3,666 results for 2007

  • Is there a relationship between substance use disorders and violent offending? : a case study of Rimutaka and Wellington male prisoners : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Rehabilitation at Massey University

    Jones, Amanda (2007)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    New Zealand imprisonment per capita rates are second only to the USA with continued growth expected in the next decade. Previous research and extensive personal work experience within the prison system suggests that there is a connection between Substance Use Disorders (SUDs) and crime. The main object of this study was to investigate and ascertain if there is a relationship between occurrences of SUDs and violent offending. This is a complex question, as it is unlikely that SUDs are the only determinants of violent offending. Demographics, ethnicity, education and other environmental and psychological factors will also be contributing factors. The current study tests SUDs and 'other factors' to see if a relationship exists. Two hundred prisoners from Rimutaka and Wellington Prisons were randomly selected from a possible sample size of 850. The 102 respondents who chose to take part in the study were administered the Substance Use Disorders Diagnostic Schedule (SUDDS-IV). Seventy of these 102 prisoners were in prison for having committed a violent offence. A demographic questionnaire followed the psychometric test. Surprisingly, SUDs (both substance abuse and substance dependence), were not found to be statistically more significant in prisoners that had offended violently. Overall, SUDs were found in 99% of the entire population. Eighty-four percent diagnosed with substance dependence and a further 8.8% with substance abuse. Only 6.9% did not have a SUD at all. Fifty-eight percent of the sample investigated identified themselves as Maori, 26.5 European and 13.7% Pacific Islanders. This study found that those imprisoned for a violent conviction were more likely to be Maori. In addition, it illustrated that the prisoners convicted for violence were more likely to have only two years secondary school education or less. Evidence also shows that Maori studied were less likely to be educated. However, such findings require more validation for use as evidence in prisoner research. Further research could include a qualitative approach with emphasis on Maori with limited education and a propensity to be violent. This research would be beneficial if directed towards the unique lives of New Zealand prisoners, their families and specifically the children of the established offenders. The main objective would be to provide information about the next generation of violent offenders. The data and intelligence gathered could be then utilised to better manage and treat violent offenders.

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  • Testing the usability of well scaled mobile maps for consumers

    van Elzakker, C.P.J.M.; van Oosterom, P.J.M.; Delikostidis, I. (2007)

    Conference Contributions - Other
    University of Canterbury Library

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  • Intermarriage : its role and importance within early New Zealand shore whaling stations : a thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in History at Massey University

    Owen, Emily V (2007)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Early contact history in New Zealand involved many hard working rugged European men who came to our shores to work as sealers, flax and timber traders as well as whalers, and their interaction with Māori who lived in and visited the areas which they frequented. It is the last of these men, the whalers who provide the context for this thesis. School history lessons and general New Zealand history books generally discuss whaling within New Zealand waters. Some provide enough information to give their audience a general understanding of some aspects of New Zealand's whaling history, while others contain so little that one might think that whaling had no impact on New Zealand's past. However this is not true; whaling had a significant impact in New Zealand's past and this impact has continued through to our contemporary society. Whaling had many consequences within early nineteenth century New Zealand, including the introduction of new commodities to Māori, such as tobacco, clothing, European tools and muskets which would all, to some extent, begin to change their traditional way of life. Interaction between whalers and local Māori brought on cultural changes. This interaction came in many forms, often through trade, but also the relationships between Māori women and European whalers. It is these relationships which are the focus of this thesis. Relationships between Māori women and European whalers started occurring when whaling ships began calling on New Zealand shores at the beginning of the nineteenth century. Often these relationships involved only fleeting encounters, but still they were the beginning of a trend which would, within the next forty years, see many shore whalers legally marry Māori women. This thesis deals with shore whalers who began to arrive in New Zealand during the late 1820s rather than the earlier deep sea whalers who called on Kororareka in the Bay of Islands. While deep sea whalers were the first to form relationships with Māori women they were in many respects different to shore whalers. Shore whalers were required to stay on shore for months at a time as opposed to a few days like deep sea whalers this meant they required different things from Māori they interacted with. This thesis will look at the relationships and marriages between European shore whalers from various locations along New Zealand's coastline and local women from the late 1820s through to 1845, discussing their role and importance within early New Zealand whaling stations.

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  • Hearing voices : the gendered nature of mental health practices in New Zealand in the 1920s and 1940s : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements of Master of Arts in Women's Studies at Massey University

    Adams, Glennys Elaine (2007)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis asks what insights can be gained from the oral histories of mental nurses and attendants about the gendered nature of mental health practices in New Zealand in the 1920s - 1940s. Previously recorded interviews provided the primary texts for analysis. In considering both their oral accounts and memories as constructions, feminist poststructuralist models are used to study the nurses' and attendants' experiences. Utilising gender as an analytical tool meant that the narrators' memories were understood as the gendered products of the interconnections between the practices and discourses of culture and individual subjectivity, and that gender was implicated in the practices and production of power in mental institutions. Discourse theory and practices provided the conceptual framework and methodology for an analysis that regarded knowledge as residing in and produced by discourses. By studying the different constructions of female nurses and male attendants in discourses of mental nursing it was possible to recognise how these representations legitimised and privileged particular kinds of knowledge and power. Contextualising the narratives socially and culturally enabled consideration of how the nurses and attendants reproduced dominant discourses of femininity and masculinity in circulation at the time they were working. The findings point to the way in which powerful discourses of gender predicated on the separation of women and men respectively into private and public spheres, intersected with gendered assumptions of mental illness and mental nursing. The oral testimonies show that the female nurses were situated between the paradigms of these discourses, but because subjectivities are not fixed and immutable, they adopted different and changing positions in relation to them at different times. Although it is argued that discourses of gender did shape the subjectivities of the nurses and attendants and were employed to support gendered institutional practices this was more complex than first appears. The voices of the female nurses can be heard sometimes embracing, sometimes resisting and sometimes transgressing gender norms.

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  • International marketing strategies of Chinese multinationals : the case studies of Haier and Lenovo : a 156.799 research report presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for a Master of Management in Marketing at Massey University

    Guo, Jian (2007)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Recently, multinationals emerging from transition economics have drawn a great deal of interest from marketing researchers. In particular, Chinese multinationals which have had assistance and encouragement from their government are entering into the international marketplace. It is noticeable that many Chinese multinationals have already performed aggressively in the global market. The aim of this study is to identify the international marketing strategies used by Chinese multinationals and to compare them with the findings of the existing literature. This research adopts a cross case study approach and it will primarily use secondary data collected from multiple sources, such as journal articles, published interviews and Internet databases. A review of the current academic literature on this issue indicates that few studies have been conducted in the area of Chinese multinationals' international marketing strategies. Most of the studies have concentrated on western successful multinationals' internationalisation and marketing strategies. Based on the in-depth analysis of two Chinese multinationals; Haier, and Lenovo; this report serves not only to provide Chinese multinationals with knowledge and information regarding global marketing strategies, but also contributes to the academic literature by emphasising an understanding of how Chinese multinationals compete in global markets.

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  • Understanding Māori youth smoking : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    Nepe, Melanie (2007)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The understanding of Māori youth smoking from a qualitative perspective has been neglected in the literature. While there has been a wide scope of research detailing the promoting and protective factors that put Māori youth at risk to smoking, there continues to be a high rate of smoking for Māori youth, particularly among young Māori females. This research endeavoured to discover what smoking means to Māori youth, and to explore the relationship between Māori youth smoking, and the effect that culture plays in the development of smoking behaviour. An objective of this research was to gather data that can inform and contribute to existing knowledge about Māori youth smoking, for the development of youth tobacco interventions. A qualitative study using focus groups was conducted to explore the meaning of smoking to Māori youth. The youth were aged 15-18 years of age. The focus groups explored the roles and meanings of smoking in Māori youth lives, by exploring their smoking histories, and maintenance processes involved in their daily experiences of smoking. Findings showed the initiation of smoking was strongly related to peer group membership. Role modeling by family and peers influenced smoking, with the progression of smoking linked to smoking etiquette and transition to adulthood. Maintenance of smoking was related to emotional well being and the normalization of smoking behaviour. Tobacco use was regarded as an important and enjoyable aspect of many of the participants' lives.

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  • Management of threats and errors in normal operations of assistant controllers : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master in Aviation at Massey University

    Yeung, Timothy Kwan Chi (2007)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    "To err is indeed human, so to err is normal" Human errors are usually pronounced in accident or incident reports. Seldom does one pay enough attention to these errors during daily normal operations as these either go unnoticed or unreported for whatsoever the reasons may be. Therefore, the causes of these errors and also the system threats prevalent in the daily operations may not be fully contained. On the other hand, problematic situations that are successfully tackled by human skills are quite often treated as less important than they really are. The job of an assistant controller (AC) is one of the important domains in air traffic management (ATM). The AC work together with air traffic controllers as team members and they do have direct and indirect contributions to the safe, orderly and efficient flow of air traffic. In this study, the threats, errors and potential undesired states occurring with AC during normal operations will be recorded by a methodology, which is new to Hong Kong Air Traffic Control (ATC). This methodology, called Normal Operations Safety Observation (NOSO), is built on the Threat and Error Management (TEM) framework. The results will generate a broad outline on what sorts of threats, errors and undesired states an AC can be facing during normal operations. The relative frequencies of occurrence of these conditions will be presented separately in tables and figures. The AC's potential vulnerabilities and capabilities to cope with these threats, errors and undesired states will be discussed together with a suggested ranking. It is envisaged that an analysis of the data collected will aid the development and evaluation of safety defence measures in ATM and further support the applicability of this data collection methodology in other ATM operations and subsequent researches. KEYWORDS:- Normal Operations Safety Observation, Threat and Error Management, Safety Management, Air Traffic Control.

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  • Are we retaining our Maori talent? : representative youth netballers : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Education at Massey University

    McCausland-Durie, Yvette (2007)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    A case study research method was employed to address the question of retention for Māori youth netballers. Despite the fact that young Māori are well populated in the junior age groups of representative netball, a decline at the senior representative levels is apparent. This decline was particularly evident during the period of adolescence contributing to the research focus. Exploring the retention factors relative to this group required consideration of these three interrelated domains: education, gifted and talented education, and sport. Previous studies related to Māori Education, Māori in Sport, and Gifted Females led to this research. The findings highlighted three key themes: intrapersonal, interpersonal and structural factors. These factors are underpinned by cultural elements which when amalgamated become critical contributors to retention. As such, this research revealed that there is no single factor that will predictably lead to the fulfillment of retention issues for Māori female youth however several conclusions have been drawn. Firstly that the challenge of balancing multiple, and often, conflicting roles as students, athletes, females and Māori is reflective of racial and gender stereotypes in society. Secondly, that our policies in education and sport need to reflect that 'being Maori' is understood in a broader context encompassing both Māri and non-Māori. In practice, operations which reflect Kaupapa Māori principles will further enhance the participants self efficacy which will lead to improved experiences. Enhancing participants' quality of experiences in education and sport requires a recognition that access as a predecessor to retention greatly impacts on the institution or organizations ability to maintain Māori youth interest levels.

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  • Analysis of results in simulation and modeling of CDMA systems

    Kolahi, Samad (2007-07-01)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    In this paper, using discrete event stochastic simulation by batch-means, new results have been obtained by analysing the sensitivity of CDMA blocking probability for a given traffic load against various number of calls per batch and confidence intervals. It is found that for the system under study one long simulation with one million call arrivals produce approximately 99% confidence in results while it needs 100,000 calls to achieve 95% confidence. For system under study and with 27 Erlang of traffic, the blocking probability is 0.0202 with 99% confidence and 0.0192 with 95% confidence. The impact of warm-up period on CDMA simulation is discussed. Situation with three tiers of neighbouring cells are considered when mobile compares three base stations and chooses the base station with the strongest signal.

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  • Have your cake and eat it too : the treatment of contemporaneous relationships under the Property (Relationships) Act 1976

    Reid, Adrianne Nicola (2007)

    Honours Dissertation thesis
    University of Otago

    Although it is clear from the Act that a person can be in more than one qualifying relationship at a time, the courts have shown themselves to be reluctant to recognise contemporaneous relationships as falling within the ambit of the Act. Because of this, contemporaneous relationships will only be recognised where it is abundantly clear that the parties are living together as a couple. Sections 52A and 52B are designed to divide property between relationships, and do not override the usual rules governing the division of relationship property between the partners in a relationship. Sections 52A and 52B will apply after the court finds that the relationship property of contemporaneous relationships overlap, and they will only apply to those pieces of property which are found to be relationship property of both relationships. The first limb of the rule in sections 52A and 52B will be redundant as all property that is relationship property of a relationship is attributable to that relationship. Property which is relationship property of both relationships will be divided between the relationships in accordance with their respective contributions to its acquisition. Sections 52A and 52B work to the advantage of the common partner, leaving them with half of the total relationship property. Because sections 52A and 52B only apply if the court has made findings in respect of each relationship, it is to the advantage of the common partner to litigate both disputes simultaneously, rather than undergo successive settlements with each partner. Sections 52A and 52B can also be used to manipulate the outcome where only one of the relationships has ended, or, in the case of the common partners' death, where one of the partners has an interest in retaining as much of the relationship property as possible between themselves and the deceased common partners estate. Given the difficulties in applying sections 52A and 52B, and their fairly arbitrary outcome, they would be better replaced with an unambiguous provision which allocated specified shares to the relationships on a more objective basis. [Extract from Introduction]

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  • Capitalism with a conscience : SMEs and community engagement : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Management in Management at Massey University

    Yates, Angela Patricia (2007)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    It is commonly acknowledged that business organisations are expected to demonstrate ethical and moral conduct, yet throughout the last half century the bar has been raised. Not only are organisations expected to behave ethically; they are being summoned to exercise Business Social Responsibility (BSR). While there is a growing amount of literature on BSR, research in this field has largely confined itself to corporations. As such, especially in the New Zealand space, it has neglected prolific Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs). The aim of this study was to explore SME owner-managers' perceptions of community engagement. To accomplish this aim an exploratory, qualitative study involving semi-structured interviews with 10 SME owner-managers was conducted. SME owner-managers interviewed perceive business as having a highly integrated function in society. The owner-managers engage with their communities in significantly diverse ways, covering an extensive range of stakeholders. Primarily influenced by values pertaining to religion, family, and moral orientation, many owner-managers overlook economic gain, yet consider peripheral benefits to accrue nonetheless.

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  • Change management : structural change-- a case study in the Maldives : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Educational Administration at Massey University

    Qasim, Mizna (2007)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Changes to schools structure is a common practice in the Maldives. Structural change impacts on people at every level of the organisation. It is essential to identify how change is managed at different levels in schools in order to implement change successfully. This study is based in a secondary school in the Republic of Maldives. This research examines the processes, school systems and practices, that facilitate change in structure. It seeks to understand how processes facilitate structural change at the various levels of school organisation, namely senior management (principal, assistant principals, supervisors), middle management (heads of departments) and teachers. In this inquiry, the structure selected to examine processes of change is the 'Organisation Chart'; in particular, changes to the roles and responsibilities of individuals. To understand aspects involved in managing change, a review of literature focused on change and change management, leadership, structures of organisations, change agents and culture. This provided the researcher insight into the processes, aspects and issues in managing change. A qualitative case study was undertaken for this research. A qualitative approach allowed the researcher to understand multiple realities, interpretations and perspectives of individuals associated with structural change. Data collection incorporated individual interviews, focus group discussions, document analysis and observations. Data was analysed using the, 'constant comparative method' (Merriam, 1998). Evidence from this study suggests that equal attention needs to be given to the systems, change agents and culture of the school to facilitate and manage change.

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  • The application of economic instruments to the management of threatened species : a fisheries case study in the Galápagos Islands : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Applied Science (Natural Resource Economics), Massey University,

    Bermeo Alvear, Santiago Antonio (2007)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Under open access conditions fisheries tend to suffer from overexploitation and rent dissipation. This situation makes regulation necessary to achieve sustainability. In the Galápagos Marine Reserve, ineffective fisheries management has created a 'regulated' open access situation. The major fisheries, sea cucumber and spiny lobster, have been exploited beyond sustainable levels and catches have decreased significantly. Given the state of the resources, fisheries management in Galápagos needs to effectively limit catch and effort to sustainable levels. This research analyses the feasibility of an individual transferable quota (ITQ) scheme in Galápagos, evaluating the suitability of the context and assessing the expected economic benefits and equity implications from such a regulatory instrument. The spiny lobster fishery is considered to be suitable for an ITQ scheme while the sea cucumber fishery is not, given that the resource is on the verge of commercial extinction, the difficulties in monitoring exports and the variability of prices. The optimal management scenario for the spiny lobster fishery, of those evaluated in this study, is an ITQ scheme where the total allowable catch is set at the maximum economic yield. This scenario resulted in the largest economic benefit and efficiency gains. Major equity implications are expected from an ITQ scheme in this fishery also. These, however, are consistent with the amount of catch that needs to be reduced in order for the fishery to operate sustainably. With this in mind, it is concluded that the Galápagos National Park Service and other stakeholders that participate in fisheries management in the archipelago should consider the adoption of an ITQ scheme to manage the spiny lobster fishery. The sea cucumber fishery on the other hand, needs to remain closed until the stock recovers. Current challenges to more effective fisheries management are limited monitoring and enforcement and weaknesses within fishing cooperatives. An enhancement of the monitoring and enforcement component, and a strengthening of fishing cooperatives through more meaningful grassroots participation in fisheries management are necessary to improve the current situation. Complementary restrictions and policies to achieve particular socio-economic and environmental objectives will also be necessary in order to reduce potential negative impacts from an ITQ scheme.

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  • The breeding ecology and mating system of the bellbird (Athornis melanura) on Tiritiri Matangi Island : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Conservation Biology at Massey University

    Cope, Taneal Mulock (2007)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    A large population of Bellbirds were individually banded and monitored on Tiritiri Matangi Island in 2005 and 2006. The main aim of this research was to provide baseline breeding data from a large, stable population of Bellbirds reminiscent of pre-colonisation New Zealand. Nesting observations indicated that Bellbirds preferentially nest in Cabbage Trees on the island. Nest success was similar to recent values detected for other open nesting passerines found on the island, and has not changed since the study by Anderson & Craig (2003) undertaken in 1979. This is interesting considering that predation pressures would have been significantly alleviated since the eradication of Kiore in 1993. Breeding was found to be highly asynchronous within neighbouring territories in both 2005 and 2006. The majority of social bonds were recorded as monogamous, similar to past findings; however this research reported one case of polygynandry. In addition, regular extra pair male visits to other nests were recorded, as well as the occurrence of extra pair copulations. Parental care was undertaken by both sexes; however was largely unequal in that the female invested more in nest attendance than the male. The inequality in parental care, as well as the observed extra pair social behaviours, led to doubts over the current certainty of monogamy as the mating system in this species. The genetic analysis of paternity revealed that both males and females engage in mixed mating strategies, with 81% of offspring a result of extra pair paternity. This represents one of the highest levels of promiscuity recorded in passerines to date. The high level of sexual dimorphism coupled with the high level of promiscuity indicates the importance of genetic evidence for conclusions regarding mating systems; especially in the honeyeater species that show sexual dimorphism and hence intense sexual selection.

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  • Aging and positivity : a cognitive comparison of encoding and memory retrieval in two different age groups : a thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Psychology at Massey University

    Bryce, Barbara Jane (2007)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The positivity effect refers to a developmental trend in which the ratio of positive over negative events becomes more pronounced over the lifespan, suggesting that older adults evaluate, encode and retrieve stimuli from recall differently from young adults. Previous research has focused on identifying the positivity effect, on whether memory distortion has caused it, and for how long older adults can maintain positive emotion. The aim of this experiment was to investigate the cognitive functions behind the positivity effect. It examined differences in the encoding and memory retrieval of neutral, positive and negatively valenced images in young and old adults by comparing measures of self-reported intensity of arousal in 30 females aged 18-30 with 30 females aged 65-80. A slideshow of 60 valenced images from the International Affective Picture System was shown in either a direct emotion or an indirect emotion task, followed by a brief interference task, after which all participants were rated on the accuracy of their recognition of the valenced images. Results revealed that older adults had a positivity effect in most tasks when compared with younger adults, enhanced by a diminished preference for negative images. Psycho-social implications of this positively-biased view of themselves and the world include concerns over personal health care and safety issues related to independent living.

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  • Susan Couch v Attorney-General and the liability of public authorities

    Mcmillan, Pamela E. (2007)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

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  • Dismissal on grounds of suspicion : a legal comparison between Germany and New Zealand : tales about criminal employees and paranoid employers

    Giera, Sebastian. (2007)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

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  • Limiting free speech to protect religion : the future for blasphemy and religious hate speech laws in New Zealand

    Clarke, Brendon, 1984- (2007)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

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  • International apathy : Darfur and the responsibility to protect

    King, Alice Marie. (2007)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

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  • International obligations and sections 9 & 23(5) of the Bill of Rights

    Raniga, Daksha Priya. (2007)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

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