3,659 results for 2007

  • Analysis of results in simulation and modeling of CDMA systems

    Kolahi, Samad (2007-07-01)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    In this paper, using discrete event stochastic simulation by batch-means, new results have been obtained by analysing the sensitivity of CDMA blocking probability for a given traffic load against various number of calls per batch and confidence intervals. It is found that for the system under study one long simulation with one million call arrivals produce approximately 99% confidence in results while it needs 100,000 calls to achieve 95% confidence. For system under study and with 27 Erlang of traffic, the blocking probability is 0.0202 with 99% confidence and 0.0192 with 95% confidence. The impact of warm-up period on CDMA simulation is discussed. Situation with three tiers of neighbouring cells are considered when mobile compares three base stations and chooses the base station with the strongest signal.

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  • Have your cake and eat it too : the treatment of contemporaneous relationships under the Property (Relationships) Act 1976

    Reid, Adrianne Nicola (2007)

    Honours Dissertation thesis
    University of Otago

    Although it is clear from the Act that a person can be in more than one qualifying relationship at a time, the courts have shown themselves to be reluctant to recognise contemporaneous relationships as falling within the ambit of the Act. Because of this, contemporaneous relationships will only be recognised where it is abundantly clear that the parties are living together as a couple. Sections 52A and 52B are designed to divide property between relationships, and do not override the usual rules governing the division of relationship property between the partners in a relationship. Sections 52A and 52B will apply after the court finds that the relationship property of contemporaneous relationships overlap, and they will only apply to those pieces of property which are found to be relationship property of both relationships. The first limb of the rule in sections 52A and 52B will be redundant as all property that is relationship property of a relationship is attributable to that relationship. Property which is relationship property of both relationships will be divided between the relationships in accordance with their respective contributions to its acquisition. Sections 52A and 52B work to the advantage of the common partner, leaving them with half of the total relationship property. Because sections 52A and 52B only apply if the court has made findings in respect of each relationship, it is to the advantage of the common partner to litigate both disputes simultaneously, rather than undergo successive settlements with each partner. Sections 52A and 52B can also be used to manipulate the outcome where only one of the relationships has ended, or, in the case of the common partners' death, where one of the partners has an interest in retaining as much of the relationship property as possible between themselves and the deceased common partners estate. Given the difficulties in applying sections 52A and 52B, and their fairly arbitrary outcome, they would be better replaced with an unambiguous provision which allocated specified shares to the relationships on a more objective basis. [Extract from Introduction]

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  • Capitalism with a conscience : SMEs and community engagement : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Management in Management at Massey University

    Yates, Angela Patricia (2007)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    It is commonly acknowledged that business organisations are expected to demonstrate ethical and moral conduct, yet throughout the last half century the bar has been raised. Not only are organisations expected to behave ethically; they are being summoned to exercise Business Social Responsibility (BSR). While there is a growing amount of literature on BSR, research in this field has largely confined itself to corporations. As such, especially in the New Zealand space, it has neglected prolific Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs). The aim of this study was to explore SME owner-managers' perceptions of community engagement. To accomplish this aim an exploratory, qualitative study involving semi-structured interviews with 10 SME owner-managers was conducted. SME owner-managers interviewed perceive business as having a highly integrated function in society. The owner-managers engage with their communities in significantly diverse ways, covering an extensive range of stakeholders. Primarily influenced by values pertaining to religion, family, and moral orientation, many owner-managers overlook economic gain, yet consider peripheral benefits to accrue nonetheless.

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  • Change management : structural change-- a case study in the Maldives : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Educational Administration at Massey University

    Qasim, Mizna (2007)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Changes to schools structure is a common practice in the Maldives. Structural change impacts on people at every level of the organisation. It is essential to identify how change is managed at different levels in schools in order to implement change successfully. This study is based in a secondary school in the Republic of Maldives. This research examines the processes, school systems and practices, that facilitate change in structure. It seeks to understand how processes facilitate structural change at the various levels of school organisation, namely senior management (principal, assistant principals, supervisors), middle management (heads of departments) and teachers. In this inquiry, the structure selected to examine processes of change is the 'Organisation Chart'; in particular, changes to the roles and responsibilities of individuals. To understand aspects involved in managing change, a review of literature focused on change and change management, leadership, structures of organisations, change agents and culture. This provided the researcher insight into the processes, aspects and issues in managing change. A qualitative case study was undertaken for this research. A qualitative approach allowed the researcher to understand multiple realities, interpretations and perspectives of individuals associated with structural change. Data collection incorporated individual interviews, focus group discussions, document analysis and observations. Data was analysed using the, 'constant comparative method' (Merriam, 1998). Evidence from this study suggests that equal attention needs to be given to the systems, change agents and culture of the school to facilitate and manage change.

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  • The application of economic instruments to the management of threatened species : a fisheries case study in the Galápagos Islands : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Applied Science (Natural Resource Economics), Massey University,

    Bermeo Alvear, Santiago Antonio (2007)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Under open access conditions fisheries tend to suffer from overexploitation and rent dissipation. This situation makes regulation necessary to achieve sustainability. In the Galápagos Marine Reserve, ineffective fisheries management has created a 'regulated' open access situation. The major fisheries, sea cucumber and spiny lobster, have been exploited beyond sustainable levels and catches have decreased significantly. Given the state of the resources, fisheries management in Galápagos needs to effectively limit catch and effort to sustainable levels. This research analyses the feasibility of an individual transferable quota (ITQ) scheme in Galápagos, evaluating the suitability of the context and assessing the expected economic benefits and equity implications from such a regulatory instrument. The spiny lobster fishery is considered to be suitable for an ITQ scheme while the sea cucumber fishery is not, given that the resource is on the verge of commercial extinction, the difficulties in monitoring exports and the variability of prices. The optimal management scenario for the spiny lobster fishery, of those evaluated in this study, is an ITQ scheme where the total allowable catch is set at the maximum economic yield. This scenario resulted in the largest economic benefit and efficiency gains. Major equity implications are expected from an ITQ scheme in this fishery also. These, however, are consistent with the amount of catch that needs to be reduced in order for the fishery to operate sustainably. With this in mind, it is concluded that the Galápagos National Park Service and other stakeholders that participate in fisheries management in the archipelago should consider the adoption of an ITQ scheme to manage the spiny lobster fishery. The sea cucumber fishery on the other hand, needs to remain closed until the stock recovers. Current challenges to more effective fisheries management are limited monitoring and enforcement and weaknesses within fishing cooperatives. An enhancement of the monitoring and enforcement component, and a strengthening of fishing cooperatives through more meaningful grassroots participation in fisheries management are necessary to improve the current situation. Complementary restrictions and policies to achieve particular socio-economic and environmental objectives will also be necessary in order to reduce potential negative impacts from an ITQ scheme.

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  • The breeding ecology and mating system of the bellbird (Athornis melanura) on Tiritiri Matangi Island : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Conservation Biology at Massey University

    Cope, Taneal Mulock (2007)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    A large population of Bellbirds were individually banded and monitored on Tiritiri Matangi Island in 2005 and 2006. The main aim of this research was to provide baseline breeding data from a large, stable population of Bellbirds reminiscent of pre-colonisation New Zealand. Nesting observations indicated that Bellbirds preferentially nest in Cabbage Trees on the island. Nest success was similar to recent values detected for other open nesting passerines found on the island, and has not changed since the study by Anderson & Craig (2003) undertaken in 1979. This is interesting considering that predation pressures would have been significantly alleviated since the eradication of Kiore in 1993. Breeding was found to be highly asynchronous within neighbouring territories in both 2005 and 2006. The majority of social bonds were recorded as monogamous, similar to past findings; however this research reported one case of polygynandry. In addition, regular extra pair male visits to other nests were recorded, as well as the occurrence of extra pair copulations. Parental care was undertaken by both sexes; however was largely unequal in that the female invested more in nest attendance than the male. The inequality in parental care, as well as the observed extra pair social behaviours, led to doubts over the current certainty of monogamy as the mating system in this species. The genetic analysis of paternity revealed that both males and females engage in mixed mating strategies, with 81% of offspring a result of extra pair paternity. This represents one of the highest levels of promiscuity recorded in passerines to date. The high level of sexual dimorphism coupled with the high level of promiscuity indicates the importance of genetic evidence for conclusions regarding mating systems; especially in the honeyeater species that show sexual dimorphism and hence intense sexual selection.

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  • Aging and positivity : a cognitive comparison of encoding and memory retrieval in two different age groups : a thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Psychology at Massey University

    Bryce, Barbara Jane (2007)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The positivity effect refers to a developmental trend in which the ratio of positive over negative events becomes more pronounced over the lifespan, suggesting that older adults evaluate, encode and retrieve stimuli from recall differently from young adults. Previous research has focused on identifying the positivity effect, on whether memory distortion has caused it, and for how long older adults can maintain positive emotion. The aim of this experiment was to investigate the cognitive functions behind the positivity effect. It examined differences in the encoding and memory retrieval of neutral, positive and negatively valenced images in young and old adults by comparing measures of self-reported intensity of arousal in 30 females aged 18-30 with 30 females aged 65-80. A slideshow of 60 valenced images from the International Affective Picture System was shown in either a direct emotion or an indirect emotion task, followed by a brief interference task, after which all participants were rated on the accuracy of their recognition of the valenced images. Results revealed that older adults had a positivity effect in most tasks when compared with younger adults, enhanced by a diminished preference for negative images. Psycho-social implications of this positively-biased view of themselves and the world include concerns over personal health care and safety issues related to independent living.

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  • Susan Couch v Attorney-General and the liability of public authorities

    Mcmillan, Pamela E. (2007)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

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  • Limiting free speech to protect religion : the future for blasphemy and religious hate speech laws in New Zealand

    Clarke, Brendon, 1984- (2007)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

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  • Dismissal on grounds of suspicion : a legal comparison between Germany and New Zealand : tales about criminal employees and paranoid employers

    Giera, Sebastian. (2007)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

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  • International apathy : Darfur and the responsibility to protect

    King, Alice Marie. (2007)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

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  • Media coverage of criminal trials : sub judice contempt, freedom of expression and the right to a fair trial

    Rillstone, Zoe. (2007)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

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  • The Evidence Act 2006 : sexual history evidence and the protection of rape victims

    Rodda, Haylee. (2007)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

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  • International obligations and sections 9 & 23(5) of the Bill of Rights

    Raniga, Daksha Priya. (2007)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

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  • A critique of Goulden v Wellington City Council : evaluating the effect of the New Zealand Bill of Rights on judicial review

    Sing, Fiona Cherie. (2007)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

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  • The concept of sham and its limited effectiveness in the tax field

    Quan, Freyja. (2007)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

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  • Pre-judgment name suppression in criminal cases

    Woodhouse, Rex. (2007)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

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  • The right to refuse treatment in section 11 of the New Zealand Bill of Rights Act 1990, and compulsory psychiatric treatment under the Mental Health (Compulsory Assessment and Treatment) Act 1992

    Sanson, Marion B. (2007)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

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  • A suggested approach to interpretation of section 30 of the Evidence Act 2006

    Hoare, Rachael. (2007)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

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  • Umbrella clauses - an analyss of ICSID decisions and scholarly opinion

    Hartmann, Thomas, 1976- (2007)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

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