1,661 results for Use commercially

  • A randomised controlled demonstration trial of multifaceted nutritional intervention and or probiotics: the healthy mums and babies (HUMBA) trial

    Okesene-Gafa, K; Li, M; Taylor, Rennae; Thompson, John; Crowther, Caroline; McKinlay, Christopher; McCowan, Lesley (2016-11-24)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background Maternal obesity is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and has lifelong negative implications for offspring health. The Institute of Medicine recommends limited gestational weight gain (GWG) in obese women for optimal maternal and infant outcomes. However, there is a gap regarding an effective and sustainable intervention strategy to achieve this goal. The aim of the healthy mums and babies (HUMBA) demonstration trial is to assess whether a multifaceted nutritional intervention and/or an oral probiotic treatment in obese pregnant women can reduce excessive GWG and optimise pregnancy outcomes. Methods and design The study is a two by two factorial randomised controlled demonstration trial conducted in Counties Manukau health region, New Zealand, a multi-ethnic region with a high prevalence of obesity. A total of 220 non-diabetic obese women with a singleton pregnancy will be recruited between 120 and 176 weeks. At recruitment, women are randomised to receive either a culturally tailored multifaceted dietary intervention or routine dietary advice, and either an oral probiotic or placebo capsule. Randomisation is undertaken via a web-based protocol, randomize.net, with a 1:1 ratio using stratification by body mass index (BMI) category (BMI of 30–34.9 or BMI ≥35 kg/m2). The dietary intervention includes 4 customised nutrition education visits by a trained community health worker combined with motivational text messaging. Probiotic capsules consist of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Bifidobacterium lactis BB12 at a dose of 7 × 109 colony-forming units one per day until birth. Probiotic and placebo capsules are identically pre-packed and labelled by a third party, and are prescribed in a double blinded fashion. Research assessments are conducted at enrolment, 28 weeks, 36 weeks, at birth and at 5 months post-delivery. The primary outcomes for the study are proportion of women with excessive GWG and infant birthweight. Discussion The HUMBA demonstration trial will assess the efficacy of a culturally tailored multifaceted dietary intervention and probiotic treatment in limiting excessive GWG and optimising birthweight in a multiethnic sample of obese pregnant women. If successful, either one or both of the interventions may be incorporated into future studies powered to investigate important pregnancy outcomes. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry registration number: ACTRN12615000400561, Universal Trial Number: U1111-1155-0409. Date registered: 29th April 2015.

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  • Draft genome sequences of two New Zealand Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris isolates, ICMP 4013 and ICMP 21080

    Desai, D.; Li, J.-H.; van Zijll de Jong, E.; Braun, R.; Pitman, A.; Visnovsky, S.; Hampton, J. G.; Christey, M. C.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris is a necrotrophic bacterial pathogen of crucifers. We report here the draft genome sequences of isolates ICMP 4013 and ICMP 21080 from New Zealand. These sequences will facilitate the identification of race-specific factors in X. campestris pv. campestris.

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  • Climate change: seed production and options for adaptation

    Hampton, J. G.; Conner, A. J.; Boelt, B.; Chastain, T. G.; Rolston, P.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Food security depends on seed security and the international seed industry must be able to continue to deliver the quantities of quality seed required for this purpose. Abiotic stress resulting from climate change, particularly elevated temperature and water stress, will reduce seed yield and quality. Options for the seed industry to adapt to climate change include moving sites for seed production, changing sowing date, and the development of cultivars with traits which allow them to adapt to climate change conditions. However, the ability of seed growers to make these changes is directly linked to the seed system. In the formal seed system operating in developed countries, implementation will be reasonably straight forward. In the informal system operating in developing countries, the current seed production challenges including supply failing to meet demand and poor seed quality will increase with changing climates.

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  • Transgressive learning in times of global systemic dysfunction: interview with Arjen Wals

    Peters, Michael A.; Wals, Arjen E.J. (2016)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Arjen Wals is Professor of Transformative Learning for Socio-Ecological Sustainability at Wageningen University. He also holds the UNESCO Chair of Social Learning and Sustainable Development. Furthermore he is the Carl Bennet Guest Professor in Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) at Gothenburg University in Sweden. He obtained his PhD in 1991 with a Fulbright fellowship at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor. His dissertation tackled the interface of environmental psychology and environmental and sustainability education. His recent work focuses on transformative social learning in vital coalitions of multiple stakeholders at the interface of science and society. His teaching and research focus on designing learning processes and learning spaces that enable people to contribute meaningfully sustainability. A central question in his work is: how to create conditions that support (new) forms of learning which take full advantage of the diversity, creativity and resourcefulness that is all around us, but so far remain largely untapped in our search for a world that is more sustainable than the one currently in prospect? In 2014 he was the lead author of an article published in Science Magazine on the role of citizen science in bridging science education, environmental education and sustainability. He is editor and co-editor of a number of popular books including: Higher Education and the Challenge of Sustainability (Kluwer Academic, 2004), Creating Sustainable Environments in our Schools (Trentham, 2006), Social Learning towards a Sustainable World with foreword by Fritjof Capra and an afterword by Michael Apple (Wageningen Academic, 2007), Learning for Sustainability in Times of Accelerating Change (2012), and of Routledge’s International Handbook on Environmental Education Research (2013). He has (co)authored over 250 publications in multiple languages. Wals is a co-founder of Caretakers of the Environment/International and a recipient of the environmental education research award of the North American Association for Environmental Education, and former president of the Special Interest Group on Environmental & Ecological Education of the AERA. He writes a regular research blog that signals developments in the emerging field of sustainability education: www.transformativelearning.nl

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  • A short grammar of Urama

    Brown, Jason; Muir, A; Craig, K; Anea, K (2016)

    Book
    The University of Auckland Library

    Urama (ISO: 639-3 kiw) is a language spoken primarily on Urama Island in Papua New Guinea. It is spoken in the Gulf Province, in the vicinity of Deception Bay, in the Era River Delta. Urama is part of the Kiwai language family, which is distributed along the south coast of Papua New Guinea. The Kiwai family in turn belongs to the larger Trans New Guinea stock.1 Within the Kiwai family, Urama belongs to the North-Eastern group, along with Arigibi, Gibaio, and Kope (also referred to as Gope) (Wurm 1973). The name ‘Urama’ is used to refer to the language, the ethnic group, and the island. A native Urama individual is termed Urama mere ‘Urama person’. Urama Island is in the Kikori district. Preliminary numbers for the 2011 census indicate the entire district has a population of 41,232. Official numbers of inhabitants on Urama Island are more difficult to obtain; however, Wurm (1971:139) has estimated the population of Urama speakers at around 1500. Foley (1986:233) estimated the population of North-Eastern Kiwai (presumably including Gibaio, Kope, and Urama, but not Arigibi, which Wurm & Hattori 1981 classify as a separate language²) at 3700 speakers, as has Wurm & Hattori (1981), and according to Ethnologue (Lewis et al. 2014, based on Foley’s 2011 estimates), there are 6000 speakers of North-East Kiwai (which includes Gibaio and Urama-Kope3 together). The adjacent areas speak various Kiwaian languages, and there is some mutual intelligibility between them. As Tok Pisin is one of the lingue franche of Papua New Guinea and is an official language, it is often the language of communication between those from other areas.

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  • Partial proteome map of Campylobacter Jejuni strain Nctc11168 by gel-free proteomics analysis

    Shi, Z.; Dawson, C. O.; On, S. L. W.; Hussain, M. A.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    A proteome map of the foodborne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni NCTC11168 was analyzed using a state-of-the-art gel-free proteomic approach for the first time. A whole cell protein extract was prepared from the C. jejuni strain NCTC11168 grown in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth at 42°C under microaerobic conditions. A gel-free technique using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) was employed to create a protein expression profile of the strain. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used to identify the proteins. Protein functionalities were searched to classify them. A total of 235 proteins were identified in the whole cell protein fraction of C. jejuni NCTC11168 cells using iTRAQ analysis. Functional grouping of the identified proteins showed that forty percent of these proteins were associated with energy metabolism, protein synthesis and genetic information processing. iTRAQ was faster, easier and proved more sensitive than two-dimensional gel-based proteomics approaches previously applied to C. jejuni, making it an attractive tool for further studies of cellular physiological response.

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  • Racial Inequities in Cardiovascular Disease in New Zealand

    Miner-Williams, W

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    The literature is replete with studies pertaining to ethnic inequities in healthcare. A thorny subject that has been described for decades and yet has few remedial solutions. The pattern of ethnic inequities in healthcare is a global phenomenon that is not confined to any specific race or culture. Worldwide, cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the topmost cause of death and a substantial burden on healthcare resources. In New Zealand CVD is the leading cause of death, accounting for 40% of all deaths annually. Diminished life expectancy is one example of racial inequity in healthcare between Māori and Pākehā (the non-indigenous population). This review attempts to clarify the muddy waters of 175 years of post-colonial healthcare inequity in New Zealand and in particular the causes of inequity in the incidence of CVD and mortality in Māori . Such dialogue will hopefully stimulate discussion among policy makers and clinicians to redress the ethnic inequities in healthcare.

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  • Interview with Michael Apple: The biography of a public intellectual

    Peters, Michael A. (2015)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Michael W. Apple is the John Bascom Professor of Curriculum and Instruction and Educational Policy Studies in the Departments of Curriculum and Instruction (CI) and Educational Policy Studies (EPS) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Education where he has taught since 1970. Michael Apple is one of the foremost educational theorists in the world and a public intellectual who is deeply committed to empowerment and transformation of people through education. Professor Apple specializes in understanding and analyzing the relations between education and power. He has made major contributions to the fields of cultural politics, curriculum theory and research, and critical teaching. He has been a tireless advocate and activist-theorist for development of democratic schools over four decades. He began teaching in elementary and secondary schools in New Jersey where he grew up and served as president of the local teachers' union. He has spent his career working with educators, unions, dissident and disadvantaged groups throughout the world on democratizing educational policy and practice. Professor Apple's research centers on the limits and possibilities of critical educational policy and practice in a time of conservative restoration.

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  • Provision of Foot Health Services for People With Rheumatoid Arthritis in New South Wales: A Web-based Survey of Local Podiatrists

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Background: It is unclear if podiatric foot care for people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in New South Wales (NSW) meets current clinical recommendations. The objective of this study was to survey podiatrists' perceptions of the nature of podiatric foot care provision for people who have RA in NSW.Methods: An anonymous, cross-sectional survey with a web-based questionnaire was conducted. The survey questionnaire was developed according to clinical experience and current foot care recommendations. State registered podiatrists practising in the state of NSW were invited to participate. The survey link was distributed initially via email to members of the Australian Podiatry Association (NSW), and distributed further through snowballing techniques using professional networks. Data was analysed to assess significant associations between adherence to clinical practice guidelines, and private/public podiatry practices.Results: 86 podiatrists participated in the survey (78% from private practice, 22% from public practice). Respondents largely did not adhere to formal guidelines to manage their patients (88%). Only one respondent offered a dedicated service for patients with RA. Respondents indicated that the primary mode of accessing podiatry was by self-referral (68%). Significant variation was observed regarding access to disease and foot specific assessments and treatment strategies. Assessment methods such as administration of patient reported outcome measures, vascular and neurological assessments were not conducted by all respondents. Similarly, routine foot care strategies such as prescription of foot orthoses, foot health advice and footwear were not employed by all respondents.Conclusions: The results identified issues in foot care provision which should be explored through further research. Foot care provision in NSW does not appear to meet the current recommended standards for the management of foot problems in people who have RA. Improvements to foot care could be undertaken in terms of providing better access to examination techniques and treatment strategies that are recommended by evidence based treatment paradigms. © 2013 Hendry et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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  • The Video Journal and visual pedagogies: in the age of visual cultures [Editorial]

    White, Elizabeth Jayne; Peters, Michael A. (2016)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Michael Peters and Jayne White introduce their thinking behind the development of the journal at the inaugural conference of the Association for Visual Pedagogies in Zagreb, June, 2016. They set the scene and pohilosophical parameters for a broad and forward-looking interpretation of visuality and the rise of visual studies by establishing an expanded route for the location of video Pedagogies in educational spaces. The video journal is introduced as a third generation form of scientific communication after the print-based journal and the digital online journal. The concept of the journal as the cornerstone of the scientific enterprise has evolved as new media technologies have become available. Industrial media known for its broadcast functionality of one to the many now is being replaced and remediated with video and mixed media increasingly with an accent on responsiveness and interactivity. In the second part of the presentation forms of visuality are explored and new visualization methodologies are discussed. An agenda is established for the potential and possibilities for Video Journal for Education and Pedagogy as a theoretical, philosophical, sociological, methodological and pedagogical site for future scholarship.

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  • Belowground legacies of Pinus contorta invasion and removal result in multiple mechanisms of invasional meltdown

    Dickie, I. A.; St John, M. G.; Yeates, G. W.; Morse, C. W.; Bonner, K. I.; Orwin, K. H.; Peltzer, D. A.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Plant invasions can change soil biota and nutrients in ways that drive subsequent plant communities, particularly when co-invading with belowground mutualists such as ectomycorrhizal fungi. These effects can persist following removal of the invasive plant and, combined with effects of removal per se, influence subsequent plant communities and ecosystem functioning. We used field observations and a soil bioassay with multiple plant species to determine the belowground effects and post-removal legacy caused by invasion of the non-native tree Pinus contorta into a native plant community. Pinus facilitated ectomycorrhizal infection of the co-occurring invasive tree, Pseudotsuga menziesii, but not conspecific Pinus (which always had ectomycorrhizas) nor the native pioneer Kunzea ericoides (which never had ectomycorrhizas). Pinus also caused a major shift in soil nutrient cycling as indicated by increased bacterial dominance, NO₃⁻N (17-fold increase) and available phosphorus (3.2-fold increase) in soils, which in turn promoted increased growth of graminoids. These results parallel field observations, where Pinus removal is associated with invasion by non-native grasses and herbs, and suggest that legacies of Pinus on soil nutrient cycling thus indirectly promote invasion of other non-native plant species. Our findings demonstrate that multi-trophic below-ground legacies are an important but hitherto largely unconsidered factor in plant community reassembly following invasive plant removal.

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  • Foot and Ankle Characteristics Associated With Falls in Adults With Established Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Cross-sectional Study

    Brenton-Rule, A; Dalbeth, N; Menz, HB; Bassett, S; Rome, K

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Background: People with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have an increased risk of falls. The foot is a common site of pathology in RA and foot problems are reported in up to 90 % of patients with established disease. The aim of this study was to determine whether foot and ankle characteristics are associated with falls in people with RA. Methods: Adults with RA were recruited from rheumatology outpatient clinics in Auckland, New Zealand. Participants reported whether they had fallen in the preceding year, and the number of falls. Clinical characteristics, common fall risk factors, and foot and ankle variables were measured. Univariate parametric and non-parametric analysis compared fallers and non-fallers on all variables to determine significant differences. Logistic regression analysis identified variables independently associated with falls. Results: Two hundred and one participants were prospectively recruited. At least one fall in the preceding 12-months was reported by 119 (59 %) participants. Univariate analysis showed that fallers had significantly longer mean disease duration, more co-morbid conditions, an increase in lower limb tender joints, higher midfoot peak plantar pressures and were more likely to have a history of vascular disease than non-fallers. Fallers also reported greater difficulty with activities of daily living, increased fear of falling and greater self-reported foot impairment. Logistic regression analysis revealed that increased midfoot peak plantar pressures (odds ratio (OR) 1.12 [for each 20 kPa increase], 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.00-1.25), self-reported foot impairment (OR 1.17 [for each three point increase], 95 % CI 1.05-1.31) and history of vascular disease (OR 3.22, 95 % CI 1.17-8.88) were independently associated with a fall in the preceding 12 months. Conclusions: Elevated midfoot peak plantar pressures, self-reported foot impairment and vascular disease are associated with falls in people with RA. Assessment of foot deformity, foot function and self-reported foot impairment may be of benefit when considering falls prevention strategies in people with RA. Trial registration: Australia New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry (trial ACTRN12612000597897)

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  • New interventions in historical and consolidated urban contexts: low renovation processes for the valorisation of the patina of the time / Nuove dinamiche di intervento nel tessuto urbano consolidato: processi di low renovation per la valorizzazione della patina del tempo

    Boarin, Paola; Calzolari, M; Davoli, P (2016)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Among the multiple possible interventions on historical and consolidated urban contexts, two different approaches are the most diffused today: interpreting the project as a discontinuity with the surrounding environment, on one side, and reading it as a form of continuity with the existing fabric, on the other. Starting from these methods and through the analysis of the international state-of-the-art in the field of adaptive reuse, the article explores the opportunities of a third possible direction, resulting as synthesis of the above and showing different levels of controlled densification. This new language seems particularly suitable today for supporting deep renovation processes of existing and historic buildings, thanks to its ability of enhancing their tangible and intangible values.

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  • Idiosyncrasies of Volcanic Sulfur Viscosity and the Triggering of Unheralded Volcanic Eruptions

    Scolamacchia, T; Cronin, Shane (2016-03-15)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Unheralded “blue-sky” eruptions from dormant volcanoes cause serious fatalities, such as at Mt. Ontake (Japan) on 27 September 2014. Could these events result from magmatic gas being trapped within hydrothermal system aquifers by elemental sulfur (Se) clogging pores, due to sharp increases in its viscosity when heated above 159°C? This mechanism was thought to prime unheralded eruptions at Mt. Ruapehu in New Zealand. Impurities in sulfur (As, Te, Se) are known to modify S-viscosity and industry experiments showed that organic compounds, H2S, and halogens dramatically influence Se viscosity under typical hydrothermal heating/cooling rates and temperature thresholds. However, the effects of complex sulfur compositions are currently ignored at volcanoes, despite its near ubiquity in long-lived volcano-hydrothermal systems. Changes in S-viscosity, leading to system sealing and sudden failure, can potentially occur at other volcanoes worldwide, including calderas, not only during phreatic eruptions. Models of impure S behavior must be urgently formulated to detect pre-eruptive warning signs before the next “blue-sky” eruption.

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  • Tangata whaiora/consumers perspectives on current psychiatric classification systems

    Moeke-Maxwell, Tess; Wells, D; Mellsop, Graham (2008-06-12)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background A number of studies have been undertaken with the aim of considering the utility of mental health classification systems from the perspective of a variety of stakeholders. There is a lack of research on how useful consumers/tangata whaiora think these are in assisting them in their recovery. Methods Seventy service users were involved in seven focus groups in order to consider this question. Results and discussion While for clinicians diagnosing someone might be a discrete event and easily forgotten as a moment in a busy schedule, most people in this study remembered the occasion and aftermath very clearly. The overall consensus was that whether being 'diagnosed' was helpful or not, in large part, depended on how the process happened and what resulted from being 'labeled' in the person's life. Conclusion Overall, people thought that in terms of their recovery, the classification systems were tools and their utility depended on how they were used. They suggested that whatever tool was used it needed to help them make sense of their distress and provide them with a variety of supports, not just medication, to assist them to live lives that were meaningful to them.

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  • Corrigendum: Fish oil supplements in New Zealand are highly oxidised and do not meet label content of n-3 PUFA

    Albert, Benjamin; Behrensdorf Derraik, Jose; Cameron-Smith, David; Hofman, Paul; Tumanov, S; Villas-Boas, Silas; Garg, ML; Cutfield, Wayne (2016-11-07)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Dietary Intake and Eating Behaviours of Obese New Zealand Children and Adolescents Enrolled in a Community-Based Intervention Programme

    Anderson, Yvonne; Wynter, LE; Butler, MS; Grant, Cameron; Stewart, Joanna; Cave, TL; Wild, CEK; Behrensdorf Derraik, Jose; Cutfield, Wayne; Hofman, Paul (2016-11-23)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe dietary intake and eating behaviours of obese children and adolescents, and also to determine how these differ in Indigenous versus non-Indigenous children at enrolment in an obesity programme. Methods: Baseline dietary intake and eating behaviour records were assessed from those enrolled in a clinical unblinded randomised controlled trial of a multi-disciplinary intervention. The setting was a community-based obesity programme in Taranaki, New Zealand. Children or adolescents who were enrolled from January 2012 to August 2014, with a BMI ≥98th percentile or >91st centile with weight-related comorbidities were eligible. Results: 239 participants (45% Maōri, 45% NZ Europeans, 10% other ethnicities), aged 5-17 years were assessed. Two-thirds of participants experienced hyperphagia and half were not satiated after a meal. Comfort eating was reported by 62% of participants, and daily energy intake was above the recommended guidelines for 54%. Fruit and vegetable intake was suboptimal compared with the recommended 5 servings per day (mean 3.5 [SD = 1.9] servings per day), and the mean weekly breakfasts were less than the national average (5.9 vs 6.5; p<0.0001). Median sweet drink intake amongst Maōri was twice that of NZ Europeans (250 vs 125 ml per day; p = 0.0002). Conclusions: There was a concerning prevalence of abnormal eating behaviours and significant differences in dietary intake between obese participants and their national counterparts. Ethnic differences between Indigenous and non-Indigenous participants were also present, especially in relation to sweet drink consumption. Eating behaviours, especially sweet drink consumption and fruit/vegetable intake need to be addressed.

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  • How can the Oculus Rift enrich the interactive storytelling experience?

    Ali, Mohsin (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The technology of today, such as the Oculus Rift, can provide immersion in ways that were unachievable in the past. The Oculus Rift is a virtual reality headset that allows the user to see the three-dimensional world without the use of a traditional monitor. Unlike television, computer and mobile screens, a virtual reality headset digitally transports the user into the environment. Functionality such as depth tracking and rotational head tracking provides immersion unlike anything experienced to date. My interest is to investigate interactive storytelling in combination with the Oculus Rift, to determine if virtual reality headsets can enrich storytelling experiences. This will be achieved by developing an application where interactive storytelling is compatible with the Oculus Rift, and testing that application with participants. Finally, a conclusion will be drawn from the data collected by participants. Alongside the written thesis, a digital application will be produced in Unreal Engine 4 (Video game engine). The application will be an Oculus Rift driven experience, meaning that users can only experience it through an Oculus Rift. The application will have an interactive plot, which allows the user to influence the storyline. The design will be iterative and will be refined after each user testing session. The application hopes to strengthen the theories and concepts found in the written section of the thesis.

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  • Malignant Mesothelioma and Delivery of Polyphenols

    Bishop, Karen; Braakhuis, Andrea; Ferguson, Lynnette (2016-06-02)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Malignant Mesothelioma (MM) is a rare form of cancer that affects the thin cell wall lining of the body's internal organs and structures.

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  • Characterising Gas Hydrate Deposits on New Zealand's Southern Hikurangi Margin using Seismic Reflection Data

    Wang, Hanyan (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Reprocessed Bruin 2D seismic data (recorded in 2006) from New Zealand Hikurangi Margin are presented and analyzed to show the presence of gas hydrates. We choose six seismic lines that each showed bottom-simulating reflections (BSRs) that are important indicators for the presence of gas hydrate. The aim is to obtain a higher resolution image of the shallow subsurface structures and determine the nature of the gas hydrate system in this area. To further investigate the presence of Gas Hydrates was undertaken. There is a strong correlation between anomalous velocities and the depths of BSRs, which supports the presence of gas hydrates in the research area and is useful for detecting areas of both free gas and gas hydrate along the seismic lines. The combination of high-resolution seismic imaging and velocity analysis is the key method for showing the distribution of gas hydrates and gas pockets in our research area. The results indicate that the distribution of both free gas and gas hydrate is strongly localized. The Discussion Chapter gives several concentrated gas hydrate deposits in the research area. Idealized scenarios for the formation of the gas hydrates are proposed. In terms of identifying concentrated gas hydrate deposits we propose the identification of the following key seismic attributes: 1) existence of BSRs, 2) strong reflections above BSRs in the gas hydrate stability zone, 3) enhanced reflections related to free gas below BSRs, 4) appropriate velocity anomalies (i.e. low velocity zones beneath BSRs and localized high-velocity zones above BSRs). This study contributes to the understanding of the geological conditions and processes that drives the deposition of concentrated gas hydrate deposits on this part of the Hikurangi Margin.

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