3,674 results for 2007

  • The sense in humour : a personal exploration of humour in the teaching of adults : some questions and tentative answers : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Education in Adult Education at Massey University

    Watt, Iain J (2007)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis is a personal exploration of the potential applications of humour in the teaching of adults. I have provided some questions and tentative answers about the use of humour in the facilitation of adult learning. Having recognised the value of humour in my own teaching practice, I have examined the ways in which humour, when applied appropriately, can promote creative thinking by enhancing the processes of knowing, perceiving and discovering. Adult learning has been said to be a means of gaining knowledge and skills, a way to satisfy learner needs and a process of critical self-reflection that may lead to transformation. Adult education can involve challenging periods of transformation and students may require assistance to overcome inhibitions, behaviours and beliefs about themselves their culture and learning. In this thesis I have sought to explore how humour, manifesting itself in verbal, written and visual formats, may be a valuable pedagogical tool to address such issues. One of the purposes of this thesis is to contribute to knowledge in teaching practice by demonstrating that the systematic and informed introduction of humour into individual teaching strategics may provide a more people-centred climate which addresses individual and group learning needs from the perspective of teacher and student.

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  • Responses to phosphate deprivation in white clover (Trifolium repens L.) : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Plant Biology at Massey University

    Effendy, Jollanda (2007)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Four breeding lines of white clover (Trifolium repens L.) were obtained from AgResearch Grasslands, Palmerston North, New Zealand, that had been shown previously to differ in terms of specific growth responses to added phosphate (P) in the field. These were designated Breeding Line (BL) 43 (low performer on low P; low performer on high P), BL 45 (low performer on low P; high performer on high P), BL 47 (high performer on low P; high performer on high P), and BL 49 (high performer on low P; low performer on high P). These breeding lines and five selected genotypes that were propagated from each line (designated 43-7, 43-8. 45-14. 45-4 and 47-9) were rooted in half-strength Hoagland solution in vermiculite for two weeks and then transferred to half-strength Hoagland liquid media for five weeks prior to the initiation of the experiments. For the breeding line screening, plants were acclimatized in a constant temperature environment for one week prior to treatments, while for the genotypic screening, plants were maintained in a temperature-controlled glasshouse. These lines and genotypes were characterized in relation to P uptake and utilization efficiency by growing in P-sufficient media (+P; 0.5 mM KH2PO4) and P-deficient media (-P; 0 mM KH2PO4) for 3, 5, 7 and 14 days (for the breeding line screening) and 7, 14 and 21 days (for the genotype screening). Over the time course, inorganic phosphate (Pi) content in leaves, non-specific acid phosphatase (APase) activity in intact roots (both as a total soluble activity and a cell-wall-associated activity), isoenzyme analyses, shoot dry weight (DW) and fresh weight (FW), leaf area, weight of an individual leaf (designated as the weight of the first fully expanded leaf), root FW, and the root:shoot (R:S) ratio were determined. Pi deprivation enhanced the induction of one major low mobility cell wall acidic isoform, two minor high mobility cell wall acidic isoforms and one major low mobility cell wall basic isoform in all genotypes. Furthermore, the activity of one major low mobility cell wall basic isoform was more higher in genotype 45-14 and one minor high mobility cell wall basic isoform was induced only in genotype 45-14 in response to Pi deprivation. In terms of individual BLs and genotypes, the screening results showed that BL 49 and genotype 45-14 displayed a constant Pi content and a slow induction of APase activity in the -P media, and had the highest total biomass FW in both +P and -P media. Overall (in both treatments) BL 49 and genotype 45-14 are the most efficient at utilizing available P as they produced the largest biomass FW, produced more roots in P- deprived media when compared with the other BLs and genotypes, and were more efficient in utilizing the P for the synthesis of biomass. BLs 43 and 45 and genotypes 43-7 and 43-8 are less efficient at utilizing available P, while under P deprivation, BL 45 and genotype 45-14 are the most efficient at utilizing P compared to the other BLs and genotypes. The study also showed that the Pi content in leaves and APase activity in roots was found to be the plant parameter most sensitive to Pi deprivation, and the results suggest that the selection of white clover germplasm for satisfactory performance under low P availability can be carried out using these two parameters as criteria.

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  • The New Zealand Gaidhealtachd = Sealain Nuadh Gaidhealtachd : the uses of history in the creating and sustaining of a culturally based community : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in History at Massey University

    Howell, Rosalind (2007)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Natives have often wished that white people would study their own ancestors.1 1.Kame'elihiwa, in R. Borofsky,'Cook, Lono, Obeyeskere and Sahlins', Current Anthropology, 38, p.2. The topic of this thesis is the Gaidhealtachd Celtic Studies Summer School which takes place every year between the 2nd - 7th of January at Whangarei Heads School in Northland. The word Gaidhealtachd refers to a Gaelic speaking area (specifically of Scotland and Ireland), and is generally understood as the area where traditional ways survive and are valued. The objectives of the Gaidhealtachd, as outlined in the Gaidhealtachd Booklet produced in its tenth year, are that: 'The Gaidhealtachd seeks to promote an awareness of the cultural debt we owe to our Celtic ancestors, and to provide opportunities to explore Celtic arts, languages, values and traditions'.2 2.Gaidhealtachd booklet, 1999. The booklet also describes the Gaidhealtachd as being specifically for those 'who identify themselves as Celts of good will, who want to explore their own and related Celtic cultures in the spirit of rediscovery and redirection made possible in the unique context of New Zealand-Aotearoa'.3 3.Gaidhealtachd booklet, 1999. Gaidhealtachd has recently become a trust and has conducted a Celtic Studies Summer School annually for the last seventeen years. The Gaidhealtachd is an interesting topic for study because, while there are many Scots, Irish, and Welsh clubs and organisations in New Zealand, research has revealed that the Gaidhealtachd is probably the only group which encompasses all the individual Celtic cultural identities in an educational context. The choice of venue for the Summer School provides a further point of interest in that Whangarei Heads School, founded in 1857 or 1858, is the oldest continuously operated settler school in New Zealand. The school was established by members of the Gaelic speaking Nova Scotian Scots of Waipu who settled at Whangarei Heads in 1856. Whangarei Heads School has been the venue for the Gaidhealtachd for the last seventeen years, principally because of its historical significance as the oldest continuously operated settler school in New Zealand, and also because of its Gaelic speaking origins. It will be argued here that the history of the area of Whangarei Heads area generally, as well as that of the school, has had considerable influence over the development of the Gaidhealtachd Celtic Studies Summer School and that knowledge of the first settler community has become a touchstone for participants understanding of history in general and also in how it is interpreted on a personal level. This thesis will therefore consider the way history itself is used - in the history of the Scots from Nova Scotia, in the understanding of the Gaelic language as spoken by the settlers at Whangarei Heads and by the pupils of Whangarei Heads School, in the creation of a community based on a Celtic ethos, and in the significance and perceived wider understanding of the history of the Celtic peoples. As the leader of the Scottish Nova Scotian community who settled at Waipu and founded other communities such as Whangarei Heads, the role of the Reverend Norman McLeod as reference point will be discussed and it will be argued that there is significantly less emphasis placed on his part in the development of the Whangarei Heads community than that of Waipu.

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  • Remembering and belonging : colonial settlers in New Zealand museums : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Social Anthropology at Massey University

    Wirick, Esther Lucia (2007)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This study approaches museums as socially constructed signifiers of group identities. Focusing specifically on museological representations of colonial settlers at museums and historical sites in New Zealand, I analyse how this group is constructed in terms of its association with colonialism, empire, and other historical and contemporary groups in New Zealand. In my results chapters, Pride and Shame and Parts of a Whole, I investigate different ways in which colonial settlers are represented in terms of their relationship to Empire, the nation, and other groups within New Zealand. Representations which position settlers within colonial discourses and portray them as heroic pioneers work to justify their presence in New Zealand on the basis that they earned their place through suffering and hard work. This assertion of place and belonging is then questioned by representations which situate colonial settlers within post-colonial discourses that highly criticise the actions of settlers and the institution of colonialism. Representations of colonial settlers can also construct them as related to a cultural group, usually referred to as 'Pakeha', and part of New Zealand's bicultural and multicultural identities. I examine how biculturalism is represented in different ways and use the concepts of separate biculturalism and blended biculturalism to explore these differences. These different political identities reflect a strong sense of ambiguity and ambivalence over New Zealand's political identity, and emphasise how stories from the past can be used in different ways to justify different perspectives of contemporary social and political relationships.

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  • Multicultural children : their cultural identities as communicated by their parents : a thesis presented in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Management in Communication and Journalism at Massey University

    Ogawa, Erina (2007)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Parents from different cultural backgrounds may often lack information on helping their multicultural children to develop healthy cultural identities. The views and strategies of twenty parents regarding the cultural identities communicated to their children are presented in this interview-based case-study in the greater Tokyo area of Japan. Seventeen respondents are non-Japanese with children to Japanese partners; two are non-Japanese with a non-Japanese partner with a different cultural background; and one is Japanese married to a non-Japanese partner. Six respondents chose to identify their children as Japanese; another six chose a Combined identity; and eight chose a Global identity. Six major factors in the development of a healthy cultural identity emerged: language, visits to parents' home countries, schooling and/or peer groups, religious and/or cultural activities, names, and physical appearance. Suggestions are made to parents of multicultural children to develop linguistic abilities, to facilitate immersion in target cultures, to develop awareness of relevant cultural activities, and to provide culturally-appropriate names. Parents are encouraged to combine different cultural aspects in different areas of their children's lives, to teach their children about their own cultures, and to remember that each child is unique. In addition, the iceberg metaphor of culture presented by Ting-Toomey and Chung (2005) has been adapted to illustrate multicultural identities. This study has confirmed the need for further qualitative and quantitative studies on the development of cultural identities in multicultural children.

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  • The process of medical device development : how it represents a challenge to traditional product development methodologies : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Technology in Product Development at Massey University

    Turner, Peter J (2007)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Medical Devices [MD] represent special challenges to the designer and manufacturer. They range from disposable, single use articles to extremely complex and expensive technologies. While single use devices may be simple in concept and easily manufactured, they nevertheless may be invasive or could threaten human life if inappropriately used. For consumables packaging to maintain sterility from factory output to the operating tray is an important requirement. Such devices, in common with far more sophisticated equipment, may be assigned a classification requiring tightly controlled manufacturing and inspection systems that may vary between different jurisdictions. Quality management systems increase overheads to the already considerable investment incurred during R & D. Audit trails required by these systems become tortuous and difficult to validate as components are sourced increasingly from low cost base countries. The increasing use of microprocessor controlled wireless network technology increases radio frequency clutter and electromagnetic interference between medical devices can result in injury or death. Most countries now insist on guarantees that toxic substances cannot be released by a product into the environment during it's lifecycle or when disposed of. International protection of intellectual property presents challenges for New Zealand manufacturers with limited resources. Frequently the designer/manufacturer needs an in depth understanding of the clinical context for the equipment including a knowledge of human physiology and anatomy for the application. Current literature about allied technology must be reviewed and a business plan developed that exploits the opportunity presented by the proposed advances in the development of a new MD applying current theoretical knowledge. Many developments supercede historical technology, introducing challenges for the practitioner/operator to understand it's operation and optimise it's performance. Factoring patient & practitioner education into the distribution of MD's significantly increases the cost of marketing. To gain access into international markets MD's must comply with stringent standards for safety and performance. A case study examines these issues in relation to the development by the author of MD's to enhance vision and conduct tests of visual performance, the Librus 300 & 600. This study illustrates many of the difficulties the New Zealand Manufacturer faces and suggests management structures, processes and development systems that would facilitiate the process and an infrastructure to support it.

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  • Opportunities and barriers for m-health in New Zealand : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Information Science in Software Engineering at Massey University

    Mirza, Farhaanullah Baig (2007)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis describes a study to determine the opportunities and barriers for mobile health in New Zealand. The world total of mobile phones currently stands at 2.5 billion and is set to reach 3 billion by the end of 2007 [1]. New Zealand has approximately 3.8 million mobile subscribers [2],[3] and this country, along with many others, recognizes the opportunities for using mobile technology in healthcare. Mobile health (m-health) has moved past the hype stage overseas; there is good evidence for improved productivity, and growing evidence for improved patient engagement. Broadband wireless, improved mobile devices and integrated mobile applications will continue this growth. New Zealand health and disability providers can adapt these overseas m-health successes to develop their own mobile health strategies [4]. M-health involves the use of mobile technology to enhance health services. The mobile technology can be either a short-distance or long-distance technology, or be device driven. The health industry is an information intensive industry, and as New Zealand has a public healthcare model, the idea of information integration among and within health sectors is encouraged. The purpose of this study is to identify the barriers and opportunities of m-health in New Zealand. Following an introduction, the literature survey defines the scope of the study. It first discusses wireless and mobile computing technologies, then looks at New Zealand healthcare information strategies and the importance of information in the health industry. Finally, these two topics are investigated by exploring the literature on the use of wireless technology in healthcare - in both clinical and non-clinical applications. M-health is a new area of development in the health industry. Hence the practical part of the research used a qualitative research strategy, determined to be appropriate to obtaining a better understanding of any phenomena about which little is yet known [5]. The two main parts of this research include the questionnaire and the interviews. The questionnaire sample was selected from health users, health planners, health technology suppliers, and academics, and covered areas of patient care, primary care, secondary care, community care, and integrated care. The interview sample consisted of technology strategists, primary healthcare planners, secondary healthcare planners, and community healthcare planners. The main focus of the interview was to find out about the future of m-health in New Zealand, analyze which sectors can benefit from m-health, examine the opportunity for customized software on mobile devices, gather possibilities of mobile assistance toward integrated care, and lastly, find out about the privacy and security issues of using mobile technology in healthcare. The questionnaire results indicate that the patients would appreciate receiving health services on their mobile phones. There is strong agreement that patients will benefit from text reminders, health awareness campaigns, and patient monitoring. The findings indicate that community nurses could use m-health technology to improve integration of information. There are two differing opinions on Electronic Health Records (EHRs) and their mobility across all sectors - the technology strategists think it is very important, but the health planners are divided. The opportunities that have been identified from the interviews include monitoring, health alarms, patient engagement in healthcare, community workers information integration, SMS reminders and alerts, ability of health workers to work offsite, prescription feedback, and using PDAs where necessary to enable electronic data capture. The barriers include legacy systems, disparate systems, lack of standards, lack of integration tools, lack of bandwidth, DHB-led initiatives, older health planners who are resistant to technology, ill population having the least uptake of technology, inability to share information with patients, development of mobile applications, infrastructure investment, telecommunication barriers, changed management, lack of technical capabilities, and cultural barriers.

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  • Ocean wave energy resource assessment-- hotspots, exceedance-persistance, and predictability : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Applied Science in Natural Resource Engineering at Massey University

    Frazerhurst, James Edward (2007)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Ocean wave energy conversion is evolving towards commercial viability. Succinct resource assessment is essential to the conversion of wave energy for grid supply electrical generation. The ability to differentiate potential wave energy locations by means of comprehensible evaluations is particularly useful to the commercial developers of wave energy power plants. This report establishes an assessment of wave energy that provides an understanding of the resource in both spatial and temporal resolution. Three aspects of the wave resource are established; mapping of wave energy hotspots due to wave focusing, visualisation of the probability of wave energy exceedance and persistence, and calculation of the predictability of wave energy for a particular aspect of coast. These three assessments are explained with a review of the science surrounding the phenomena of wave creation and propagation, the development of wave energy converter devices, as well as visualisation and manipulation of wave resource assessments. The outputs of these assessment methodologies are comparable, uncomplicated, graphic representations of the resource. Case studies for seven locations encircling New Zealand were investigated, in order to demonstrate the practicalities of the wave energy resource assessment methodology developed by this project. This study modelled the transformation of several hundred combinations of wave height, period and direction from deep-water to shore. The different conditions were ranked in terms of probability of occurrence. Recombination of these iterations created hotspot maps. The locations examined in this study were then compared to other infrastructure for wave energy utilisation. Historical wave data was processed to establish the probability of levels of wave energy being exceeded and persisting. This information establishes how often a potential wave energy plant might provide significant output and for how long this output might persist. Collection of wave prediction data for aspects of New Zealand allowed the comparison of up to seven day forecasts with a "now forecast". Assessment was then made of the predictability of the climatic conditions creating waves for a location. The ability to be able to provide accurate forecasts of potential wave energy plants is of significant interest to generation companies in New Zealand in order to manage a diverse generation portfolio. Key finding of this investigation: • Waves and wave energy have significant variation of spatial, and temporal scales. • Waves can be predicted for an aspect of coastline dependant upon the predictability of the climatic conditions of the wave generation location. • Wave energy resource assessment is often presented as a single figure of averaged kilowatts per meter wave front that fails to adequately incorporate the temporal, spatial, and predictive aspects of the resource. • A methodology was compiled to create "hotspot" (areas of intensified wave energy) mapping of a location utilising a wave transformation model. These maps can then be used to access spatial relationships to other digital information (electricity grid nodal locations, marine protected areas, navigation requirements, etc). • Processing of wave climate data utilising Matlab© script developed by ASR Ltd identified the probability of wave energy being exceeded and persisting for a given location. • Forecasts of wave characteristics are published on the Internet. Calculation of error between a "now forecast" and the previous day's forecast for today (up to six days out), can give an assessment of the predictability of an aspect of a location provided the wave forecast model utilises significant climatic variables. • Case studies of wave energy resource assessment (using the developed hotspot, exceedence persistence, and predictability methods) for seven locations encircling New Zealand, identified three classes of wave resource; exceptional (Southland), good (Otago, Taranaki, Auckland, Hokianga), and poor (Canterbury, Wellington).

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  • Ideal procurement system for New Zealand private sector construction clients : a thesis presented in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Construction at Massey University

    Wan Ismail, Wan Norizan Binti (2007)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Making the right choice of a procurement system at the onset ensures successful project delivery, a satisfied client, a successful service provider, and a reputable construction industry. Research has shown that client's requirements have not been properly addressed due largely to wrong choice of procurement systems. This research aims to identify the priority needs of clients and the appropriate procurement system that can ensure the delivery of satisfactory outcomes. Investigations were limited to the views expressed by private sector construction clients, consultants and contractors, registered with their respective umbrella organizations in New Zealand. The descriptive survey method was used, which involved pilot interviews and structured questionnaire surveys. Content analysis, multi-attribute analysis and rank correlation tests were used in the analysis of the data. Results showed that clients' would prefer a procurement system that can ensure the delivery of the project within time, budget and quality/specification targets. Other priority needs include fixed price tender, competitive/ lowest price tenders, separate service provider for the design and management of the construction, life cycle cost, risk preference and to accommodate variation orders without incurring financial penalties. Construction management type of procurement system offering responsibilities for monitoring and coordinating the construction process is the ideal procurement route that could best meet the needs of the New Zealand construction clients. However, the sequential traditional procurement system is the most commonly used; clients are not prepared to adopt any other system that could better meet their procurement needs. The most influential reason for this is the perceived risk evasiveness of clients in the adoption of other systems which are not tried and tested. The use of partnering clause in the prevailing sequential traditional system is recommended to ensure win-win outcomes for all stakeholders and to motivate service providers to deliver more satisfactory outcomes to their clients. Keywords Construction clients, construction industry, clients' needs, construction management, procurement system.

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  • How are babies made? : discourses of foetal "persons" and pregnant "mothers" in news media and health education texts : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Women's Studies at Massey University

    Parker, Christy Susan (2007)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Adopting a social constructionist perspective this research asks how are babies made? This question destabilises the local reproductive context asking how foetuses and their mothers have come to matter. I have analysed "everyday" texts broadly circulated in this context addressing matters related to pregnancy. These include health education posters intended to communicate health information to pregnant women, and news media articles from daily newspapers throughout Aotearoa New Zealand. Using a discourse analytic method, I have identified a strong discursive practice of subjectifying foetuses as entities separate from pregnant women with distinct identities: foetal persons. While foetal subjects take various forms, the dominant construction is the "unborn baby," a vulnerable infant who must be protected from harm and emerges as the central subject of pregnancy. The construction of pregnant subjects in these texts relates to the construction of foetal subjects. Pregnant women (and potentially pregnant women) arc reduced to their bodies' reproductive role as "maternal environments," ones which pose risks to the foetus. However, they are also constructed as maternal subjects. As "mothers," pregnant women are individually responsible for ensuring the health and wellbeing of foetuses. The "good mother" will of course do anything she can for her "child" by self-regulating her potentially harmful behaviour. The "acquiescent mother" acquiesces to biomedical interventions on behalf of the foetus. Pregnant subjects who do not self-regulate their behaviour and acquiesce to biomedical interventions are "bad" maternal subjects who harm their "children." The discourses of biomedicine (and biomedical sciences) and public health, particularly those of risk, emerge as dominant in constructing and naturalising of these reproductive subjects. I consider the implications of these subjects for social practices around reproduction, and for midwifery practice.

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  • Is there a relationship between substance use disorders and violent offending? : a case study of Rimutaka and Wellington male prisoners : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Rehabilitation at Massey University

    Jones, Amanda (2007)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    New Zealand imprisonment per capita rates are second only to the USA with continued growth expected in the next decade. Previous research and extensive personal work experience within the prison system suggests that there is a connection between Substance Use Disorders (SUDs) and crime. The main object of this study was to investigate and ascertain if there is a relationship between occurrences of SUDs and violent offending. This is a complex question, as it is unlikely that SUDs are the only determinants of violent offending. Demographics, ethnicity, education and other environmental and psychological factors will also be contributing factors. The current study tests SUDs and 'other factors' to see if a relationship exists. Two hundred prisoners from Rimutaka and Wellington Prisons were randomly selected from a possible sample size of 850. The 102 respondents who chose to take part in the study were administered the Substance Use Disorders Diagnostic Schedule (SUDDS-IV). Seventy of these 102 prisoners were in prison for having committed a violent offence. A demographic questionnaire followed the psychometric test. Surprisingly, SUDs (both substance abuse and substance dependence), were not found to be statistically more significant in prisoners that had offended violently. Overall, SUDs were found in 99% of the entire population. Eighty-four percent diagnosed with substance dependence and a further 8.8% with substance abuse. Only 6.9% did not have a SUD at all. Fifty-eight percent of the sample investigated identified themselves as Maori, 26.5 European and 13.7% Pacific Islanders. This study found that those imprisoned for a violent conviction were more likely to be Maori. In addition, it illustrated that the prisoners convicted for violence were more likely to have only two years secondary school education or less. Evidence also shows that Maori studied were less likely to be educated. However, such findings require more validation for use as evidence in prisoner research. Further research could include a qualitative approach with emphasis on Maori with limited education and a propensity to be violent. This research would be beneficial if directed towards the unique lives of New Zealand prisoners, their families and specifically the children of the established offenders. The main objective would be to provide information about the next generation of violent offenders. The data and intelligence gathered could be then utilised to better manage and treat violent offenders.

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  • Testing the usability of well scaled mobile maps for consumers

    van Elzakker, C.P.J.M.; van Oosterom, P.J.M.; Delikostidis, I. (2007)

    Conference Contributions - Other
    University of Canterbury Library

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  • Intermarriage : its role and importance within early New Zealand shore whaling stations : a thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in History at Massey University

    Owen, Emily V (2007)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Early contact history in New Zealand involved many hard working rugged European men who came to our shores to work as sealers, flax and timber traders as well as whalers, and their interaction with Māori who lived in and visited the areas which they frequented. It is the last of these men, the whalers who provide the context for this thesis. School history lessons and general New Zealand history books generally discuss whaling within New Zealand waters. Some provide enough information to give their audience a general understanding of some aspects of New Zealand's whaling history, while others contain so little that one might think that whaling had no impact on New Zealand's past. However this is not true; whaling had a significant impact in New Zealand's past and this impact has continued through to our contemporary society. Whaling had many consequences within early nineteenth century New Zealand, including the introduction of new commodities to Māori, such as tobacco, clothing, European tools and muskets which would all, to some extent, begin to change their traditional way of life. Interaction between whalers and local Māori brought on cultural changes. This interaction came in many forms, often through trade, but also the relationships between Māori women and European whalers. It is these relationships which are the focus of this thesis. Relationships between Māori women and European whalers started occurring when whaling ships began calling on New Zealand shores at the beginning of the nineteenth century. Often these relationships involved only fleeting encounters, but still they were the beginning of a trend which would, within the next forty years, see many shore whalers legally marry Māori women. This thesis deals with shore whalers who began to arrive in New Zealand during the late 1820s rather than the earlier deep sea whalers who called on Kororareka in the Bay of Islands. While deep sea whalers were the first to form relationships with Māori women they were in many respects different to shore whalers. Shore whalers were required to stay on shore for months at a time as opposed to a few days like deep sea whalers this meant they required different things from Māori they interacted with. This thesis will look at the relationships and marriages between European shore whalers from various locations along New Zealand's coastline and local women from the late 1820s through to 1845, discussing their role and importance within early New Zealand whaling stations.

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  • Hearing voices : the gendered nature of mental health practices in New Zealand in the 1920s and 1940s : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements of Master of Arts in Women's Studies at Massey University

    Adams, Glennys Elaine (2007)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis asks what insights can be gained from the oral histories of mental nurses and attendants about the gendered nature of mental health practices in New Zealand in the 1920s - 1940s. Previously recorded interviews provided the primary texts for analysis. In considering both their oral accounts and memories as constructions, feminist poststructuralist models are used to study the nurses' and attendants' experiences. Utilising gender as an analytical tool meant that the narrators' memories were understood as the gendered products of the interconnections between the practices and discourses of culture and individual subjectivity, and that gender was implicated in the practices and production of power in mental institutions. Discourse theory and practices provided the conceptual framework and methodology for an analysis that regarded knowledge as residing in and produced by discourses. By studying the different constructions of female nurses and male attendants in discourses of mental nursing it was possible to recognise how these representations legitimised and privileged particular kinds of knowledge and power. Contextualising the narratives socially and culturally enabled consideration of how the nurses and attendants reproduced dominant discourses of femininity and masculinity in circulation at the time they were working. The findings point to the way in which powerful discourses of gender predicated on the separation of women and men respectively into private and public spheres, intersected with gendered assumptions of mental illness and mental nursing. The oral testimonies show that the female nurses were situated between the paradigms of these discourses, but because subjectivities are not fixed and immutable, they adopted different and changing positions in relation to them at different times. Although it is argued that discourses of gender did shape the subjectivities of the nurses and attendants and were employed to support gendered institutional practices this was more complex than first appears. The voices of the female nurses can be heard sometimes embracing, sometimes resisting and sometimes transgressing gender norms.

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  • International marketing strategies of Chinese multinationals : the case studies of Haier and Lenovo : a 156.799 research report presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for a Master of Management in Marketing at Massey University

    Guo, Jian (2007)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Recently, multinationals emerging from transition economics have drawn a great deal of interest from marketing researchers. In particular, Chinese multinationals which have had assistance and encouragement from their government are entering into the international marketplace. It is noticeable that many Chinese multinationals have already performed aggressively in the global market. The aim of this study is to identify the international marketing strategies used by Chinese multinationals and to compare them with the findings of the existing literature. This research adopts a cross case study approach and it will primarily use secondary data collected from multiple sources, such as journal articles, published interviews and Internet databases. A review of the current academic literature on this issue indicates that few studies have been conducted in the area of Chinese multinationals' international marketing strategies. Most of the studies have concentrated on western successful multinationals' internationalisation and marketing strategies. Based on the in-depth analysis of two Chinese multinationals; Haier, and Lenovo; this report serves not only to provide Chinese multinationals with knowledge and information regarding global marketing strategies, but also contributes to the academic literature by emphasising an understanding of how Chinese multinationals compete in global markets.

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  • Understanding Māori youth smoking : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    Nepe, Melanie (2007)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The understanding of Māori youth smoking from a qualitative perspective has been neglected in the literature. While there has been a wide scope of research detailing the promoting and protective factors that put Māori youth at risk to smoking, there continues to be a high rate of smoking for Māori youth, particularly among young Māori females. This research endeavoured to discover what smoking means to Māori youth, and to explore the relationship between Māori youth smoking, and the effect that culture plays in the development of smoking behaviour. An objective of this research was to gather data that can inform and contribute to existing knowledge about Māori youth smoking, for the development of youth tobacco interventions. A qualitative study using focus groups was conducted to explore the meaning of smoking to Māori youth. The youth were aged 15-18 years of age. The focus groups explored the roles and meanings of smoking in Māori youth lives, by exploring their smoking histories, and maintenance processes involved in their daily experiences of smoking. Findings showed the initiation of smoking was strongly related to peer group membership. Role modeling by family and peers influenced smoking, with the progression of smoking linked to smoking etiquette and transition to adulthood. Maintenance of smoking was related to emotional well being and the normalization of smoking behaviour. Tobacco use was regarded as an important and enjoyable aspect of many of the participants' lives.

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  • Management of threats and errors in normal operations of assistant controllers : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master in Aviation at Massey University

    Yeung, Timothy Kwan Chi (2007)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    "To err is indeed human, so to err is normal" Human errors are usually pronounced in accident or incident reports. Seldom does one pay enough attention to these errors during daily normal operations as these either go unnoticed or unreported for whatsoever the reasons may be. Therefore, the causes of these errors and also the system threats prevalent in the daily operations may not be fully contained. On the other hand, problematic situations that are successfully tackled by human skills are quite often treated as less important than they really are. The job of an assistant controller (AC) is one of the important domains in air traffic management (ATM). The AC work together with air traffic controllers as team members and they do have direct and indirect contributions to the safe, orderly and efficient flow of air traffic. In this study, the threats, errors and potential undesired states occurring with AC during normal operations will be recorded by a methodology, which is new to Hong Kong Air Traffic Control (ATC). This methodology, called Normal Operations Safety Observation (NOSO), is built on the Threat and Error Management (TEM) framework. The results will generate a broad outline on what sorts of threats, errors and undesired states an AC can be facing during normal operations. The relative frequencies of occurrence of these conditions will be presented separately in tables and figures. The AC's potential vulnerabilities and capabilities to cope with these threats, errors and undesired states will be discussed together with a suggested ranking. It is envisaged that an analysis of the data collected will aid the development and evaluation of safety defence measures in ATM and further support the applicability of this data collection methodology in other ATM operations and subsequent researches. KEYWORDS:- Normal Operations Safety Observation, Threat and Error Management, Safety Management, Air Traffic Control.

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  • Are we retaining our Maori talent? : representative youth netballers : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Education at Massey University

    McCausland-Durie, Yvette (2007)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    A case study research method was employed to address the question of retention for Māori youth netballers. Despite the fact that young Māori are well populated in the junior age groups of representative netball, a decline at the senior representative levels is apparent. This decline was particularly evident during the period of adolescence contributing to the research focus. Exploring the retention factors relative to this group required consideration of these three interrelated domains: education, gifted and talented education, and sport. Previous studies related to Māori Education, Māori in Sport, and Gifted Females led to this research. The findings highlighted three key themes: intrapersonal, interpersonal and structural factors. These factors are underpinned by cultural elements which when amalgamated become critical contributors to retention. As such, this research revealed that there is no single factor that will predictably lead to the fulfillment of retention issues for Māori female youth however several conclusions have been drawn. Firstly that the challenge of balancing multiple, and often, conflicting roles as students, athletes, females and Māori is reflective of racial and gender stereotypes in society. Secondly, that our policies in education and sport need to reflect that 'being Maori' is understood in a broader context encompassing both Māri and non-Māori. In practice, operations which reflect Kaupapa Māori principles will further enhance the participants self efficacy which will lead to improved experiences. Enhancing participants' quality of experiences in education and sport requires a recognition that access as a predecessor to retention greatly impacts on the institution or organizations ability to maintain Māori youth interest levels.

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  • Analysis of results in simulation and modeling of CDMA systems

    Kolahi, Samad (2007-07-01)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    In this paper, using discrete event stochastic simulation by batch-means, new results have been obtained by analysing the sensitivity of CDMA blocking probability for a given traffic load against various number of calls per batch and confidence intervals. It is found that for the system under study one long simulation with one million call arrivals produce approximately 99% confidence in results while it needs 100,000 calls to achieve 95% confidence. For system under study and with 27 Erlang of traffic, the blocking probability is 0.0202 with 99% confidence and 0.0192 with 95% confidence. The impact of warm-up period on CDMA simulation is discussed. Situation with three tiers of neighbouring cells are considered when mobile compares three base stations and chooses the base station with the strongest signal.

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  • Have your cake and eat it too : the treatment of contemporaneous relationships under the Property (Relationships) Act 1976

    Reid, Adrianne Nicola (2007)

    Honours Dissertation thesis
    University of Otago

    Although it is clear from the Act that a person can be in more than one qualifying relationship at a time, the courts have shown themselves to be reluctant to recognise contemporaneous relationships as falling within the ambit of the Act. Because of this, contemporaneous relationships will only be recognised where it is abundantly clear that the parties are living together as a couple. Sections 52A and 52B are designed to divide property between relationships, and do not override the usual rules governing the division of relationship property between the partners in a relationship. Sections 52A and 52B will apply after the court finds that the relationship property of contemporaneous relationships overlap, and they will only apply to those pieces of property which are found to be relationship property of both relationships. The first limb of the rule in sections 52A and 52B will be redundant as all property that is relationship property of a relationship is attributable to that relationship. Property which is relationship property of both relationships will be divided between the relationships in accordance with their respective contributions to its acquisition. Sections 52A and 52B work to the advantage of the common partner, leaving them with half of the total relationship property. Because sections 52A and 52B only apply if the court has made findings in respect of each relationship, it is to the advantage of the common partner to litigate both disputes simultaneously, rather than undergo successive settlements with each partner. Sections 52A and 52B can also be used to manipulate the outcome where only one of the relationships has ended, or, in the case of the common partners' death, where one of the partners has an interest in retaining as much of the relationship property as possible between themselves and the deceased common partners estate. Given the difficulties in applying sections 52A and 52B, and their fairly arbitrary outcome, they would be better replaced with an unambiguous provision which allocated specified shares to the relationships on a more objective basis. [Extract from Introduction]

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