5,466 results for 2014

  • Management of Osteoarthritis: A guide to non-surgical intervention

    Abbott, J. Haxby (2014-07-16)

    Book
    University of Otago

    The MOA trial (Management of Osteoarthritis, or Maimoatanga Mate Köiwi) was a randomised clinical trial that aimed to investigate the long-term effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of both a multi-modal, individualised, supervised exercise therapy programme, and an individualised manual therapy programme, compared with usual medical care, for the management of pain and disability in adults with hip or knee OA. The first chapter of this book provides an introduction to OA and its management. The subsequent chapters provide the detailed treatment protocols delivered in the MOA trial.

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  • “Be there with us”: An appreciative inquiry into supporting culturally diverse dementia-care workers as learners

    Gilmour KL; Gee S; Scott-Multani M; Medina G; Croucher M; Evans N (2014)

    Reports
    University of Canterbury Library

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  • Daniel D. Hutto and Erik Myin, Radicalizing Enactivism: Basic Minds Without Content. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2013; 206pp

    Campbell DI (2014)

    Journal article
    University of Canterbury Library

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  • Effect of 10 years of organic dairy farming on weed populations

    Harrington, KC; Osborne, MA; Kemp, PD (2014)

    Conference paper
    Massey University

    To determine whether converting to organic farming increases weed problems, a trial at Massey University in New Zealand split a dairy farm in half, with one half farmed conventionally for 10 years and the other half farmed using organic principles. Weed populations in selected paddocks of each farmlet were studied for 8 years to determine how these populations would differ between the two systems. After 10 years, weed problems differed little between the two farmlets. Both still had broad-leaved dock (Rumex obtusifolius L.) and hairy buttercup (Ranunculus sardous Crantz) as their main weed species. Weeds were most noticeable in pastures in the year following regrassing activities for either farmlet, but being unable to use glyphosate during seed-bed preparation or use selective herbicides after sowing of new swards, meant weeds were sometimes worse in organic pastures after resowing than in conventional pastures. These weed problems were dealt with over the first few years after resowing by good grazing management, and ensuring pastures were dense once the annual species hairy buttercup had flowered and died, thus minimising any further establishment. Re- sults from the trial suggest that weeds need not be an impediment to organic dairying.

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  • The true cost of milk: Environmental deterioration vs. profit in the New Zealand dairy industry

    Foote, K; Joy, MK (2014-08-29)

    Conference paper
    Massey University

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  • The effect of planting date on maize: Silage yield, starch content and leaf area

    Tsimba, R; Edmeades, GO; Millner, JP; Kemp, PD; Morris, NJ (2014)

    Conference paper
    Massey University

    Four field experiments were established in the Waikato and Manawatu regions over two years to determine planting date (PD) influence on growth, silage yield (SY) and starch content of seven maize (Zea mays) hybrids. Silage yield response to PD was best described using quadratic regression models. The PD at which silage yield was maximised (optimum PD) was later in the cooler, high latitude environment of Manawatu (23 October) than the more northerly locations in Waikato (9-15 October). In both regions, planting 2 or 3 weeks either side of the optimum PD reduced SY by <17 MJ/m2 /d) during grain filling. Due to more rapid reductions in autumn temperature and radiation in Manawatu, yield decline beyond the optimum PD was greater (-183 kg/ha/d (0.6%), R 2 =0.81) than Waikato (-50 to -85 kg/ha/d (0.3%), R 2 ≥0.67). Starch content was highest for plantings before 6 November, dropping thereafter with harvest index. Highest maximum leaf area index was observed at mean daily temperatures of 17-19°C.

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  • Evaluation of sorghum, sudan-grass and pearl millet cultivars in Manawatu

    Millner, JP; Silungwe, D; McGill, CR (2014)

    Conference paper
    Massey University

    Sorghum, sudan-grass and pearl millet are versatile summer forages able to be grazed or conserved as silage. However, there is little recently published information on the performance these crops in New Zealand. A trial was carried out at Massey University, Palmerston North, to compare forage yields and crop morphology of four sorghum x sudan-grass hybrids (Pac 8421, Pac 8423, Pacific BMR and Bettagraze), two sudan-grass (Superdan 2 and Sprint) and one pearl millet (Nutrifeed) cultivars sown on the 8 and 21 December 2009. At final harvest, 57 and 58 days after sowing for the first and second sowing dates respectively, dry matter yields decreased (P<0.001) higher than in the second sowing (1.8) and was influenced by cultivar.

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  • Opportunities to improve grazing management

    McCarthy, S; Hirst, C; Donaghy, D; Gray, D; Wood, BA (2014-11-05)

    Conference paper
    Massey University

    Improved efficiency in growing and converting pasture into product is required to maintain New Zealand’s competitive advantage in dairying. This study focused on two areas of grazing management, the first an assessment of the indicators leaf stage, pre-grazing yield and grazing residual. In summary, 49% of measured paddocks were grazed too soon based on leaf stage, 62% were grazed outside the recommended pre-grazing yield, and 48% of measured paddocks were not grazed to a desirable height. The second part of the study provided an insight into farmer decision making at an operational level of grazing management with three key components identified. These were: 1) The recruitment of paddocks into a grazing plan; 2) The shuffling of the paddock grazing sequence within the grazing plan; and 3) The management of individual grazing events before, during and after the event. An improved understanding by rural professionals of grazing management decision making would result in extension strategies which generate increased farmer engagement, adoption of grazing management technologies and improved on-farm productivity.

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  • Exploring rumen microbe-derived fibre-degrading activities for improving feed digestibility

    Moon, CD; Gagic, D; Ciric, M; Noel, S; Summers, EL; Li, D; Atua, RML; Perry, R; Sang, C; Zhang, YL; Schofield, LR; Leahy, SC; Altermann, E; Janssen, PH; Arcus, VL; Kelly, WJ; Waghorn, GC; Rakonjac, J; Attwood, GT (2014)

    Conference paper
    Massey University

    false

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  • Impact of sensor and measurement timing errors on model-based insulin sensitivity

    Pretty CG; Signal M; Fisk L; Penning S; Le Compte A; Shaw GM; Desaive T; Chase JG (2014)

    Journal article
    University of Canterbury Library

    A model-based insulin sensitivity parameter (SI) is often used in glucose-insulin system models to define the glycaemic response to insulin. As a parameter identified from clinical data, insulin sensitivity can be affected by blood glucose (BG) sensor error and measurement timing error, which can subsequently impact analyses or glycaemic variability during control. This study assessed the impact of both measurement timing and BG sensor errors on identified values of SI and its hour-to-hour variability within a common type of glucose-insulin system model. Retrospective clinical data were used from 270 patients admitted to the Christchurch Hospital ICU between 2005 and 2007 to identify insulin sensitivity profiles. We developed error models for the Abbott Optium Xceed glucometer and measurement timing from clinical data. The effect of these errors on the re-identified insulin sensitivity was investigated by Monte-Carlo analysis. The results of the study show that timing errors in isolation have little clinically significant impact on identified SI level or variability. The clinical impact of changes to SI level induced by combined sensor and timing errors is likely to be significant during glycaemic control. Identified values of SI were mostly (90th percentile) within 29% of the true value when influenced by both sources of error. However, these effects may be overshadowed by physiological factors arising from the critical condition of the patients or other under-modelled or un-modelled dynamics. Thus, glycaemic control protocols that are designed to work with data from glucometers need to be robust to these errors and not be too aggressive in dosing insulin. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

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  • Brain mass estimation by head circumference and body mass methods in neonatal glycaemic modelling and control

    Gunn CA; Dickson JL; Pretty CG; Alsweiler JM; Lynn A; Shaw GM; Chase JG (2014)

    Journal article
    University of Canterbury Library

    Introduction: Hyperglycaemia is a common complication of stress and prematurity in extremely low-birth-weight infants. Model-based insulin therapy protocols have the ability to safely improve glycaemic control for this group. Estimating non-insulin-mediated brain glucose uptake by the central nervous system in these models is typically done using population-based body weight models, which may not be ideal. Method: A head circumference-based model that separately treats small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) infants is compared to a body weight model in a retrospective analysis of 48 patients with a median birth weight of 750g and median gestational age of 25 weeks. Estimated brain mass, model-based insulin sensitivity (SI) profiles, and projected glycaemic control outcomes are investigated. SGA infants (5) are also analyzed as a separate cohort. Results: Across the entire cohort, estimated brain mass deviated by a median 10% between models, with a per-patient median difference in SI of 3.5%. For the SGA group, brain mass deviation was 42%, and per-patient SI deviation 13.7%. In virtual trials, 87-93% of recommended insulin rates were equal or slightly reduced (δ<0.16mU/h) under the head circumference method, while glycaemic control outcomes showed little change. Conclusion: The results suggest that body weight methods are not as accurate as head circumference methods. Head circumference-based estimates may offer improved modelling accuracy and a small reduction in insulin administration, particularly for SGA infants. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

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  • Interstitial insulin kinetic parameters for a 2-compartment insulin model with saturable clearance

    Pretty CG; Le Compte A; Penning S; Fisk L; Shaw GM; Desaive T; Chase JG (2014)

    Journal article
    University of Canterbury Library

    Glucose-insulin system models are commonly used for identifying insulin sensitivity. With physiological, 2-compartment insulin kinetics models, accurate kinetic parameter values are required for reliable estimates of insulin sensitivity. This study uses data from 6 published microdialysis studies to determine the most appropriate parameter values for the transcapillary diffusion rate (nI) and cellular insulin clearance rate (nC).The 6 studies (12 data sets) used microdialysis techniques to simultaneously obtain interstitial and plasma insulin concentrations. The reported plasma insulin concentrations were used as input and interstitial insulin concentrations were simulated with the interstitial insulin kinetics sub-model. These simulated results were then compared to the reported interstitial measurements and the most appropriate set of parameter values was determined across the 12 data sets by combining the results. Interstitial insulin kinetic parameters values nI=nC=0.0060min-1 were shown to be the most appropriate. These parameter values are associated with an effective, interstitial insulin half-life, t1/2=58min, within the range of 25-130min reported by others. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

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  • Potential roles for coastal protected areas in disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation: a case study of dune management in Christchurch, New Zealand

    Orchard, Shane (2014)

    Chapters
    University of Canterbury Library

    Dunes provide a range of benefits for coastal hazard management. This includes protection from erosion, inundation, and storm surge events, and may include disaster risk reduction benefits in large magnitude events. However, New Zealand’s coastal dune ecosystems have become heavily modified in recent decades and the space available for dunes has become severely restricted in many areas. The restoration and protective management of indigenous dune ecosystems is now an urgent conservation issue. Since plant communities influence dune form and dynamics, the protection of dune biodiversity is important to their coastal hazard management role. The management of dunes as Protected Areas is now a common approach and can be especially important in locations where development and land use patterns have encroached on the space available for dunes, or where intensive management responses to other threats are required. There are now many examples of dune restoration projects at sites where former dunes had largely disappeared, or where the dune plant community has been impacted by invasive species. These projects provide opportunities to assess the potential for protected area management to deliver benefits for coastal hazard management within an integrated approach to coastal management. Additionally, forward planning for the adaptive management of coastlines is needed in the context of predicted sea level rise, and includes consideration of the values of protected areas and the future roles they may play. This case study presents results from an example of restorative dune management within the Christchurch Coastal Park network with a focus on the potential roles of these parks in disaster risk reduction and adaptation to climate change.

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  • Does organizational identification lead to user involvement?

    Soltani S; Elkhani N; Gupta H; Wingreen S (2014)

    Conference Contributions - Other
    University of Canterbury Library

    User involvement in information system development has long received research attention due to its significant effects on information system success. Prior studies have tended to focus on the consequences of user involvement, and in contrast, this research focuses on the factors that influence user involvement. The factors deserving more attention are organizational identification (OI) and organizational citizenship behaviours (OCBs). Although OI and OCBs have long received research attention, little is known of the effects of OI and OCBs in the context of information system development, specifically in the context of user involvement. In this study, we integrate three research streams—OI, OCBs, and user involvement into one model in order to investigate whether OI and OCBs: altruism and courtesy affect user involvement.

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  • An investigation into enterprise resource planning implementation success: Evidence from private and public sector organizations

    Wingreen SC; Mahdavian M; Gupta H (2014)

    Conference Contributions - Other
    University of Canterbury Library

    Enterprise resource planning systems are adopted to improve productivity and overall business performance in organizations. Implementation of these systems requires considerable financial and labour investment and therefore, the managers must understand the benefits of the system and the aspects of the system which need improvement. An approach to evaluate and track an ERP system’s success in corporate organizations is therefore, important. In this study, the success of ERP system is measured through the Ifinedo model and a comparison between private and public organizations is made. Interviews conducted by the researchers introduce factors influencing ERP implementation success in organizations. In addition, to understand why some organizations have achieved more ERP success than others, questionnaire responses to some identified critical success factors for ERP implementation are analyzed.

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  • Understanding the effect of social media tools on organisational virtual team dynamics

    Gupta H; Wingreen SC (2014)

    Conference Contributions - Other
    University of Canterbury Library

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  • Posthuman Animals and the Avant-Garde: The Case of Daniel Spoerri

    Novero, Cecilia (2014)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    Cecilia Novero’s essay situates Daniel Spoerri’s 1995 series of assemblages Carnival of Animals within the legacy of the historical avant-garde. In taking a close look at Carnival’s ingenious recourse to non-organicity, through Spoerri’s reworking of chance, and the readymade, but also “frottage,” the essay argues that the avant-garde helps to envision human and non-human encounters outside anthropocentric and representational frameworks. At the same time that Spoerri’s assemblages leave behind the frameworks of representation, they do not configure a new space of action or being for non-humans. Rather, they point to multiple lines of escape, including the carnivalesque. In short, the essay maintains that Spoerri’s work offers a valuable example of how the avant-garde indeed contributes to the discussion about con-figurations of human and non-human animals.

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  • It's My Life: Evaluation Report

    Tilley, EN; Page, W; Balasubramanian, R; O'Meara, R; Gee, S; Hazou, R; Galloway, C; Waterworth, C; Brown, A; Steelsmith, M; Sligo, F; Kingi, TK; Jones, L; Page, R; Love, TR; Soma, J (2014-11-28)

    Report
    Massey University

    This report presents a snapshot of some outcomes from the by-youth for-youth It's My Life youth smokefree research project, which was funded by the Pathway to Smokefree New Zealand 2025 Innovation Fund. The report includes quantitative data from the It’s My Life pre and post evaluation surveys, campus cessation reporting, and social media analytics, plus qualitative data from youth participants in the project. Two key results from the Massey University surveys are that over the It’s My Life campaign timeframe, smokers’ desire to quit increased and tolerance of the tobacco industry, in general but also particularly among smokers, reduced. We interpret these results as an endorsement of the decision by the young people who designed the campaign not to vilify smokers but to use positive empowerment themes to make smokers feel supported and encouraged to take back control of their lives from tobacco companies.

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  • Gender-based violence in Bougainville: Stories of change

    Degerman, Viktoria (2014)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Gender-based violence throughout Papua New Guinea is a well documented concern across disciplines. Within the field of development, gender-based violence is not only seen as a human rights breach, but it is widely accepted that violence exacerbates poverty, and that poverty exacerbates violence. Women are particularly affected by this cyclic nature of violence. Despite numerous initiatives from development actors, the Papua New Guinean government and local agencies, the rate of violence has not shifted in the past two decades (Ganster-Breidler, 2010). Similarly, in Bougainville, an autonomous region of Papua New Guinea, reports state that the rate of violence against women is extremely high. A United Nations study from 2013 showed that over 60 per cent of Bougainville men surveyed had committed rape at some point in their lives, and that physical violence was equally prevalent (Fulu et al., 2013). In response to these worrisome reports, I began to wonder what can be done to address gender-based violence. What has been successful in the past and what can we learn from those who have firsthand experience of intimate partner violence? The research addressed these types of problems through the use of 18 interviews conducted with men and women; including former perpetrators of intimate partner violence and survivors. The study was further strengthened by my observations from working at Buka Family Support Centre, a service in Bougainville that cares for survivors of gender-based violence. I frame this research within feminist and poststructural ways of knowing. It is influenced by a four-tiered conceptual model that considers external and internal influences on individual actions. The analysis was inspired by Foucault’s discourse analysis (Foucault, 1979, 1984) and I pay special attention to dominant and discriminatory discourses and the resistance to these. In summary, this study offers intimate and detailed stories of change. It reveals that the participants primarily referred to positive change as an absence of physical violence and not necessarily other forms of gender-based violence. The study also shows that the survivors’ resisted violence throughout the abusive period, and those who eventually chose to divorce only did so because of concerns over safety. The stories are anchored to lived experiences, and the conclusion and recommendations that flow from this qualitative study contribute to knowledge of what works when trying to end violence within an intimate partnership in Bougainville.

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  • Broad-band variability in accreting compact objects

    Scaringi S (2014)

    Journal article
    University of Canterbury Library

    Cataclysmic variable stars are in many ways similar to X-ray binaries. Both types of systems possess an accretion disk, which in most cases can reach the surface (or event horizon) of the central compact object. The main difference is that the embedded gravitational potential well in X-ray binaries is much deeper than those found in cataclysmic variables. As a result, X-ray binaries emit most of their radiation at X-ray wavelengths, as opposed to cataclysmic variables which emit mostly at optical/ultraviolet wavelengths. Both types of systems display aperiodic broad-band variability which can be associated to the accretion disk. Here, the properties of the observed X-ray variability in XRBs are compared to those observed at optical wavelengths in CVs. In most cases the variability properties of both types of systems are qualitatively similar once the relevant timescales associated with the inner accretion disk regions have been taken into account. The similarities include the observed power spectral density shapes, the rms-flux relation as well as Fourier-dependant time lags. Here a brief overview on these similarities is given, placing them in the context of the fluctuating accretion disk model which seeks to reproduce the observed variability.

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