4,305 results for Share

  • Pharmacokinetics of dexmedetomidine combined with therapeutic hypothermia in a piglet asphyxia model

    Ezzati, M; Broad, K; Kawano, G; Faulkner, S; Hassell, J; Fleiss, B; Gressens, P; Fierens, I; Rostami, J; Maze, M; Sleigh, James; Anderson, B; Sanders, RD; Robertson, NJ (2014-07)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    BACKGROUND: The highly selective α2 -adrenoreceptor agonist, dexmedetomidine, exerts neuroprotective, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and sympatholytic properties that may be beneficial for perinatal asphyxia. The optimal safe dose for pre-clinical newborn neuroprotection studies is unknown. METHODS: Following cerebral hypoxia-ischaemia, dexmedetomidine was administered to nine newborn piglets in a de-escalation dose study in combination with hypothermia (whole body cooling to 33.5°C). Dexmedetomidine was administered with a loading dose of 1 μg/kg and maintenance infusion at doses from 10 to 0.6 μg/kg/h. One additional piglet was not subjected to hypoxia-ischaemia. Blood for pharmacokinetic analysis was sampled pre-insult and frequently post-insult. A one-compartment linear disposition model was used to fit data. Population parameter estimates were obtained using non-linear mixed effects modelling. RESULTS: All dexmedetomidine infusion regimens led to plasma concentrations above those associated with sedation in neonates and children (0.4-0.8 μg/l). Seven out of the nine piglets with hypoxia-ischaemia experienced periods of bradycardia, hypotension, hypertension and cardiac arrest; all haemodynamic adverse events occurred in piglets with plasma concentrations greater than 1 μg/l. Dexmedetomidine clearance was 0.126 l/kg/h [coefficient of variation (CV) 46.6.%] and volume of distribution was 3.37 l/kg (CV 191%). Dexmedetomidine clearance was reduced by 32.7% at a temperature of 33.5°C. Dexmedetomidine clearance was reduced by 55.8% following hypoxia-ischaemia. CONCLUSIONS: Dexmedetomidine clearance was reduced almost tenfold compared with adult values in the newborn piglet following hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury and subsequent therapeutic hypothermia. Reduced clearance was related to cumulative effects of both hypothermia and exposure to hypoxia. High plasma levels of dexmedetomidine were associated with major cardiovascular complications.

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  • Carbon dioxide insufflation deflects airborne particles from an open surgical wound model

    Kokhanenko, P; Papotti, G; Cater, John; Lynch, AC; van der Linden, JA; Spence, Callum (2017-01)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background Surgical site infections remain a significant burden on healthcare systems and may benefit from new countermeasures. Aim To assess the merits of open surgical wound CO2 insufflation via a gas diffuser to reduce airborne contamination, and to determine the distribution of CO2 in and over a wound. Methods An experimental approach with engineers and clinical researchers was employed to measure the gas flow pattern and motion of airborne particles in a model of an open surgical wound in a simulated theatre setting. Laser-illuminated flow visualizations were performed and the degree of protection was quantified by collecting and characterizing particles deposited in and outside the wound cavity. Findings The average number of particles entering the wound with a diameter of 95% and diminished rapidly above the wound to an atmospheric level (∼0%) at a height of 25 mm. Conclusion Airborne particles were deflected from entering the wound by the CO2 in the cavity akin to a protective barrier. Insufflation of CO2 may be an effective means of reducing intraoperative infection rates in open surgeries.

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  • The significance of powder breakdown during conveying within industrial milk powder plants

    Boiarkina, Irina; Sang, C; Depree, N; Prince-Pike, Arrian; Yu, Wei; Wilson, DI; Young, BR (2016)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Instant whole milk powder is designed to rapidly dissolve in water, which depends on the particle size distribution (PSD). The fragile powder exiting the dryer is conveyed for packing which breaks down the particles, worsening the dissolution properties. This work investigated the effect of conveying on the final functional properties using two industrial plants with differing transport systems; a pneumatic system and bucket elevator. It was expected that the plant with the bucket elevator consistently produced powder with superior dissolution due to lower breakdown during transport. This was evaluated using the change in PSD. It was found that the plant with the bucket elevator had at least as large a change in the median particle size as the plant with the pneumatic transport system, contrary to the expectation. However, the plant with the bucket elevator had an initially larger particle size, and so the percentage of fine particles that negatively impact dissolution, remained low post transport. When quantified using the change in bulk density, having an initially low bulk density compensated for large increases in bulk density during conveying and powder with lower bulk density pre-transport showed better wettability post transport. Thus in order to produce powder with the desired functionalities the focus should be on improving the initial agglomeration and generating larger particles and lower bulk density pre-transport, as opposed to optimising the powder transport.

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  • Goal-based Testing of Semantic Web Services

    Jokhio, M; Sun, J; Dobbie, G; Hu, T (2016-12-01)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Context: Recent years have witnessed growing interests in semantic web and its related technologies. While various frameworks have been proposed for designing semantic web services (SWS), few of them aim at testing. Objective: This paper investigates into the technologies for automatically deriving test cases from semantic web service descriptions based on the Web Service Modeling Ontology (WSMO) framework. Method: WSMO goal specifications were translated into B abstract machines. Test cases were generated via model checking with calculated trap properties from coverage criteria. Furthermore, we employed mutation analysis to evaluate the test suite. In this approach, the model-based test case generation and code-based evaluation techniques are independent of each other, which provides much more accurate measures of the testing results. Results: We applied our approach to a real-world case study of the Amazon E-Commerce Service (ECS). The experimental results have validated the effectiveness of the proposed solution. Conclusion: It is concluded that our approach is capable of automatically generating an effective set of test cases from the WSMO goal descriptions for SWS testing. The quality of test cases was measured in terms of their abilities to discover the injected faults at the code level. We implemented a tool to automate the steps for the mutation-based evaluation.

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  • Comparison of seismic design provisions for buckling restrained braced frames in Canada, United States, Chile, and New Zealand

    Tremblay, R; Dehghani, M; Fahnestock, L; Herrera, R; Canales, M; Clifton, George; Hamid, Z (2016-11)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Seismic design provisions for buildings in Canada, the United States, Chile and New Zealand are presented for buckling restrained braced frames, with focus on design requirements for seismic stability. P-delta effects are explicitly considered in seismic design in Canada, the U.S. and New Zealand. In Chile, stability effects are limited by means of more stringent drift limits. The provisions are applied to a 9-storey building structure located in areas in each country having similar seismic conditions. For this structure, comparable seismic loads are specified in Canada and Chile, whereas significantly lower seismic effects are prescribed in the U.S. In all countries, use of the dynamic (response spectrum) analysis method resulted in lighter and more flexible structures compared to the equivalent static force procedure. Seismic stability requirements had greater impact on designs in Canada and New Zealand. Frame design in the U.S. was only affected by stability effects when applying the stability requirements from AISC 360-10.

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  • A randomised controlled demonstration trial of multifaceted nutritional intervention and or probiotics: the healthy mums and babies (HUMBA) trial

    Okesene-Gafa, K; Li, M; Taylor, Rennae; Thompson, John; Crowther, Caroline; McKinlay, Christopher; McCowan, Lesley (2016-11-24)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background Maternal obesity is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and has lifelong negative implications for offspring health. The Institute of Medicine recommends limited gestational weight gain (GWG) in obese women for optimal maternal and infant outcomes. However, there is a gap regarding an effective and sustainable intervention strategy to achieve this goal. The aim of the healthy mums and babies (HUMBA) demonstration trial is to assess whether a multifaceted nutritional intervention and/or an oral probiotic treatment in obese pregnant women can reduce excessive GWG and optimise pregnancy outcomes. Methods and design The study is a two by two factorial randomised controlled demonstration trial conducted in Counties Manukau health region, New Zealand, a multi-ethnic region with a high prevalence of obesity. A total of 220 non-diabetic obese women with a singleton pregnancy will be recruited between 120 and 176 weeks. At recruitment, women are randomised to receive either a culturally tailored multifaceted dietary intervention or routine dietary advice, and either an oral probiotic or placebo capsule. Randomisation is undertaken via a web-based protocol, randomize.net, with a 1:1 ratio using stratification by body mass index (BMI) category (BMI of 30–34.9 or BMI ≥35 kg/m2). The dietary intervention includes 4 customised nutrition education visits by a trained community health worker combined with motivational text messaging. Probiotic capsules consist of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Bifidobacterium lactis BB12 at a dose of 7 × 109 colony-forming units one per day until birth. Probiotic and placebo capsules are identically pre-packed and labelled by a third party, and are prescribed in a double blinded fashion. Research assessments are conducted at enrolment, 28 weeks, 36 weeks, at birth and at 5 months post-delivery. The primary outcomes for the study are proportion of women with excessive GWG and infant birthweight. Discussion The HUMBA demonstration trial will assess the efficacy of a culturally tailored multifaceted dietary intervention and probiotic treatment in limiting excessive GWG and optimising birthweight in a multiethnic sample of obese pregnant women. If successful, either one or both of the interventions may be incorporated into future studies powered to investigate important pregnancy outcomes. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry registration number: ACTRN12615000400561, Universal Trial Number: U1111-1155-0409. Date registered: 29th April 2015.

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  • Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris spore inactivation by high pressure combined with mild heat: Modeling the effects of temperature and soluble solids

    Uchida, R; Oliveira, Maria (Mar 2017)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    High pressure processing (HPP) comprises the application of pressures between 100 and 1000 MPa to foods for microbial inactivation and food preservation. HPP has been commercially applied to pasteurize fruit juices with the advantage of retaining its bioactive constituents and original organoleptic properties. Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris has been suggested as a reference in the design of pasteurization for high-acid fruit products, due to spore resistance and spoilage incidents in fruit juices. In this study, A. acidoterrestris spore inactivation by 600 MPa combined with mild heat (35–65 °C) in malt extract broth adjusted to 10, 20 and 30 °Brix was carried out and the inactivation was modeled. The soluble solids increased the resistance of the spores to 600 MPa-thermal process, while the temperature decreased its resistance. Although the nonlinear Weibull model gave better fittings, the first-order kinetic parameters were also determined. For example for 600 MPa at 55 °C D10°Brix = 4.2 min, D20°Brix = 7.6 min, D30°Brix = 13.7 min, and zT-values were 20–21 °C. The z-values for the effect of soluble solids on DT-values were 39–40 °Brix for 45 and 55 °C 600 MPa HPP. The results obtained with broth were validated with fruit juices and concentrates. The combination of HPP with heat was an effective alternative to conventional thermal processing for the inactivation of A. acidoterrestris spores in juices up to 30 °Brix, allowing the use of less 30–40 °C of temperature for the same microbial inactivation, which potentially results in more nutritious, fresher and tastier juices/concentrates.

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  • Influences on the Role of the Stepfather in Stepfamilies

    Brennan, James (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Previous research indicates that the stepparent-child relationship has an important influence on the adjustment of stepfamilies, and in particular on children’s wellbeing. Stepfathers adopt a range of roles in regard to their stepchildren, and some roles appear to be more adaptive than others. This qualitative study aimed to understand stepfathers’ perceptions about the stepfather role, and examine the influences that shape the kinds of roles that stepfathers develop in stepfamilies. A sample of 86 stepfathers, living in New Zealand with their stepchildren (at least some of the time), completed an online questionnaire about their experiences and perceptions of the stepfather role, and the influences that shape their relationships with stepchildren. The questionnaire elicited participants' attitudes about the stepfather role, perceptions about social expectations for their behaviour towards stepchildren, and role models for being a stepfather. Stepfathers were prompted to write about the kinds of roles they had and the influences that shaped their roles. Participants were also asked about their experiences of seeking advice about being a stepfather, or their reasons for not doing so. Thematic and categorical analyses were conducted on the qualitative data collected. The results indicate that there remains significant lack of clarity about what role a stepfather should play from a societal perspective, and variation in the kinds of roles stepfathers develop in stepfamilies. Three role types were identified in the data: a father-like role, a supportive adult role, and an uninvolved role. The roles taken by stepfathers were influenced by several salient factors: stepfathers’ own attitudes and experiences, alignment or misalignment with their partners about their roles, the receptiveness of stepchildren, the involvement of biological fathers, and, to a lesser extent, perceived endorsement or opposition from extended family and society more broadly. These findings are discussed in terms of existing knowledge about stepfather roles, and a preliminary model of the influences on stepfather roles is presented. This study contributes to the existing body of stepfamily research, and provides discussion on the implications for clinical practice and future research directions.

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  • Transition with Dignity: From Special School to Community Life Understood in Partnership with Individuals with Significant Disabilities

    Hart, Sarah (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    At the critical life stage of leaving school, many young adults are excited for their future. This is not always the case, however, for students with significant disability. After a systematic literature review of transition research, two essential concerns arose: Students with significant disability experience dismal outcomes compared to their mainstream peers, and they have been alienated from their own transition planning, as well as from the pertaining research. The purpose of this study was to examine transition from the perspectives of those living the experience. Six-month ethnography was guided by three young men, who exited segregated special schools into the early stage of adult life in Aotearoa New Zealand. Fieldwork involved extensive observation and adapted interviews tailored to each young man. Data were also collected from transition informants (parents, teachers, transition providers), and review of key artefacts (documents, photographs, video). Working in partnership, the young men reclaimed their position as experts on their own transition. Their voices, whether audible or non-verbal, were privileged above all others. Analysis was conducted in multiple, inductive and deductive, waves. Using an inductive approach, two themes emerged that impacted the three transitions: trialling post-school options and a lack of collaboration between transition partners called here, silos. Deductive analysis framed by the capability approach (Nussbaum, 2000; Sen, 1999) involved noticing and naming the young men’s personal capabilities, then reviewing the way they informed each transition. While individual transition experiences varied, insufficient trialling of post-school options hindered the young men’s sense of belonging in post-school life. This issue was exacerbated by the lack of collaboration between those who planned transition, to the extent that teachers and the students themselves were excluded. Case narratives were used to articulate the difference in experiences of each young man, tied together by unifying transition artefacts of timetable organisers. The research findings were considered alongside prior research in order to form a counternarrative. Commonly understood transition experiences for individuals with significant disability were refuted, holding practical, theoretical, and methodological implications. Reconceptualised transitions were grounded in the genuine opportunities each young man could have to construct a thriving life of personal priority. A transition with dignity.

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  • Inspiring Youth Sustainability Leadership and Creating Sustainable Schools: Explorations of extracurricular programming and university-community partnerships

    Blythe, Charlotte (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    This research was motivated by concern for the wider ecology of our planet, the necessity for a cultural shift towards sustainability, and curiosity about roles psychologists could play in creating this shift. It was based around two real-world projects within the interlinked fields of inspiring youth sustainability leadership and creating sustainable schools. The first project involved a university-community partnership between my research team from the Department of Psychology at the University of Auckland and a local co-educational secondary school, Western Springs College (WSC). This action research endeavour was focused around achieving WSC’s strategic goal of working towards sustainable practices in all areas of school life. My research team essentially facilitated the project for two years, and supporting the school’s appointed student environmental leaders was a central feature of our approach. The second project was a participatory evaluation of a non-school-based extracurricular student sustainability leadership programme, Make a Difference (MAD), run by Auckland Council’s environmental education team. The evaluation involved myself working collaboratively with MAD coordinators and youth participants to develop an understanding of the programme’s theory of change, its developmental and action-related outcomes for young people, and options for ongoing monitoring and evaluation. In this thesis, I present four papers based on my engagement in these projects. The first two draw on the MAD evaluation. Paper one profiles the participatory methods utilised to develop MAD’s theory of change, and offers an interpretation of how this initiative inspires and supports youth sustainability leadership. Paper two is a case study of the MAD programme’s initial three-day residential retreat, and explores the key elements that may underlie its transformative potential. The latter two papers focus on the experiences of the core people driving change within the WSC sustainability project. Paper three is a phenomenological, authoethnographic study on my research team’s guiding principles, our experiences applying these principles within the project, school members’ impressions of our approach, and lessons learned from the reflective process. Paper four focuses on the perceptions, experiences and practices of WSC’s appointed student environmental leaders, and draws attention to the uniqueness of environmental leadership compared to more traditional forms of student leadership (i.e., sporting and cultural). As a whole, this thesis contributes insights about the transformative potential of non-school-based (MAD) and school-based (WSC) extracurricular programmes for inspiring youth sustainability leadership. It also contributes a novel approach to creating sustainable schools via university-community partnerships. I conclude with a discussion of meta-themes from the papers, implications for practitioners, and an invitation to psychologists to engage in emancipatory forms of research.

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  • Literacy Leadership in New Zealand Secondary Schools

    Gibbs, Robyn (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    While much has been published about the topic of leading literacy (most of this from the USA), little has been produced that links literacy leadership practices to improved outcomes for learners. This thesis addressed the gap in the evidence about what works, and adds to what is known about literacy leadership in New Zealand schools. It explored the processes literacy leaders used to support teaching and learning in secondary schools with different patterns of English achievement in the New Zealand qualification National Certificate of Educational Achievement (NCEA). If we know what effective literacy leadership practices look like we can concentrate on building these amongst our school leaders as part of the priority of raising achievement in New Zealand. The hypothesis explored in this research is that effective leaders of literacy make use of a set of core practices to support teachers to implement high quality literacy teaching practices. These teaching practices, in turn, impact positively on the literacy engagement and achievement of learners. In this research, literacy leadership was explored through a case study approach. Through a process of analysing NCEA achievement, three schools were chosen that had high NCEA English achievement. A further three schools with low NCEA English achievement were also chosen. Data about literacy leadership practices were gathered through interviews with six literacy leaders, and twelve teachers (two in each school) with whom these literacy leaders had worked. Interview data were allocated to coding categories using NVivo 10 software. These categories, named the Practices of Effective Literacy Leadership (PELL), had been identified from a set of 43 studies about literacy leadership. Results show that literacy leaders in high achieving schools were more likely to use a greater range of the PELL compared to low achieving schools. These included: building teachers content knowledge about what to teach, when and how; helping teachers to understand literacy learning across curriculum; challenging teachers to think of different ways of doing things; acquiring resources that align to students’ needs; building the trust and engagement of teachers and other leaders; constructing a vision for literacy learning in the school; engaging in curriculum evaluation; planning a school literacy curriculum; solving school problems related to teaching and learning; advising teachers about resources for students in their classes; guiding teachers in the use of smart tools; drawing on their experience as a leader; and drawing on their expertise as a leader Further analyses showed that these differences could be grouped into three broad categories of practice. These three categories are - focusing on improving students’ attainment and improving the engagement of learners; fostering organisational coherence; and creating a culture for improvement. They are critical for building teachers’ capabilities in secondary schools, and for reducing current inequities in students’ attainment in New Zealand secondary schools. This research found that shifting curriculum priorities and senior leadership changes in low achieving schools impacted on the opportunities literacy leaders had to work with teachers. Literacy leaders in high achieving schools faced fewer organisational barriers to working with teachers and with other leaders. The ability to answer the research question has been potentially impacted by two limitations. Neither of these limitations could be dealt with in the context of a time-bound doctoral thesis, or where participants volunteer to take part in the research. The first limitation relates to sampling design. It was not possible to control for teacher or literacy leader background variables such as prior participation in professional learning and development, and this may have impacted on the results obtained. Secondly, teachers who took part in the research were only partially responsible for the school-based NCEA results used in sampling. Other teachers, in the English department and other departments, may have also contributed to outcomes. This thesis identifies further possibilities for research on literacy leadership. These include more case study research that examines literacy leadership in a range of schooling contexts (for instance larger and smaller secondary schools with different infrastructure); longitudinal studies that examine the changes that schools make, including improvement rates in students’ literacy, as a result of literacy leadership practices; studies that look in detail at the ways literacy leaders (and other curriculum leaders) work with principals and senior leaders to bring about change and improvement in literacy achievement. New Zealand does not have a standalone programme for building literacy leaders’ capability. Whether it is practical or desirable to have such a programme is debatable. It would be beneficial to consider, however, how literacy leaders and other curriculum leaders can be supported in their important roles of guiding other teachers.

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  • Distribution of Lipids in the Human Brain and their Differential Expression in Alzheimer's Disease: A Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionisation-Imaging Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-IMS) Study

    Mendis, Lakshini (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the leading cause of dementia, is pathologically characterised by β-amyloid plaques and tau tangles. However, there is also evidence of lipid-dyshomeostasis-mediated AD pathology. Given the structural diversity of lipids, mass spectrometry (MS) is a useful tool for studying lipid changes in AD. The use of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) circumvents the limitation of traditional MS, allowing users to visualise the distribution of lipids. Thus, I optimised MALDI-IMS to image the distribution of lipids in the postmortem human middle temporal gyrus (MTG) and hippocampus, and analyse its differential expression in AD. In order to study a large number of cases, compared to previously published MALDI-IMS papers, I developed an analysis workflow to efficiently evaluate large, heterogeneous datasets and accurately detect lipids that were differentially expressed in AD. I hypothesised that the MTG would show similar lipid differences to those previously reported in other cortical regions. Further, given that each hippocampal anatomical sub-field has its own function, I postulated that there would be lipid differences unique to each sub-field. Both positively- and negatively-charged lipid ion species were abundantly detected in the control and AD cohorts. Grey matter and white matter had unique lipid profiles. However, there were variations in the distribution of lipids even within the same region, especially in the grey matter in the MTG and the CA1 region in the hippocampus. In AD, while the distribution patterns of lipids were comparable to the control cohort, some lipids were expressed at different levels. For example, the expression of some phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) lipids was decreased in the MTG. The majority of lipids that were differentially expressed in the hippocampus were found in the CA1 region. Further, there were differences in eight lipids that were specific to the dentate gyrus (DG) region. High-resolution MALDI IMS revealed that these lipids showed a heterogeneous distribution amongst the three DG layers. Finally, I quantified PE lipids with MALDI-IMS, using a lipid-spiked tissue homogenate approach. This is the first time that this approach has been successfully used to quantify lipids the human MTG and the DG. The concentration of PE did not change in the DG in AD; however, the concentrations of four PE species, namely PE 38:4, PE 39:5, and PE 40:6, were reduced in the grey matter in the MTG. Thus, the MALDI-IMS technique, the analysis workflow, and the lipid quantification approach, provided a novel method to investigate specific lipid differences in the postmortem human brain in AD. This work extends the understanding of the lipid composition of the human brain and how it differs in AD. Future work will focus on elucidating if these lipid differences are a driver, or consequence, of AD pathogenesis.

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  • A qualitative exploration of stress, coping, support-seeking, and help-seeking among Chinese migrant youth in New Zealand

    Lei, Yan Yan (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    This research uses qualitative methodology to explore how Chinese migrant youth in New Zealand experience and manage stress. Data was collected through focus groups and interviews with 13 young people, aged between 16 and 18 years, who had migrated from China to New Zealand with their families. A thematic analysis addressed the four areas of focus in this research: stress, coping, support-seeking, and help-seeking from psychological services. In the area of stress, participants described tensions associated with differences between their experiences and those of their European peers, and with immersing themselves in dominant culture while also holding on to their migration stories and ethnic culture. Although they developed hybrid identities and tried to fit in to dominant society, discrimination constrained their fitting in and the identities they were able to construct. In relation to coping, participants spoke about hybridisation of their migration stories, ethnic culture, and dominant culture in their negotiations of coping. Although they valued dealing directly with stress, they also valued closing off emotion and finding acceptance and gratitude, as well as actively rejecting ‘bad’ ways of coping used by their European peers. In relation to support-seeking, participants described how they preferred to rely on their own resources. This related to autonomy and concerns that talking with others does not help, but was also overlaid with Chinese values regarding emotions and relationships. In the area of help-seeking, participants spoke about their reluctance to use psychological services. They related this to lack of knowledge about services, concerns about trusting professionals, minimisation of their problems, and fear of the erosion of their autonomy, but also highlighted lack of familiarity with services, poor cultural fit, and wanting to be resilient like their parents. Therefore, they emphasised the need for both general and culturally-specific solutions to mitigate these barriers. Overall, the young people were active agents who negotiated their migration stories, ethnic culture and minority status, and dominant culture and discourses in how they experienced and managed stress. Harnessing their resourcefulness and understanding their social and cultural contexts is critical for working meaningfully with these young people.

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  • Patient choice as illusion: Autonomy and choice in end-of-life care in the United Kingdom and New Zealand

    Winnington, Rhona (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Death is a reality of life as we will all die. Despite this inevitability, death in the twenty-first century remains unwelcome and has been sequestered into the enclaves of medical practice as a means of quelling the rising tide of fear it provokes. Using a narrative analysis approach to examine online social media commentary of personal experiences, this research explores the reality of patient choice at end-of-life in the United Kingdom (UK) and New Zealand. Specifically it examines the barriers encountered when individuals seek control of the dying trajectory and how this unfolds for the patient compliant with the medicalised ‘good death’ and for those seeking the right-to-die; contextualising these issues within the human rights framework. This research explores the means through which medical practice maintains power over the dying individual, actualised through the use of specialist knowledge and the medical vernacular. It compares the use of specialist palliative models of care with euthanasia and assisted suicide, and examines the selective collaboration between medicine and law as a means of subverting the individual who attempts to disrupt the contemporary accepted norms when dying. My research suggests that patient choice when dying is an illusion in practice, despite individual choice being considered an essential component in clinical decision making. I highlight that those seeking the right-to-die disrupt the normative compliance expected in the doctor/patient relationship, thus, positioning them as deviant and other. I suggest that there is a potential weakness in the construct of medical power and is evidenced in the selective reliance upon law when clinical decisions are challenged by the deviant individual. Finally, I suggest that although the equity in the doctor/patient relationship remains unbalanced at present the right to choice at end-of-life remains a potent prospect; with the re-invigoration and re-presentation of the Ars Moriendi having the potential to reflect the self-centricity of the contemporary Western individual to access the ‘good death’ of choice.

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  • Personality Development in Adulthood: Studies of stability and change in a nationally representative sample of adult New Zealanders

    Milojev, Petar (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    The development of personality in adulthood remains a topic of debate with direct implications for the conceptualisation of personality traits (McCrae & Costa, 1999; Roberts et al., 2008). However, with notable exceptions, comprehensive longitudinal investigations of the development of personality traits across a broad range of the adult life span are surprisingly rare. Through four systematic longitudinal investigations, the present thesis investigates the change and stability in the Big Six personality traits – Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, Openness to Experience, and Honesty- Humility – in a nationally representative panel study of adult New Zealanders. Study 1 demonstrated the very high stability of the six traits, thus confirming the prediction of high temporal stability of personality traits. This study also provided the crucial test of the test-retest reliability of the personality scales used throughout this thesis. Study 2 demonstrated the systematic variability in the stability of personality traits across the adult life span. That is, personality traits tend to stabilise across younger adulthood, reach peak stability in middle age (i.e., late 40’s and early 50’s), and systematically destabilise thereafter. The findings of Study 3 indicated remarkable consistency in personality traits associated with a major natural disaster (namely, the 2010/2011 Earthquakes in Canterbury, New Zealand). The only meanlevel change from before to after the earthquakes was a small decrease in Emotional Stability (or an increase in Neuroticism) among those affected by the event. Finally, Study 4 investigated normative patterns of mean level change in personality traits and identified distinct developmental trajectories for the different traits with changes occurring across the entire adult life span. Collectively, these studies paint an interesting picture of both stability and change in personality traits, highlighting the need for an integrated perspective on personality development – one that incorporates both the intrinsic stability of the construct and early development, as well the continuing process of change.

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  • A Novel Click Chemistry-Based Method to Detect Hypoxic Tumour Cells and Characterise Their Gene Expression

    Hou, Alec (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Tumour hypoxia results in aggressive tumours with increased metastatic potential and resistance to therapy. Information is limited on cellular responses to hypoxia in the tumour microenvironment primarily due to lack of suitable research tools. After hypoxia-dependent metabolism and entrapment of adducts in hypoxic cells, the ‘clickable’ 2- nitromidazole hypoxia marker (SN33267) bearing a terminal alkyne group can be derivatised via copper(I)-catalysed alkyne-azide cycloaddition (CuAAC) with azides. Labelling of hypoxic cells with fluorophore azides, after exposure to SN33267, was optimised in vitro by simultaneously improving hypoxia-selectivity and preserving the integrity of cellular RNA. With the optimised protocol, the CuAAC-based method was able to separate pre-mixed aerobic (20% O2) and hypoxic (0% O2) cells (2-h exposure with 100 μM SN33267) by fluorescenceactivated cell sorting (FACS) according to the cellular fluorescence intensity in every human cancer line tested (N=4) without prior cell fixation and permeabilisation. The RNA extracted from FACS-sorted fractions was of sufficient quality (RIN>6) for measurement of gene expression. The method was independently validated by evaluating transcript abundance (qPCR) of 15 clinicallyvalidated hypoxia marker genes. Mice bearing subcutaneous human tumour xenografts were administered SN33267 (60 mg/kg; intraperitoneal) and excised 2 h later. Dissociated tumour cells were fluorescently labelled via the CuAAC-based approach and sorted by FACS into four fractions. The transcript expression of 15 hypoxia marker genes was sequentially increased with increasing fluorescence intensity of the four FACS-sorted cell populations. This was mirrored by protein expression of one of the genes (BNIP3). The expression of 10 oxidoreductases involved in the activation of hypoxia-activated anticancer prodrugs was assessed in the same fractions. In FaDu xenografts, TXNRD1 was the only oxidoreductase gene with upregulated transcription (P<0.05) in response to elevated hypoxic stress. In SiHa xenografts, the reductase genes were only moderately upregulated (up to 2-fold) in the fractions of intermediate hypoxia and the most hypoxic fraction showed no change in gene expression relative to the least hypoxic fraction, as did protein expression of the key reductase gene POR. This novel CuAAC-based method is much faster and more versatile than the established antibodybased hypoxic cell detection techniques and provides at least the same sensitivity. The new method was validated independently using a hypoxia gene signature. It provides a powerful and user-friendly tool for pre-clinical study of the hypoxia-mediated effects in the tumour microenvironment by gene and/or corresponding protein expression in tumours in situ.

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  • Landscape connectivity and sediment flux within the upper Yellow River basin

    Nicoll, Tami (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    The degree of landscape connectivity has wide-ranging implications for sediment availability, frequency of transport, and the nature of sediment storage within a basin. Looking at the system as a whole, and identifying the connections that facilitate or impede sediment movement within a catchment is central to these applications. This thesis examines landscape connectivity within the highly diverse landscapes of the upper Yellow River (UYR) basin at a broad scale, with detailed focus on a smaller tributary that lies in the incised basin fill deposits of the Guide basin close to the margin of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP), the Garang subcatchment. Uplift of the QTP has resulted in a high-altitude landscape with a cold, semi-arid continental climate within the upper Yellow River. The region is characterized by several wide, low-relief basins separated by the two major mountain ranges (up to 2 km in relief) that run through the region, with tectonic deformation enduring within a series of strike-slip fault complexes. The thesis results are presented as a series of three papers. Findings are brought together in a discussion chapter. The first paper focuses on the pronounced variability in the landscapes of the upper Yellow River basin. The classification presented in this paper provides an effective organizational framework to describe the landscape diversity. Stark contrasts in landform assemblages and associated process relationships are evident across three very different terrains, reflecting the complex inter-relationships between tectonics, climate and surficial processes over time. A broad, low-relief, and highly disconnected upper plateau area at the headwaters of the UYR represents a relict peneplain that may have formed prior to regional uplift. The ranges of the Anyemaqen Shan in the central basin form a high-relief and highly connected landscape. Finally, the incisional story of the UYR dominates within the lower portion of the study area, where low-relief basin fills have been highly incised as a result of headward erosion of the Yellow River as drainage was established through the area. The second and third papers present a detailed examination of the landscape connectivity and sediment dynamics within the Garang study catchment. The second paper applies two methodological approaches for assessing landscape connectivity, a GIS-based geomorphometric index and a methodology linking interpretation of satellite imagery and field mapping of sediment storage to slope threshold analysis. Landscapes of the Garang catchment are differentiated into three geomorphic zones characterized by distinct landscape configuration and dominant geomorphic processes: i) a highly disconnected upper catchment of low-relief with large inactive sediment stores; ii) a transitional zone where present landscape dynamics are controlled in large part by past incisional processes in the form of large alluvial fan/terrace deposits; and iii) a highly connected and highly dissected landscape within the lower catchment that has little accommodation space for sediment storage. The findings from this paper emphasize the need for field-based observations that are capable of differentiating between landforms and activity levels of sediment stores, as well as providing inference on geomorphic process, that may not be evident with the use of cell-based morphometrics. The final paper expands upon these findings and presents an overview of sediment distribution and volume within the highly incised Garang catchment, combining field and GIS-based analyses. The magnitude and pattern of sediment storage is shown to be highly disparate between three distinct geomorphic zones of the Garang catchment. Findings of the study also reveal a somewhat unconventional pattern of sediment storage, whereby sediment storage is greater within the headwaters and decreases with distance downstream, adding to the range of landscape settings in which catchment-scale patterns of sediment storage have been assessed. The study also provides insight into the influence of long-term landscape evolution within the area, and how the response to lowering of the base level through Yellow River incision has impacted landscape connectivity and associated patterns of sediment storage and reworking within the catchment. Findings from both studies highlight the importance of field-informed appraisals of landscape dynamics, site-specific characteristics and the significance that basin-scale history can have on determining contemporary sediment dynamics. Issues associated with scales of analysis and the importance of localized influences are a key theme within the thesis. The final discussion chapter contextualizes findings of the thesis, focusing primarily on scale relations between landforms, geomorphic compartments (zones) and the subcatchment-scale analysis, and prospects to meaningfully up-scale these understandings to the UYR as a whole, linking analyses at the subcatchment scale to considerations of how we approach connectivity analyses across differing scales and contexts. Limitations and implications of the study are outlined.

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  • “Kōkiritia i roto i te kotahitanga”: A Process Evaluation of a Wraparound Programme at Te Whānau o Waipareira Trust

    Tamihere, Christina (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    In New Zealand, youth offending has become a significant problem; a problem that has led to the promotion and development of programmes which aim to prevent and reduce youth crime. The Wraparound model of care is one that aims to address this issue. It is a relatively new concept in New Zealand, one that has very promising outcomes but has not yet been given the opportunity to show its full potential. This thesis presents the findings of a process evaluation of Te Whanau O Waipareira Trust’s Wraparound Service (WWS). The evaluation aimed to describe the programme with a focus on cultural variables, identify strengths and weaknesses and to make recommendations for the improvement of the delivery of the service. This project utilised qualitative methods, including interviews, field observations and a review of programme documentation. A total of 23 people participated in this project, including 9 rangatahi, 4 whānau, 2 internal stakeholders, 3 external stakeholders and 5 kaimahi. The project ran over a period of approximately 18 months and was based at Te Whānau o Waipareira Trust. Results indicated (a) a high level of satisfaction by rangatahi; (b) engagement in the WWS was facilitated by collaborating and communicating with whānau, the quality of the rangatahi-kaimahi relationship and the provision of attractive resources, (c) strong emotional connection in being able to identify with a Māori service, (d) a high quality of staffing, (e) a high-level of tikanga incorporated into the service, (f) an issue of infidelity as established by the National Wraparound Initiative and (g) the importance of strong organizational structure, process, leadership and support for staff. The results are discussed in terms of programme recommendations for the improvement of the Wraparound service. This study will make a unique contribution to the successful implementation of Wraparound services in the Aotearoa context, which in the past has been largely overlooked and under researched. It will have further implications on the factors involved in engaging Rangatahi and Whānau Māori in social services and may also provide a framework of comparison for the development of Whānau Ora in Aotearoa.

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  • Functional significance of external trap morphology in aquatic Utricularia

    Gardiner, Corin (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Utricularia is a genus of carnivorous plants with mechanically activated suction traps. Species are largely generalist, opportunistic predators with very plastic vegetative growth. They variously occupy terrestrial, aquatic and epiphytic habitats and can respond to changes in their environment by altering their investment in carnivory. Their traps are adorned with external appendages, the morphology of which varies greatly among species, carrying both phylogenetic and growth-habit specific signals. While this morphological variation is well documented, little is known about its functional significance. One hypothesis with limited support is that the appendage morphology of aquatic species is under selection for prey attraction. Previous work has shown that appendages of one aquatic clade, antennae and bristles, enhance the capture of one microcrustacean species. There has also been very little work done to quantify the plasticity of aquatic appendage expression, either among conspecifics or in response to environmental variation. Additionally, while studies have examined the effects of biotic and abiotic environmental variation on the growth and investment in carnivory of aquatic Utricularia, the effect of prey-derived mineral nutrition on plant growth has remained confounded with that of ambient nutrition. In this thesis I revisit the prey-capture enhancement hypothesis and look for plasticity in the appendage expression of aquatic Utricularia. Firstly, I conduct appendage ablation experiments on two aquatic Utricularia species with different growth habits, U. australis and U. gibba, to test the aquatic-appendage prey-capture hypothesis with a range of ubiquitous prey animals that exhibit differing feeding and locomotory behaviours. Aquatic appendages only enhance the trapping of prey taxa with specific feeding behaviour. Secondly, I conduct a growth experiment which produces the first experimental evidence of appendage expression changing in response to environmental variation, and demonstrate persistent differences in appendage expression between clones of the same species. Finally, with a second growth experiment, I examine the relative contributions of ambient and prey-derived nutrition to growth and investment in carnivory of U. australis. Prey capture plays a larger role in enhancing plant growth than ambient nutrition. I found little support for the aquatic prey-capture hypothesis. The capture rates of three ubiquitous prey taxa are unaffected by the presence of appendages. The degree of persistent appendage variation in between tested individuals is slight and therefore may not be functionally significant. Antennae and bristle expression is affected by environment but responses are not consistent with being an investment in carnivory.

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  • International experience and cultural intelligence: The role of study abroad

    Ott, Dana (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    I investigate the relationship between international experience and the development of Cultural Intelligence (CQ) by applying a Social Learning Theory (SLT) lens to examine how the level of immersion of different study abroad program components impact CQ. I separate the components that constitute a study abroad program, and examine differences in CQ between their levels of immersion. The results provide evidence that CQ varies across different study abroad program components as well as between the levels of immersion of the components. In particular, the findings suggest that the level of immersion of the language of instruction used in course-work and the opportunities provided for reflection on the cultural experience program components impact participants’ CQ. Furthermore, based on the results, I conclude that the relationship between international experience and CQ may not be linear with respect to exposure to the host-country language, and that when utilizing international experience for skills development it is necessary to provide multiple information sessions about culture and opportunities for individuals to reflect on the experience. The knowledge generated from my thesis provides new insights about the relationship between international experience and CQ, how the construct of international experience is measured, and potential explanations for the results of previous studies. Proof of variance in CQ dependent on how immersive a study abroad program component is has theoretical implications for future investigations that utilize the international experience construct. Additionally, it provides practical recommendations for International Business (IB) education, when designing study abroad programs, and for International Human Resource Management (IHRM), when selecting future expatriates.

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