1,755 results for Use commercially

  • The International Journal of Wellbeing: An open access success story

    Weijers, Dan M.; Jarden, Aaron (2017)

    Book item
    University of Waikato

    Academics have long had the advantage of access to university libraries and their expensive subscriptions to scholarly journals. Critics of traditional journal publishing have complained that placing science and scholarship behind a paywall limits its potential. One solution to this problem is the emergence of open access journals. In this chapter, authors Weijers and Jarden offer a case study of a platinum open access journal they founded: the International Journal of Wellbeing. In their discussion of this new journal they offer both philosophical and practical insights that guide their work. They also point to often overlooked issues regarding open scholarship. One of these is the huge numbers of unaffiliated faculty or faculty from non-Western universities, all of whom suffer barriers to access to expensive journals. The authors look to increasing openness of journals to solve this and other problems.

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  • Urban Tree Diversity - Taking stock and looking ahead

    Morgenroth, J.; Östberg, J.; Konijnendijk van den Bosch, C.; Nielsen, A.B.; Hauer, R.; Sjöman, H.; Chen, W.Y.; Jansson, M. (2016)

    Journal article
    University of Canterbury Library

    The first International Conference on Urban Tree Diversity hosted in June 2014 by the Swedish University of Agricultural Science in Alnarp, Sweden highlighted the need for a better understanding of the current state of urban tree diversity. Here we present and discuss a selection of urban tree diversity themes with the intention of developing and sharing knowledge in a research area that is gaining momentum. We begin by discussing the specific role of species diversity in ecosystem service provision and ecosystem stability. This is followed by exploring the urban conditions that affect species richness. Having determined that many ecosystem services depend on urban tree species diversity and that urban environments are capable of supporting high species diversity, we conclude by addressing how to govern for urban tree diversity.

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  • Fostering incidental vocabulary uptake from audio-visual materials: The role of text comprehension

    Nguyễn, Chí Đức (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This research project explores various factors that may influence the rate of incidental foreign/second language (L2) vocabulary acquisition from audio-visual materials, with a special focus on procedures that enhance learners’ comprehension of these input materials. Informed by relevant theories and research findings in the fields of L2 listening comprehension and incidental vocabulary acquisition, I investigate the effects of having learners (a) view a TED Talks video twice rather than once, (b) sum up the content of the video before watching it a second time, (c) watch TED Talks videos on the same subject in order to increase familiarity with that subject, and (d) exchange summaries of TED Talks videos with peers so as to assist each other’s subsequent processing of those videos. As these interventions are all deemed to facilitate L2 listening comprehension, they are also expected to create favourable conditions for incidental vocabulary uptake to occur. The effects on incidental vocabulary acquisition of the above interventions were gauged in a series of classroom experiments with Vietnamese EFL learners. Although vocabulary uptake was generally far from spectacular, all of the tested procedures were found to result in statistically significant vocabulary gains. The insertion of the output tasks (i.e., the summary activities) was particularly useful. First, they helped to enhance the learners’ text comprehension. Second, they created opportunities for the learners to use newly met words and thus consolidate their knowledge of these lexical items. A thread through the experimental data is the strong association between the learners’ vocabulary uptake and their comprehension of the input content. The findings from this research project are consistent with several established notions, models and theories in the fields, including Ausubel’s Advance Organizer (1978), Hulstijn and Laufer’s Involvement Load Hypothesis (2001), Krashen’s Input Hypothesis (1985), Nation’s Vocabulary Generation (2013), Swain’s Output Hypothesis (2005), and Wittrock’s Model of Generative Teaching of Comprehension (1991). However, there are also findings that go beyond the core tenets of these, and that can further our understanding of how learners process new lexical items in meaning-focused input and output tasks. Regarding pedagogical implications, this research project confirms that fostering L2 listening comprehension creates favourable conditions for incidental vocabulary acquisition to happen, and that the aforementioned classroom procedures are facilitative in this regard, albeit to different degrees.

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  • Considerations on the effect of solutal on the grain size of castings from superheated melts

    Bolzoni, Leandro; Babu, Nadendla Hari (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    The amount of solutal present in an alloy affects the grain size of the cast metal as solute is rejected at the solidification front. This is normally quantified using the so called growth restriction factor Q. This work presents some considerations about the effect of solutal on the final cast structure with a focus on the nature of the alloy system, the effect of non-equilibrium solidification conditions and the effect of superheating of the molten metal.

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  • Urban Rural Differences in Breast Cancer in New Zealand

    Lawrenson, Ross; Lao, Chunhuan; Elwood, Mark; Brown, Charis; Sarfati, Diana; Campbell, Ian (2016)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Many rural communities have poor access to health services due to a combination of distance from specialist services and a relative shortage of general practitioners. Our aims were to compare the characteristics of urban and rural women with breast cancer in New Zealand, to assess breast cancer-specific and all-cause survival using the Kaplan–Meier method and Cox proportional hazards model, and to assess whether the impact of rurality is different for Māori and New Zealand (NZ) European women. We found that rural women tended to be older and were more likely to be Māori. Overall there were no differences between urban and rural women with regards their survival. Rural Māori tended to be older, more likely to be diagnosed with metastatic disease and less likely to be screen detected than urban Māori. Rural Māori women had inferior breast cancer-specific survival and all-cause survival at 10 years at 72.1% and 55.8% compared to 77.9% and 64.9% for urban Māori. The study shows that rather than being concerned that more needs to be done for rural women in general it is rural Māori women where we need to make extra efforts to ensure early stage at diagnosis and optimum treatment.

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  • Leading different dimensions of organization performance through human resource management practices

    Mansouri, N.; Goher, Khaled

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    The primary purpose of this research work is to find out how human resource management practices including training, staffing, performance appraisal, participation, and reward system can affect the performance of Malaysian Information and Communication Technology (ICT) companies. Company’s performance is identified in this work in terms of innovation, learning and growth, and internal process. The results of analysis of 223 gathered data showed that human resource management practices have significant and positive impact on innovation, learning and growth, and internal process. In addition, this study showed that performance components can affect each other significantly and positively. In this research work, the data is collected through questionnaire and analyzed by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software. Moreover, the respondents of this research work are the employees of small and medium size ICT companies located in Cyberjaya, Malaysia.

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  • Walking aids for older adults: review of end-user needs

    Mansouri, N.; Goher, Khaled

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Aged population of senior citizens is growing noticeably at different regions in the world. Consequently, there are great numbers of demands for healthcare services. One of the services is assistive walking devices which have important role in mobility, stability, walking, and independency of older adults. Although various type of walking devices are available for older adults, yet fall incidents with severe injuries take place. Therefore, it is critical to analyze fall incidents, find out fall factors, and assess walking devices to minimize fall. This paper mainly focuses on risk factors of fall, considerable role of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in walking devices, and also analyzes fall incidents with the purpose of understanding how fall incidents take place. This paper assists to have a clear understanding about fall incidents and its associated injuries.

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  • Towards ethical framework for personal care robots: review and reflection

    Mansouri, N.; Goher, Khaled

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    In recent decades, robots have been used noticeably at various industries. Autonomous robots have been embedded in human lives especially in elderly and disabled lives. Elderly population is growing worldwide significantly; therefore there is an increased need of personal care robots to enhance mobility and to promote independence. A great number of aging and disabled hold appeals for using robots in daily routine tasks as well as for various healthcare matters. It is essential to follow a proper framework in ethics of robot design to fulfill individual needs, whilst considering potential harmful effects of robots. This paper primarily focuses on the existing issues in robot ethics including general ethics theories and ethics frameworks for robots. Consequentialism ethics will be recommended to be applied in robot ethics frameworks.

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  • A systems approach for determining gene expression from experimental observation of compound presence and absence

    Clark, Sangaalofa; Verwoerd, Wynand S.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Different genes are expressed in different tissues, depending on functional objectives and selection pressures. Based on complete knowledge of the structure of the metabolic network and all the reactions taking place in the cell, elementary modes (EMs) and minimal cut sets (MCSs) can relate compounds observed in a tissue, to the genes being expressed by respectively providing the full set of non-decomposable routes of reactions and compounds that lead to the synthesis of external products, and the full set of possible target genes for blocking the synthesis of external products. So, for a particular tissue, only the EMs containing the reactions that are related to the genes being expressed in those tissues, are active for the production of the corresponding compounds. This concept is used to develop an algorithm for determining a matrix of reactions (which can be related to corresponding genes) taking place in a tissue, using experimental observations of compounds in a tissue. The program is applied to the Arabidopsis flower and identified 20 core reactions occurring in all the viable EMs. They originate from the trans-cinnamate compound and lead to the formation of kaempferol and quercetin compounds and their derivatives, as well as anthocyanin compounds. Analyses of the patterns in the matrix identify reaction sets related to certain functions such as the formation of derivatives of the two anthocyanin compounds present, as well as the reactions leading from the network’s external substrate erythrose-4P to L-Phenyla- lanine, cinnamyl-alc to trans-cinnamate and so on. The program can be used to successfully determine genes taking place in a tissue, and the patterns in the resulting matrix can be analysed to determine gene sets and the state of the tissue.

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  • Low input weed management in field peas

    Munakamwe, Z.; McKenzie, Bruce A.; Hill, G. D.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Two trials were conducted on a Templeton silt loam soil at Lincoln University, New Zealand (43 ° 38' S, 172 ° 28' E.) in 2007/08. The aim was to compare the competitive ability of different pea canopy architectures as influenced by genotype, population, sowing date and their interaction as a means of low input weed control strategy. The first experiment had three sowing dates, two pea genotypes and two herbicide treatments. Experiment 2 treatments were a factorial combination of four pea populations and three sown artificial weed populations. A significant sowing date x pea genotype interaction showed that in the August sowing genotype had no effect on seed yield. However, in September sown plots Pro 7035 yielded 559 g m⁻², which was 40% more than Midichi, and in the October sowing, the difference was 87% more. Herbicide-sprayed peas produced 19% more seed (508 g m⁻²) than the unsprayed plants. When no weeds were sown, the highest pea total dry matter (TDM) of 1,129 g m⁻² occurred at 200 plants m⁻². This was more than twice (513 g m⁻²) the yield of the lowest population (50 plants m⁻²). There was distinct variation in the weed spectrum over time. Coronopus didymus, Stellaria media and Lolium spp were present in relatively large numbers throughout the season. Some weeds only occurred late in the season meaning they could be successfully controlled by early sowing. It could be concluded that it is possible to obtain high pea yields by using the right sowing date and appropriate seed rate as a means of low input weed management strategy.

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  • Evolution of specialization of Cassida rubiginosa on Cirsium arvense (Compositae, Cardueae)

    Cripps, M. G.; Jackman, S. D.; Roquet, C.; van Koten, C.; Rostas, Michael; Bourdôt, G. W.; Susanna, A.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    The majority of herbivorous insects are specialized feeders restricted to a plant family, genus, or species. The evolution of specialized insect–plant interactions is generally considered to be a result of trade-offs in fitness between possible hosts. Through the course of natural selection, host plants that maximize insect fitness should result in optimal, specialized, insect–plant associations. However, the extent to which insects are tracking plant phylogeny or key plant traits that act as herbivore resistance or acceptance characters is uncertain. Thus, with regard to the evolution of host plant specialization, we tested if insect performance is explained by phylogenetic relatedness of potential host plants, or key plant traits that are not phylogenetically related. We tested the survival (naive first instar to adult) of the oligophagous leaf-feeding beetle, Cassida rubiginosa, on 16 selected representatives of the Cardueae tribe (thistles and knapweeds), including some of the worst weeds in temperate grasslands of the world in terms of the economic impacts caused by lost productivity. Leaf traits (specific leaf area, leaf pubescence, flavonoid concentration, carbon and nitrogen content) were measured as explanatory variables and tested in relation to survival of the beetle, and the phylogenetic signal of the traits were examined. The survival of C. rubiginosa decreased with increasing phylogenetic distance from the known primary host plant, C. arvense, suggesting that specialization is a conserved character, and that insect host range, to a large degree is constrained by evolutionary history. The only trait measured that clearly offered some explanatory value for the survival of C. rubiginosa was specific leaf area. This trait was not phylogenetically dependant, and when combined with phylogenetic distance from C. arvense gave the best model explaining C. rubiginosa survival. We conclude that the specialization of the beetle is explained by a combination of adaptation to an optimal host plant over evolutionary time, and key plant traits such as specific leaf area that can restrict or broaden host utilization within the Cardueae lineage. The phylogenetic pattern of C. rubiginosa fitness will aid in predicting the ability of this biocontrol agent to control multiple Cardueae weeds.

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  • Assistive technology for relieving communication lumber between hearing/speech impaired and hearing people

    Akmeliawati, R.; Bailey, D.; Demidenko, S.; Gamage, N.; Khan, S.; Kuang, Y. C.; Ooi, Melanie; Gupta, G. S. (2017-05-10T05:40:10Z)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    This study proposes an automatic sign language translator, which is developed as assistive technology to help the hearing/speech impaired communities to communicate with the rest of the world. The system architecture, which includes feature extraction and recognition stages is described in detail. The signs are classified into two types: static and dynamic. Various types of sign features are presented and analysed. Recognition stage considers the hidden Markov model and segmentation signature. Real-time implementation of the system with the use of Windows7 and LINUX Fedora 16 operating systems with VMware workstation is presented in detail. The system has been successfully tested on Malaysian sign language.

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  • Efficient analytical moments for the robustness analysis in design optimisation

    Rajan, A.; Ooi, Melanie; Kuang, Y. C.; Demidenko, S. (2017-05-10T05:40:07Z)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    System uncertainties play a vital role in the robustness (or sensitivity) analysis of system designs. In an iterative procedure such as design optimisation, the robustness analysis that is simultaneously accurate and computationally efficient is essential. Accordingly, the current state-of-the-art techniques such as univariate dimension reduction method (DRM) and performance moment integration (PMI) approach have been developed. They are commonly used to express the sensitivity while utilising the statistical moments of a performance function in an advanced design optimisation paradigm known as the reliability-based robust design optimisation (RBRDO). However, the accuracy and computational efficiency scalability for increasing the problem dimension (i.e. the number of input variables) have not been tested. This study examines the scalability of the above-mentioned pioneering techniques. Additionally, it also introduces a novel analytical method that symbolically calculates the sensitivity of the performance function prior to the iterative optimisation procedure. As a result, it shows a better computational cost scalability when tested on performance functions with increased dimensionality. Most importantly, when applied to real-world RBRDO problems such as the vehicle side impact crashworthiness, the proposed technique is three times faster than the mainstream method while yielding a high quality and safe vehicle design

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  • I didn’t know what I didn’t know – Postgraduate science students as new library users

    White, BD; Rainier, BA

    Conference paper
    Massey University

    While considerable effort goes into equipping undergraduate students in science, technology, engineering and medicine with knowledge discovery skills and an understanding of the scientific literature, many of them complete their first degrees with a relatively basic level of competence. Undergraduate science education demands an intensive development of subject knowledge and technical skills with less emphasis on the primary literature, and unless an information literacy element is expressly built into science programmes undergraduate students are not routinely required to make use of library resources (Bogucka & Wood, 2009; Wiegant, Scager, & Boonstra, 2011). Postgraduate study, particularly at masters and doctoral level, places quite a different level of demand on students, and even to formulate a research question requires an extensive knowledge of the existing literature. The first part of the thesis journey is the literature review which provides a theoretical and methodological grounding of the whole project, but students often arrive at postgraduate study poorly equipped to perform this task (Hoffmann, Antwi-Nsiah, Feng, & Stanley, 2008; Miller, 2014). Those skills that they have acquired tend to be based around Google and Google Scholar (Wu & Chen, 2014) which provide a good result for relatively little effort, but which lack the functionality to fully support a literature review at this level (Johnson & Simonsen, 2015). Increasing internationalisation of postgraduate education is another factor impacting on this situation, although it would be wrong to assume that English-speaking students or those from “developed countries” possess the appropriate skills for an advanced degree literature review.

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  • Determination of maximal oxygen uptake using the Bruce or a novel athlete-led protocol in a mixed population

    Hamlin, Michael J.; Draper, N.; Blackwell, G.; Shearman, J. P.; Kimber, Nicholas E.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Treadmill tests for maximal oxygen uptake (V O2max) have traditionally used set speed and incline increments regardless of participants training or exercise background. The aim of this study was to determine the validity of a novel athlete-led protocol for determining maximal aerobic fitness in adults. Twenty-nine participants (21 male, 8 female, age 29.8 ± 9.5 y, BMI 24.4 ± 3.1, mean ± SD) from a variety of exercise backgrounds were asked to complete two maximal treadmill running tests (using the standard Bruce or a novel athlete-led protocol [ALP]) to volitional failure in a counter-balanced randomised cross-over trial one week apart. We found no substantial difference in maximal oxygen uptake (47.0 ± 9.1 and 46.8 ± 10.7 ml.kg-1.min-1, mean ± SD for the ALP and Bruce protocols respectively), evidenced by the Spearman correlation coefficient of 0.93 (90% confidence limits, 0.88-0.96). However, compared to the Bruce protocol, participants completing the ALP protocol attained a substantially higher maximal heart rate (ALP = 182.8 ±10.5, Bruce = 179.7 ± 8.7 beats.min-1). Additionally, using the Bruce protocol took a longer period of time (23.2 ± 17.0s) compared to the ALP protocol. It seems that using either treadmill protocol will give you similar maximal oxygen uptake results. We suggest the ALP protocol which is simpler, quicker and probably better at achieving maximal heart rates is a useful alternative to the traditional Bruce protocol.

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  • ICTs in climate change communication in the Pacific Islands

    Harris, U.; Papoutsaki, Evangelia; Kailahi, S. (2017-05-10T05:39:41Z)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    Community participation is essential to effectively address communities’ needs in relation to climate change. Conventional media forms that are easily accessible in the Pacfic Islands region, including digital media, require strategic integration of both message creation and dissemination with stakeholder inclusion. This article argues that use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) not only enables information dissemination, but also invites local participation in communicative processes. Greater citizen engagement in content creation improves community understanding of the issues around climate change by including local perspectives, cultural knowledge, and concerns specific to the area. Recording, sharing, and discussing these changes in community settings will inform new thinking, with the potential to change perceptions and attitudes toward this urgent problem.

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  • Relational accountability in indigenizing visual research for participatory communication

    Thomas, V.; Eggins, J.; Papoutsaki, Evangelia (2017-05-10T05:39:30Z)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    This article argues that an indigenous approach to communication research allows us to re-think academic approaches of engaging in and evaluating participatory communication research. It takes as its case study the Komuniti Tok Piksa project undertaken in the Highlands of Papua New Guinea. The project explores ways in which visual methods when paired with a community action approach embedded within an indigenous framework can be used to facilitate social change through meaningful participation. It involves communities to narrate their experiences in regard to HIV and AIDS and assists them in designing and recording their own messages. Local researchers are trained in using visual tools to facilitate this engagement with the communities.

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  • The community-conservation conundrum : is citizen science the answer?

    Galbraith, Mel; Bollard-Breen, B.; Towns, D. R. (2017-05-10T05:39:32Z)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    Public participation theory assumes that empowering communities leads to enduring support for new initiatives. The New Zealand Biodiversity Strategy, approved in 2000, embraces this assumption and includes goals for community involvement in resolving threats to native flora and fauna. Over the last 20 years, community-based ecological restoration groups have proliferated, with between 600 and 4000 identified. Many of these groups control invasive mammals, and often include protection of native species and species reintroductions as goals. Such activities involve the groups in “wicked” problems with uncertain biological and social outcomes, plus technical challenges for implementing and measuring results. The solution might be to develop a citizen science approach, although this requires institutional support. We conducted a web-based audit of 50 community groups participating in ecological restoration projects in northern New Zealand. We found great variation in the quality of information provided by the groups, with none identifying strategic milestones and progress towards them. We concluded that, at best, many group members are accidental scientists rather than citizen scientists. Furthermore, the way community efforts are reflected in biodiversity responses is often unclear. The situation may be improved with a new approach to data gathering, training, and analyses.

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  • University of Otago Open Access Publishing Survey Results (including Maori ethnicity results)

    White, Richard; Remy, Melanie (2017-05-24)

    Report
    University of Otago

    Abstract: Researchers at the University of Otago are ambivalent about Open Access: in principle they strongly support open access to research literature but their behaviours are driven by the practicalities of cost and publication venue. This document reports the results of a survey carried out in 2015 of University of Otago researchers as to their attitudes towards and behaviours in relation to open access publishing. This version of the report includes a sub-analysis of respondents who selected Maori ethnicity. The original version of the report without this sub-analysis is available via OUR Archive at http://hdl.handle.net/10523/6947 The project page for more information, such as the questions used and the anonymised raw data, is available at https://figshare.com/projects/University_of_Otago_Open_Access_Publishing_Survey_2015-16/17216

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  • Are Ultrasound Features at the First Metatarsophalangeal Joint Associated With Clinically-assessed Pain and Function? A Study of People With Gout, Asymptomatic Hyperuricaemia and Normouricaemia

    Stewart, S; Dalbeth, N; Vandal, AV; Allen, B; Miranda, R; Rome, K

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Background: The first metatatarsophalangeal joint (1st MTP joint) is a common location for sonographic evidence of urate deposition in people with gout and asymptomatic hyperuricaemia. However, it is unclear whether these are related to clinically-assessed pain and function. This study aimed to determine the association between ultrasound features and clinical characteristics of the 1st MTP joint in people with gout, asymptomatic hyperuricaemia and age- and sex-matched normouricaemic individuals. Methods: Twenty-three people with gout, 29 with asymptomatic hyperuricaemia and 34 with normouricaemia participated in a cross-sectional study. No participant had clinical evidence of acute inflammatory arthritis at the time of assessment. Four sonographic features at the 1st MTP joint were analysed: double contour sign, tophus, bone erosion and synovitis. Clinical characteristics included in the analysis were 1st MTP joint pain, overall foot pain and disability, 1st MTP joint temperature, 1st MTP joint range of motion and gait velocity. Statistical analyses adjusted for the diagnostic group of the participant. Results: After accounting for the diagnostic group, double contour sign was associated with higher foot pain and disability scores (P < 0.001). Ultrasound tophus was associated with higher foot pain and disability scores (P < 0.001), increased temperature (P = 0.005), and reduced walking velocity (P = 0.001). No associations were observed between ultrasound synovitis or erosion and the clinical characteristics. Conclusions: Ultrasound features of urate crystal deposition, rather than soft tissue inflammation or bone erosion, are associated with clinical measures of foot-related functional impairment and disability even in the absence of clinical evidence of current acute inflammatory arthritis. This association persisted regardless of the diagnosis of the participant as having gout or asymptomatic hyperuricaemia.

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