1,680 results for Use commercially

  • Symptoms and causes of poverty in a rural Vietnamese commune: does ethnicity matter?

    Le, V.; Lyne, Michael; Ratna, Nazmun N.; Nuthall, Peter L.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    © 2014, Kassel University Press GmbH. All rights reserved. This study uses data from a sample survey of 200 households drawn from a mountainous commune in Vietnam’s North Central Coast region to measure and explain relative poverty. Principal components analysis is used to construct a multidimensional index of poverty outcomes from variables measuring household income and the value of domestic assets. This index of poverty is then regressed on likely causes of poverty including different forms of resource endowment and social exclusion defined by gender and ethnicity. The ordinary least squares estimates indicate that poverty is indeed influenced by ethnicity, partly through its interaction with social capital. However, poverty is most strongly affected by differences in human and social capital. Differences in the amount of livestock and high quality farmland owned also matter. Thai households are poorer than their Kinh counterparts even when endowed with the same levels of human, social, physical and natural capital considered in the study. This empirical result provides a rationale for further research on the causal relationship between ethnicity and poverty outcomes.

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  • Correction: First demonstration of antigen induced cytokine expression by CD4-1⁺ lymphocytes in a poikilotherm: Studies in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    Yoon, Sohye; Mitra, Suman; Wyse, Cathy; Alnabulsi, Ayham; Zou, Jun; Weerdenburg, Eveline M.; van der Sar, Astrud M.; Wang, Difei; Secombes, Christopher J.; Bird, Steve (2016)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Correction of the article "First demonstration of antigen induced cytokine expression by CD4-1⁺ lymphocytes in a poikilotherm: Studies in zebrafish (Danio rerio)", https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0169149

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  • Effect of Mouth Rinsing and Ingestion of Carbohydrate Solutions on Mood and Perceptual Responses During Exercise

    Ali, A; Moss, C; Yoo, MJY; Wilkinson, A; Breier, BH

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate whether mouth rinsing or ingesting carbohydrate (CHO) solutions impact on perceptual responses during exercise. Methods: Nine moderately trained male cyclists underwent a 90-min glycogen-reducing exercise, and consumed a low CHO meal, prior to completing an overnight fast. A 1-h cycle time trial was performed the following morning. Four trials, each separated by 7days, were conducted in a randomized, counterbalanced study design: 15% CHO mouth rinse (CHOR), 7.5% CHO ingestion (CHOI), placebo mouth rinse (PLAR) and placebo ingestion (PLAI). Solution volumes (1.5ml·g-1 ingestion trials and 0.33ml·kg-1 rinsing trials) were provided after every 12.5% of completed exercise. Perceptual scales were used to assess affective valence (feeling scale, FS), arousal (felt arousal scale, FAS), exertion (ratings of perceived exertion, RPE) and mood (profile of mood states, POMS) before, during and immediately after exercise. Results: There was no difference in RPE (CHOI, 14.0±9; CHOR, 14.2±.7; PLAI, 14.6±1.8; PLAR, 14.6±2.0; P=0.35), FS (CHOI, 0.0±1.7; CHOR, -0.2±1.5; PLAI, -0.8±1.4; PLAR, -0.8±1.6; P0.15), or FAS (CHOI, 3.6±1.1; CHOR, 3.5±1.0; PLAI, 3.4±1.4; PLAR, 3.3±1.3; P=725) scores between trials. While overall POMS score did not appear to differ between trials, the 'vigour' subscale indicated that CHOI may facilitate the maintenance of 'vigour' scores over time, in comparison to the steady decline witnessed in other trials (P=0.04). There was no difference in time trial performance between trials (CHOI, 65.3±4.8min; CHOR, 68.4±3.9min; PLAI, 68.7±5.3min; PLAR, 68.3±5.2min; P=0.21) but power output was higher in CHOI (231.0±33.2 W) relative to other trials (221-223.6 W; Plt0.01). Conclusions: In a CHO-reduced state, mouth rinsing with a CHO solution did not impact on perceptual responses during high-intensity exercise in trained cyclists and triathletes. On the other hand CHO ingestion improved perceived ratings of vigour and increased power output during exercise.

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  • Carbohydrate Mouth Rinsing Has No Effect on Power Output During Cycling in a Glycogen-reduced State

    Ali, A; Yoo, M; Moss, C; Breier, B

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Background: The effect of mouth rinsing with a carbohydrate (CHO) solution on exercise performance is inconclusive with no benefits observed in the fed state. This study examined the effect of CHO mouth rinse or CHO ingestion on performance in 9 moderately trained male cyclists. Methods: Four trials were undertaken, separated by 7 days, in a randomized, counterbalanced design. Each trial included a 90-min glycogen-reducing exercise protocol, immediately followed by a low CHO meal and subsequent overnight fast; the following morning a 1-h cycling time trial was conducted. The trials included 15 % CHO mouth rinse (CHOR), 7.5 % CHO ingestion (CHOI), placebo mouth rinse and placebo ingestion. Solutions were provided after every 12.5 % of completed exercise: 1.5 mL · kg−1 and 0.33 mL · kg−1 body mass during ingestion and rinse trials, respectively. During rinse trials participants swirled the solution for 8 s before expectorating. Blood samples were taken at regular intervals before and during exercise. Results: Performance time was not different between trials (P = 0.21) but the 4.5-5.2 % difference between CHOI and other trials showed moderate practical significance (Cohen’s d 0.57-0.65). Power output was higher in CHOI relative to other trials (P < 0.01). There were no differences between CHOR and placebo groups for any performance variables. Plasma glucose, insulin and lactate concentrations were higher in CHOI relative to other groups (P < 0.05). Conclusions: In a fasted and glycogen-reduced state ingestion of a CHO solution during high-intensity exercise enhanced performance through stimulation of insulin-mediated glucose uptake. The CHO mouth rinsing had neither ergogenic effects nor changes in endocrine or metabolic responses relative to placebo.

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  • An Archaeology of Madang Papua New Guinea

    Gaffney, Dylan; Summerhayes, Glenn R. (2017)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

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  • How did I as a student music therapist, use songwriting techniques to facilitate self-expression with adolescents in a mental health school setting?

    Johnson, Emma (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The purpose of this research was to understand how a student music therapist was able to facilitate self-expression using specific songwriting techniques, during long term and short term, group and individual music therapy sessions. Long term is considered a four-month period of weekly sessions, and short term is considered a single session. This research took place at an educational facility where I was working with adolescents with various mental health issues. In this exegesis, I discuss the various definitions of self-expressions as defined in literature, and consider the ways this relates to songwriting methods chosen and applied during therapy. A qualitative method of research was used, using secondary analysis of data collected from five months of Music Therapy practice. Thematic analysis was applied to clinical notes from sessions, student review statements and personal reflective practitioner journal. I was guided by music therapy literature discussing songwriting that I had been drawing on for the benefit of my practice. My analysis revealed that I developed specifically tailored methods and techniques for individuals and groups, which would begin with how they would like to approach their songwriting. I also found, that alongside more well documented techniques such as lyric writing and composition, improvisation and song planning were of high value to my practice and therefore were included as therapeutic songwriting techniques in my findings.

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  • Advances in agronomic management of phytoremediation: methods and results from a 10-year study of metal-polluted soils

    Vamerali, T.; Marchiol, L.; Bandiera, M.; Fellet, G.; Dickinson, N. M.; Lucchini, P.; Mosca, G.; Zerbi, G.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Among green technologies addressed to metal pollution, phytoextraction has received increasing attention in recent years as an alternative to physical and chemical methods of decontamination. Since 1998, as part of an Italian multidisciplinary research team on phytoremediation, we have been carrying out several agronomic investigations with field crops in agricultural soil and pyrite waste, both markedly contaminated by heavy metals. Phytoextraction was rarely an efficient process, requiring a long time even to remove merely the bioavailable metal fraction, but the great metal stock in roots suggests exploring the effectiveness of long-term in planta stabilisation. Poor above-ground productivity was the main factor constraining metal removals, especially in wastes. Without assisting the process, only zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn) and copper (Cu) were harvested by the canopy in substantial amounts, with an estimated maximum of ~8 kg of metals from an hectare base with rapeseed in the agricultural soil and only 0.33 kg with fodder radish in pyrite waste. Root growth was a key trait in species and genotype selection, in view of the close relationship between root length and metal uptake. The auxins, humic acids and chelators tested on the model plant fodder radish generally increased metal concentrations in plant tissues, but reduced growth and removals. It is currently concluded that phytoremediation efficiency with crop species may be improved through increased productivity by suitable soil management, involving mineral and organic fertilisation, contaminant dilution, soil capping, and metal immobilisation with inorganics and biochar. © T. Vamerali et al., 2012.

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  • High-resolution denitrification kinetics in pasture soils link N₂O emissions to pH, and denitrification to C mineralization

    Samad, M. S.; Bakken, L. R.; Nadeem, S.; Clough, T. J.; de Klein, C. A. M.; Richards, K. G.; Lanigan, G. J.; Morales, S. E.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Denitrification in pasture soils is mediated by microbial and physicochemical processes leading to nitrogen loss through the emission of N₂O and N₂. It is known that N₂O reduction to N₂ is impaired by low soil pH yet controversy remains as inconsistent use of soil pH measurement methods by researchers, and differences in analytical methods between studies, undermine direct comparison of results. In addition, the link between denitrification and N₂O emissions in response to carbon (C) mineralization and pH in different pasture soils is still not well described. We hypothesized that potential denitrification rate and aerobic respiration rate would be positively associated with soils. This relationship was predicted to be more robust when a high resolution analysis is performed as opposed to a single time point comparison. We tested this by characterizing 13 different temperate pasture soils from northern and southern hemispheres sites (Ireland and New Zealand) using a fully automated- high-resolution GC detection system that allowed us to detect a wide range of gas emissions simultaneously. We also compared the impact of using different extractants for determining pH on our conclusions. In all pH measurements, soil pH was strongly and negatively associated with both N₂O production index (IN₂O) and N₂O/(N₂O+N₂) product ratio. Furthermore, emission kinetics across all soils revealed that the denitrification rates under anoxic conditions (NO+N₂O+N₂ μmol N/h/vial) were significantly associated with C mineralization (CO₂ μmol/h/vial) measured both under oxic (r² = 0.62, p = 0.0015) and anoxic (r² = 0.89, p<0.0001) conditions.

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  • An empirical analysis of house price bubble: a case study of Beijing housing market

    Chen, R. D.; Gan, C.; Hu, B.; Cohen, D. A.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Increases in house prices can lead to higher house price volatility, a significant determinant of default and the prepayment of housing loans (Miles, 2008). Many researchers believe that significant growth in house price has the potential to generate a house price bubble. The bursting of a house price bubble is likely to endanger the stability of the country’s real economy. China experienced substantial increases in house prices at the end of 1990s. In Beijing, house prices increased dramatically following the liberalization of China’s housing market in 1998, and especially so after reforms in 2004. The significant growth of Beijing house prices could have generated a house price bubble, thus endangering the stability of the Beijing housing market and thereby the overall Chinese economy. This paper investigates whether a bubble existed in the Beijing housing market from 1998 to 2010, using economic fundamental variables such as interest rates, inflation, and cost of supply. Results of the analysis revealed that the Beijing house price index was significantly larger than the equilibrium value, based on the relative economic fundamental variables (income, inflation, interest rate and construction cost) during 2004 to 2007. This result is similar to the findings of Hou (2009), where nearly 75 percent of the changes in Beijing house price were thought to be explained by the economic variables used in the models.

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  • Introducing remote printing into the publishing industry of a small, remote economy: The case of New Zealand

    Fabling, Timothy (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This research investigates the expected effects on developed business models of introducing remote printing technology into the New Zealand book publishing industry. Remote printing technology will both address and improve on the constraints of geographical proximity and market size, enabling the New Zealand book publishing industry to collectively grow and experience future prosperity. Aspects of technological innovation and consumer behaviour are examined to explore issues surrounding geographic proximity and supply chain inefficiencies. Criteria are developed using Just-In-Time (JIT) theory and Supply Chain Management (SCM) to evaluate where remote printing technology might best be integrated in the New Zealand book publishing industry’s supply chain. The mutual effects between remote printing technology adoption and the expected effects on business models are evaluated, identifying which model is expected to provide the most significant benefits in a New Zealand context. A case study of six New Zealand book industry respondents was conducted. Qualitative data was collected in semi-structured interviews with members associated within different sectors of the New Zealand book publishing industry. The interview data was supplemented with secondary data sources, including publicly available information about the New Zealand book industry. A within-case and cross-case analysis was performed around the research identified above. By evaluating developed business models and assessing which model/s effectively address the New Zealand context, remote printing offers brick-and-mortar booksellers the ability to better compete with offshore online booksellers. The expected effects remote printing technology will have on the New Zealand book industry are presented. A major contribution to this study is that remote printing technology could in fact have a revolutionary impact on the New Zealand book industry, compared to what has been previously considered.

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  • Specificity in legume-rhizobia symbioses

    Andrews, M.; Andrews, M. E.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Most species in the Leguminosae (legume family) can fix atmospheric nitrogen (N₂) via symbiotic bacteria (rhizobia) in root nodules. Here, the literature on legume-rhizobia symbioses in field soils was reviewed and genotypically characterised rhizobia related to the taxonomy of the legumes from which they were isolated. The Leguminosae was divided into three sub-families, the Caesalpinioideae, Mimosoideae and Papilionoideae. Bradyrhizobium spp. were the exclusive rhizobial symbionts of species in the Caesalpinioideae, but data are limited. Generally, a range of rhizobia genera nodulated legume species across the two Mimosoideae tribes Ingeae and Mimoseae, but Mimosa spp. show specificity towards Burkholderia in central and southern Brazil, Rhizobium/Ensifer in central Mexico and Cupriavidus in southern Uruguay. These specific symbioses are likely to be at least in part related to the relative occurrence of the potential symbionts in soils of the different regions. Generally, Papilionoideae species were promiscuous in relation to rhizobial symbionts, but specificity for rhizobial genus appears to hold at the tribe level for the Fabeae (Rhizobium), the genus level for Cytisus (Bradyrhizobium), Lupinus (Bradyrhizobium) and the New Zealand native Sophora spp. (Mesorhizobium) and species level for Cicer arietinum (Mesorhizobium), Listia bainesii (Methylobacterium) and Listia angolensis (Microvirga). Specificity for rhizobial species/symbiovar appears to hold for Galega officinalis (Neorhizobium galegeae sv. officinalis), Galega orientalis (Neorhizobium galegeae sv. orientalis), Hedysarum coronarium (Rhizobium sullae), Medicago laciniata (Ensifer meliloti sv. medicaginis), Medicago rigiduloides (Ensifer meliloti sv. rigiduloides) and Trifolium ambiguum (Rhizobium leguminosarum sv. trifolii). Lateral gene transfer of specific symbiosis genes within rhizobial genera is an important mechanism allowing legumes to form symbioses with rhizobia adapted to particular soils. Strain-specific legume rhizobia symbioses can develop in particular habitats.

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  • Voices of dissent in the poetry of Imtiaz Dharker

    Das, Soma (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Canterbury Library

    Feminism as a movement acquired momentum in the last century. Feminist theorists from all corners of the world have put forward their views and ideologies to analyse and interpret the rights and duties, the laws and regulations which are exclusive to women. They have discussed, debated and deliberated on sundry affairs concerned with a woman, right from domestic drudgery to her involvement in official engagements, from cultural taboos inflicted on her as a girl in childhood to her perils even in old age, from puberty to post-menopause stage in her life. The heat of feminist discourse has hit contemporary Indian women poets writing in English, and therefore they have documented their perspectives through poetry leaving poignant impressions in the readers’ minds. This article is an evaluative approach to explore the impact of culture and religion, mostly Islam and partly Hinduism in different aspects of women’s lives. Her poems exhibit how the dictates of religious authority and tradition wipe away equality, compassion, and humanity and stifle a woman’s life to denigrate her personality to such an extent that she is rendered into self-depreciative non-entity in her own vision.

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  • Humour: As a tool for gender construction and deconstruction

    Mushtaq, Sabah Al (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Canterbury Library

    This article adopts a social interactionist and constructionist approach to analyse humour as a tool for gender construction and deconstruction mainly about two genders, men and women. That is explained by highlighting the relationship between gender (as systems of meaning) and language, followed by over viewing three major standpoints about gender-based differences. These three standpoints are essentialist, social interactionist, and social constructionist approach. Further, I will discuss the importance of various variables like social, political and cultural backdrops in determining a “gender- based” mode of discourse. The article will conclude that socio-cultural context is very important to understand the role of feminist humour in gender construction and deconstruction. The point has been made that humour is used as a tool in the same gender and mix gender scenarios and social interactions to construct and deconstruct ‘masculine men’ (how a “Man” is supposed to behave) and ‘feminine women’ (how a “Woman” is supposed to behave). This process also mirrors the prevailing social constructions of gender.

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  • Horrible truth behind the lives of mentally challenged women: A follow up

    Ramavat, Suman (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Canterbury Library

    The following work is a follow up of my social commentary Rehabilitation of Mentally Ill Women in India published September 2016 in the International Journal for Intersectional Feminist Studies. The social commentary discussed the conditions of and chances of rehabilitation of mentally ill women who were being treated in government mental health hospitals. Sexual harassment and ill-treatment of mentally ill women were the main issues in my commentary. Interestingly, news surfaced the Indian media in the month of February 2017 which highlighted the ill treatment of mentally ill women by the institution’s staff. The news reported that eleven patients died due to negligence. Naked female patients, when they were waiting in queue for their turn for the shower, were recorded in the security cameras by a male employee. In this social documentary, I will discuss some of the reasons behind these incidences happened and some solutions to resolve them.

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  • Reproductive health status of scheduled and non-scheduled castes women of Ludhiana district in Punjab

    Sharma, Nishu; Sharma, Shalini (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Canterbury Library

    In India, access to healthcare facilities in rural areas remains significantly underdeveloped regarding health infrastructure. The present investigation endeavors to analyse the caste variation in the reproductive health status of Scheduled castes and Non-Scheduled castes. The study was conducted in rural areas of Ludhiana district of Punjab of India. It was conducted on 120 women in their reproductive age (15-45) that had given birth during four years preceding the study. It was conducted in villages which were randomly selected. Evidence suggests that demand-side barriers may be as important as supply factors in deterring patients from obtaining treatment. Relatively little attention is given, either by policy makers or researchers, to ways of minimizing their effect

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  • Editorial Collective Report

    Kohli, Ambika; Ali, Rabia; Higgs, Johanna (2017)


    University of Canterbury Library

    This is the first collective report of the year 2017. The Project Monma is conducting long-term projects on sexual harassment in India, male perspectives of sexual harassment, women's access to justice in Senegal, Colombia, Belgium, and Australia. The Project Monma have also conducted different talks around the world and have also done different media shows.

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  • The Marxist analysis of Manjula Padmanabhan’s “Lights Out”

    Bhargavi, G Vasishta (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Canterbury Library

    The societal rules have been largely shaped by the male-dominated legislators and forces where there is a limited right to exist for a woman. The woman though married or unmarried or a prostitute the way the society looks at her is not changing though we are globalized. Indian women, in some ways, have also made some strides. Millions of women have joined the workforce. Leaders like the Prathibha Singh Patel, Sushma Swaraj, Anandiben are role models who show that women can rise to great heights. But one of the greatest tragedies in our country is that women are on their own when it comes to their safety. According to many studies, it’s understood that most of the rape cases of rape are never reported because of the stigma surrounding gang rape. Considering this wide scenario, this article touches on Indian women’s vulnerability with a Marxist approach. I have applied the Marxist approach to analyse literary text, Lights Out by Manjula Padmanabhan in Indian English Theatre. In her work, the author proposes the urgent need to address women’s subordinated position as they are subjected to different forms of discrimination. In this article, I have focused on difference issues such as gender discrimination, injustice, and fear of the law, police and judicial apathy. I conclude by suggesting recommendations for the improvement of women’s situation in India.

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  • Crippling the Will of a People: Morphostatic Structures of Violence and the Crawl-Space of Agency in the Lives of Eritrean Refugees

    Commerer, Jared (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    In conjunction with an exposition of the larger historical and political context of the nation of Eritrea, this thesis examines the life narratives of five refugees hailing from the Horn of Africa. In doing so, certain institutional, relational, and embodied forms of violence are identified as permeating Eritrea’s socio-political fabric and thus also the inter- and intra-personal lives of the participants. Where morphostatic structures are deemed as those that constrain an individual’s capacity to pursue their ultimate concerns, it is maintained that violence in the form of extreme nationalism, routinised fear, and varying subjective affects partially accounts for the fact that an estimated 5,000 people are fleeing this small, modernising African nation every month. Following this, I argue that, by examining the life-narratives of Eritrean refugees, violence can be understood as transpiring at the interstices of an ongoing – albeit skewed – dialectic between, on one hand, morphostatic structures of violence appearing in institutional, relational, and embodied forms, and, on the other, a degree of mimetic agency that, when harnessed, acts as a crawl-space through which individuals – if they are to realise their ultimate concerns – must absent themselves relative to such structures of violence.

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  • Evolutions or Revolutions? Interaction and Transformation at the 'Transition' in Island Melanesia

    Cath-Garling, Stephanie (2017)

    Book
    University of Otago

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  • A randomised controlled demonstration trial of multifaceted nutritional intervention and or probiotics: the healthy mums and babies (HUMBA) trial

    Okesene-Gafa, K; Li, M; Taylor, Rennae; Thompson, John; Crowther, Caroline; McKinlay, Christopher; McCowan, Lesley (2016-11-24)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background Maternal obesity is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and has lifelong negative implications for offspring health. The Institute of Medicine recommends limited gestational weight gain (GWG) in obese women for optimal maternal and infant outcomes. However, there is a gap regarding an effective and sustainable intervention strategy to achieve this goal. The aim of the healthy mums and babies (HUMBA) demonstration trial is to assess whether a multifaceted nutritional intervention and/or an oral probiotic treatment in obese pregnant women can reduce excessive GWG and optimise pregnancy outcomes. Methods and design The study is a two by two factorial randomised controlled demonstration trial conducted in Counties Manukau health region, New Zealand, a multi-ethnic region with a high prevalence of obesity. A total of 220 non-diabetic obese women with a singleton pregnancy will be recruited between 120 and 176 weeks. At recruitment, women are randomised to receive either a culturally tailored multifaceted dietary intervention or routine dietary advice, and either an oral probiotic or placebo capsule. Randomisation is undertaken via a web-based protocol, randomize.net, with a 1:1 ratio using stratification by body mass index (BMI) category (BMI of 30–34.9 or BMI ≥35 kg/m2). The dietary intervention includes 4 customised nutrition education visits by a trained community health worker combined with motivational text messaging. Probiotic capsules consist of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Bifidobacterium lactis BB12 at a dose of 7 × 109 colony-forming units one per day until birth. Probiotic and placebo capsules are identically pre-packed and labelled by a third party, and are prescribed in a double blinded fashion. Research assessments are conducted at enrolment, 28 weeks, 36 weeks, at birth and at 5 months post-delivery. The primary outcomes for the study are proportion of women with excessive GWG and infant birthweight. Discussion The HUMBA demonstration trial will assess the efficacy of a culturally tailored multifaceted dietary intervention and probiotic treatment in limiting excessive GWG and optimising birthweight in a multiethnic sample of obese pregnant women. If successful, either one or both of the interventions may be incorporated into future studies powered to investigate important pregnancy outcomes. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry registration number: ACTRN12615000400561, Universal Trial Number: U1111-1155-0409. Date registered: 29th April 2015.

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