exposure to the host-country language, and that when utilizing international experience for skills development it is necessary to provide multiple information sessions about culture and opportunities for individuals to reflect on the experience. The knowledge generated from my thesis provides new insights about the relationship between international experience and CQ, how the construct of international experience is measured, and potential explanations for the results of previous studies. Proof of variance in CQ dependent on how immersive a study abroad program component is has theoretical implications for future investigations that utilize the international experience construct. Additionally, it provides practical recommendations for International Business (IB) education, when designing study abroad programs, and for International Human Resource Management (IHRM), when selecting future expatriates.

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  • Draft genome sequences of two New Zealand Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris isolates, ICMP 4013 and ICMP 21080

    Desai, D.; Li, J.-H.; van Zijll de Jong, E.; Braun, R.; Pitman, A.; Visnovsky, S.; Hampton, J. G.; Christey, M. C.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris is a necrotrophic bacterial pathogen of crucifers. We report here the draft genome sequences of isolates ICMP 4013 and ICMP 21080 from New Zealand. These sequences will facilitate the identification of race-specific factors in X. campestris pv. campestris.

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  • Climate change: seed production and options for adaptation

    Hampton, J. G.; Conner, A. J.; Boelt, B.; Chastain, T. G.; Rolston, P.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Food security depends on seed security and the international seed industry must be able to continue to deliver the quantities of quality seed required for this purpose. Abiotic stress resulting from climate change, particularly elevated temperature and water stress, will reduce seed yield and quality. Options for the seed industry to adapt to climate change include moving sites for seed production, changing sowing date, and the development of cultivars with traits which allow them to adapt to climate change conditions. However, the ability of seed growers to make these changes is directly linked to the seed system. In the formal seed system operating in developed countries, implementation will be reasonably straight forward. In the informal system operating in developing countries, the current seed production challenges including supply failing to meet demand and poor seed quality will increase with changing climates.

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  • Cohort Profile: Pacific Islands Families (Pif) Growth Study, Auckland, New Zealand

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    This article profiles a birth cohort of Pacific children participating in an observational prospective study and describes the study protocol used at ages 14-15 years to investigate how food and activity patterns, metabolic risk and family and built environment are related to rates of physical growth of Pacific children.

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  • Transgressive learning in times of global systemic dysfunction: interview with Arjen Wals

    Peters, Michael A.; Wals, Arjen E.J. (2016)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Arjen Wals is Professor of Transformative Learning for Socio-Ecological Sustainability at Wageningen University. He also holds the UNESCO Chair of Social Learning and Sustainable Development. Furthermore he is the Carl Bennet Guest Professor in Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) at Gothenburg University in Sweden. He obtained his PhD in 1991 with a Fulbright fellowship at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor. His dissertation tackled the interface of environmental psychology and environmental and sustainability education. His recent work focuses on transformative social learning in vital coalitions of multiple stakeholders at the interface of science and society. His teaching and research focus on designing learning processes and learning spaces that enable people to contribute meaningfully sustainability. A central question in his work is: how to create conditions that support (new) forms of learning which take full advantage of the diversity, creativity and resourcefulness that is all around us, but so far remain largely untapped in our search for a world that is more sustainable than the one currently in prospect? In 2014 he was the lead author of an article published in Science Magazine on the role of citizen science in bridging science education, environmental education and sustainability. He is editor and co-editor of a number of popular books including: Higher Education and the Challenge of Sustainability (Kluwer Academic, 2004), Creating Sustainable Environments in our Schools (Trentham, 2006), Social Learning towards a Sustainable World with foreword by Fritjof Capra and an afterword by Michael Apple (Wageningen Academic, 2007), Learning for Sustainability in Times of Accelerating Change (2012), and of Routledge’s International Handbook on Environmental Education Research (2013). He has (co)authored over 250 publications in multiple languages. Wals is a co-founder of Caretakers of the Environment/International and a recipient of the environmental education research award of the North American Association for Environmental Education, and former president of the Special Interest Group on Environmental & Ecological Education of the AERA. He writes a regular research blog that signals developments in the emerging field of sustainability education: www.transformativelearning.nl

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  • Privacy Patterns

    Thomborson, Clark (2016-12-05)

    Report
    The University of Auckland Library

    Inspired by the design patterns of object-oriented software architecture, we offer an initial set of "privacy patterns". Our intent is to describe the most important ways in which software systems can offer privacy to their stakeholders. We express our privacy patterns as class diagrams in the UML (Universal Modelling Language), because this is a commonly-used language for expressing the high-level architecture of an object-oriented system. In this initial set of privacy patterns, we sketch how each of Westin's four states of privacy can be implemented in a software system. In addition to Westin's states of Solitude, Intimacy, Anonymity, and Reserve, we develop a privacy pattern for an institutionalised form of Intimacy which we call Confidence.

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  • A short grammar of Urama

    Brown, Jason; Muir, A; Craig, K; Anea, K (2016)

    Book
    The University of Auckland Library

    Urama (ISO: 639-3 kiw) is a language spoken primarily on Urama Island in Papua New Guinea. It is spoken in the Gulf Province, in the vicinity of Deception Bay, in the Era River Delta. Urama is part of the Kiwai language family, which is distributed along the south coast of Papua New Guinea. The Kiwai family in turn belongs to the larger Trans New Guinea stock.1 Within the Kiwai family, Urama belongs to the North-Eastern group, along with Arigibi, Gibaio, and Kope (also referred to as Gope) (Wurm 1973). The name ‘Urama’ is used to refer to the language, the ethnic group, and the island. A native Urama individual is termed Urama mere ‘Urama person’. Urama Island is in the Kikori district. Preliminary numbers for the 2011 census indicate the entire district has a population of 41,232. Official numbers of inhabitants on Urama Island are more difficult to obtain; however, Wurm (1971:139) has estimated the population of Urama speakers at around 1500. Foley (1986:233) estimated the population of North-Eastern Kiwai (presumably including Gibaio, Kope, and Urama, but not Arigibi, which Wurm & Hattori 1981 classify as a separate language²) at 3700 speakers, as has Wurm & Hattori (1981), and according to Ethnologue (Lewis et al. 2014, based on Foley’s 2011 estimates), there are 6000 speakers of North-East Kiwai (which includes Gibaio and Urama-Kope3 together). The adjacent areas speak various Kiwaian languages, and there is some mutual intelligibility between them. As Tok Pisin is one of the lingue franche of Papua New Guinea and is an official language, it is often the language of communication between those from other areas.

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  • Racial Inequities in Cardiovascular Disease in New Zealand

    Miner-Williams, W

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    The literature is replete with studies pertaining to ethnic inequities in healthcare. A thorny subject that has been described for decades and yet has few remedial solutions. The pattern of ethnic inequities in healthcare is a global phenomenon that is not confined to any specific race or culture. Worldwide, cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the topmost cause of death and a substantial burden on healthcare resources. In New Zealand CVD is the leading cause of death, accounting for 40% of all deaths annually. Diminished life expectancy is one example of racial inequity in healthcare between Māori and Pākehā (the non-indigenous population). This review attempts to clarify the muddy waters of 175 years of post-colonial healthcare inequity in New Zealand and in particular the causes of inequity in the incidence of CVD and mortality in Māori . Such dialogue will hopefully stimulate discussion among policy makers and clinicians to redress the ethnic inequities in healthcare.

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  • Interview with Michael Apple: The biography of a public intellectual

    Peters, Michael A. (2015)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Michael W. Apple is the John Bascom Professor of Curriculum and Instruction and Educational Policy Studies in the Departments of Curriculum and Instruction (CI) and Educational Policy Studies (EPS) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Education where he has taught since 1970. Michael Apple is one of the foremost educational theorists in the world and a public intellectual who is deeply committed to empowerment and transformation of people through education. Professor Apple specializes in understanding and analyzing the relations between education and power. He has made major contributions to the fields of cultural politics, curriculum theory and research, and critical teaching. He has been a tireless advocate and activist-theorist for development of democratic schools over four decades. He began teaching in elementary and secondary schools in New Jersey where he grew up and served as president of the local teachers' union. He has spent his career working with educators, unions, dissident and disadvantaged groups throughout the world on democratizing educational policy and practice. Professor Apple's research centers on the limits and possibilities of critical educational policy and practice in a time of conservative restoration.

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  • Provision of Foot Health Services for People With Rheumatoid Arthritis in New South Wales: A Web-based Survey of Local Podiatrists

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Background: It is unclear if podiatric foot care for people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in New South Wales (NSW) meets current clinical recommendations. The objective of this study was to survey podiatrists' perceptions of the nature of podiatric foot care provision for people who have RA in NSW.Methods: An anonymous, cross-sectional survey with a web-based questionnaire was conducted. The survey questionnaire was developed according to clinical experience and current foot care recommendations. State registered podiatrists practising in the state of NSW were invited to participate. The survey link was distributed initially via email to members of the Australian Podiatry Association (NSW), and distributed further through snowballing techniques using professional networks. Data was analysed to assess significant associations between adherence to clinical practice guidelines, and private/public podiatry practices.Results: 86 podiatrists participated in the survey (78% from private practice, 22% from public practice). Respondents largely did not adhere to formal guidelines to manage their patients (88%). Only one respondent offered a dedicated service for patients with RA. Respondents indicated that the primary mode of accessing podiatry was by self-referral (68%). Significant variation was observed regarding access to disease and foot specific assessments and treatment strategies. Assessment methods such as administration of patient reported outcome measures, vascular and neurological assessments were not conducted by all respondents. Similarly, routine foot care strategies such as prescription of foot orthoses, foot health advice and footwear were not employed by all respondents.Conclusions: The results identified issues in foot care provision which should be explored through further research. Foot care provision in NSW does not appear to meet the current recommended standards for the management of foot problems in people who have RA. Improvements to foot care could be undertaken in terms of providing better access to examination techniques and treatment strategies that are recommended by evidence based treatment paradigms. © 2013 Hendry et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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  • The Video Journal and visual pedagogies: in the age of visual cultures [Editorial]

    White, Elizabeth Jayne; Peters, Michael A. (2016)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Michael Peters and Jayne White introduce their thinking behind the development of the journal at the inaugural conference of the Association for Visual Pedagogies in Zagreb, June, 2016. They set the scene and pohilosophical parameters for a broad and forward-looking interpretation of visuality and the rise of visual studies by establishing an expanded route for the location of video Pedagogies in educational spaces. The video journal is introduced as a third generation form of scientific communication after the print-based journal and the digital online journal. The concept of the journal as the cornerstone of the scientific enterprise has evolved as new media technologies have become available. Industrial media known for its broadcast functionality of one to the many now is being replaced and remediated with video and mixed media increasingly with an accent on responsiveness and interactivity. In the second part of the presentation forms of visuality are explored and new visualization methodologies are discussed. An agenda is established for the potential and possibilities for Video Journal for Education and Pedagogy as a theoretical, philosophical, sociological, methodological and pedagogical site for future scholarship.

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