3,286 results for Modify

  • Symptoms and causes of poverty in a rural Vietnamese commune: does ethnicity matter?

    Le, V.; Lyne, Michael; Ratna, Nazmun N.; Nuthall, Peter L.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    © 2014, Kassel University Press GmbH. All rights reserved. This study uses data from a sample survey of 200 households drawn from a mountainous commune in Vietnam’s North Central Coast region to measure and explain relative poverty. Principal components analysis is used to construct a multidimensional index of poverty outcomes from variables measuring household income and the value of domestic assets. This index of poverty is then regressed on likely causes of poverty including different forms of resource endowment and social exclusion defined by gender and ethnicity. The ordinary least squares estimates indicate that poverty is indeed influenced by ethnicity, partly through its interaction with social capital. However, poverty is most strongly affected by differences in human and social capital. Differences in the amount of livestock and high quality farmland owned also matter. Thai households are poorer than their Kinh counterparts even when endowed with the same levels of human, social, physical and natural capital considered in the study. This empirical result provides a rationale for further research on the causal relationship between ethnicity and poverty outcomes.

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  • Effectiveness of Problem Gambling Interventions in a Service Setting: A Protocol for a Pragmatic Randomised Controlled Clinical Trial

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Introduction: The primary purpose of this study is to evaluate the relative effectiveness of 2 of the best developed and most promising forms of therapy for problem gambling, namely face-to-face motivational interviewing (MI) combined with a self-instruction booklet (W) and follow-up telephone booster sessions (B; MI+W+B) and face-to-face cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT). Methods and analysis: This project is a single-blind pragmatic randomised clinical trial of 2 interventions, with and without the addition of relapse-prevention text messages. Trial assessments take place pretreatment, at 3 and 12 months. A total of 300 participants will be recruited through a community treatment agency that provides services across New Zealand and randomised to up to 10 face-to-face sessions of CBT or 1 face-toface session of MI+W+up to 5 B. Participants will also be randomised to 9 months of postcare text messaging. Eligibility criteria include a self-perception of having a current gambling problem and a willingness to participate in all components of the study (eg, read workbook). The statistical analysis will use an intent-to-treat approach. Primary outcome measures are days spent gambling and amount of money spent per day gambling in the prior month. Secondary outcome measures include problem gambling severity, gambling urges, gambling cognitions, mood, alcohol, drug use, tobacco, psychological distress, quality of life, health status and direct and indirect costs associated with treatment. Ethics and dissemination: The research methods to be used in this study have been approved by the Ministry of Health, Health and Disability Ethics Committees (HDEC) 15/CEN/99. The investigators will provide annual reports to the HDEC and report any adverse events to this committee. Amendments will also be submitted to this committee. The results of this trial will be submitted for publication in peerreviewed journals and as a report to the funding body. Additionally, the results will be presented at national and international conferences.

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  • Correction: First demonstration of antigen induced cytokine expression by CD4-1⁺ lymphocytes in a poikilotherm: Studies in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    Yoon, Sohye; Mitra, Suman; Wyse, Cathy; Alnabulsi, Ayham; Zou, Jun; Weerdenburg, Eveline M.; van der Sar, Astrud M.; Wang, Difei; Secombes, Christopher J.; Bird, Steve (2016)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Correction of the article "First demonstration of antigen induced cytokine expression by CD4-1⁺ lymphocytes in a poikilotherm: Studies in zebrafish (Danio rerio)", https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0169149

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  • Tourism and Arctic observation systems: exploring the relationships

    de la Barre, S.; Maher, P. T.; Dawson, J.; Hillmer-Pegram, K.; Huijbens, E.; Lamers, M.; Liggett, D.; Müller, D.; Pashkevich, A.; Stewart, E. J.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    The Arctic is affected by global environmental change and also by diverse interests from many economic sectors and industries. Over the last decade, various actors have attempted to explore the options for setting up integrated and comprehensive trans-boundary systems for monitoring and observing these impacts. These Arctic Observation Systems (AOS) contribute to the planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of environmental change and responsible social and economic development in the Arctic. The aim of this article is to identify the two-way relationship between AOS and tourism. On the one hand, tourism activities account for diverse changes across a broad spectrum of impact fields. On the other hand, due to its multiple and diverse agents and far-reaching activities, tourism is also well-positioned to collect observational data and participate as an actor in monitoring activities. To accomplish our goals, we provide an inventory of tourism-embedded issues and concerns of interest to AOS from a range of destinations in the circumpolar Arctic region, including Alaska, Arctic Canada, Iceland, Svalbard, the mainland European Arctic and Russia. The article also draws comparisons with the situation in Antarctica. On the basis of a collective analysis provided by members of the International Polar Tourism Research Network from across the polar regions, we conclude that the potential role for tourism in the development and implementation of AOS is significant and has been overlooked.

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  • Effect of Mouth Rinsing and Ingestion of Carbohydrate Solutions on Mood and Perceptual Responses During Exercise

    Ali, A; Moss, C; Yoo, MJY; Wilkinson, A; Breier, BH

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate whether mouth rinsing or ingesting carbohydrate (CHO) solutions impact on perceptual responses during exercise. Methods: Nine moderately trained male cyclists underwent a 90-min glycogen-reducing exercise, and consumed a low CHO meal, prior to completing an overnight fast. A 1-h cycle time trial was performed the following morning. Four trials, each separated by 7days, were conducted in a randomized, counterbalanced study design: 15% CHO mouth rinse (CHOR), 7.5% CHO ingestion (CHOI), placebo mouth rinse (PLAR) and placebo ingestion (PLAI). Solution volumes (1.5ml·g-1 ingestion trials and 0.33ml·kg-1 rinsing trials) were provided after every 12.5% of completed exercise. Perceptual scales were used to assess affective valence (feeling scale, FS), arousal (felt arousal scale, FAS), exertion (ratings of perceived exertion, RPE) and mood (profile of mood states, POMS) before, during and immediately after exercise. Results: There was no difference in RPE (CHOI, 14.0±9; CHOR, 14.2±.7; PLAI, 14.6±1.8; PLAR, 14.6±2.0; P=0.35), FS (CHOI, 0.0±1.7; CHOR, -0.2±1.5; PLAI, -0.8±1.4; PLAR, -0.8±1.6; P0.15), or FAS (CHOI, 3.6±1.1; CHOR, 3.5±1.0; PLAI, 3.4±1.4; PLAR, 3.3±1.3; P=725) scores between trials. While overall POMS score did not appear to differ between trials, the 'vigour' subscale indicated that CHOI may facilitate the maintenance of 'vigour' scores over time, in comparison to the steady decline witnessed in other trials (P=0.04). There was no difference in time trial performance between trials (CHOI, 65.3±4.8min; CHOR, 68.4±3.9min; PLAI, 68.7±5.3min; PLAR, 68.3±5.2min; P=0.21) but power output was higher in CHOI (231.0±33.2 W) relative to other trials (221-223.6 W; Plt0.01). Conclusions: In a CHO-reduced state, mouth rinsing with a CHO solution did not impact on perceptual responses during high-intensity exercise in trained cyclists and triathletes. On the other hand CHO ingestion improved perceived ratings of vigour and increased power output during exercise.

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  • Hydrolysis by Alcalase Improves Hypoallergenic Properties of Goat Milk Protein

    Jung, TH; Yun, SS; Lee, WJ; Kim, JW; Ha, HK; Yoo, M; Hwang, HJ; Jeon, WM; Han, KS

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Goat milk is highly nutritious and is consumed in many countries, but the development of functional foods from goat milk has been slow compared to that for other types of milk. The aim of this study was to develop a goat milk protein hydrolysate (GMPH) with enhanced digestibility and better hypoallergenic properties in comparison with other protein sources such as ovalbumin and soy protein. Goat milk protein was digested with four commercial food-grade proteases (separately) under various conditions to achieve the best hydrolysis of αs -casein and β-lactoglobulin. It was shown that treatment with alcalase (0.4%, 60℃ for 30 min) effectively degraded these two proteins, as determined by SDS-PAGE, measurement of nonprotein nitrogen content, and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Hydrolysis with alcalase resulted in a significant decrease in β-lactoglobulin concentration (almost to nil) and a ~40% reduction in the level of αs-casein. Quantification of histamine and TNF-α released from HMC-1 cells (human mast cell line) showed that the GMPH did not induce an allergic response when compared to the control. Hence, the GMPH may be useful for development of novel foods for infants, the elderly, and convalescent patients, to replace cow milk.

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  • Carbohydrate Mouth Rinsing Has No Effect on Power Output During Cycling in a Glycogen-reduced State

    Ali, A; Yoo, M; Moss, C; Breier, B

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Background: The effect of mouth rinsing with a carbohydrate (CHO) solution on exercise performance is inconclusive with no benefits observed in the fed state. This study examined the effect of CHO mouth rinse or CHO ingestion on performance in 9 moderately trained male cyclists. Methods: Four trials were undertaken, separated by 7 days, in a randomized, counterbalanced design. Each trial included a 90-min glycogen-reducing exercise protocol, immediately followed by a low CHO meal and subsequent overnight fast; the following morning a 1-h cycling time trial was conducted. The trials included 15 % CHO mouth rinse (CHOR), 7.5 % CHO ingestion (CHOI), placebo mouth rinse and placebo ingestion. Solutions were provided after every 12.5 % of completed exercise: 1.5 mL · kg−1 and 0.33 mL · kg−1 body mass during ingestion and rinse trials, respectively. During rinse trials participants swirled the solution for 8 s before expectorating. Blood samples were taken at regular intervals before and during exercise. Results: Performance time was not different between trials (P = 0.21) but the 4.5-5.2 % difference between CHOI and other trials showed moderate practical significance (Cohen’s d 0.57-0.65). Power output was higher in CHOI relative to other trials (P < 0.01). There were no differences between CHOR and placebo groups for any performance variables. Plasma glucose, insulin and lactate concentrations were higher in CHOI relative to other groups (P < 0.05). Conclusions: In a fasted and glycogen-reduced state ingestion of a CHO solution during high-intensity exercise enhanced performance through stimulation of insulin-mediated glucose uptake. The CHO mouth rinsing had neither ergogenic effects nor changes in endocrine or metabolic responses relative to placebo.

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  • An Archaeology of Madang Papua New Guinea

    Gaffney, Dylan; Summerhayes, Glenn R. (2017)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

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  • Housing, the ‘Great Income Tax Experiment’, and the intergenerational consequences of the lease

    Coleman, Andrew (2017-04)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    This paper provides an analysis of how the New Zealand tax system may be affecting residential property markets. Like most OECD countries, New Zealand does not tax the imputed rent or capital gains from owner-occupied housing. Unlike most OECD countries, since 1989 New Zealand has taxed income placed in retirement savings funds on an income basis, rather than an expenditure basis. The result is likely to be the most distortionary tax policy towards housing in the OECD. Since 1989, these tax distortions have provided incentives that should have lead to significant increases in house prices and the average size of new dwellings, should have reduced owner-occupier rates, and should have led to a worsening of the overseas net asset position. The tax settings are likely to be regressive, and are not intergenerationally neutral, as they impose significant costs on current and future generations of young New Zealanders (and new migrants). Since it does not appear to be politically palatable to tax capital gains or imputed rent, to reduce the distortionary consequences of the tax system on housing markets New Zealand may wish to reconsider how it taxes retirement savings accounts by adopting the standard OECD approach.

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  • Gone with the Wind: International Migration

    Aburn, Amelia; Wesselbaum, Dennis (2017-04)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    This paper adds to the literature on the determinants of international migration. First, we offer a joint analysis of the driving forces of migration capturing year-to-year variations and long-run effects. Second, we analyze the dynamic response of migration to shocks to its determinants. We start by presenting a theoretical model that allows us to model migration as an augmented gravity equation. We then construct a rich panel data set with 16 destination and 198 origin countries between 1980 and 2014. Most importantly, we find that climate change is a more important driver than income and political freedom together. Our results imply that a large time dimension is key to understand the effects of climate change. We then estimate a panel vectorautoregressive model showing that the dynamic response of migration is very different across shocks to different driving forces. Our findings carry implications for national and international immigration policies.

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  • Advances in agronomic management of phytoremediation: methods and results from a 10-year study of metal-polluted soils

    Vamerali, T.; Marchiol, L.; Bandiera, M.; Fellet, G.; Dickinson, N. M.; Lucchini, P.; Mosca, G.; Zerbi, G.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Among green technologies addressed to metal pollution, phytoextraction has received increasing attention in recent years as an alternative to physical and chemical methods of decontamination. Since 1998, as part of an Italian multidisciplinary research team on phytoremediation, we have been carrying out several agronomic investigations with field crops in agricultural soil and pyrite waste, both markedly contaminated by heavy metals. Phytoextraction was rarely an efficient process, requiring a long time even to remove merely the bioavailable metal fraction, but the great metal stock in roots suggests exploring the effectiveness of long-term in planta stabilisation. Poor above-ground productivity was the main factor constraining metal removals, especially in wastes. Without assisting the process, only zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn) and copper (Cu) were harvested by the canopy in substantial amounts, with an estimated maximum of ~8 kg of metals from an hectare base with rapeseed in the agricultural soil and only 0.33 kg with fodder radish in pyrite waste. Root growth was a key trait in species and genotype selection, in view of the close relationship between root length and metal uptake. The auxins, humic acids and chelators tested on the model plant fodder radish generally increased metal concentrations in plant tissues, but reduced growth and removals. It is currently concluded that phytoremediation efficiency with crop species may be improved through increased productivity by suitable soil management, involving mineral and organic fertilisation, contaminant dilution, soil capping, and metal immobilisation with inorganics and biochar. © T. Vamerali et al., 2012.

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  • An empirical analysis of house price bubble: a case study of Beijing housing market

    Chen, R. D.; Gan, C.; Hu, B.; Cohen, D. A.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Increases in house prices can lead to higher house price volatility, a significant determinant of default and the prepayment of housing loans (Miles, 2008). Many researchers believe that significant growth in house price has the potential to generate a house price bubble. The bursting of a house price bubble is likely to endanger the stability of the country’s real economy. China experienced substantial increases in house prices at the end of 1990s. In Beijing, house prices increased dramatically following the liberalization of China’s housing market in 1998, and especially so after reforms in 2004. The significant growth of Beijing house prices could have generated a house price bubble, thus endangering the stability of the Beijing housing market and thereby the overall Chinese economy. This paper investigates whether a bubble existed in the Beijing housing market from 1998 to 2010, using economic fundamental variables such as interest rates, inflation, and cost of supply. Results of the analysis revealed that the Beijing house price index was significantly larger than the equilibrium value, based on the relative economic fundamental variables (income, inflation, interest rate and construction cost) during 2004 to 2007. This result is similar to the findings of Hou (2009), where nearly 75 percent of the changes in Beijing house price were thought to be explained by the economic variables used in the models.

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  • Introducing remote printing into the publishing industry of a small, remote economy: The case of New Zealand

    Fabling, Timothy (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This research investigates the expected effects on developed business models of introducing remote printing technology into the New Zealand book publishing industry. Remote printing technology will both address and improve on the constraints of geographical proximity and market size, enabling the New Zealand book publishing industry to collectively grow and experience future prosperity. Aspects of technological innovation and consumer behaviour are examined to explore issues surrounding geographic proximity and supply chain inefficiencies. Criteria are developed using Just-In-Time (JIT) theory and Supply Chain Management (SCM) to evaluate where remote printing technology might best be integrated in the New Zealand book publishing industry’s supply chain. The mutual effects between remote printing technology adoption and the expected effects on business models are evaluated, identifying which model is expected to provide the most significant benefits in a New Zealand context. A case study of six New Zealand book industry respondents was conducted. Qualitative data was collected in semi-structured interviews with members associated within different sectors of the New Zealand book publishing industry. The interview data was supplemented with secondary data sources, including publicly available information about the New Zealand book industry. A within-case and cross-case analysis was performed around the research identified above. By evaluating developed business models and assessing which model/s effectively address the New Zealand context, remote printing offers brick-and-mortar booksellers the ability to better compete with offshore online booksellers. The expected effects remote printing technology will have on the New Zealand book industry are presented. A major contribution to this study is that remote printing technology could in fact have a revolutionary impact on the New Zealand book industry, compared to what has been previously considered.

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  • Specificity in legume-rhizobia symbioses

    Andrews, M.; Andrews, M. E.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Most species in the Leguminosae (legume family) can fix atmospheric nitrogen (N₂) via symbiotic bacteria (rhizobia) in root nodules. Here, the literature on legume-rhizobia symbioses in field soils was reviewed and genotypically characterised rhizobia related to the taxonomy of the legumes from which they were isolated. The Leguminosae was divided into three sub-families, the Caesalpinioideae, Mimosoideae and Papilionoideae. Bradyrhizobium spp. were the exclusive rhizobial symbionts of species in the Caesalpinioideae, but data are limited. Generally, a range of rhizobia genera nodulated legume species across the two Mimosoideae tribes Ingeae and Mimoseae, but Mimosa spp. show specificity towards Burkholderia in central and southern Brazil, Rhizobium/Ensifer in central Mexico and Cupriavidus in southern Uruguay. These specific symbioses are likely to be at least in part related to the relative occurrence of the potential symbionts in soils of the different regions. Generally, Papilionoideae species were promiscuous in relation to rhizobial symbionts, but specificity for rhizobial genus appears to hold at the tribe level for the Fabeae (Rhizobium), the genus level for Cytisus (Bradyrhizobium), Lupinus (Bradyrhizobium) and the New Zealand native Sophora spp. (Mesorhizobium) and species level for Cicer arietinum (Mesorhizobium), Listia bainesii (Methylobacterium) and Listia angolensis (Microvirga). Specificity for rhizobial species/symbiovar appears to hold for Galega officinalis (Neorhizobium galegeae sv. officinalis), Galega orientalis (Neorhizobium galegeae sv. orientalis), Hedysarum coronarium (Rhizobium sullae), Medicago laciniata (Ensifer meliloti sv. medicaginis), Medicago rigiduloides (Ensifer meliloti sv. rigiduloides) and Trifolium ambiguum (Rhizobium leguminosarum sv. trifolii). Lateral gene transfer of specific symbiosis genes within rhizobial genera is an important mechanism allowing legumes to form symbioses with rhizobia adapted to particular soils. Strain-specific legume rhizobia symbioses can develop in particular habitats.

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  • Access to Financing and Firm Growth: Evidence from Ethiopia

    Regasa, Dereje; Fielding, David; Roberts, Helen (2017-04)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Using Ethiopian firm-level data, we model the effect of different types of financing on firm growth. The form of financing is potentially endogenous to firm growth, and one contribution of this paper is to introduce a new instrumental variable which captures local variation in financial depth. Unlike previous studies of firms in low-income countries, we find evidence for a negative relationship between the use of external finance and firm growth, which suggests that there are substantial cross-country differences in the finance-growth nexus. We discuss possible explanations for this phenomenon and its implications for development policy.

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  • Health Shocks and Child Time Allocation Decisions by Households: Evidence from Ethiopia

    Dinku, Yonatan; Fielding, David; Genc, Murat (2017-04)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Little is currently known about the effects of shocks to parental health on the allocation of children’s time between alternative activities. Using longitudinal data from the Ethiopian Young Lives surveys of 2006 and 2009, we analyze the effect of health shocks on the amount of children’s time spent in work, leisure and education. We find that paternal illness increases the time spent in income-generating work but maternal illness increases the time spent in domestic work. Moreover, maternal illness has a relatively large effect on daughters while paternal illness has a relatively large effect on sons. Overall, parental illness leads to large and significant increases in the amount of child labour as defined by UNICEF.

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  • The impact of climate change on crop production in Ghana: A Structural Ricardian analysis

    Etwire, Prince M.; Fielding, David; Kahui, Victoria (2017-04)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    We apply a Structural Ricardian Model (SRM) to farm-level data from Ghana in order to estimate the impact of climate change on crop production. The SRM explicitly incorporates changes in farmers’ crop selection in response to variation in climate, a feature lacking in many existing models of climate change response in Africa. Two other novel features of our model are an estimate of the response of agricultural profits to differences in land tenure, and a comprehensive investigation of the appropriate functional form with which to model farmers’ responses. This final feature turns out to be important, since estimates of the effect of climate change turn out to be sensitive to the choice of functional form.

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  • Voices of dissent in the poetry of Imtiaz Dharker

    Das, Soma (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Canterbury Library

    Feminism as a movement acquired momentum in the last century. Feminist theorists from all corners of the world have put forward their views and ideologies to analyse and interpret the rights and duties, the laws and regulations which are exclusive to women. They have discussed, debated and deliberated on sundry affairs concerned with a woman, right from domestic drudgery to her involvement in official engagements, from cultural taboos inflicted on her as a girl in childhood to her perils even in old age, from puberty to post-menopause stage in her life. The heat of feminist discourse has hit contemporary Indian women poets writing in English, and therefore they have documented their perspectives through poetry leaving poignant impressions in the readers’ minds. This article is an evaluative approach to explore the impact of culture and religion, mostly Islam and partly Hinduism in different aspects of women’s lives. Her poems exhibit how the dictates of religious authority and tradition wipe away equality, compassion, and humanity and stifle a woman’s life to denigrate her personality to such an extent that she is rendered into self-depreciative non-entity in her own vision.

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  • Humour: As a tool for gender construction and deconstruction

    Mushtaq, Sabah Al (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Canterbury Library

    This article adopts a social interactionist and constructionist approach to analyse humour as a tool for gender construction and deconstruction mainly about two genders, men and women. That is explained by highlighting the relationship between gender (as systems of meaning) and language, followed by over viewing three major standpoints about gender-based differences. These three standpoints are essentialist, social interactionist, and social constructionist approach. Further, I will discuss the importance of various variables like social, political and cultural backdrops in determining a “gender- based” mode of discourse. The article will conclude that socio-cultural context is very important to understand the role of feminist humour in gender construction and deconstruction. The point has been made that humour is used as a tool in the same gender and mix gender scenarios and social interactions to construct and deconstruct ‘masculine men’ (how a “Man” is supposed to behave) and ‘feminine women’ (how a “Woman” is supposed to behave). This process also mirrors the prevailing social constructions of gender.

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  • Horrible truth behind the lives of mentally challenged women: A follow up

    Ramavat, Suman (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Canterbury Library

    The following work is a follow up of my social commentary Rehabilitation of Mentally Ill Women in India published September 2016 in the International Journal for Intersectional Feminist Studies. The social commentary discussed the conditions of and chances of rehabilitation of mentally ill women who were being treated in government mental health hospitals. Sexual harassment and ill-treatment of mentally ill women were the main issues in my commentary. Interestingly, news surfaced the Indian media in the month of February 2017 which highlighted the ill treatment of mentally ill women by the institution’s staff. The news reported that eleven patients died due to negligence. Naked female patients, when they were waiting in queue for their turn for the shower, were recorded in the security cameras by a male employee. In this social documentary, I will discuss some of the reasons behind these incidences happened and some solutions to resolve them.

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