4,344 results for Share

  • Guide for subterranean clover identification and use in New Zealand

    Book
    Lincoln University

    This project, initiated in 2015 and funded by the Sustainable Farming Fund (SFF Project 408090), was created to identify, describe and promote methods to increase the subterranean clover content on summer dry farms throughout NZ. This first edition of “Guide for subterranean clover identification and use in New Zealand” provides information for dryland farmers to; gain knowledge of sub clover; identify the main sub clover cultivars currently available in New Zealand, and understand their suitability for different dryland farm environments.

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  • Symptoms and causes of poverty in a rural Vietnamese commune: does ethnicity matter?

    Le, V.; Lyne, Michael; Ratna, Nazmun N.; Nuthall, Peter L.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    © 2014, Kassel University Press GmbH. All rights reserved. This study uses data from a sample survey of 200 households drawn from a mountainous commune in Vietnam’s North Central Coast region to measure and explain relative poverty. Principal components analysis is used to construct a multidimensional index of poverty outcomes from variables measuring household income and the value of domestic assets. This index of poverty is then regressed on likely causes of poverty including different forms of resource endowment and social exclusion defined by gender and ethnicity. The ordinary least squares estimates indicate that poverty is indeed influenced by ethnicity, partly through its interaction with social capital. However, poverty is most strongly affected by differences in human and social capital. Differences in the amount of livestock and high quality farmland owned also matter. Thai households are poorer than their Kinh counterparts even when endowed with the same levels of human, social, physical and natural capital considered in the study. This empirical result provides a rationale for further research on the causal relationship between ethnicity and poverty outcomes.

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  • Effectiveness of Problem Gambling Interventions in a Service Setting: A Protocol for a Pragmatic Randomised Controlled Clinical Trial

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Introduction: The primary purpose of this study is to evaluate the relative effectiveness of 2 of the best developed and most promising forms of therapy for problem gambling, namely face-to-face motivational interviewing (MI) combined with a self-instruction booklet (W) and follow-up telephone booster sessions (B; MI+W+B) and face-to-face cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT). Methods and analysis: This project is a single-blind pragmatic randomised clinical trial of 2 interventions, with and without the addition of relapse-prevention text messages. Trial assessments take place pretreatment, at 3 and 12 months. A total of 300 participants will be recruited through a community treatment agency that provides services across New Zealand and randomised to up to 10 face-to-face sessions of CBT or 1 face-toface session of MI+W+up to 5 B. Participants will also be randomised to 9 months of postcare text messaging. Eligibility criteria include a self-perception of having a current gambling problem and a willingness to participate in all components of the study (eg, read workbook). The statistical analysis will use an intent-to-treat approach. Primary outcome measures are days spent gambling and amount of money spent per day gambling in the prior month. Secondary outcome measures include problem gambling severity, gambling urges, gambling cognitions, mood, alcohol, drug use, tobacco, psychological distress, quality of life, health status and direct and indirect costs associated with treatment. Ethics and dissemination: The research methods to be used in this study have been approved by the Ministry of Health, Health and Disability Ethics Committees (HDEC) 15/CEN/99. The investigators will provide annual reports to the HDEC and report any adverse events to this committee. Amendments will also be submitted to this committee. The results of this trial will be submitted for publication in peerreviewed journals and as a report to the funding body. Additionally, the results will be presented at national and international conferences.

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  • Correction: First demonstration of antigen induced cytokine expression by CD4-1⁺ lymphocytes in a poikilotherm: Studies in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    Yoon, Sohye; Mitra, Suman; Wyse, Cathy; Alnabulsi, Ayham; Zou, Jun; Weerdenburg, Eveline M.; van der Sar, Astrud M.; Wang, Difei; Secombes, Christopher J.; Bird, Steve (2016)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Correction of the article "First demonstration of antigen induced cytokine expression by CD4-1⁺ lymphocytes in a poikilotherm: Studies in zebrafish (Danio rerio)", https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0169149

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  • Tourism and Arctic observation systems: exploring the relationships

    de la Barre, S.; Maher, P. T.; Dawson, J.; Hillmer-Pegram, K.; Huijbens, E.; Lamers, M.; Liggett, D.; Müller, D.; Pashkevich, A.; Stewart, E. J.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    The Arctic is affected by global environmental change and also by diverse interests from many economic sectors and industries. Over the last decade, various actors have attempted to explore the options for setting up integrated and comprehensive trans-boundary systems for monitoring and observing these impacts. These Arctic Observation Systems (AOS) contribute to the planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of environmental change and responsible social and economic development in the Arctic. The aim of this article is to identify the two-way relationship between AOS and tourism. On the one hand, tourism activities account for diverse changes across a broad spectrum of impact fields. On the other hand, due to its multiple and diverse agents and far-reaching activities, tourism is also well-positioned to collect observational data and participate as an actor in monitoring activities. To accomplish our goals, we provide an inventory of tourism-embedded issues and concerns of interest to AOS from a range of destinations in the circumpolar Arctic region, including Alaska, Arctic Canada, Iceland, Svalbard, the mainland European Arctic and Russia. The article also draws comparisons with the situation in Antarctica. On the basis of a collective analysis provided by members of the International Polar Tourism Research Network from across the polar regions, we conclude that the potential role for tourism in the development and implementation of AOS is significant and has been overlooked.

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  • Comparison of oxalate contents and recovery from two green juices prepared using a masticating juicer or a high speed blender

    Vanhanen, Leo P.; Savage, Geoffrey P.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    © 2015 The Authors. Background: Juicing is a popular health trend where green juice is prepared from a range of common vegetables. If spinach is included in the mix then the juice may contain significant quantities of oxalates and these are not safe to consume regularly in large amounts as they predispose some people to kidney stone formation. Methods: Green juice, prepared from spinach and other common vegetables using a high speed blender that produced a juice containing all the original fiber of the processed raw vegetables, was compared with a juice produced using a masticating juicer, where the pulp containing most of the fiber was discarded in the process. The oxalate contents of both juices were measured using HPLC chromatography. Results: Two juices were prepared using each processing method, one juice contained a high level of spinach, which resulted in a juice containing high levels of total, soluble and insoluble oxalates; the other was a juice mixture made from the same combination of vegetables but containing half the level of spinach, which resulted in a juice containing considerably (P < 0.001) lower levels of oxalates. Removal of the pulp fraction from the green vegetable juice had resulted in significantly (P < 0.01) higher levels of oxalates in the remaining juices made from both levels of spinach. Conclusion: Green juices prepared using common vegetables can contain high levels of soluble oxalates, which will vary with the type and proportion of vegetables used and whether or not the pulp fraction was retained during processing.

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  • Effect of Mouth Rinsing and Ingestion of Carbohydrate Solutions on Mood and Perceptual Responses During Exercise

    Ali, A; Moss, C; Yoo, MJY; Wilkinson, A; Breier, BH

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate whether mouth rinsing or ingesting carbohydrate (CHO) solutions impact on perceptual responses during exercise. Methods: Nine moderately trained male cyclists underwent a 90-min glycogen-reducing exercise, and consumed a low CHO meal, prior to completing an overnight fast. A 1-h cycle time trial was performed the following morning. Four trials, each separated by 7days, were conducted in a randomized, counterbalanced study design: 15% CHO mouth rinse (CHOR), 7.5% CHO ingestion (CHOI), placebo mouth rinse (PLAR) and placebo ingestion (PLAI). Solution volumes (1.5ml·g-1 ingestion trials and 0.33ml·kg-1 rinsing trials) were provided after every 12.5% of completed exercise. Perceptual scales were used to assess affective valence (feeling scale, FS), arousal (felt arousal scale, FAS), exertion (ratings of perceived exertion, RPE) and mood (profile of mood states, POMS) before, during and immediately after exercise. Results: There was no difference in RPE (CHOI, 14.0±9; CHOR, 14.2±.7; PLAI, 14.6±1.8; PLAR, 14.6±2.0; P=0.35), FS (CHOI, 0.0±1.7; CHOR, -0.2±1.5; PLAI, -0.8±1.4; PLAR, -0.8±1.6; P0.15), or FAS (CHOI, 3.6±1.1; CHOR, 3.5±1.0; PLAI, 3.4±1.4; PLAR, 3.3±1.3; P=725) scores between trials. While overall POMS score did not appear to differ between trials, the 'vigour' subscale indicated that CHOI may facilitate the maintenance of 'vigour' scores over time, in comparison to the steady decline witnessed in other trials (P=0.04). There was no difference in time trial performance between trials (CHOI, 65.3±4.8min; CHOR, 68.4±3.9min; PLAI, 68.7±5.3min; PLAR, 68.3±5.2min; P=0.21) but power output was higher in CHOI (231.0±33.2 W) relative to other trials (221-223.6 W; Plt0.01). Conclusions: In a CHO-reduced state, mouth rinsing with a CHO solution did not impact on perceptual responses during high-intensity exercise in trained cyclists and triathletes. On the other hand CHO ingestion improved perceived ratings of vigour and increased power output during exercise.

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  • Hydrolysis by Alcalase Improves Hypoallergenic Properties of Goat Milk Protein

    Jung, TH; Yun, SS; Lee, WJ; Kim, JW; Ha, HK; Yoo, M; Hwang, HJ; Jeon, WM; Han, KS

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Goat milk is highly nutritious and is consumed in many countries, but the development of functional foods from goat milk has been slow compared to that for other types of milk. The aim of this study was to develop a goat milk protein hydrolysate (GMPH) with enhanced digestibility and better hypoallergenic properties in comparison with other protein sources such as ovalbumin and soy protein. Goat milk protein was digested with four commercial food-grade proteases (separately) under various conditions to achieve the best hydrolysis of αs -casein and β-lactoglobulin. It was shown that treatment with alcalase (0.4%, 60℃ for 30 min) effectively degraded these two proteins, as determined by SDS-PAGE, measurement of nonprotein nitrogen content, and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Hydrolysis with alcalase resulted in a significant decrease in β-lactoglobulin concentration (almost to nil) and a ~40% reduction in the level of αs-casein. Quantification of histamine and TNF-α released from HMC-1 cells (human mast cell line) showed that the GMPH did not induce an allergic response when compared to the control. Hence, the GMPH may be useful for development of novel foods for infants, the elderly, and convalescent patients, to replace cow milk.

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  • Carbohydrate Mouth Rinsing Has No Effect on Power Output During Cycling in a Glycogen-reduced State

    Ali, A; Yoo, M; Moss, C; Breier, B

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Background: The effect of mouth rinsing with a carbohydrate (CHO) solution on exercise performance is inconclusive with no benefits observed in the fed state. This study examined the effect of CHO mouth rinse or CHO ingestion on performance in 9 moderately trained male cyclists. Methods: Four trials were undertaken, separated by 7 days, in a randomized, counterbalanced design. Each trial included a 90-min glycogen-reducing exercise protocol, immediately followed by a low CHO meal and subsequent overnight fast; the following morning a 1-h cycling time trial was conducted. The trials included 15 % CHO mouth rinse (CHOR), 7.5 % CHO ingestion (CHOI), placebo mouth rinse and placebo ingestion. Solutions were provided after every 12.5 % of completed exercise: 1.5 mL · kg−1 and 0.33 mL · kg−1 body mass during ingestion and rinse trials, respectively. During rinse trials participants swirled the solution for 8 s before expectorating. Blood samples were taken at regular intervals before and during exercise. Results: Performance time was not different between trials (P = 0.21) but the 4.5-5.2 % difference between CHOI and other trials showed moderate practical significance (Cohen’s d 0.57-0.65). Power output was higher in CHOI relative to other trials (P < 0.01). There were no differences between CHOR and placebo groups for any performance variables. Plasma glucose, insulin and lactate concentrations were higher in CHOI relative to other groups (P < 0.05). Conclusions: In a fasted and glycogen-reduced state ingestion of a CHO solution during high-intensity exercise enhanced performance through stimulation of insulin-mediated glucose uptake. The CHO mouth rinsing had neither ergogenic effects nor changes in endocrine or metabolic responses relative to placebo.

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  • Ethnic Migrant Media Forum 2014 : curated proceedings. “Are we reaching all New Zealanders?". Exploring the role, benefits, challenges & potential of ethnic media in New Zealand

    Papoutsaki, Evangelia; Kolesova, Elena; Stephenson, Laura (2017-03-03)

    Unclassified
    Unitec

    These curated proceedings present what was discussed during the Ethnic Migrant Media Forum, a one-day event hosted by the Department of Communication Studies at Unitec Institute of Technology’s Mt Albert campus in 2014. It is also an attempt to provide an analysis of what was discussed by identifying a number of emerging themes. This publication brings together the curated statements by ethnic media practitioners, academics, and industry representatives involved with ethnic media in New Zealand, presenting a host of issues on ethnic media’s role within the country’s bicultural and multicultural context and organised around the three key themes: 1) Defining ethnic, migrant, diasporic media – what does it mean, who is it, what communities does it represent? 2) Roles and aims of ethnic media – why does ethnic media matter, who does it matter for and what role does ethnic media play in NZ? 3) Impact, challenges and potential – how can ethnic media be used more effectively, what are the challenges and potential? An introductory chapter by forum organisers and this publication’s editors, A/Prof. Evangelia Papoutsaki and Dr Elena Kolesova, presents a background context against which these themes are situated, while Dr Peter Thompson from Victoria University contributes a discussion chapter that brings in a different perspective. Selected information presented by Niche Media at the start of the forum is presented in infographics. Featuring panel discussion highlights and statements from participants, including: Dr Ruth De Souza (keynote address) Dr Arezou Zalipour Dr Camille Nakhid Fezeela Raza Dr Francis Collins David Soh Rene Molina Roshila Prasad Terri Byrne Mary Dawson Carol Hayward Lynda Chanwai-Earle Sue Elliott Mary Lose Dr Prue Cruickshank Rebecca Palmer Stephen Stehlin Taiha Molyneux Sandra Noronha Lisa Taouma Martin Pouwels Hao Peng Naoe Hashimoto Setita Miller Stefan Herrick

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  • An Archaeology of Madang Papua New Guinea

    Gaffney, Dylan; Summerhayes, Glenn R. (2017)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

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  • New Lynn – Auckland IMM case study : low-density urban morphology and energy performance optimisation. A new pilot project in Auckland using Integrated Modification Methodology (IMM)

    Tadi, Massimo; Bogunovich, Dushko (2017-04-04)

    Unclassified
    Unitec

    Integrated Modification Methodology (IMM) has already been applied in established metropolitan contexts, such as Porto Maravilha in Rio de Janeiro, the neighbourhood of Shahrak-e Golestan in Tehran, and Block 39 in New Belgrade. When Unitec Institute of Technology’s Associate Professor of Urban Design Dushko Bogunovich came up with the idea of a comparative analysis of two sprawling metropolitan contexts – Auckland and Milan – he and Massimo Tadi, Director of the IMMdesignlab in Milan and Associate Professor at the School of Architectural Engineering at the Politecnico di Milano, decided to apply IMM to a sample area of low-density suburban Auckland. The project presented in this book was developed in a joint international design workshop organised by Politecnico di Milano, IMMdesignlab and Unitec Institute of Technology. The workshop was held at Politecnico di Milano, Polo Territoriale di Lecco (Italy), from 25–29 May 2015, and the team, comprising 14 international students from different design disciplines, was coordinated by Tadi and Bogunovich, assisted by engineers Hadi Mohammad Zadeh and Frederico Zaniol (IMMdesignlab). The outcomes of the workshop were then further developed by IMMdesignlab to demonstrate how, by adopting IMM, it is possible to retrofit, renovate and reactivate an inefficient and energy consuming neighbourhood into a more integrated and sustainable one.

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  • Walter Klasz : Inbetween

    Klasz, Walter; Mitterer, Wittfrida; Michl, Thomas; Kern, Christian; McPherson, Peter (2017-03-03)

    Unclassified
    Unitec

    In 2016, Austrian architect and designer Walter Klasz visited Auckland as a Researcher in Residence, hosted by Unitec. Walter’s work focuses on the potential of ‘self-forming-structures’ – constructions that emerge from the tensile and compressive forces that can be manipulated by the designer and the builder. While in New Zealand he was inspired by Polynesian construction and design, by forms found in nature and the landscape, and by his contemporaries working and studying at Unitec. The culmination of his residency was an exhibition at Snowwhite gallery in Auckland, for which Klasz created an accompanying book describing his process, including iterative designs, self-reflection and discussion with friends and colleagues; an autoethnographic account of his time in Auckland. Instead of conducting a blind peer review of Klasz’s book, ePress invited four of his peers to submit an open review, presented here as a discursive foreword to the work. This introductory consideration provides a critical framework to support the manuscript while also acknowledging its place as a reflective account of Klasz’s residency. Open review by: Ass. Prof.Dr. Wittfrida Mitterer, Editor, Bio-Architettura magazine, Italy Dr. Thomas Michl, Lecturer in Art Didactics, Academy of Fine Arts, Nuremberg, Germany Univ. Prof. Arch. Christian Kern, Institute of Three-Dimensional Design, Technical University of Vienna, Austria Peter McPherson, Head of Architecture, Unitec Institute of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand This work is a scholarly open review of ‘How far can design be reduced to let form emerge on its own? A review on the research of Architect Walter Klasz in Auckland’ – a booklet from the exhibition at Snowwhite Gallery: Inbetween art and research. Inbetween physical experiments and parametric digital control. (Copyright: Walter Klasz, proofreading: Joe Streibl, Austria) With contributions from Paul Woodruffe, MLA. Artist and Landscape Architect, Department of Design & Contemporary Art, Unitec; Renata Jadresin-Milic, Senior Lecturer, Department of Architecture, Unitec; Sandra Arnet, Academic Leader, Undergraduate, Interior Design/Architecture/Landscape Architecture, Unitec; Marcus Williams, Associate Professor, Dean of Research and Enterprise, Tūāpapa Rangahau, partnering Research and Enterprise, Unitec; Hazel Redpath, Curriculum Developer and Academic Advisor, Unitec.

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  • Housing, the ‘Great Income Tax Experiment’, and the intergenerational consequences of the lease

    Coleman, Andrew (2017-04)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    This paper provides an analysis of how the New Zealand tax system may be affecting residential property markets. Like most OECD countries, New Zealand does not tax the imputed rent or capital gains from owner-occupied housing. Unlike most OECD countries, since 1989 New Zealand has taxed income placed in retirement savings funds on an income basis, rather than an expenditure basis. The result is likely to be the most distortionary tax policy towards housing in the OECD. Since 1989, these tax distortions have provided incentives that should have lead to significant increases in house prices and the average size of new dwellings, should have reduced owner-occupier rates, and should have led to a worsening of the overseas net asset position. The tax settings are likely to be regressive, and are not intergenerationally neutral, as they impose significant costs on current and future generations of young New Zealanders (and new migrants). Since it does not appear to be politically palatable to tax capital gains or imputed rent, to reduce the distortionary consequences of the tax system on housing markets New Zealand may wish to reconsider how it taxes retirement savings accounts by adopting the standard OECD approach.

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  • A method of sound wave diffusion in motor vehicle exhaust systems

    Singh, Niranjan (2017-04-04)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    It is common practice among young vehicle owners to modify the exhaust system of their vehicle to reduce exhaust backpressure with the perception that the output power increases. In the process of backpressure reduction, the output noise (Whakapau) of the vehicle also increases correspondingly. The conflict of interest that arises from modified vehicle exhaust systems and the general public is well publicised. This prototype was designed to meet the demands of exhaust back pressure reduction while at the same time mitigate the sound output of the vehicle. The design involves lining a cylindrical pipe with common glass marbles which is normally used for playing. The marbles are made of a sustainable material as it does not erode when exposed to exhaust gases and it is easily recycled. The prototype muffler is much smaller in size when compared to conventional mufflers. All tests were done in a simulated controlled environment and data collated using approved New Zealand Transport Agency testing regime. It has to be noted that the test focus was noise mitigation and not comprehensive engine performance testing. The results of the test prove a reduction of sound levels, however more testing needs to be undertaken with varying annulus depth, marble sizes and arrangements and engine loads

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  • Applied practice : theoretical and pedagogical foundations

    Hays, Jay; Helmling, Lisa (2017-04-04)

    Unclassified
    Unitec

    Applied Practice is an overarching term embracing a wide range of pedagogies that employ one or more forms of work experience for learning, including cooperative education (or co-op), professional practice, internships and apprenticeships, service learning, and many versions of Work-Integrated Learning (WIL). As used here, Applied Practice encompasses the theories, principles, approaches and programs that govern and inform the development of professional practices and practitioners across disciplines, and, in so doing, build individual, organisational, and community capacity to sustainably transform. As this monograph reveals, Applied Practice is a defensible means for building capabilities and dispositions demanded by the complex, global world of the twenty-first century. It achieves this by narrowing the theory–practice divide for which higher education has long been criticised. Narrowing of this gap is made possible by more fully integrating theory and practice, attained through pedagogies that mutually exploit the learning and experiences in academic study and practical work experience. Applied Practice and the various affiliated work experience for learning and Work-Integrated Learning programs are under-theorised and remain under-researched. Herein, the authors draw on a wide range of studies and scholarly literature, and attempt to bring together what can be ascertained with respect to applicable theory and pedagogy. The result of this synthesis is a four-pillar model, each of the four pillars representing a substantial theory stream and important foundation of Applied Practice: Adult Learning Theory (ALT), Experiential Learning Theory (ELT), Transformational Learning Theory (TLT), and Workplace Learning Theory (WLT).

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  • How did I as a student music therapist, use songwriting techniques to facilitate self-expression with adolescents in a mental health school setting?

    Johnson, Emma (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The purpose of this research was to understand how a student music therapist was able to facilitate self-expression using specific songwriting techniques, during long term and short term, group and individual music therapy sessions. Long term is considered a four-month period of weekly sessions, and short term is considered a single session. This research took place at an educational facility where I was working with adolescents with various mental health issues. In this exegesis, I discuss the various definitions of self-expressions as defined in literature, and consider the ways this relates to songwriting methods chosen and applied during therapy. A qualitative method of research was used, using secondary analysis of data collected from five months of Music Therapy practice. Thematic analysis was applied to clinical notes from sessions, student review statements and personal reflective practitioner journal. I was guided by music therapy literature discussing songwriting that I had been drawing on for the benefit of my practice. My analysis revealed that I developed specifically tailored methods and techniques for individuals and groups, which would begin with how they would like to approach their songwriting. I also found, that alongside more well documented techniques such as lyric writing and composition, improvisation and song planning were of high value to my practice and therefore were included as therapeutic songwriting techniques in my findings.

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  • Towards an integrated multi-scale zero energy building framework for residential buildings

    Nsaliwa, Dekhani (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    In most developed economies, buildings are directly and indirectly accountable for at least 40% of the final energy use. Consequently, most world cities are increasingly surpassing sensitive environmental boundaries and continue to reach critical biophysical thresholds. Climate change is one of the biggest threats humanity faces today and there is an urgent need to reduce energy use and CO₂ emissions globally to zero or to less than zero, to address climate change. This often leads to the assumption that buildings must reduce energy demand and emit radically less CO₂ during construction and occupation periods. Certainly, this is often implemented through delivering ‘zero energy buildings’. The deployment of residential buildings which meet the zero energy criteria thereby allowing neighborhoods and cities to convert to semi-autonomous energy systems is seen to have a promising potential for reducing and even eliminating energy demand and the associated greenhouse gas emissions. However, most current zero energy building approaches focus solely on operational energy overlooking other energy uses such as embodied energy and user transport energy. Embodied energy constitutes all energy requirements for manufacturing building materials, construction and replacement. Transport energy comprises the amount of energy required to provide mobility services to building users. Zero energy building design decisions based on partial evaluation and quantification approaches might result in an increased energy demand at different or multiple scales of the built environment. Indeed, recent studies have demonstrated that embodied and transport energy demands account for more than half of the total annual energy demand of residential buildings built based on zero energy criteria. Current zero energy building frameworks, tools and policies therefore may overlook more than ~80% of the total net energy balance annually. The original contribution of this thesis is an integrated multi-scale zero energy building framework which has the capacity to gauge the relative effectiveness towards the deployment of zero energy residential buildings and neighborhoods. This framework takes into account energy requirements and CO₂ emissions at the building scale, i.e. the embodied energy and operation energy demands, and at the city scale, i.e. the embodied energy of related transport modes including infrastructure and the transport operational energy demand of its users. This framework is implemented through the development of a quantification methodology which allows the analysis and evaluation of energy demand and CO₂ emissions pertaining to the deployment of zero energy residential buildings and districts. A case study, located in Auckland, New Zealand is used to verify, validate and investigate the potential of the developed framework. Results confirm that each of the building (embodied and operational) and transport (embodied and operational) energy requirements represent a very significant share of the annual overall energy demand and associated CO₂ emissions of zero energy buildings. Consequently, rather than the respect of achieving a net zero energy building balance at the building scale, the research has revealed that it is more important, above all, to minimize building user-related and transportation energy demand at the city scale and maximize renewable energy production coupled with efficiency improvements at grid level. The application of the developed evaluation framework will enable building designers, urban planners, researchers and policy makers to deliver effective multi-scale zero energy building strategies which will ultimately contribute to reducing the overall environmental impact of the built environment today.

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  • Gone with the Wind: International Migration

    Aburn, Amelia; Wesselbaum, Dennis (2017-04)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    This paper adds to the literature on the determinants of international migration. First, we offer a joint analysis of the driving forces of migration capturing year-to-year variations and long-run effects. Second, we analyze the dynamic response of migration to shocks to its determinants. We start by presenting a theoretical model that allows us to model migration as an augmented gravity equation. We then construct a rich panel data set with 16 destination and 198 origin countries between 1980 and 2014. Most importantly, we find that climate change is a more important driver than income and political freedom together. Our results imply that a large time dimension is key to understand the effects of climate change. We then estimate a panel vectorautoregressive model showing that the dynamic response of migration is very different across shocks to different driving forces. Our findings carry implications for national and international immigration policies.

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  • High-resolution denitrification kinetics in pasture soils link N₂O emissions to pH, and denitrification to C mineralization

    Samad, M. S.; Bakken, L. R.; Nadeem, S.; Clough, T. J.; de Klein, C. A. M.; Richards, K. G.; Lanigan, G. J.; Morales, S. E.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Denitrification in pasture soils is mediated by microbial and physicochemical processes leading to nitrogen loss through the emission of N₂O and N₂. It is known that N₂O reduction to N₂ is impaired by low soil pH yet controversy remains as inconsistent use of soil pH measurement methods by researchers, and differences in analytical methods between studies, undermine direct comparison of results. In addition, the link between denitrification and N₂O emissions in response to carbon (C) mineralization and pH in different pasture soils is still not well described. We hypothesized that potential denitrification rate and aerobic respiration rate would be positively associated with soils. This relationship was predicted to be more robust when a high resolution analysis is performed as opposed to a single time point comparison. We tested this by characterizing 13 different temperate pasture soils from northern and southern hemispheres sites (Ireland and New Zealand) using a fully automated- high-resolution GC detection system that allowed us to detect a wide range of gas emissions simultaneously. We also compared the impact of using different extractants for determining pH on our conclusions. In all pH measurements, soil pH was strongly and negatively associated with both N₂O production index (IN₂O) and N₂O/(N₂O+N₂) product ratio. Furthermore, emission kinetics across all soils revealed that the denitrification rates under anoxic conditions (NO+N₂O+N₂ μmol N/h/vial) were significantly associated with C mineralization (CO₂ μmol/h/vial) measured both under oxic (r² = 0.62, p = 0.0015) and anoxic (r² = 0.89, p<0.0001) conditions.

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