5,432 results for 2014

  • Pharmacokinetics of dexmedetomidine combined with therapeutic hypothermia in a piglet asphyxia model

    Ezzati, M; Broad, K; Kawano, G; Faulkner, S; Hassell, J; Fleiss, B; Gressens, P; Fierens, I; Rostami, J; Maze, M; Sleigh, James; Anderson, B; Sanders, RD; Robertson, NJ (2014-07)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    BACKGROUND: The highly selective α2 -adrenoreceptor agonist, dexmedetomidine, exerts neuroprotective, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and sympatholytic properties that may be beneficial for perinatal asphyxia. The optimal safe dose for pre-clinical newborn neuroprotection studies is unknown. METHODS: Following cerebral hypoxia-ischaemia, dexmedetomidine was administered to nine newborn piglets in a de-escalation dose study in combination with hypothermia (whole body cooling to 33.5°C). Dexmedetomidine was administered with a loading dose of 1 μg/kg and maintenance infusion at doses from 10 to 0.6 μg/kg/h. One additional piglet was not subjected to hypoxia-ischaemia. Blood for pharmacokinetic analysis was sampled pre-insult and frequently post-insult. A one-compartment linear disposition model was used to fit data. Population parameter estimates were obtained using non-linear mixed effects modelling. RESULTS: All dexmedetomidine infusion regimens led to plasma concentrations above those associated with sedation in neonates and children (0.4-0.8 μg/l). Seven out of the nine piglets with hypoxia-ischaemia experienced periods of bradycardia, hypotension, hypertension and cardiac arrest; all haemodynamic adverse events occurred in piglets with plasma concentrations greater than 1 μg/l. Dexmedetomidine clearance was 0.126 l/kg/h [coefficient of variation (CV) 46.6.%] and volume of distribution was 3.37 l/kg (CV 191%). Dexmedetomidine clearance was reduced by 32.7% at a temperature of 33.5°C. Dexmedetomidine clearance was reduced by 55.8% following hypoxia-ischaemia. CONCLUSIONS: Dexmedetomidine clearance was reduced almost tenfold compared with adult values in the newborn piglet following hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury and subsequent therapeutic hypothermia. Reduced clearance was related to cumulative effects of both hypothermia and exposure to hypoxia. High plasma levels of dexmedetomidine were associated with major cardiovascular complications.

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  • Open loop optogenetic control of simulated cortical epileptiform activity

    Selvaraj, P; Sleigh, James; Freeman, WJ; Kirsch, HE; Szeri, AJ (2014-06)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    We present a model for the use of open loop optogenetic control to inhibit epileptiform activity in a meso scale model of the human cortex. The meso scale cortical model first developed by Liley et al. (2001) is extended to two dimensions and the nature of the seizure waves is studied. We adapt to the meso scale a 4 state functional model of Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) ion channels. The effects of pulsed and constant illumination on the conductance of these ion channels is presented. The inhibitory cell population is targeted for the application of open loop control. Seizure waves are successfully suppressed and the inherent properties of the optogenetic channels ensures charge balance in the cortex, protecting it from damage.

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  • V. 'For now we see through a glass, darkly': the anaesthesia syndrome

    Sanders, RD; Absalom, A; Sleigh, JW; ConsCIOUS Group (2014-05)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Simplified windborne debris equations in strong winds

    Richards, Peter (2014-02-01)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Approximate solutions are derived for the flight of compact wind borne debris in strong winds. The relevant characteristics of the piece of debris are combined together into the ballistic coefficient. The solutions are put into a non-dimensional form which leads to a set of universal silutions which can be plotted in a manner such that one set of graphs applies to all sizes of debris and wind strength situations. The derived equations are used to show that most common types of debris can easily achieve 40% of the wind speed and in some cases can reach much higher levels.

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  • Anti-consumption and consumer wellbeing: ICAR Proceedings 2014

    Lee, Michael; Hoffmann, S (2014)

    Book
    The University of Auckland Library

    Anti-Consumption in the Sailing City Consumption today is an essential part of living. In almost every context, we are consumers. We fulfill our needs via consumption, we express our identities via consumption, we define our social status via consumption, and we regulate our emotions via consumption. Yet, most of us agree that there are good reasons to practice anti-consumption; the deliberate act of rejecting, reducing, or reclaiming consumption (Lee, Cherrier, Roux, and Cova 2011). For the most critical among us, consumption is a kind of alienation from natural living and these anti-consumers refrain from satisfying artificial needs, choosing instead to reconnect with their ‘roots’ by downgrading consumption. Of course most of us subscribe to the claim that humankind needs to diminish consumption to decrease environmental degradation. And often it is a moral obligation to - at least temporarily - abandon consumption of specific products and brands to stop supporting companies which act socially or environmentally irresponsibly (Hoffmann 2013). There are surely even more reasons why it might be a good idea for everyone to reject, reduce, or reclaim consumption in some or another way. Yet, there is one essential question that crosses every mind when we think about anti-consumption: Can we consume less and feel good? Given the many virtuous reasons for anti-consumption are simultaneously accompanied by a generally low willingness to actually reduce consumption, this question seems highly relevant. The International Center for Anti-consumption Research (ICAR) is the international forum for discussing relevant anti-consumption issues. This year in early July, when the ICAR network meets in Kiel, we jointly explore the link between anti-consumption and consumer well-being. Hopefully we will learn whether we can feel good although we practice anti-consumption. Or whether we feel good because we practice anti-consumption. The links between the different forms of anti-consumption practices (e.g., voluntary simplicity, boycotting, brand avoidance) and different aspects of well-being (e.g., social, financial, mental; Sirgy, Lee, and Rahtz 2007) are diverse, complex, and colorful. And it is fascinating to observe the evolution of new lifestyles and several new forms of (anti-)consumption that try to realize the positives of consumption reduction without imposing burdens for the individual. We are thinking for example of the carrotmob or the growing relevance of different sharing concepts (Belk 2010; Hutter and Hoffmann 2013). The ICAR symposium has historically been accompanied with a special issue in an internationally recognized journal. Dr Michael S W Lee, the founder and organizer of the ICAR network, has launched former special issues in the Journal of Business Research, Consumption Markets and Culture, the European Journal of Marketing, and the Journal of Macromarketing. This time, the Journal of Consumer Affairs (JOCA) has provided us with the opportunity to publish a special issue. We are very thankful to the editor in chief, Sharon Tennyson, who welcomed and enabled this cooperation to occur. We believe that there could not be a better match between JOCA and the symposium theme, since the JOCA focusses on consumer interests and well-being. One goal and characteristic of the ICAR network is the objective to jointly improve our work on anti-consumption, and to this end the ICAR symposium acts as a kind of paper clinic. We encouraged authors to submit their work early to get initial first feedback from the organizers. Authors then had the opportunity to make an early submission to JOCA to receive reviewer feedback before the ICAR symposium without the risk of being rejected at this early stage. At the ICAR symposium, the delegates again will receive more feedback from fellow delegates. After three pre-submission feedback loops the actual journal submission process starts, with the official deadline for the JOCA special issue being set for August the 30th 2014. We hope that this extensive improvement process originates impactful work in the field of anti-consumption. For us, the Marketing department of Kiel University, it is a great pleasure to host ICAR here in Kiel! You know that the heart of ICAR beats in Auckland (New Zealand), which is known as the City of Sails, interestingly Kiel is called the Sailing City. Therefore it is imperative that we go on a sailing trip during the ICAR symposium. We are looking forward to a good trip with you and it gives us great pleasure to warmly welcome everyone to jointly knit the ICAR net! Stefan Hoffmann, Kiel University Michael SW Lee, University of Auckland

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  • Characterisation of Novel Nitric Oxide and Carbon Monoxide Donors

    Kumari, Sweta (2014)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Nitrogen monoxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) are small messenger molecules which play multiple roles in mammalian physiology. Currently, available NO and CO donor drugs are limited in therapeutic potential due to a lack of organ or tissue specificity and stability. These limitations have stimulated great interest in the development of compounds that can generate NO and CO in a controlled and sustained manner with minimal toxicity. Two new therapeutic agents are under development at the University of Otago, New Zealand, tDodSNO, a photoactivated NO donor and CO-13, an organic based CO donor. This thesis examines some of their pharmacological characteristics trialing as cardiovascular and anticancer therapeutics. Our data demonstrate that photosensitive tDodSNO had a half life of > 4 h under photoactivation (25 W/m2) and was highly stable in vitro in the absence of photoactivation (0 W/m2). The NO release kinetics of tDodSNO was then compared to other commonly studied SNT’s, GSNO and SNAP. We found a steady state concentration of 8 ± 2 μM NO was achieved under photoactivation (300 W/m2) of 100 μM tDodSNO which could be regulated by modulating intensity of photostimulus. The CO release kinetics of CO-13 was also investigated and we found that CO-13 was a slow releasing CO donor compared to commonly studied metal based CO donor (CORM-2). To test the efficacy as vasorelaxing agent, vasorelaxation on vascular smooth muscle tissue was investigated. There was an 8 fold decrease in EC50 value of tDodSNO upon photoactivation. In contrast, both GSNO and SNAP induced NO dependent vasorelaxation, at lower concentrations than tDodSNO, but this activity may be due to their rapid metabolic decomposition, and could not be modulated by photoactivation. Similar to tDodSNO, CO-13 was found to be a potent vasorelaxing agent compared to CORM-2. We also evaluated the cytotoxicity of tDodSNO and CO-13 on A549 lung cancer cell line. Our data with tDodSNO revealed that the photoactivation (25 W/m2) induced highly significant increases in cytotoxicity compared to nonphotoactivation. A time and concentration dependent decrease in cell viability was observed with CO-13, which was substantially different compared to its CO depleted form BP-13. In conclusion, our study suggests that photosensitive tDodSNO and CO-13 have the potential to be promising novel cardiovascular and anticancer therapeutic agents.

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  • Reduced embolic load during clinical cardiopulmonary bypass using a 20 micron arterial filter

    Jabur, GNS; Willcox, TW; Zahidani, SH; Sidhu, K; Mitchell, Simon (2014-05)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Objective: To compare the efficiency of 20 and 40 μ m arterial line filters during cardiopulmonary bypass for the removal of emboli from the extracorporeal circuit. Methods: Twenty-four adult patients undergoing surgery were perfused using a cardiopulmonary bypass circuit containing either a 20 μm or 40 μm arterial filter (n = 12 in both groups). The Emboli Detection and Classification system was used to count emboli upstream and downstream of the filter throughout cardiopulmonary bypass. The mean proportion of emboli removed by the filter was compared between the groups. Results: The 20 μm filter removed a significantly greater proportion of incoming emboli (0.621) than the 40 μm filter (0.334) (p=0.029). The superiority of the 20 μm filter persisted across all size groups of emboli larger than the pore size of the 40 μm filter. Conclusion: The 20 μm filter removed substantially more emboli than the 40 μm filter during cardiopulmonary bypass in this comparison. © 2014 The Author(s).

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  • Là où dialoguent les musées: The Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa at the Musée du Quai Branly

    Phillips, Lily (2014)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The opening of the Musée du quai Branly in 2006 signalled a new approach to the display of Māori and Pacific collections in France and the beginning of a new relationship with the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa. Between 2006 and 2012, the two museums were brought together by two challenging events: the repatriation of toi moko (Māori tattooed heads) from France to New Zealand and the 2011 exhibition Maori: leurs trésors ont une âme at the quai Branly. Through a close study of the repatriation and exhibition, and interviews with participants, this thesis considers the questions these events raise. How can museums with very different approaches to the treatment of artefacts negotiate issues of repatriation and the exhibition of sacred objects? How should colonial-era anthropological collections be exhibited today? What is the place of contemporary indigenous art in the museum? By focusing on the exchanges between two institutions, Te Papa and the quai Branly, this thesis suggests how conversations at an individual level can lead to shifts in the perception and exhibition of museum objects, and how dialogues between museums internationally can contribute to an evolution in the treatment and display of indigenous artefacts and art in museums.

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  • Contactless Slipring Systems for Wireless Power Transfer in Rotary Applications

    Abdolkhani, Ali (2014)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Inductive Power Transfer (IPT) technology has motivated considerable research and development in the past two decades. This new technology can be used in various wireless power transfer applications with different specifications, necessities, and restrictions. One example application is to deliver electrical power from a static frame to a rotating shaft. This is generally achieved by using mechanical slipring assemblies. However, because of the physical contacts between the stationary brushes and rotating metal rings, frequent maintenance is required due to mechanical and electrical wear and tears. This would significantly increase the system operational cost in applications such as wind turbine pitch control. An alternative solution is to use magnetically coupled coils to achieve contactless power transfer to rotary loads based on inductive power transfer technology. In this thesis three types of contactless slipring systems are proposed and developed based on pulsating, travelling, and rotating magnetic field principles. Full theoretical analysis, computer simulations, and practical experiments have been conducted on both the magnetic field coupling structures and power converter driving circuits to evaluate the proposed systems. Existing single-phase contactless sliprings based pulsating magnetic field have been improved with new pot-core and through-hole magnetic coupling structures, and it is shown that they can increase the magnetic coupling coefficients by up to 45%. A poly-phase system based on axial travelling magnetic field principle is proposed, and shown to be able to transfer about 3.7 times more power than a single-phase system. Another poly-phase system is proposed based on rotating magnetic field principle, and shown to be able to increase the power density by 55% compared to the existing counterpart single-phase system. An improved autonomous current-fed push-pull resonant converter is developed in this thesis to drive the single-phase contactless sliprings. It is shown that the proposed converter can increase the operating frequency to MHz level with full resonance and Zero Voltage Swathing (ZVS). Two new poly-phase current-fed push-pull resonant converters with ZVS operation are proposed and developed to drive the poly-phase contactless sliprings. The former uses an autonomous converter as the driving phase and allows the other phases to follow with a pre-determined phase delay; and the latter is based on full-autonomous operation of all the phases without any additional phase control. Experimental results have demonstrated that these converters can generate good quality currents to excite the magnetic coils of the sliprings to achieve efficient contactless power delivery, which are practically useful for rotary applications such as wind turbine pitch control.

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  • Experiments, Simulations, and Epistemic Privilege

    Parke, Emily (2014-10)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Experiments are commonly thought to have epistemic privilege over simulations. Two ideas underpin this belief: first, experiments generate greater inferential power than simulations, and second, simulations cannot surprise us the way experiments can. In this article I argue that neither of these claims is true of experiments versus simulations in general. We should give up the common practice of resting in-principle judgments about the epistemic value of cases of scientific inquiry on whether we classify those cases as experiments or simulations, per se. To the extent that either methodology puts researchers in a privileged epistemic position, this is context sensitive.

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  • Quantifying uncertainty in ray-tracing models of radiowave propagation using polynomial chaos

    Austin, Andrew; Sood, N; Sarris, C (2014)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Randomness in the input parameters of a ray-tracing simulator introduces uncertainty in the predictions of the received power and voltage. The polynomial chaos method is applied to efficiently estimate the uncertainty arising from randomness in the material properties for a site-specific ray-tracing analysis of an indoor hallway. The uncertainty is compared against a converged set of Monte-Carlo simulations and with experimental measurements of the sector-averaged received power. Results indicate a 2-3 dB variation in the received power can exist for relatively small material parameter uncertainties.

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  • Biomarkers: Implications from Discovery and the development of Microscale Electrochemical Sensing Techniques for Their Detection

    Bates, David (2014)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    The majority of scientific advancement is facilitated by curiosity, determination, and tools to measure and analyze the subject and environment in question. Discovery at the biorelevant level of microns and nanometers requires tools with exceptional sensitivity, selectivity, and repeatability. Among the available methodologies, electrochemical sensing techniques occupy a unique place given their well-understood fundamental principles, relatively low cost, and use of electrons and ions to interact with the target in question. Although the principles of electrochemistry are established and their use as a sensing platform is widespread, there is still a great deal of room for innovation in the packaging, fabrication, and application of electrochemical sensing in next generation devices. The present study reports on questions from two major scientific fields—biochemistry and molecular biology—and addresses them in part by developing and applying a novel sensing approach using an electrochemical setup. The first is with regard to the biochemical mechanisms involved in microbial metal respiration and was carried out in association with the DiChristina Lab at the Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Biology. Metal respiration is a topic of interest because of its role in biogeochemical cycling and it is the basis of some bioremediation strategies for contamination cleanup by the United States Department of Energy. In the course of this study an in-gel redox protein detection system was developed using scanning electrochemical microscopy. The identified proteins helped to postulate a mechanism for anaerobic dissimilatory iron respiration by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. An additional finding during this study is the identification of a large outer membrane protein that mediates adhesion of the bacterium to iron oxide particles and may localize itself to the cell surface via Type V protein secretion. The second question, which relates to molecular biology, is with regard to the epigenetic mechanisms associated with aging. This work was carried out in association with the Wang lab at the University of Louisville, School of Medicine. In this study a review of known epigenetic factors that influence aging or age-related disease was conducted. Following that, a long-lived model was used to identify microRNAs that may influence midlife decline, which occurs in a large portion of a population in their fifties and sixties and is a phenomenon ascribed to the onset of disruptions to physiological homeostasis that snowball into rapid aging and increased incidence of age-related disease. The major interest in finding epigenetic factors and particularly microRNAs is that the damage is potentially reversible if detected in time. In other words, microRNA profiles provide an instantaneous snapshot of the cell, tissue, or organism’s response to environmental queues and may provide information in time to reverse the damage by quenching the insult before permanent damage sets in. Current methods to detect and validate microRNA activity require both nucleic acid and biochemical assays that are tedious, expensive, and timeconsuming. The desire to develop a sensing device that could carry out all of the necessary work on a single, low-cost and rapid platform led to the design and fabrication of the microelectrode array sensor reported here.

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  • Wake Up New Zealand: Directors' Duties Reform Responses to the GFC

    Cassidy, Julie (2014-09)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    This article considers recent measures to criminalise serious breaches of two directors’ duties, namely s 131 of the Companies Act 1993 (the duty of act in good faith and in the best interests of the company) and s 135 of the Act (reckless/insolvent trading). The Companies Amendment Act 2014 introduces two new offences contained in ss 138A and 380(4) of the principal Act. Under s 138A(1) criminal liability will follow for a breach of the duty to act in good faith when the director acts in “bad faith”, “believing that the conduct is not in the best interests of the company” and “knowing” that the conduct will cause “serious loss to the company”. Under s 380(4) criminal liability for reckless/insolvent trading will arise when the director “knows” that the company is insolvent or that the debt will render the company insolvent and the failure to prevent the company incurring the debt is “dishonest”. The director will in turn face the penalties set out in s 373(4) of the Act, namely five years imprisonment or a fine of up to $200,000. In addition, as a breach of these duties will now constitute an offence, the automatic ban from management for five years under s 382 of the Act will apply. Ultimately, it is submitted, that while the changes are to be applauded, they do not go far enough. In particular it is suggested that criminal breaches should not be confined to these two directors’ duties. The article also suggests these changes would be complemented by the introduction of a civil penalty regime as in Australia. To date this has been rejected by the New Zealand reform bodies. However, the author suggests reconsideration is warranted as this would provide the Financial Markets Authority with another useful weapon in its armoury, particularly when breaches are not serious enough to attract criminal liability.

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  • Is a Capital Gains Tax the Answer to New Zealand's Tax Alchemy?

    Cassidy, Julie; Cheng, A; Yong, S (2014-03)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Unlike most OECD countries, including the United Kingdom and Australia, New Zealand has never implemented a realisation based capital gains tax (‘CGT’). Coupled with the fact that the New Zealand judiciary has steadfastly maintained the income/capital dichotomy, this has extended to certain taxpayers, most notably wealthier New Zealanders, the tax equivalent of alchemy. By making tax free capital gains from capital investments, such persons have truly struck gold! On 14 July 2011 the New Zealand Labour Party released its key tax policies for the then upcoming 2011 election. One of these policies included broadening the New Zealand tax base by introducing a CGT. Post the election, the Labour Party announced on 15 March 2012 that it will retain its plans for a CGT. The background to these announcements are the findings of a number of New Zealand Review Committees which have considered whether the New Zealand tax base should be so broadened by introducing a CGT. The McLeod Review 2001 Issues paper, for example, noted that CGT regimes “tend to be some of the most complex areas of tax law.” The Issues paper raised a number of design issues that lend to the complexity of a CGT, including: • identifying what constitutes an asset, noting that intangible property is particularly problematic; and • determining which methods of transferring full or partial economic ownership of an asset is a ‘realisation event’. Equally problematic is the identification of the acquisition of an asset. This paper looks at these three design features through a comparative analysis of the CGT regimes in the United Kingdom, Australia and South Africa. It concludes that there are many lessons New Zealand can learn from the CGT experiences of these three Nations.

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  • Fit and proper but not solvent: the slow development of financial security as a requirement to legal practice in New Zealand

    Finn, J.N. (2014)

    Oral Presentations
    University of Canterbury Library

    This paper will examine the curious disconnect between the character requirements for legal practice in New Zealand in the 19th century and financial support stability or security and the slow progression to a requirement of solvency if an individual was to practice as a barrister or solicitor. The latter was only imposed by sections 24 and 25 of the Law Practitioners Act 1955. The paper will first consider the position of a number of 29 identifiable insolvent lawyers in the 19th century, and how they appear to have been treated by their colleagues and by society generally. It then will examine the circumstances of the passage of the Law Practitioners Act 1892, which mandated the keeping of separate trust accounts, and the influential decision of the Court of Appeal in In re Bruges (1907) 26 NZLR 541. The paper then concludes by examining the reason for the changes made by the 1955 legislation and speculating why such provisions took so long to materialise and why insolvency has been ignored in writing about the New Zealand legal profession. In 1860 the Supreme Court judges were asked by the House of Representatives to report on matters relating to admission to the legal profession. The majority of the discussion is on matters relating to reciprocal admission rights, examinations in New Zealand law and other process issues. Nothing was said about bankruptcy and its effect on rights to practice but the judges specifically referred to the desirability of enacting a clause similar to 6&7 Vic. C 73, s 5. That provision permitted a clerk who had commenced articles with one solicitor to transfer the articles to another employer for the balance of the article period if the first solicitor had “become bankrupt or insolvent or has been in prison for debt for 21 days”. It is therefore obvious that the possibility of a solicitor being bankrupt was well-known and was not regarded as necessarily preventing the first solicitor from continuing to practice his profession.

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  • The Taxation of Mining Payments to Traditional Owners: An Unfair Blunt Tool?

    Cassidy, Julie (2014)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    An aspect of taxation law that receives little attention is the taxation of payments made by mining companies to Indigenous owners in return for the exploration and mining rights to their traditional lands. The current position in Australia is far from clear. Ultimately, this is because Australian taxation law concepts are entirely foreign and unsuitable in the context of communally held inalienable aboriginal/Native title. Moreover, it is contended that Australian taxation law does not promote justice and reconciliation but rather in this context operates as a blunt tool. To tax Indigenous communities as a result of acts that negatively impact on their traditional ownership is incongruous. On 18 May 2010 the Government announced the commencement of a national consultation on the tax treatment of Native title. The then Assistant Treasurer, Senator Nick Sherry recognised the need for "greater clarity and increased certainty for native title holders on how the tax system and native title interact." The then Attorney General, Robert McClelland, noted the need to "improve the management of benefits obtained through native title agreements and ensuring those agreements provide sustainable benefits for current and future communities." This coincided with the release by the government of Native Title, Indigenous Economic Development and Tax, to guide the national consultation. The outcome of the consultation process was the Tax Laws Amendment (2012 Measures No 6) Act 2013 (Cth) which renders certain payments to, or for the benefit of, Indigenous persons exempt from income tax. This paper critically evaluates the new provisions. It suggests that while the legislation may at first glance appear simple its focus is too narrow and its implementation will be complex. It ultimately concludes that while this is a positive step forward, the proposal does not go far enough. It considers an alternative model, an Indigenous Community/Economic Development Corporation (‘IEDC’), that would more effectively ensure all aboriginal/Native title payments to, or for the benefit of, Indigenous persons are exempt from income tax. This is appropriate given the history of uncompensated extinguishment of aboriginal title in Australia. The law should promote the ability of Indigenous communities to optimise the financial benefits stemming from aboriginal/Native title agreements.

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  • Korea Korea : architectural choreography of collateral collisions at the DMZ

    An, Jimin (2014)

    Thesis
    Unitec

    The two Koreas have now been separated for the last six decades. In between these two nations lies the Demilitarised Zone. This boundary not only acts as a geophysical barrier, but also as a psychological barrier. Propagandistic threats and military aggressions at this border contributes to driving the two Koreas even further apart. This research project explores an alternative milieu at the DMZ. Rather than being a space that divides and segregates, the project strategises an architecturally choreographed space to allow a more porous physical and psychosocial environment. The methodology involved analyses of texts and existing precedents. Pertinent to these analyses was a continuous process of making that allowed a formal translation of the findings. Space, and the behaviour or movements in response to this space can be calibrated through architecture. The project does not envision utopic dreams of reunification, or aspire to recover the years that are lost, but acknowledges the separation and the differences between the two Koreas in its structure, and generates new perceptions in modes of co-existence within this boundary. [Use of the common heritage of kimjang - the making of kimchi - to enable architectural spaces to set the stage for collaboration in the Korean Demilitarized Zone between North and South Koreans].

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  • Simulations of pattern dynamics for reaction-diffusion systems via SIMULINK

    Wang, K; Steyn-Ross, ML; Steyn-Ross, DA; Wilson, MT; Sleigh, James; Shiraishi, Y (2014-04-11)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    BACKGROUND: Investigation of the nonlinear pattern dynamics of a reaction-diffusion system almost always requires numerical solution of the system's set of defining differential equations. Traditionally, this would be done by selecting an appropriate differential equation solver from a library of such solvers, then writing computer codes (in a programming language such as C or Matlab) to access the selected solver and display the integrated results as a function of space and time. This "code-based" approach is flexible and powerful, but requires a certain level of programming sophistication. A modern alternative is to use a graphical programming interface such as Simulink to construct a data-flow diagram by assembling and linking appropriate code blocks drawn from a library. The result is a visual representation of the inter-relationships between the state variables whose output can be made completely equivalent to the code-based solution. RESULTS: As a tutorial introduction, we first demonstrate application of the Simulink data-flow technique to the classical van der Pol nonlinear oscillator, and compare Matlab and Simulink coding approaches to solving the van der Pol ordinary differential equations. We then show how to introduce space (in one and two dimensions) by solving numerically the partial differential equations for two different reaction-diffusion systems: the well-known Brusselator chemical reactor, and a continuum model for a two-dimensional sheet of human cortex whose neurons are linked by both chemical and electrical (diffusive) synapses. We compare the relative performances of the Matlab and Simulink implementations. CONCLUSIONS: The pattern simulations by Simulink are in good agreement with theoretical predictions. Compared with traditional coding approaches, the Simulink block-diagram paradigm reduces the time and programming burden required to implement a solution for reaction-diffusion systems of equations. Construction of the block-diagram does not require high-level programming skills, and the graphical interface lends itself to easy modification and use by non-experts.

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  • Alterations in the functional connectivity of frontal lobe networks preceding emergence delirium in children

    Martin, JC; Liley, DT; Harvey, AS; Kuhlmann, L; Sleigh, James; Davidson, AJ (2014-10)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to characterize the electroencephalogram in children who emerged with emergence delirium (ED) compared with children without ED using methods that involved the assessment of cortical functional connectivity. METHODS: Children aged 5 to 15 yr had multichannel electroencephalographic recordings during induction and emergence from anesthesia during minor surgical procedures. Of these, five children displayed ED after sevoflurane anesthesia. Measures of cortical functional connectivity previously used to evaluate anesthetic action in adults were compared between ED and age-, sex-, and anesthetic-matched non-ED children during emergence from anesthesia. RESULTS: At the termination of sevoflurane anesthesia, the electroencephalogram in both ED and control patients showed delta frequency slowing and frontally dominant alpha activity, followed by a prolonged state with low-voltage, fast frequency activity (referred to as an indeterminate state). In children with ED, arousal with delirious behavior and a variety of electroencephalogram patterns occurred during the indeterminate state, before the appearance of normal wake or sleep patterns. The electroencephalogram in children without ED progressed from the indeterminate state to classifiable sleep or drowsy states, before peaceful awakening. Statistically significant differences in frontal lobe functional connectivity were identified between children with ED and non-ED. CONCLUSIONS: ED is associated with arousal from an indeterminate state before the onset of sleep-like electroencephalogram patterns. Increased frontal lobe cortical functional connectivity observed in ED, immediately after the termination of sevoflurane anesthesia, will have important implications for the development of methods to predict ED, the design of preventative strategies, and efforts to better understand its pathophysiology.

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  • The utility of single nucleotide DNA variations as predictors of Postoperative Pain

    Jacobson, GM; Law, CJ; Johnston, H; Chaddock, M; Kluger, M; Cursons, RTM; Sleigh, James (2014-04-14)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Objectives: Genetic variation is an important contributor to postsurgical pain and thereby analgesia requirements. A description of the potential predictive power of genetic variants in pain should instruct improvements in pain management postoperatively. We set out to examine whether a set of genetic variants in pain related genes would show any association with actual pain outcomes in a typical surgical population. Methods: A candidate gene study was carried out in 135 surgical patients with 12 DNA variants (single nucleotide polymorphisms or 'SNPs') in known or putative pain pathway genes to detect associations with postoperative pain - measured by a verbal rating score (VRS) and patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) usage rate. Standard PCR based molecular biology approaches were used. Results: At 20-24h after surgery, patients with the 1032G/1032G variant pair for the A1032G variant of the potassium channel KCNJ6 gene had a slightly higher median VRS than those with 1032A/1032A or 1032A/1032G pairs (p=0.04; dominant genetic model). This small difference was most apparent in the orthopaedic surgery patients where the 1032G/1032G pair associated with VRS (median(interquartile range)) of 5(4-6) vs. 3(0.5-4) in 1032A/1032A or 1032A/1032G groups. For PCA, patients with 3435C/3435C or 3435C/3435T pairs for ATPdependent efflux pump gene ABCB1 variant C3435T used PCA at a considerably higher rate of 0.89(0.07-1.66) mg.h-1 compared with just 0.11 (0-0.52) mg.h-1 for the 3435T/3435T pair (p=0.03; dominant model). A significantly higher usage rate was also detected for opioid receptor OPRM1 variant IVS2-691 with usage of 0.77(0.01-1.56) mg.h-1 for the IVS2C/IVS2C or IVS2C/IVS2G group vs. 0.24(0-1.26) mg.h-1 in the IVS2G/IVS2G group (p=0.04; recessive model). Conclusion: While this study has identified some significant statistical associations the potential utility of the studied DNA variants in prediction of postoperative pain and patient-controlled opioid analgesia requirements appears to be quite limited at present. © 2014 Jacobson GM, et al.

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