7,189 results for 2011

  • Eradication of invasive predators on seabird islands

    Dunlevy, PA; Ebbert, SM; Russell, James; Towns, DR (2011-09-08)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Direct impacts of seabird predators on island biota other than seabirds

    Drake, DR; Bodey, T; Russell, James; Towns, DR; Nogales, M; Ruffino, L (2011-09-08)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Impacts of introduced predators on seabirds

    Towns, DR; Byrd, GV; Jones, HP; Rauzon, MJ; Russell, James; Wilcox, C (2011-09-08)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Performance monitoring of various network traffic generators

    Kolahi, Samad; Narayan, Shaneel; Nguyen, D.D.T; Sunarto, Y. (2011-03-31)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    In this paper, in a laboratory environment, the performance of four network traffic generators (Iperf, Netperf, D-ITG and IP Traffic) are compared. Two computers with Windows operating systems were connected via a 100 Mbps link and for various payload sizes, ranging from 128 Bytes to 1408 Bytes, the TCP traffic on the link was measured using the various monitoring tools mentioned above. The results indicate that these tools can produce significantly different results. In the Windows environment, the bandwidth that the tools measure can vary as much as 16.5 Mbps for a TCP connection over a 100 Mbps link. For the same network set up, Iperf measured the highest bandwidth (93.1 Mbps) while IP traffic the lowest (76.7 Mbps). A comparison of capabilities of traffic generators is also provided.

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  • The preservation of Māori textiles: Collaboration, research and cultural meaning.

    Smith, Catherine Ann; Te Kanawa, Kahutoi; White, Moira (2011)

    Conference item
    University of Otago

    Māori artefacts discovered in 1895 at Puketoi Station, Otago, South Island New Zealand, were re-examined using multiple methods to gather information of relevance and meaning to contemporary Māori culture. This paper discusses aspects of an interdisciplinary project including conservation treatment, plant material identification and examination of textile structure and details of cultural information thus uncovered. One artefact, the pukoro kete, or tutu-berry bag, is used as a case study to illustrate how knowledge uncovered about past material culture in collaboration with traditional owners can influence contemporary cultural practice and aid in affirmation of distinctive cultural identity.

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  • Re-examining conservation precepts; implications for conservation education

    Scott, Marcelle; Smith, Catherine Ann (2011)

    Conference item
    University of Otago

    In recognising a changing social future, this paper posits that the future relevance and sustainability of conservation is dependent on a re-evaluation of our professional pre-cepts, ethics, and working practices to more fully embrace and reflect interdisciplinary and cross-cultural ways of working. It argues that conservators must locate our practice within overarching global issues of poverty, human rights, ethics, climate change and sus-tainability. The implications for conservation pedagogy are examined, and the benefits of collaboration between universities and in-dustry partners are discussed.

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  • What’s in a Name? The Practice and Politics of Classifying Māori Textiles

    Smith, Catherine Ann; Laing, Raechel M (2011)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    This is a pre-print version of the article

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  • Re-examining conservation precepts - implications for conservation eductation

    Scott, Marcelle; Smith, Catherine Ann (2011-09-19)

    Conference paper
    University of Otago

    The cross-cultural and interdisciplinary nature of cultural materials conservation has been a prominent feature of the field’s discourse in recent decades. However, in considering the cross-cultural aspects of conservation practice, the authors and others have argued that conservators’ consultation and collaboration with community groups and indigenous people is frequently mediated by others (see for example Smith and Scott 2009, Edmonds and Wild 2000). In practice, much interdisciplinary activity in conservation to date could be critically described as multidisciplinary, characterized by Petrie (1976, 9) as a situation where ‘…everyone [does] his or her thing with little or no necessity for any one participant to be aware of any other participant’s work.’ More recently, conservation as a social act has gained prominence in the literature. In the introduction to the book Conservation: Principles, Dilemmas and Uncomfortable Truths, Richmond and Bracker acknowledge that conservation ‘is a socially constructed activity with numerous public stakeholders and those of us who act in the name of conservation do so ‘on behalf of society’ (2009, xvi–xiv). Global concerns of sustainability, often discussed in terms of environmental, economic and social impacts, are now fundamental to conservation decision-making. In 2000 the Australian Institute for the Conservation of Cultural Material (AICCM) introduced a new clause into the code of ethics to acknowledge the potential for conservation practices to negatively impact the environment, one of the few professional codes internationally to do so, although presumably this will change in the near future. In previous research by the authors (Smith and Scott 2009), members of the AICCM and the New Zealand Conservators of Cultural Materials Pu Manaaki Kahurangi (NZCCM) were surveyed on their views of the respective bodies’ codes. While the majority of respondents did consider the new clause important, a number were not sure that the clause itself had influenced practice. It was suggested that the changes which had occurred were as a result of general shifts in private and social philosophies and actions. While certainly reflecting a widely held opinion of the broader population, the AICCM acknowledgement of environmental impact is one of the few statements that translate personal practice into the professional conservation canon. These examples of the ways in which the field’s precepts and accepted norms are described, contested, advanced and refined demonstrate a change in focus and an expanding role for conservation, beyond the material and the single object focus. Drawing on the ICOM-CC 2011 conference theme this paper seeks to contribute to the burgeoning discussion calling for a broader, more inclusive role for conservation. The authors concur with the view that the future relevance and sustainability of conservation is dependent on a re-evaluation of our professional precepts, ethics, and working practices to more fully embrace and reflect interdisciplinary and cross-cultural ways of working, and that conservators must locate our practice within overarching global issues of poverty, human rights, ethics, climate change and sustainability. As more and more members of the conservation community are actively calling for broader engagement then it behoves educational programmes to incorporate these elements into the curriculum. This paper considers the implications of this changing role for conservation pedagogy.

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  • Cross-language phonetic priming in bilinguals.

    Sun, Keyi (2011)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis looks at cross-language phonetic priming effects on late L1-dominant bilinguals, with different degrees of proficiency within the group. The participants in the study are 14 Chinese-English late bilinguals, whose production of vowels and consonants in different priming language contexts was analysed. The 14 speakers were divided into two groups based on their language proficiency. Information collected from questionnaires in two different languages was used to divide them into the two groups. They were required to participate in the experiment in two different sessions. On one occasion the interviewer spoke English to them and this was followed by their English reading and Chinese reading; whereas on the other occasion the interviewer spoke Chinese and the subjects did the opposite reading order from the first condition. Significant results of the analyses show that non-early, L1-dominant bilinguals do not differ in proficiency across priming conditions. Both groups show significant changes as the result of language priming for exactly the same vowels and the same consonants. Significant changes in the production of the sounds reveal interference between certain L2 sounds and their L1 counterparts. However, near significant results also show an unexpected direction of changes in production in L2, which may have been caused by experimenter identity. Furthermore, transfer effects of L1 on L2 found only among high proficiency speakers suggest that inhibitory control is dependent on L2 proficiency.

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  • Medical screening of recreational divers for cardiovascular disease: Consensus discussion at the Divers Alert Network Fatality Workshop

    Mitchell, SJ; Bove, AA (2011-07)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Cardiac events are responsible for a significant proportion of recreational diving fatalities. It seems inescapable that our current systems for selecting suitable recreational diver candidates and for longitudinal monitoring of diver health are failing to exclude some divers at high risk of cardiac events. Based on review of practice in parallel sporting disciplines and of the relevant literature, a series of recommendations for screening questions, identification of disqualifying conditions and risk factors, and investigation of candidates with risk factors was drafted. Recommendations for ongoing health monitoring in established divers were also generated. These recommendations were promulgated and debated among experts at a dedicated session of the Divers Alert Network Fatality Workshop. As a result, we propose a modified list of screening questions for cardiovascular disease that can be incorporated into health questionnaires administered prior to diver training. This list is confluent with the American Heart Association (AHA) preparticipation screen for athletes. The exercise stress test unmasks inducible cardiac ischemia and quantifies exercise capacity, and remains the tool of choice for evaluating diver candidates or divers with risk factors for coronary disease. An exercise capacity that allows for sustained exercise at a 6-MET intensity (possibly representing a peak capacity of 11-12 METS) is an appropriate goal for recreational divers.

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  • "Badges of Tax Avoidance": Reform Options for the New Zealand GAAR

    Cassidy, Julie (2011-12)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    South Africa, Australia and New Zealand have sought to tackle the problem of tax avoidance through General Anti-Avoidance Rules (“GAAR”), rather than relying solely on measures that tackle very specific examples of tax avoidance. This article compares and contrasts the approaches taken in South Africa, Australia and New Zealand. The legislative goals of the Australian and South African provisions are very similar but the strategies underpinning each piece of legislation differ. The specific prerequisites in the Australian legislation lead ultimately to the question of whether or not the taxpayer or other participants intended to obtain a tax benefit through the scheme. By contrast, the South African legislation begins with broad terms that cast a wide net, but then hones in on the application of Part IIA by focusing on the common attributes of tax avoidance arrangements. The New Zealand provisions take yet another tack with Parliament leaving it to the courts to develop judicial interpretive techniques to determine if arrangements amount to tax avoidance. The New Zealand GAAR thus echoes the South African approach to some extent, as its application revolves around quite broad terms. Unlike the South African provisions however, there is no legislative directive as to what may be called the “badges of taxavoidance”; namely, indicia of tax avoidance arrangements with these being left to the judiciary to formulate. It is ultimately suggested that this approach is too uncertain and legislative clarification is warranted. Such reform should entail the enactment of “badges of taxavoidance” that will not only give legislative direction to the courts but also provide taxpayers and their advisors with guidelines when determining if the subject arrangement crosses the line between legitimate structuring and a tax avoidance arrangement.

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  • Gems of New Zealand Primary Health Care Research: COPD self-management in New Zealand: patient attitudes and behaviours

    Sheridan, Nicolette; Kenealy, Timothy; Salmon, E; Rea, Harold; Raphael, Deborah; Schmidt-Busby, J (2011)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Another Look at the Faunal Remains of CA-SCR-9

    Nims, Reno (2011-06)

    Undergraduate thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    CA-SCR-9 is an important early Middle Period (3100-2800 cal BP) site from the California central coast region that has been used to characterize residential base camps from that time. Previous studies have attempted to analyze the fauna using incomplete and non-representative samples, creating multiple, contradictory conclusions about the foodways of Middle Period peoples. The goal of this study was to synthesize and analyze all identified material to answer questions about the seasonal use of SCR-9, differences between two possible phases of occupation, and the adaptive strategies of Middle Period peoples on the California central coast. Using a representative sample of the fauna, this paper finds that SCR-9‟s inhabitants primarily preyed upon mule deer. However, diverse species of marine mammals, leporids, terrestrial carnivores, birds, and marine fishes were also deposited at SCR-9, and inland site. The faunal remains from SCR-9 alone are not enough to identify relationships between sites, but these marine materials suggest that SCR-9 may have functioned as a seasonal or year round habitation site from which Middle Period peoples traveled to coastal sites such as SMA-218, which is nearly contemporaneous with SCR-9. Other writers have argued that two separate phases are represented ad SCR-9, including the Sand Hill Bluff Phase and the later Año Nuevo Phase. The fauna from these two phases is extraordinarily homogenous, suggesting there were no changes in adaptive strategy, or that rodent activity has mixed the materials, making it impossible to compare fauna from the Sand Hill Bluff and Año Nuevo phases. Fortunately, the assemblage does shed light on differential handling of taxa, and raises questions about the nature of bone grease extraction practices.

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  • Sustaining lean manufacturing in New Zealand organisations

    Goodyer, J; Grigg, N; Murti, Y (2011)

    Report
    Massey University

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  • Development of Air Transport Industry in the Asia-Pacific Region

    Cullinane, K; Firth, M; Fung, MKY; Gong, Xihe; Law, JS; Zhang, A (2011-02)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    The volume of air passengers and cargo in the Asia-Pacific region has grown significantly over the past decade due to the strong impetus of economic growth as well as trade and economic integration at both the regional and global levels. Although public funds have been the main source of financing for airports in most parts of the region, governments have increasingly resorted to privatization or are seriously considering it as a form of private sector participation enabling new airports to be built or existing airports to be upgraded. The present paper provides a brief survey of airport privatization in the Asia-Pacific region, discusses the relevant issues, and introduces the following five papers published in this special section on the air transport industry in the Asia-Pacific region.

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  • Epigenetic modifications may play a role in the developmental consequences of early life events

    Bloomfield, Francis (2011-12)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Many aspects of postnatal development are influenced by events before birth, including cognitive and language development. An adverse intrauterine environment, for example secondary to poor maternal nutritional status, multiple pregnancy, or late preterm birth, is associated with increased risks of delayed or impaired childhood development and altered physiology in adulthood that may predispose to increased risk of adult disease. Maternal periconceptional undernutrition and twin conception can both result in late preterm birth, but it is less clear whether cases of late preterm birth not following a recognized early pregnancy event may still have their origin in the periconceptional period. Thus, the very earliest periods of pregnancy, and perhaps even the pre-pregnancy period, may be an important period determining the developmental trajectory of the fetus, and thus both pregnancy and later health outcomes. Profound epigenetic modifications to the genome occur in the early embryo as a normal part of development. Recent evidence suggests that environmental signals acting during early development may also result in epigenetic changes which may play a role in mediating the association between early life exposures and later phenotype.

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  • Evaluation of an instrument to measure teamwork in multidisciplinary critical care teams

    Weller, Jennifer; Frengley, R; Torrie, Jocelyn; Shulruf, Boaz; Jolly, B; Hopley, L; Henderson, K; Dzendrowskyj, Peter; Yee, B; Paul, A (2011-03)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background Teamwork failures contribute to adverse events causing patient harm. Establishing and maintaining a team, and managing the tasks is an active process. Medical education largely ignores teamwork competencies. However, lack of robust instruments to measure teamwork limits evaluation of interventions to improve it. Summary of Work We aimed to develop and validate a teamwork measurement instrument. From existing literature, we developed an instrument, then used it to score videotaped simulations until raters agreed the final 21 items, were comprehensive, comprehensible and observable (Appendix 1). Forty intensive care teams participated in four simulated emergencies, all videotaped, randomised and then rated by three trained assessors. . We analysed scores using Generalisability Theory, exploratory factor analysis, measured performance over time and interviewed assessors on item performance. Summary of Results G co-efficients > 0.7 were obtained for overall performance and some individual items. Variance components and interview data provided insight into individual item performance. Exploratory factor analysis confirmed items grouped into themes. Significantly improved performance over time supported construct validity. Items predicting overall performance were identified. Conclusions / take home messages The instrument performed well as did many individual items. Information on low reliability items was used to further develop the instrument which can then be used to robustly evaluate interventions to improve teamwork in healthcare.

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  • Does Accessibility Planning address what matters? A review of current practice and practitioner perspectives

    Curl, A.; Nelson, J.D.; Anable, J. (2011)

    Journal Articles
    University of Canterbury Library

    The motivation for this paper is to explore how local transport planners are using Accessibility Planning to address inequalities and disadvantage in accessibility. The research seeks to contribute to the existing literature on accessibility measurement by providing evidence to understand how such measures are used in one practical application: the English Accessibility Planning process; and reacts to the assertion that measures may not assess the complex social interactions, perceptions and behaviours which influence travel and ultimately the accessibility of individuals. As such, measuring accessibility in this way may not lead to desired improvements in social welfare. The paper therefore seeks to understand which measures can lead to the outcomes desired from Accessibility Planning.

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  • Wildlife Zoonoses

    Hayman, DTS (2011-12-20)

    Journal article
    Massey University

    Infectious diseases are still to be found among the top causes of human deaths globally. The majority of human pathogens are zoonotic and many have their origins in wildlife. The cost of new infections to societies in terms of human mortality and morbidity can be enormous. Humans have contact with vastly more infectious agents of wildlife origin than spillover and emerge in human populations. Therefore, understanding and predicting zoonotic infection emergence is complex. Changes in the ecology of the host(s), the infection or both, are thought to drive the infection emergence in a range of different host-infection systems. Here key recent studies regarding how changes in host ecology, receptor use and infection adaptation relate to spillover and emergence from wildlife reservoirs are reviewed. The challenges wildlife zoonoses pose to epidemiologists are also discussed, along with how developments in technology, such as PCR, have changed perspectives relating to wildlife as hosts of zoonotic infections.

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  • Failure to ventilate with supraglottic airways after drowning

    Baker, Paul; Webber, Jonathon (2011-07)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    We report the failure of an i-gel and an Ambu AuraOnce supraglottic airway to ventilate a drowning victim. Failure was attributed to changes in lung physiology following submersion and inhalation of water that may have required ventilation pressures up to 40 cmH2O to treat the victim's hypoxaemia. The ease of use and rapid insertion of supraglottic airways without interrupting cardiac compression has prompted recommendations for their use during resuscitation. The relatively low leak pressures attainable from many supraglottic airways, however may cause inadequate lung ventilation and entrainment of air into the stomach when these devices are used in drowning victims.

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