5,103 results for 2015

  • On the Multi-GNSS RTK Positioning Performance in New Zealand

    Odolinski, Robert; Denys, Paul (2015-07-14)

    Conference item
    University of Otago

    http://www.ignss.org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=%2fKghNFHXVoI%3d&tabid=147&mid=558&forcedownload=true

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  • Teenagers' perspectives on the Canterbury earthquakes : an insight into their needs and experiences : a thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the degree of Doctor of Clinical Psychology, Massey University, Wellington, New Zealand

    Pine, Nicola Stacey (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Natural disasters inflict physical, psychosocial, and economic impacts on individuals and their communities. Although a substantial number of disaster survivors are teenagers (13-19 years), this population group has not been widely investigated, especially regarding their views on their post-disaster needs and received supports. Such information would be important when planning post-disaster supports for current and future disaster-exposed teenagers. The aim of this research therefore, was to explore teenagers’ experiences and retrospective views of their needs, supports, and recovery following the Canterbury, New Zealand earthquakes. The first study surveyed 398 Christchurch secondary school students (aged 16-18 years [male = 169; female = 229]) who had experienced at least one of the major Canterbury earthquakes between September 2010 and June 2011. The survey’s purpose was to obtain an overview of teenagers’ experiences (including their needs and supports received), using both qualitative and quantitative data. Content analysis of this data revealed nine overall themes, including: physical basics, secondary stressors, social support, psychological impact, coping, school, support figures, gender, and recovery. Decile 2 school participants reported a need for physical basics significantly more than deciles 3, 9 and 10, and decile 10 reported a need for social support significantly more than decile 2. With gender, females reported a need for social support significantly more than males, and males reported a need for physical basics significantly more than females. Also, participants reported that their parents/caregivers understood their needs better than their siblings and friends, and their teachers were of greater help to them following the earthquakes compared to other students in their class. The second study extended the enquiry and involved six focus groups, each containing three to six students aged 16-18 years (male = 13; female = 18). Findings from the first study informed these focus group discussions, the aims of which were to gain deeper insights into disaster-exposed teenagers’ experiences, needs, and supports. The discussions were transcribed and analysed via thematic analysis. This analysis revealed seven major areas of importance, including participants’ advice for future planning and six others: individual, family, school, community, national and international. The latter six areas were incorporated into an ecological model combined with a timeline spanning from 2010 till 2013. The model demonstrated a number of notable points - for instance, immediately after the earthquakes many of the participants’ most important needs was to be in the presence of family, to know that family members were safe, and to receive comfort from them; however, three years later, participants’ concern had shifted to the rebuild of their city and their need for not only the pace to quicken, but also for youthfocused areas to be built (e.g., for recreational and leisure activities). The main recommendations from the research include: addressing acute post-disaster psychological responses early on and arranging preventative interventions; incorporating parental mental health support into youth-focused interventions; individually tailoring supports that address differences in gender, living conditions, and damage; encouraging youth to talk but not forcing them; having schools resume structured routines as soon as possible; providing psychoeducation to teachers, parents and guardians regarding typical disaster reactions and coping strategies for youth; and providing teenagers with accurate information. It is also recommended that communities provide or facilitate entertainment for youth post-disaster; that they organise youth-focused volunteer groups; involve youth in rebuild consultations; commence the rebuild of a disaster-struck city as soon as possible, and maintain gains in progress; distribute important information in multiple languages; and try to ensure that media coverage maintains a balance between both positive and negative content. Possible areas for future research include a deeper investigation into the experiences of disaster-exposed international students, the impact of the duration and permanency of relocation, and longitudinal studies into the recovery and adaptation of youth.

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  • Research work as curriculum work in NZ early childhood settings: What should be taught and learned?

    Gunn, Alexandra C. (2015)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    Annotated Proof - Pre-publication and corrections

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  • Constructing the academic category of teacher educator in Aotearoa New Zealand university recruitment processes.

    Gunn, Alexandra C.; Berg, David, A, G.; Hill, Mary, F.; Haigh, M. (2015)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    Accepted for publication version - Pre-proof and corrections

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  • The experience of animal therapy in residential aged care in New Zealand : a narrative analysis : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Psychology at Massey University, Wellington, New Zealand

    Wong, Gemma Pui Yee (2015)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Volunteer-led animal visitation programmes are common within Aged Residential Care facilities in New Zealand. Visits by animals and handlers, often referred to as Animal Therapy, are primarily social and intended to improve the quality of life of people in residential care. Animal Therapy has been shown to have both physiological and psychological benefits for older people, including improvements in outlook and social interaction. Very little research has been conducted in New Zealand, particularly on the informal animal visitation programmes typical in care facilities in New Zealand. This project examined the experience of animal therapy in aged residential care. In-depth interviews were conducted with seven older people about their experiences of animal therapy, and analysed using narrative analysis. Older people in residential care do value animal therapy, but it is narrated as a fleeting pleasure, rather than having a long-lasting or far-reaching impact on the daily experience of residential care. In some ways, the structure of the AAA programme may underscore the challenges to everyday autonomy and identity in the everyday lived experience of residential aged care. This can be used to develop services that acknowledge the context of living in aged care for residents.

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  • A review of the use of chicory, plantain, red clover and white clover in a sward mix for increased sheep and beef production

    Cranston, LM; Kenyon, PR; Morris, ST; Kemp, PD (2015-11-03)

    Conference paper
    Massey University

    Many farmers are sowing mixed swards containing chicory (Cichorium intybus), plantain (Plantago lanceolata), red clover (Trifolium pratense) and white clover (T. repens) (hereafter termed herb and clover mix). This herb and clover mix has comparable annual dry matter (DM) production to perennial ryegrass white clover pasture (rye/wc), however, it has a different pattern of growth, producing more DM during summer and autumn. The herb and clover mix also has a higher nutritive value and is able to support greater rates of animal production, especially over summer, than rye/ wc in both sheep and cattle. The herb and clover mix is most suited to a rotational grazing interval of 3–4 weeks to an 8 cm residual height, with no winter grazing. When managed appropriately the herb and clover mix is able to persist for at least 2 years and up to 5 years under both sheep and cattle grazing.

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  • Self-incongruity and ideal congruity effects on luxury fashion brands

    Kim, JE; Kim, J; Kim, JK (2015-05-01)

    Conference paper
    Massey University

    false

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  • The silent influence of fashion mannequins on price and luxuriousness perception.

    Kim, JE; Kim, A; Kim, JK (2015-05-01)

    Conference paper
    Massey University

    false

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  • Towards collaborative pathways of leadership in education for Māori : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Education, at Massey University, Manawatū, New Zealand

    Bowkett, Makao Teresa (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis investigates Kaupapa Maori approaches to leadership that could assist secondary school principals and teachers to foster an environment to facilitate more appropriately, in Maori terms, the learning and teaching of Maori students who are attending mainstream secondary schools and kaupapa Maori schools in Aotearoa/New Zealand. The study included two types of secondary schools: one mainstream secondary school; and one kaupapa Maori school. In each school, interviews were undertaken with the two principals, groups of teachers and groups of parents. The aim was firstly to identify leadership approaches in the two schools that staff and parents there saw as successfully encouraging teaching and learning practices that are meeting the needs of Maori students. In addition two significant Maori leaders in Maori education were interviewed for their insights about the current state of Maori education and the potential future of Maori education. By capturing the perspectives of all the participants through a series of face to face interviews/kanohi ki te kanohi conversations the research investigated a framework for Kaupapa Maori approaches to leadership that is adaptable for mainstream and kaupapa Maori schools. The thesis concludes that there were multiple approaches to kaupapa Maori in terms of unique experiences and understanding, rather than one exclusive form of a Kaupapa Maori approach. The diversity of many Maori worldviews across iwi explained why there was no singular, universal concept found. Respondents identified tikanga Maori values and practices that were iwi specific, inclusive of cultural identity and whanaungatanga family relationships, as significant in kaupapa Maori approaches to leadership, but had reservations about the capabilities of schools’ leadership to adapt. Hence they highlighted the importance of collaborative pathways of leadership that encompass change in order to make a difference for Maori students. An implication of the findings is that principals need to be held accountable for the results of Maori students in their schools. Furthermore, secondary schools need to change the leadership, structure and pedagogy of schooling for the majority of Maori students attending mainstream schools, and for some in kaupapa Maori schools. Strategies for how to implement change implicated in the findings are explored.

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  • Theoretical investigation into the origins of multicellularity : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of PhD in Theoretical Biology at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

    Pichugin, Yuriy (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Evolution of multicellularity is a major event in the history of life. The first step is the emergence of collectives of cooperating cells. Cooperation is generally costly to cooperators, thus, non-cooperators have a selective advantage. I investigated the evolution of cooperation in a population in which cells may migrate between collectives. Four different modes of migration were considered and for each mode I identified the set of multiplayer games in which cooperation has a higher fixation probability than defection. I showed that weak altruism may evolve without coordination among cells. However, the evolution of strong altruism requires the coordination of actions among cells. The second step in the emergence of multicellularity is the transition in Darwinian individuality. A likely hallmark of the transition is fitness decoupling. In the second part of my thesis, I present a method for characterizing fitness (de-)coupling which involves an analysis of the correlation between cell and collective fitnesses. In a population with coupled fitnesses, this correlation is close to one. As a population evolves towards multicellularity, collective fitness starts to rely more on the interactions between cells rather than the individual performance of cells, so the correlation between particle and collective fitnesses decreases. This metric makes it possible to detect fitness decoupling. I used the suggested metric to investigate under which conditions fitness decoupling occurs. I constructed a model of a population defined by a linear traits-to-fitness function and used this to identify those functions that promote fitness decoupling. In this model, the fitness correlation is equal to the cosine of the angle between the gradients of fitnesses. Therefore, my results allow an estimation of the fitness (de-)coupling state before selection takes place. In the third section of my thesis, the accuracy of this estimation was tested on available experimental data and using a model simulating an experimental selection regime, which featured non-linear traits-to-fitness functions. The results obtained from the estimation of fitness correlations showed a close approximation to the fitness correlation calculated from experimental data and from simulations in a range of selection regimes.

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  • The Somali Diaspora : the integration and re-establishment of the community of Somali refugees in Aotearoa/New Zealand

    Yusuf (Hawar), Issa Ahmed (2015-05-28)

    Thesis
    Unitec

    This thesis examines the re-establishment of the Somali refugee community in Auckland and the degree to which Somali refugees have tried to integrate themselves into New Zealand’s society and the way of life in Auckland. This study also focused on what has supported and helped Somali refugee families to integrate and to ascertain any challenges and obstacles that the Somali community faced. Furthermore, this study looked into the impact that the financial burden of supporting family members and relatives overseas, mainly in refugee camps, had on the community. I have chosen to use a qualitative study to explore how far the Somali refugee community has integrated into the wider New Zealand community in Auckland through the use of critical, social, and theoretical framework as the main paradigm guiding this study. Using in- depth semi-structured interviews, I conducted eight interviews with participants from the Somali refugee community, and one focus group for eight service providers who had good experience in working with Somalis in Auckland. The collected data was examined and critically analyzed in regards to the level of integration the Somali community made. This study was influenced by the theoretical lens of Ager and Strang (2008) integration indicators. This study found that Somalis who came to New Zealand ten years ago have integrated well by forming social connections in terms of social bonds, social bridges and social links, and overcame many challenges including: unemployment, racism and discrimination, social isola‐ tion, language barriers and issues with education for youth. Supporting family members overseas financially has also had an immense impact on the Somalis living in Auckland. This study found the formation of the Somali community organiza‐ tion played an important role in the re-establishment of the community within the host community, and more importantly, acted as an advocacy for accessing services. Another interesting finding in this study was the social and cultural interac‐ tion between the Maori and Somali community in Auckland. Finally, another major finding of this study is the migration of Somalis moving to Australia in search of employment opportunities and a better life. This caused major worries for the So‐ mali community in Auckland

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  • Sustainable production of carbon fiber: Effect of cross-linking in wool fiber on carbon yields and morphologies of derived carbon fiber

    Hassan, M.M.; Schiermeister, L.; Staiger, M.P. (2015)

    Journal article
    University of Canterbury Library

    Currently, most of the carbon fibers are made from unsustainable fossil fuel-based precursors including high purity polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and pitch. High purity PAN is not only more expensive than wool fiber but also a limited quantity is produced because of global shortage of its monomer. In this work, various cross-linking pathways are explored as a means of altering the yield and tensile properties of carbon fiber derived from the carbonization of cross-linked wool fiber at 800°C under nitrogen. A range of ionic and covalent-bond-forming cross-linking agents including bifunctional carboxylic acids (succinic acid and sebacic acid), a disulfonic acid (naphthalene disulfonic acid), a dialdehyde (glyoxal), and dianhydrides (succinic anhydride and itaconic anhydride) was investigated. The resulting carbon fibers were characterized in terms of chemical composition, carbon yield, surface topology, crystal structure, hydrophilicity, and tensile properties. It was found that the carbon yield can be increased by 55% by using cross-linking treatments. Carbon fiber produced from untreated and crosslinked wool fibers all exhibited superhydrophilicity. Although the tensile strength of the resulting carbon fiber was relatively low in this preliminary study, the resulting fiber could have applications in the manufacturing of thermoplastic composite materials as low modulus filler.

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  • What they do in the shadows : habitat utilisation and diet of brown kiwi (Apteryx mantelli) adults within a high-density island population : a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Ecology, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Dixon, Thomas (2015)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Exploring the complex interactions between an animal and its spatial environment can reveal much about its biology and behaviour and identify strategies to improve future management. Despite this, surprisingly little research has been undertaken in this field in respect to one of New Zealand’s most iconic endangered species, the brown kiwi (Apteryx mantelli). This thesis aims to produce the most comprehensive report to date of brown kiwi spatial behaviour, investigating the habitat utilisation of brown kiwi adults within a high-density population while they are active at night and when roosting during the day. Additionally, the study examines how habitat utilisation varies, and explores the likely drivers of brown kiwi spatial behaviour including food availability, social/reproductive cues, population demographics and environmental variables. Forty seven radio-tagged brown kiwi adults were tracked across a 1.2km2 study site on Ponui Island from March 2013 to February 2014. The utilisation of major habitat types (forest, scrub, pasture and swamp) by each bird was measured, plotted upon a generated habitat map, and compared to predicted rates based on habitat availability to assess habitat selection. To assess habitat selection while foraging, brown kiwi were tracked at night using radio telemetry and their positions estimated using a triangulation methodology. Exact bird locations were also recorded during the day to evaluate their roost habitat selection. Roost sites were also classified into four different types of roost (tree burrow, soil burrow, surface, swamp site). Brown kiwi faecal samples were collected over this time and compared with pitfall trap samples to analyse diet and identify spatial patterns in foraging behaviour. As hypothesised, brown kiwi selected forest habitat most often for both foraging and roosting, also choosing the more structurally stable tree and soil burrow shelter sites. Other habitat types were utilised much less than predicted, though rates varied between seasons, gullies, demographics and behaviours. Pasture was identified as seasonally important for brown kiwi, utilised increasingly by study birds over summer and autumn when foraging. Additionally, a relationship between their spatial behaviour while foraging and while roosting was recognised for the first time, suggesting that these behaviours are not independent. Invertebrate availability was identified as the primary driver of brown kiwi spatial behaviour, with foraging behaviour trends closely matching nocturnal spatial behaviour. Social and breeding behaviours were discussed as other potential drivers, though further research is required to fully understand these relationships. Research findings confirmed that brown kiwi have an opportunistic diet, appearing to select those invertebrate groups that provide the highest protein input more often in their diet. Foraging strategy changed between seasons and locations, likely driven by a combination of changing invertebrate lifecycles, environmental conditions and dietary requirements. This study has improved our understanding of brown kiwi spatial behaviour, introducing new information and refining previous knowledge. The findings provide valuable information for managers as they work to conserve remaining brown kiwi populations, and will become increasingly relevant in the future as population densities begin to rise.

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  • How CEOs of small firms make decisions to ensure information systems resilience?

    Sarkar A; Wingreen SC (2015)

    Conference Contributions - Other
    University of Canterbury Library

    Information Systems are essential for successful organisation. If Information System interrupts, the whole business continuity is compromised. Organisational resilience has gained increasing attention in recent years. This paper focuses on an aspect of organisational resilience, i.e., on IS resilience. Given the potentially devastating implications of disruptions to organisations, understanding the dynamics of the successful adaption of IS within organisations indicates an important avenue for future research. In this paper, we adopt Agency theory to develop a conceptual framework, focused on decision making and planning for IS resilience. Concourse theory and Q-methodology were used to develop a Q-sort questionnaire, which was refined through interviews with researchers and IS professionals. The resulting 37 statements were then sorted by eight managers. Q-sort methodology identified three types from the data, each representing distinct collective perspectives. Though three archetypes emerged but we decided to focus on a particular archetype called “Mindful decision maker”. This type demonstrate unique flavour of decision making under uncertain situation. This type is described and discussed in detail, along with implications of findings as well as suggestions for future research.

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  • Examining the effect of social media tools on virtual team conflicts: A process model

    Gupta H; Wingreen SC (2015)

    Conference Contributions - Other
    University of Canterbury Library

    This research investigates how the use of social media tools affects virtual team conflicts. The novel concept of “feature richness”, which is understood as affordances of social media tools, is theorized. Feature richness distinguishes social media tools from other commonly used communication tools in virtual teams. The researchers propose a process model which suggests that operationally, feature richness is understood as the process nature of social media tools. The primary data was collected at corporate organizations in form of a Likert questionnaire. The research findings reveal that social media tools lead to effective communication, which encourages the development of trust, team cohesion and satisfaction in virtual teams. This further reflects in form of reduced virtual team conflicts.

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  • Traumatic injury and dementia in New Zealand : a Palmerston North Hospital case-control study : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Health Science in Psychology at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Westerberg, Virginia (2015)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Little is known about the relationship between traumatic injury (TI) and dementia. The increasing prevalence of both conditions in the world and in New Zealand (NZ) drove the Author to want to investigate whether the pathophysiological consequences of major trauma of any kind - mostly due to falls in the dementia population - and not just traumatic brain injury (TBI), may result in dementia. Both TI and dementia constitute major health and socio-economic problems contributing to long-term disability worldwide and have important implications for health service delivery and for medico-legal compensation issues. The first specific objective was to determine whether dementia was associated with an increased risk and incidence of trauma in the past and whether such an association might be explained by the injuries or by medical comorbidities. The second specific objective was to identify whether there were any differences in the mechanisms of injury and type of discharge from hospital between cases and controls. The research was a non-experimental, retrospective, hospital-based, case-control study. Cases and controls were selected from the Palmerston North Hospital (PNH) acute admissions database and were matched in terms of exposure to traumatic injury, sex, age, ethnicity, and recorded comordibites. Statistical and epidemiological analyses were done using RaosoftR and MedCalcR softwares. All medical conditions were operationally defined using the current World Health Organization’s International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). The results showed that a history of TI was more frequently found in cases with dementia than in the controls. Patients with dementia and TI were more likely to have preexisting comorbidities and were more unlikely to be discharged to their previous habitual residence. The findings strongly indicate that the brain is affected by the way the body responds to TI both locally and systemically. The conclusion was that the direct and indirect consequences of TI, mostly due to falls, could constitute a plausible risk factor for the development or progression of dementia but that further research is needed to assess what type of trauma and what type of dementia could be involved in the association, one that is likely to be multifactorial in the elderly population.

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  • Kei roto i te tuakiri o te tangata Māori he rongoā hei whakatutuki mātauranga? = Formulating Māori academic success : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Education at Massey University, New Zealand

    Nathan, Awatea (2015)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    There has been a long standing issue in mainstream schools throughout New Zealand in regards to Maori students underachieving academically. Numerous efforts have been made by The Ministry of Education over successive years to combat this problem. A series of strategies ensued focusing on supporting, adapting and improving various related areas of the education system in order to cater better to its Maori students learning needs. This study sets out to explore the notion that there exists a prescription to Maori academic success. Not in a clinical sense but rather the unique characteristics, attributes and innate qualities found in successful Maori academics. It is anticipated that the revelation of certain attribute consistency will contribute to the overall outcomes of this study. This study explored the experiences of Maori tertiary students, and the essential elements of their educational lives that are related to their success in mainstream education. The study focussed on what was and is currently working for academically successful Maori as a basis for new perspectives in regards to Maori academic success. The study was underpinned by a contextualised theory of seven categories representing commonalities found within each of the participants that contributed to their educational experiences. Five of these categories were intangible, human qualities that each participant possessed while the remaining two categories were found to reside in their surrounding environments. These results show that the foundations to a potential formula for Maori academic success can be found dwelling within the individuals who are undertaking a journey to find success in education.

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  • Investigating the electrical response of the brain of the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) to nociception through the use of depth electroencephalography (dEEG) : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Physiology at Massey University, Manawatū, New Zealand

    Trebilcock, Peter Dennis (2015)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Nociception is an unavoidable side effect of many routine management and clinical procedures in animals. Electroencephalography (EEG) has previously been used to investigate the effect of nociception on mammalian brain activity. This study aimed to develop a method of assessing the avian response to nociception through depth electroencephalography (dEEG) of brain regions believed to be involved in central pain processing. Two groups of chickens were used in this study to investigate two brain regions, the rostral hyperpallium apicale (HA) and the caudomedial nidopallium (NCM). These regions were chosen due to the afferent and efferent projections they receive from the sensory thalamus and their previous implication in pain processing. Subjects were anaesthetised, and a concentric needle electrode was inserted into the brain to record the electrical activity in response to a number of stimuli. These stimuli included one non-painful, somatosensory stimulus, and four nociceptive stimuli (mechanical, thermal, feather removal and electrical). The dEEG data was then run through a spectral analyser which generated the median frequency (F50), spectral edge frequency (F95) and total power (PTOT). Inspection of these variables determined that within the HA there were two populations of birds, therefore these birds were treated as separate groups in the analysis (hHA and lHA). It was seen that spectral characteristics of the three groups investigated differed significantly, indicating differences in activity and function. The response to stimulation was seen to be significantly different between these brain regions. Following stimulation, the hHA was seen to have a significantly lower percentage of baseline spectral edge frequency and median frequency compared to the NCM and lHA. In response to stimulation the activity of the NCM and lHA remained constant and showed no distinguishable response, while the hHA was more variable. The hHA was much more variable. Although there was no consistent response to stimulation, there was a significant decrease in total power following electrical stimulation in the hHA. This study presents a number of interesting findings and demonstrates that different regions of the brain respond in differing ways to stimulation. The findings suggest that the hyperpallium apicale may respond to nociceptive stimulation, however further work is required to distinguish this. The presence of two populations within the HA group suggests that recordings were taken from two distinct brain regions, one of which displayed comparatively higher sensitivity to nociceptive stimulation. Elucidation of this brain region and further research into the response to nociception is required to further understand the response of the avian brain to pain. For future studies, the development of more precise methods will be required to enable more accurate recording of the activity occurring throughout the avian brain.

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  • An Analysis of Personal Information Privacy Concerns Using Q-Methodology

    Martin G; Gupta H; Wingreen SC; Mills A (2015)

    Conference Contributions - Other
    University of Canterbury Library

    Information privacy has gained increased attention in recent years. This paper focuses on a particular aspect of privacy, i.e., personal information privacy. In this paper a conceptual framework is developed based Westin’s theory of Personal Information Privacy (PIP). Concourse theory and Q-methodology was used alongside the literature and the New Zealand Privacy Act 1993 to develop a Q-sort questionnaire. The resulting 29 statements were then sorted by 12 students (majoring in IS Security). The results indicate that for some, privacy priorities may be stable across contexts, and for others this differs, suggesting that current views of privacy (e.g. Westin’s theory) may need revising for the modern digital age. The Q-sort methodology also identified three types, each representing distinct collective perspectives on personal information privacy. These types are discussed along with implications and suggestions for future research.

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  • Filial piety : a new view for domestic product design : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Master of Design at the College of Creative arts, Massey University, Wellington, New Zealand

    Wang, Shuman (2015)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    In New Zealand, residential problems related to old age are of concern due to the increasing population of older people and the challenges that aging brings. These challenges include generational social expectations and intergenerational living, accompanied by cultural traditions of family, living and the home environment. It is becoming common for younger generations to live away from their elderly family members in the western world, which can cause psychological, financial and safety issues for the older generation. In New Zealand's aging population, which includes Maori, Samoan and Asian people, these aging issues are approached in culturally specific ways. This design-led research report explores 'filial piety', an ancient Chinese philosophy, in the context of an industrial design practice that embraces established principles and design processes related to product design, ergonomics, emotional design and universal design. The design emerged out of an observation that the New Zealand domestic environments do not typically allow for or attend to modes of intergenerational living, a societal attribute common in China where the philosphy of 'filial piety' leads families and their homes to be more generous and responsive to the physical and spiritual needs of all, in particular, the needs of the elderly. Developed using various modes of an iterative design practice including site analysis, sketching, drawing, digital and physical prototyping, observational analysis and physical body testing in addition to literature review, this research proposes a conceptual design for the design of a bathroom product, namely a bath tub and shower unit.

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