4,489 results for 2008

  • Policing New Zealand : perspectives of rural and urban police officers : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Psychology at Massey University

    Fowler, Corinne Elizabeth (2008)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis presents an exploration into rural and urban police officers' perceptions and experiences of their work in Northland, New Zealand. Although international research has already investigated police officers' rural and urban experiences, there is a lack of similar literature in New Zealand. The only studies conducted within the New Zealand Police (NZP) have resulted in contradictory data, creating a debate about whether there is a difference in policing rural and urban areas. A study by Winfree and Taylor (2004) into whether the perceptions of NZP staff differed in rural, small town or metropolitan areas found little difference between either the NZP personnel themselves, or their perceptions of policing. This contrasts with research by Jaeger (2002) and Goddard and Jaeger (2005), who explored not only policing but also the strategies utilised within the roles. Goddard and Jaeger proposed that there are significant differences between officers in rural and urban areas. The current research attempts to resolve this debate, exploring both rural and urban perspectives through the use of Grounded Theory. Interviews with 16 police officers based in the Northland District were conducted to capture the essence of their experiences. Seven key categories emerged: community, job role, management, safety, the judicial system, police culture, and family and personal life. These were placed under the core category of 'Boundaries'. It emerged that rural officers found it difficult to implement boundaries due to their isolation and need for a working relationship with the community. Urban officers, however, described how the implementation of boundaries enabled them to work effectively in their environment. Consequently, this research found that there is a difference in the rural and urban policing experience, supporting the findings of Goddard and Jaeger (2005). It is hoped that the individual themes and overall findings from this research will stimulate further investigation into the experience of policing. While it only explored one New Zealand Police District, the information contributes to a deeper understanding of police perspectives and experiences.

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  • A right to a risk filled life : understanding and analysis of the risk discourse for consumers in mental health : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Social Policy at Massey University

    Phillips, Ross (2008)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis documents the perspective and discourse of risk for eleven people who identify as someone with lived experiences of mental illness and mental health service use. The thesis followed a participatory methodology and involved consumers in both formulating and conducting the research. Following qualitative research methods some key findings included that there was a correlation between increased exposures to risk during increased acute unwellness; increased exposure to risk because of service use; that the people interviewed wished to have some control and self-responsibility in managing risks, that life was full of risk and that this was quite usual; and importantly, that risk was experienced as a stigmatizing phenomena for the participants. The stigma of risk was such that participants had to develop significant coping strategies to manage others perceptions and deal with the experience of having normal behaviours and emotions considered by others as abnormal and risky. The thesis makes recommendations for consumers, services and mental health service staff and for policy makers. Many of the recommendations consider how understandings of risk and approaches to risk management could alter or increase consumer safety and wellbeing. The thesis additionally includes an analysis of the participatory process that was followed with recommendations made encouraging an increased frequency and strengthened quality of consumer participation in research.

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  • Sharing Building Information using the IFC Data Model for FDS Fire Simulation

    Dimyadi, Johannes; Spearpoint, M.; Amor, R. (2008)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    This paper describes part of a research project that looks into the potential and challenge of using the Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) open standard building information model in fire engineering design. In particular the paper describes work undertaken to share building geometry and other information with the Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) fire simulation model. A commercially available building information modeling (BIM) authoring application has been used to create building geometries and export IFC data files. A web-based conversion tool has been created to generate FDS input data given the output from a dedicated fire engineering IFC parser tool. The capabilities and outcome of data sharing process is illustrated in this paper using a simple test case building.

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  • The motivation to migrate, acculturation, and finding employment : the case of African migrants in New Zealand : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of a Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    Udahemuka, Martine Marie-Gloria (2008)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The present study tested a model whereby Psychological Acculturation mediated the relationship between the Psychological Motives to Migrate and the Employment Outcome of African migrants in New Zealand. These concepts had not been previously studied together. Job search strategies, interview behaviours, qualifications and duration of time in the host country are principally known as predictors of employment outcome; therefore, their impacts were also taken into consideration. One hundred and five African migrants completed a questionnaire, which included a number of reliable measures used to assess the concepts of: (a) Psychological Motives to Migrate (Tharmaseelan, 2005), (b) Psychological Acculturation preferences (Ward & Rana-Deuba, 1999) and (c) Employment Outcome (Mace, 2004; Tharmaseelan, 2005). Job search strategies and interview behaviours were assessed with Mace's (2004) measures. Multivariate analyses showed that over and above demographic migration categories (economic, family, humanitarian, student and visitor), psychological motives to migrate (financial betterment, family building, exploration and escaping) predicted acculturation preferences. Specifically, voluntary migrants (those motivated by 'family building' and 'exploration') preferred to adapt to New Zealand culture, while less voluntary migrants (those motivated by 'escaping') had a higher preference to maintain their culture of origin. Acculturation preferences were not found to mediate the relationship between motives to migrate and employment outcome. The predicted links to employment outcome were not supported. Duration of time in New Zealand was correlated with acculturation preferences. Implications of the findings point to the fundamentally of assessing reasons to migrate from a psychological perspective, and also provide important linkages between motivational theory and acculturation theory. The implication must however be interpreted cautiously as per the limitations of the study. It was recommended that future researchers test the same model with improved measures and with a larger sample. In addition, future researchers could assess and compare the acculturation preferences and employment experiences of the 1.5 generation and their adult parents.

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  • Out of sight, out of mind : an exploration of the sexuality experiences of women with enduring mental illness : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Nursing at Massey University

    Davison, Joanna (2008)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis explores the sexuality experiences of women with enduring mental illness. Sexuality is a complex and important aspect of a person's health and well-being. Yet, health professionals seem generally reluctant to discuss sexuality related issues, and few research studies have explored the sexuality of women with enduring mental illness. The aim of this research was to gain a deeper understanding about these women's sexuality experiences, including how they would like health professionals to address this aspect of their lives. Eight women were interviewed individually, and then together as a focus group. Working from a feminist theoretical perspective, the interview transcripts were analysed thematically. All the women considered their sexuality an essential component of their identity. However, powerful interlocking systems controlled and influenced how the women expressed their sexuality, often marginalising, and positioning them as 'Other'. The women's experiences highlight the need for mental health professionals to recognise that sexuality is an important aspect of a person's care and recovery. Mental health professionals need to offer services that enable women with enduring mental illness to openly discuss their sexuality.

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  • Is participatory governance of relevance to corporate governance? : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Development Studies at Massey University

    Penny, Kim (2008)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The Grameen Bank, offering neighbourhood-banking services to over five million of the world's most neglected and poor human beings, is perhaps the world's most successful academic-action research project. Now with over five million members, monthly loan dispersal of nearly US$50 million, and constituting over 1% of the Bangladesh GDP. the Grameen Bank started with $25 from Economics Professor Muhammad Yunus' own pocket. There is now no shortage of literature on governments, industries, corporations, organisations and individuals grappling with what governance is and what it means on a day-to-day basis. As the corporate world comes to terms with stakeholder and shareholder involvement in a manner that sometimes appears to be largely rhetorical, in an apparent parallel universe, the discourse of participatory governance is becoming increasingly important for those working in the field of bilateral aid and Non-Government Development Organisations (NGOs). Despite the lack of engagement between those working in these two fields, there appears to be a degree of overlap between these two discourses. It is this possible overlap that underpins the concerns of this thesis. The thesis thus addresses the question: Are there lessons from participatory governance of relevance to the corporate world? If so. what are they? By researching the structure and workings of the governance of the Grameen Bank, it was found that a corporation can prosper using participatory governance, a governance style given the name of participatory corporate governance. This model can assist to create an institutional duality that balances social purpose with the need for positive financial outcomes, further findings show that despite the lack of engagement between the discourses of participatory and corporate governance there does appear to be an overlap in the 'best practice' requirements of each.

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  • The impact of self-efficacy and cognitive appraisal on coping adaptability in military recruits : a test of a model and its impact on organisational outcomes : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    Loughran, Bethany (2008)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The present research aimed to test a model of adaptation in RNZAF recruits which was similar in structure to transactional models of stress such as Lazarus and Folkman's (1984) model. Using a longitudinal design and dispositional measures the study assessed the impact of general self-efficacy and cognitive appraisal at the start of recruit training on coping adaptability at the end of training. These variables were also assessed as to their impact on organisationally relevant variables including organisational commitment, perceived performance improvement and readiness for next career phase. Overall the study had two broad aims. The first was to confirm the relationships between appraisal, coping adaptability and outcomes as previously shown in transactional models of stress and coping. The second aim was to discover how self-efficacy impacted on the model, more specifically, whether it acted as a moderator, mediator or antecedent to the appraisal – coping relationship. The results confirmed that challenge appraisal was associated with better organisational outcomes, this relationship was fully mediated by coping adaptability. Self-efficacy was strongly correlated with challenge appraisal however did not moderate the appraisal – coping relationship nor did it mediate the appraisal – coping adaptability relationship. The direct relationship between self-efficacy and coping adaptability was however, fully mediated by challenge appraisal. Threat appraisal did not demonstrate strong relationships with the remaining variables in this sample. Additionally, general self-efficacy, challenge appraisal and coping adaptability were associated with organisational commitment and readiness but not with performance improvement.

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  • Exploring the effect of group polarisation on perceived invulnerability in general aviation pilots : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Aviation at Massey University

    Lee, Seung Yong (2008)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Although both perceived invulnerability and group polarisation are well known psychological phenomena, there has not been any research conducted to examine the effect of group polarisation on the level of perceived invulnerability amongst general aviation pilots. Two studies were conducted to measure the level of perceived invulnerability amongst general aviation pilots and to test whether the level of perceived invulnerability was affected due to group polarisation. The first study tested 34 pilots. Although the majority of the pilots exhibited perceived invulnerability, there was no evidence suggesting that low level group interaction induced group polarisation leading to an increase in individual's level of perceived invulnerability. The second study examined 78 pilots. Although the majority of the participants displayed perceived invulnerability, there was no evidence suggesting that high level group interaction resulted in group polarisation leading to an increase in individual's level of perceived invulnerability. There was no evidence that the two experimental manipulations (low group interaction and high group interaction) differed in effectiveness, as the effect size between studies I and II did not significantly differ. Although it is of some concern to general aviation safety that the majority of the pilots in both studies exhibited perceived invulnerability, the level of perceived invulnerability does not appear to be increased by a group polarisation effect. The latter finding is consistent with safe operations, having found no evidence that multi-crew operations lead to increased levels of perceived invulnerability. In addition to the implication of the current findings, limitations of the present study, possible areas for further research and recommendations are presented.

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  • An evaluation of the ecology and riparian management of the south branch of the Whareroa Stream, Paekakariki : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Applied Science in Natural Resource Management at Massey University

    Palmer, Karen Thelma (2008)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Whareroa Farm, Mackays Crossing, Paekakariki, was bought by the Department of Conservation in 2005. The goal was to effect the restoration of a corridor for flora and fauna from the Akatarawa Forest in the east to Queen Elizabeth Park and the sea in the west. The south branch of the Whareroa Stream, which arises as a series of tributaries from a ridge 272m above sea level, traverses Whareroa Farm and the adjacent Queen Elizabeth Park. It was thought likely that the stream had been severely affected ecologically during a century of cattle and sheep farming, though the degree to which the ecological degradation had occurred was unknown. Obvious deforestation and land use changes suggested that, in concert with many other New Zealand hill country farms, the ecological changes would be significant. To establish and quantify the degree of degradation, the Auckland Regional Council (ARC) Stream Environment Valuation (SEV) protocol was applied to the Whareroa Stream and its tributaries. Five sites were selected for valuation, varying from open pasture to bush covered and open parkland. The resulting SEV scores showed losses of ecological value ranging from 32% to 46% across the sites. The Macroinvertebrate Community Index (MCI) and the fish Index of Biological Integrity (IBI) were measured at each site. Results indicated that aquatic habitats were unable to sustain adequate assemblages at four of the five sites. The valuations of the riparian zones at each site used the River Environment Classification (REC) and Riparian Management Classification (RMC) protocols. The results indicated that current riparian characteristics showed poor to absent effective riparian zones from the headwaters to the sea at all sites. Riparian zones are pivotal to the provision of stream ecological integrity and are responsible for maintaining the longitudinal, lateral and vertical connectivity between a stream, its network and its surrounding land. The loss of in-stream organic matter from lack of riparian vegetation together with the loss of effective temperature control from lack of shade, impacts negatively on the habitats for macroinvertebrates and fish. This was highlighted in the Whareroa Stream network. While the SEV and RMC evaluations showed that, with best practice management plans, there was great potential for improvement of the Whareroa Stream ecology, any riparian restoration would require sympathetic and improved fencing, withdrawal of stock from stream access and the retirement of headwater land from pastoral use. The loss of ecological integrity that occurs as a result of prolonged land use changes from forest to agriculture is well illustrated by the situation in the south branch of the Whareroa Stream and its tributaries.

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  • Integrated curriculum, mathematics and standards based assessment in secondary education : parts of the solution : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Educational Studies in Mathematics at Massey University

    Morey, Chris (2008)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The concept of integrated curriculum (IC) has a long history in the education literature dating back to the 1920s. The approach is based on the belief that curriculum is most engaging and effective when driven by student interest and subject boundaries are transcended as required to support thematic and inquiry based learning. Integrated approaches had little impact on mainstream subject based curricula through most of the twentieth century but in the last 10 to 20 years interest has increased markedly. A case study methodology was adopted for this research to explore: how IC is currently being implemented in New Zealand, how mathematics is related to integrated programmes; how standards based assessment (SBA), particularly NCEA, impacts on IC; and how current proposals for the evolution of NCEA and SBA for IC are regarded by IC practitioners. Three secondary schools with substantial IC programmes participated. Data was gathered primarily through semi-structured interviews with senior teachers: four from integrated studies disciplines (English and social sciences) and four from mathematics. The three schools were found to be distributed widely along the interdisciplinary continuum from strongly subject based to more transdisciplinary curricula. Three major categories of integration themes were common to all three schools: Social Justice and Local Issues; Sustainable Economics and Environment; and Biography, Self discovery and Change. The three schools had quite distinct ways of managing the formal collegial collaboration required for the coordination and development of integration programmes. All three reported tensions related to this collaboration. It is suggested that the interdisciplinary continuum conceptualization of IC be expanded to include a social dimension. Learning gains, increased student motivation and improved student behaviour were reported to be the main benefits of IC although the mathematics participants were more equivocal about motivational benefits than the integrated studies participants. The main challenges reported were concerned with integrated curriculum development, rigour, assessment, and timetable and programme coordination. Strategies suggested for overcoming perceived difficulties included professional development for teachers in all aspects of IC, and time and funding for the development of integrated curriculum and assessment resources. Mathematics was found to be a particularly difficult discipline to integrate with others, especially the social sciences. The mathematics/integrated studies divide was characterised by contrasting orientations toward curriculum and assessment, differing perceptions of student motivation and differences in collegial collaborative styles. The mathematics participants regarded small group and inquiry based learning and assessment as promising strategies for developing IC in mathematics. Level 1 NCEA mathematics unit standards and level 3 statistics standards were reported as being amenable to combinations with standards in other learning areas for assessing interdisciplinary courses. The NCEA was seen by participants as a positive development for IC. However, negative impacts also noted included: credit seeking, curriculum fragmentation, and constraints placed on interdisciplinary combinations of standards by university entrance requirements. The proposed development for NCEA regarded as most promising for IC was new broad-based integrated standards linked to groups of existing content and skills specific standards.

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  • An investigation into practices, issues and improvement opportunities of logistical outsourcing : a study of integrated warehouse services : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Applied Science in Logistics and Supply Chain Management at Massey University

    Rachmayani, Novianti (2008)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Some Bahasa Indonesian Language

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  • How New Zealand women experience their partners' imprisonment : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    Crabtree, Angela J (2008)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    In New Zealand in 2006 there were almost 6,000 men in prison, with predictions that the numbers may rise to 9,000 by the year 2010. Almost a quarter of those imprisoned men reported having a spouse or partner at home, and almost 600 reported one or more dependent children. This means that there are at least 2,500 women and children in New Zealand who are directly affected by the incarceration of their man. My aim in this research was to explore the impacts and meaning of imprisonment for those women whose partners are in prison, and thereby to contribute to an understanding of these impacts, stimulate debate, and draw attention to a silenced and undervalued population within our communities. In-depth, unstructured interviews were used to collect data from six women whose partners were in prison. lnterviews were recorded, transcribed, and analysed using a narrative approach of inquiry. Data analysis supports prior findings that the impacts of imprisonment of a partner are generally detrimental to women and families. The women interviewed reported difficulties related to their partners' imprisonment in almost every aspect of their lives: emotional, physical, financial, social and familial. There is currently little social, community, or government support for these women and families, despite the recognition that family well-being is critically important in reducing recidivism. I offer some recommendations for improving the situation for women whose partners are in prison, and make suggestions for future research.

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  • Tangata whaiora/consumers perspectives on current psychiatric classification systems

    Moeke-Maxwell, Tess; Wells, D; Mellsop, Graham (2008-06-12)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background A number of studies have been undertaken with the aim of considering the utility of mental health classification systems from the perspective of a variety of stakeholders. There is a lack of research on how useful consumers/tangata whaiora think these are in assisting them in their recovery. Methods Seventy service users were involved in seven focus groups in order to consider this question. Results and discussion While for clinicians diagnosing someone might be a discrete event and easily forgotten as a moment in a busy schedule, most people in this study remembered the occasion and aftermath very clearly. The overall consensus was that whether being 'diagnosed' was helpful or not, in large part, depended on how the process happened and what resulted from being 'labeled' in the person's life. Conclusion Overall, people thought that in terms of their recovery, the classification systems were tools and their utility depended on how they were used. They suggested that whatever tool was used it needed to help them make sense of their distress and provide them with a variety of supports, not just medication, to assist them to live lives that were meaningful to them.

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  • Being comfortable : having and making a comfortable cognitive and environmental habitat : a grounded theory on the meaning of home : a thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    Aspinall, Charlotte Nicola (2008)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Prior research on the meanings of home represents a rather fragmented set of studies. The present research utilises phenomenology and aims to create a grounded theory on the meanings of home which is explorative, participant-led and integrates the current state of home research. 15 participants singularly took part in semi-structured interviews, including myself as a participant-researcher. The interviews were audio taped but not transcribed. The interviews were then analysed qualitatively as per grounded theory methodology. Participant's interpretation of the word home was both construed as having a spatial definition, and varying along a continuum from home as a house to a more subjective definition of home. The core code that the data generated on the meanings of home was that home was primarily about being comfortable. The basic social process of making a comfortable habitat was the main axial code. While the idea of comfort held strong between participants there was much individuality as to what was comfortable and which particular strategies were employed to make home comfortable. The result was a grounded theory about person environment interactions in the field of home, a cognitive and a physical habitat. Implications of this theory are discussed in relation to current and future home research as well as suggestions for practical applications.

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  • Bullying in secondary schools : a discursive approach : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Psychology at Massey University

    Ryan, Anne Beryl (2008)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This study attempts to transcend the narrow boundaries imposed on mainstream research into bullying by its adherence to a modernist discourse of individualism. The theoretical framework for this research argues that a modernist focus has both limited our understanding of the phenomenon and contributed to its continued occurrence. An approach that is underpinned by the ontological and epistemological assumptions of a social constructionist paradigm offers the potential for a broader and more encompassing analysis of this formidable social issue. Language is taken as a critical focus of attention because of its pervasiveness in social interaction. Discourse is understood as actively constructing the experience and meaning of bullying. Furthermore, a consideration of the power relationships embedded within discourse is an essential feature of this approach. The study involved interviewing 24 senior students from a small provincial New Zealand secondary school to discuss a range of issues surrounding bullying. These interviews were taped and transcribed and a discourse analysis was carried out to gain an understanding of how students talk constructed bullying. Discourses were identified that constructed bullying as disparity, as irrelevant, as a consequence of difference, as a form of discipline, and as inevitable. The construction of bullying as disparity was seen to struggle against the other prevailing educational discourses that together functioned to maintain the status quo of power relationships in the educational institution. It is suggested that the acceptance of such 'common sense' constructions of bullying are effectively sustaining the pervasiveness of bullying in schools today.

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  • Devil's in the Detail: Non-Commercial Business Losses

    Cassidy, Julie (2008)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Behind the economic figures : large-scale mining and rural poverty reduction in Zambia : the case of Kansanshi Copper Mine in Solwezi : a thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Development Studies at Massey University, Palmerston North

    Cheelo, Kingsley Haanyembe (2008)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Mining is promoted as a lead-economic sector in most mineral-rich countries. Depending on the contemporary global development ideology, the place of mining within the development industry has always been justified. Under the poverty reduction agenda, which took the centre-stage in the late 1990s and early 2000s, it has been argued in theory that investments, especially in large-scale mining would lead to poverty reduction in mining communities through opening up economic opportunities in which they can participate; increase their capabilities to participate in the local economies; enhance their security by reducing their vulnerability and exposure to risks; and empowering them to participate in issues that affect their lives. Zambia as a mineral-rich country adapted the linkages between mining and poverty reduction and promoted the development of Kansanshi copper mine within the country's macroeconomic policy framework of achieving sustained economic growth and poverty reduction. Because of the positive response of the mining sector to huge investments, the domestic economy has been recording positive growth rates in excess of 5 percent since the beginning of the 2000s, with other economic indicators such as inflation, currency appreciation, and balance of payments recording positive trends. Applying the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework (SLF), this thesis explores the extent to which the development of Kansanshi copper mine in Solwezi has impacted on local people's livelihoods in the context of the four linkages between mining and poverty reduction promulgated in theory. It comes out clearly in the thesis that the development of the mine has opened up economic opportunities that are in areas that do not allow the full participation of local people; the development of local people's capabilities is either minimal or non-existent; mine development enhanced local people's vulnerability and exposure to risks through displacement and seizure of productive systems; and disempowered them through the way mining and land rights were obtained from the government. The thesis concludes on the note that since mining development cannot be stopped, there is need for governments to deliberately cater for local people who often struggle to fit within the transformed local economies through comprehensive implementation frameworks that promote interaction among parties involved and improved communication channels, skills training and provision of relevant resources such as agricultural inputs and microcredit facilities.

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  • Exploring political blogs as a form of alternative media

    Kenix, L.J. (2008)

    Oral Presentations
    University of Canterbury Library

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  • Hikaru Yamashita, Humanitarian Space and International Politics: The Creation of Safe Areas (Aldershot, UK: Ashgate Publishing, 2004)

    Moses, Jeremy (2008)

    Unclassified
    University of Canterbury Library

    Book review

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  • Hollow Avowals of Human Rights Protection - Time for an Australian Federal Bill of Rights?

    Cassidy, Julie (2008)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Unlike the constitutions of many nations, such as the United States of America and the Republic of South Africa, the constitutions of the Australian States and Territories and the Commonwealth Constitution Act 1901 (UK) contain no bill of rights. Australia is the only western democracy without a federal bill of rights. The debate regarding the need for a bill of rights necessitates an understanding of what human rights the people of Australia already enjoy. If sufficient protection can be found in existing sources, does Australia really need a federal bill of rights? Opponents of a bill of rights state that we have sufficient protection from arbitrary government intervention in our personal affairs and thus a bill of rights is unnecessary. There are a number of potential sources of human rights in Australia that might provide the suggested existing protection, including the common law, specific domestic legislation, international law and constitutional law. Each of these sources of human rights has, however, important limitations. The focus of this article is on the inadequacy of the Australian constitutions as a source of purported protection. This in turn suggests that an alternative source of rights is needed - a federal bill of rights? In the course of this analysis the author makes suggestions for reform; specifically how a federal bill of rights may address the paucity of constitutional protection.

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