5,864 results for 2013

  • Editorial [New Zealand Journal of Zoology, Vol. 40, No. 4]

    King, Carolyn M. (2013)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    It is now almost 4 years since the New Zealand Journal of Zoology (NZJZ), as one of the Royal Society of New Zealand’s journals, partnered with Taylor & Francis, and the benefits to its extended family of authors, referees, subscribers and readers continue to accumulate. Taylor & Francis’ efficient online manuscript handling and marketing systems are reaping many rewards, visible in their annual reports of journal statistics.

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  • The Social Innovation Continuum: Towards Addressing Definitional Ambiguity

    de Bruin, AM; Stangl, LM (2013-07-01)

    Conference paper
    Massey University

    From a social problem-solution springboard, this paper develops a framework to capture the breadth and fluidity of social innovation within the contemporary landscape of innovation. The social innovation continuum advanced in the paper reconciles incremental, institutional and disruptive social innovations that vary in their scalability and impact. A novel notion of hybrid innovation extends the mainstream perspective of social innovation, to encompass science and technology innovations that are predominantly profit driven but can have an enormous impact on solving specific social problems of global significance. Consideration is also given to how associated social entrepreneur and entrepreneurship and social enterprise frames fit in relation to the social innovation continuum. The flexible yet robust continuum framework is recommended as a route to overcome current definitional ambiguity as well as for extending the concept of social innovation.

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  • Residential waste in Palmy exposed!

    Farrelly, TA; Chrystall, P (2013-10-22)

    Conference paper
    Massey University

    The Palmerston North City Council and two social scientists from Massey University have been collaborating in a research project aimed at better understanding Palmerston North residents’ relationships with household waste and recycling since March this year. A key component of the year-long study is a nine-month trial of green, food, and hazardous curb side collections. The recycling and general waste collected from four residential addresses has been audited fortnightly. Three educational workshops were held with the participants to demystify the recycling process and council’s expectations of residents’ recycling and waste practices. A web blog was also created to provide additional resources and advice. Observations from the trial and quantitative data generated by the audits were contextualised in fortnightly interviews with the participating households throughout the year as well as participants’ blog comments and journal entries. The combination of the quantitative and qualitative data collected in this study provided provides a depth of understanding about the impact the trial and the educational support has on the decontamination of recycling collections.

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  • Mitigation of ammonia losses from urea applied to a pastoral system: The effect of nBTPT and timing and amount of irrigation

    Zaman, M; Saggar, SK; Stafford, AD (2013-11-01)

    Conference paper
    Massey University

    To investigate the effect of applying urea with or without the urease inhibitor (UI) N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (nBTPT – trade name Agrotain®) and to assess impact of the amount and timing of irrigation on subsequent ammonia (NH3 ) emission, a field trial was set up on a research farm at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand in December 2012. Measurements of the daily NH3 emission showed that majority of NH3 losses occurred during the first 1–3 days following urea application. Delaying irrigation for 48 hr post urea application resulted in high average NH3 -N losses, at 23% and 28.3% for urea applied at 30 and 60 kg N ha-1, respectively. However, even when 5 or 10 mm of irrigation was applied 8 hours after urea application, average NH3 losses were still 11.3% and 14.4% of the N applied at 30 and 60 kg N ha-1, respectively. Our results suggest that 5 to 10 mm of irrigation/rainfall is needed very soon (<8 hr) after urea application to supress NH3 volatilisation depending on initial soil moisture contents. If this rainfall/irrigation is not guaranteed, then NH3 losses associated with standard urea application can effectively be reduced by 47% using urea treated with nBTPT.

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  • Optimizing the ratio of captures to trapping effort in a black rat Rattus rattus control programme in New Zealand

    King, Carolyn M.; Scurr, Don (2013)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    The ratio of captures to unit effort is an important cost/benefit measure for volunteer pest control programmes. We describe an experiment designed to investigate the use of pre-feeding and trap pulsing as possible means of increasing this ratio. In 20 traps locked-open and pre-fed with non-toxic pellets for five days, the same number of black rats was caught over the next 5 days as in 20 non pre-fed traps set for the whole 10 days (32 rats each). Allowing for successful traps being unavailable for an average of half a night each, the capture rate in the pre-fed traps was 47% over five days, more than double that in the non pre-fed traps set for twice as long (total 19% in 10 days).

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  • Organisational IS resilience: A pilot study using Q-methodology

    Sarkar A; Wingreen SC; Cragg P (2013)

    Conference Contributions - Other
    University of Canterbury Library

    Organisational resilience has gained increasing attention in recent years. This paper focuses on an aspect of organisational resilience, i.e., on IS resilience. Given the potentially devastating implications of disruptions to organisations, understanding the dynamics of the successful adaption of IS within organisations indicates an important avenue for future research. In this paper, we adopt Agency theory to develop a conceptual framework, focused on decision making and planning for IS resilience. Concourse theory and Q-methodology were used to develop a Q-sort questionnaire, which was refined through interviews with researchers and IS professionals. The resulting 38 statements were then sorted by eight managers. Q-sort methodology identified three types from the data, each representing distinct collective perspectives. These types are described and discussed, along with implications of findings as well as suggestions for future research.

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  • Vertical variation in flight activity of the lesser short-tailed bat in podocarp and beech forests, Central North Island, New Zealand

    Scrimgeour, Jessica; Molles, Laura; Waas, Joseph R. (2013)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Designing robust monitoring programmes for cryptic species is particularly difficult. Not detecting a species does not necessarily mean that it is absent from the sampling area. A conclusion of absence made in error can lead to misguided inferences about distribution, colonisation and local extinction estimates, which in turn affects where and how conservation actions are undertaken. It is therefore important to investigate monitoring techniques that reduce the non-detection rate of cryptic species. As habitat complexity plays an important role in the activity of bats within a forest, it was hypothesised that the amount of vegetative ‘clutter’ present at different heights within two different forest types affected the flight activity of lesser short-tailed bats (Mystacina tuberculata). This could affect detection of the species within different forest structures. To compare bat activity at three heights – top (22.0–25.0 m), middle (10.0–12.0 m) and bottom (1.5–2.0 m) – within a podocarp and a beech forest we used automatic bat monitors during January to March 2005. The number of bat passes was recorded at each height at two study areas within each forest and compared between forest types. The forest structure was described using the Recce method and vegetative cover estimated within the three height tiers sampled for bat activity. Within both forest types, the middle-level bat detectors logged the greatest amount of activity. However, differences between the forest types were most pronounced closer to the ground, where a high amount of activity was detected within the beech forest, and very little within the podocarp forest. This suggests that flight activity of lesser short-tailed bats may be affected by the level of vegetative clutter found at different heights within a forest. When designing monitoring programmes for lesser short-tailed bats, it is recommended that consideration be given to the forest structure and how this may affect detection of bat activity.

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  • Visible Points on Curves over Finite Fields

    Shparlinski IE; Voloch JF (2013)

    Reports
    University of Canterbury Library

    For a prime ? and an absolutely irreducible modulo ? polynomial ?(U,V) ∈ ℤ[U,V] we obtain an asymptotic formulas for the number of solutions to the congruence ?(?,?) ≡ a (mod ?) in positive integers ? ⩽ X, ? ⩽ Y, with the additional condition ?cd(?,?)=1. Such solutions have a natural interpretation as solutions which are visible from the origin. These formulas are derived on average over ? for a fixed prime ?, and also on average over ? for a fixed integer ?.

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  • Assessment of auditory processing disorder in children using an adaptive filtered speech test

    Rickard NA; Heidtke UJ; O'Beirne GA (2013)

    Journal article
    University of Canterbury Library

    Objective: One type of test commonly used to assess auditory processing disorder (APD) is the 'filtered words test' (FWT), in which a monaural, low-redundancy speech sample is distorted by using filtering to modify its frequency content. One limitation of the various existing FWTs is that they are performed using a constant level of low-pass filtering, making them prone to ceiling and floor effects that compromise their efficiency and accuracy. A recently developed computer-based test, the University of Canterbury Adaptive Speech Test- Filtered Words (UCAST-FW), uses an adaptive procedure intended to improve the efficiency and sensitivity of the test over its constant-level counterparts. Design: The UCAST-FW was administered to school-aged children to investigate the ability of the test to distinguish between children with and without APD. Study sample: Fifteen children aged 7-13 diagnosed with APD, and an aged-matched control group of 10 children with no history of listening difficulties. Results: Data obtained demonstrates a significant difference between the UCAST-FW results obtained by children with APD and those with normal auditory processing. Conclusions: These findings provide evidence that the UCAST-FW may discriminate between children with and without APD with greater sensitivity than its constant-level counterparts. © 2013 British Society of Audiology, International Society of Audiology, and Nordic Audiological Society.

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  • The Economic Impact of Capital Expenditures: Environmental Regulatory Delay as a Source of Competitive Advantage?

    Wirth, C; Chi, J; Young, M (2013-01-01)

    Journal article
    Massey University

    This study tests the proposal that by undertaking voluntary capital expenditures that are subject to lengthy environmental regulatory delays, listed companies can gain a competitive advantage. The stock market is found to react positively to new capital expenditure announcements when projects are expected to experience long delays in obtaining environmental regulatory approval. Two sources of potential competitive advantage are firm learning and first mover advantages. Lengthy delays in regulatory processes and high compliance costs incurred for environmentally-sensitive projects may allow firms opportunities to develop specialised capabilities and/or to deter industry competitors and new entrants, resulting in greater expected project NPVs. The findings also underscore the importance of non-financial environmental information to investors in their assessment of firm value. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

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  • Joan of Arc in New Age Spirituality.

    Kavan, H (2013-12-31)

    Journal article
    Massey University

    This paper explores New Age interpretations of Joan of Arc, both as a fifteenth-century woman and as a spiritual being. The central focus is on messages believed to be from Joan (or “Jeanne”), channeled by Starla Hinman. I analyze the content and impact of these messages, and conclude that a new archetype of Joan has emerged—as a woman of the future who can positively transform the world. Additionally, I discuss five ways in which spiritual seekers perceive Joan today: as a mystic, an ascended master, a personification of the divine feminine, a torch-bearer of the Holy Grail, and the embodiment of Michaelic and Marian essences.

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  • Milk and dairy product composition

    Wijesinha-Bettoni,, R; Burlingame, BA (2013)

    Book item
    Massey University

    false

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  • Policies and strategies to improve nutrition and health for Indigenous Peoples

    Kuhnlein, H; Burlingame, BA; Erasmus, B (2013)

    Book item
    Massey University

    false

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  • Indigenous Peoples Food and Wellbeing: Interventions and Policies for Healthy Communities

    (2013)

    Book
    Massey University

    false

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  • Why do Indigenous Peoples’ food and nutrition interventions for health promotion and policy need special consideration?

    Kuhnlein, H; Burlingame, BA (2013)

    Book item
    Massey University

    false

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  • Capture myopathy in migratory shorebirds : an investigation of risk factors and treatment methods : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Veterinary Science in Wildlife Health at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Ward, Janelle Maree (2013)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Capture myopathy is a syndrome seen as a complication of capture and handling in many species of birds and mammals. Muscular trauma and necrosis leads to ataxia, paralysis and pain, while metabolic disturbances can result in death of the animal. We investigated risk factors and a new ancillary treatment for three species of shorebirds that are reportedly susceptible to capture myopathy: bar-tailed godwits (Limosa lapponica), red knots (Calidris canutus) and great knots (C. tenuirostris). Serial blood samples were examined for changes in the plasma concentrations of creatine kinase (CK) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), uric acid (UA) and potassium (K+). Comparisons were made for two capture methods: mist-netting and cannon-netting. Environmental factors were investigated by comparing cannon-net captures in 3 locations with differing ambient temperatures. Sex and body mass were also investigated as potential risk factors in godwits. We found marked increases in plasma concentrations of CK in godwits and great knots following capture and banding. While some muscle damage was evident by both methods of capture, cannon-net captures showed greater evidence of muscle damage in godwits and a greater occurrence of capture myopathy in godwits and red knots. Entanglement nets were especially risky, associated with the most problematic capture and a greater number of CM cases. Sex or body mass differences did not appear to influence godwit susceptibility to muscle damage. Surprisingly, hot environmental temperatures in Australia did not exacerbate muscle damage when compared with cooler New Zealand locations, but elevated plasma concentrations of AST suggested greater generalized tissue or organ damage. Plasma concentrations of uric acid showed species variability, but all species showed a significant decline in the post-capture period that may relate to interruption of digestion due to acute stress. Sixteen godwits that developed capture myopathy after a cannon-net capture in New Zealand were hospitalised and split into two groups of eight birds. Midazolam, a benzodiazepine with the effects of anxiolysis, muscle relaxation and sedation, was used as an ancillary treatment for one of the groups. Both groups were treated with subcutaneous fluid therapy, non-steroidal anti-inflammatories (meloxicam), gavage feeding, and sling therapy twice daily. Six of the 8 birds in the treatment group survived to the point of release compared to 3/8 of the control group. Birds treated with midazolam showed subjective benefits including improved tolerance of handling and sling therapy, but did not show any significant differences in any of the clinical parameters we measured. However, we found the birds’ body mass, packed cell volume (PCV), plasma UA, and peak plasma CK showed potential as prognostic indicators for survival. Inability to counteract weight loss in captivity was the most significant problem encountered in the treatment of both groups of birds. Lack of waterproofing and predation were contributing causes to death of at least two godwits subsequent to release. Our results imply that common capture techniques have significant effects on the muscular, digestive and homeostatic physiology of shorebirds. Based on this study, we recommend the use of mist-nets or light, fine mesh nets for cannon-net capture of shorebird species known to be susceptible to capture myopathy. Entanglement (large mesh) cannon-nets should be avoided for any susceptible species. Treatment of capture myopathy remains challenging, yet midazolam shows potential as an ancillary treatment for capture myopathy in birds and is worthy of continued study and use.

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  • Identification of historical plant material using micro-computed tomography

    Smith, Catherine Ann; Lowe, Bronwyn J.; Blair, Kate; Carr, Debra; McNaughton, Andrew (2013)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    This is a pre-print

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  • Essays on Return Predictability

    Lu, Helen (2013-08-21)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    This dissertation is a collection of three essays that investigate the momentum effect and the short-run predictability in currency carry trade profits. The first essay investigates whether tail risks of momentum strategies make them unattractive within the context of prospect utility. Momentum returns have strongly asymmetric tail risks and that asymmetric tail risk is precisely what makes momentum strategies unattractive. This study is the first to document the undesirable tail risk characteristics of momentum returns. The second essay uncovers economically significant predictability in carry trade profits from shorting the low-yielding currencies. The monthly world equity index return, monthly changes in currency volatility and monthly changes in equity volatility predict carry trade profits from the short leg two months later, while monthly changes in commodity prices, monthly changes in currency volatility and monthly changes in equity volatility predict carry trade profits from the long leg three months later. Investors could have used the discovered leg-specific predictability to time the market and improve their trading outcomes, instead of staying fully invested or predicting carry trade profits from both legs with a single model. Evidence from two tests conducted in this essay points towards the gradual information diffusion model as the most likely explanation for the discovered predictability, while time varying risk premia do not seem to explain this effect. The last essay examines return predictability among carry trades, stocks and commodities in a dynamic vector auto regression setting. The predictive effect goes from commodities to stock, from stocks to low-yielding currencies and from commodities to high-yielding currencies. Variables in these markets are more strongly correlated in the high-risk regime than in the low-risk regime. Drops in the world equity index (commodity prices), but not rises, predict decreases in carry trade profits from low-yielding (high-yielding) currencies. Increases in currency volatility, but not decreases, predict drops in carry trade profits from low-yielding currencies. The in-sample asymmetric effects also exist out-of-sample, but these asymmetric prediction models do not consistently deliver better forecasts than symmetric models.

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  • The Scope of the Validation Power in the Wills Act 2007

    Peart, Nicola; Kelly, Greg (2013)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    When the new Wills Act was adopted in 2007 it made a number of changes to the law regulating wills. Probably the most radical change is the power in s 14 to validate wills that do not comply with the formal requirements for making a valid will in s 11. This change follows Australia’s lead, where a similar power, referred to as a dispensing power, has existed since 1975. Initial concerns that it would encourage sloppy will-making and result in uncertainty and a flood of applications turned out to be groundless. The constraints imposed by the wording of the Australian provisions together with judicial restraint in the exercise of the power, at least initially, as well as the increased cost, delays and uncertainty about the outcome of applications were strong incentives for complying with the formal requirements. The Australian experience and the benefits of saving wills from invalidity on purely technical grounds persuaded the New Zealand Law Commission to recommend the adoption of a similar, though not identical, power in its Report Succession Law — A Succession (Wills) Act in 1997. That recommendation was eventually implemented with the adoption of the Wills Act 2007. The Wills Act 2007 came into force on 1 November 2007. It applies to all persons dying on or after that date, regardless of the date of the will. It was not until August 2009, however, that the validation power was invoked for the first time. The reason for the delay may have been because the validation power could not then be applied to wills made before 1 November 2007 even though the will-maker died after that date. The transitional provisions prevented retrospective application of the validation power. An amendment in 2012 now enables the power to be used in respect of all non-compliant wills regardless of the date they were made. Since the first application to validate a non-compliant will in 2009 there has been a steady increase in the number of applications. By October 2012 at least 43 applications had been made, of which 41 were successful. The two applications that were declined failed because there was no jurisdiction at the time to validate wills made before 1 November 2007. In the 41 cases where jurisdiction did exist, the success rate was 100 per cent. From this body of case law a picture is beginning to emerge of a jurisdiction that has the potential to go well beyond its Australian counterpart in giving effect to testamentary intentions. The aim of this article is to evaluate the use of the validation power in New Zealand to determine its scope and assess the risks associated with a broad jurisdiction. Before embarking upon that task, it is necessary to outline the formal requirements for a valid will and explain their purpose.

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  • Application of Polynomial Chaos to Quantify Uncertainty in Deterministic Channel Models

    Austin, Andrew; Sood, N; Siu, J; Sarris, CD (2013-11)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    A non-intrusive formulation of the polynomial chaos method is applied to quantify the uncertainties in deterministic models of the indoor radio channel. Deterministic models based on the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method and ray tracing are examined. Various sources of parameter uncertainty are considered, including randomness in the material properties, building geometry, and the spatial location of transmitting and receiving antennas. The polynomial chaos results are confirmed against Monte Carlo simulations and experimental measurements. The analysis shows the expected variation in the sector-averaged path loss can be considerable for relatively small input parameter uncertainties, leading to the conclusion that a single simulation run using `nominal values' may be insufficient to adequately characterize the indoor radio channel.

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