4,744 results for 2016

  • I am Supernova

    Soo, Chin-En Keith (2016)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    “I am supernova” is an artistic visualisation of the “The Big Five Personality Test”. The test explores personality of participant with the highly respected Five Factor model (AKA the Big Five). The test result will provide an insight on 5 major dimensions of personality: Openness, Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, Extraversion, and Neuroticism. The numeric indication from the result, score and percentile, will be translated into forms and formations with the help of appropriate assigned colours that best represent the 5 traits.

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  • Place-responsive choreography and activism

    Barbour, Karen (2016)

    Book item
    University of Waikato

    Sensory encounters with place, site and landscape have the potential to stimulate new and deeply felt engagements with local places, and to prompt discussion about the relationships between place, culture and identity. Such sensory encounters may also offer opportunities for critical, reflexive theorising and practice (Pink, 2008, 2009; Stevenson, 2014; Warren, 2012). Within the myriad of potentialities offered in research, a focus on sensory and embodied encounters with local places prompts me to articulate intersections between local issues of social justice and environmental activism and feminist choreography. As a dance artist and researcher, ethnographic research has led me to autoethnographic performance as a specific means to articulate my encounters with place through embodied expression and textual representation.

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  • The development of science epistemology in senior science courses: A quantitative study

    McIntosh, Edit (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Epistemological development is a pivotal aspect of liberal education because the ability to distinguish between knowledge and pseudo-knowledge and the ability to use the particular methods of reasoning associated with various disciplinary fields equips people to make judgements in complex issues. The present study examines the extent to which studying each of the different science disciplines in secondary years 12 and 13 supports the development of science epistemology. A further aim was to determine the relationship between epistemological development in science and the completion of inquiry-type coursework. Data were collected from 735 year 12 and 13 students from 11 schools, mainly from the Wellington region. A survey, designed for this study, comprised statements about the nature of science and scientific argumentation conceptions, two pivotal aspects of science epistemology. Using a quasi-experimental design, this quantitative study explores the extent of the development of science epistemology over a year of studying science, by comparing students’ scores in Term 1 with scores in Term 3 on the instrument. The findings showed a more advanced epistemic view among science students; however, a positive effect of science studies on epistemic development was not evident. It was concluded that a greater emphasis on authentic inquiry is essential for epistemic development and, while understanding of the philosophical assumptions underpinning scientific knowledge is important, this should arise from authentic science inquiries – or the processes of science – rather than being taught in isolation from the practice of the discipline of science. This leads to a question the extent to which an emphasis should be placed on the ontological aspects of the philosophy and the sociology of science, potentially at the expense of developing sound understanding of science epistemology.

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  • A Novel System for Monitoring in vivo Cell Signaling Pathways Involved in Early Embryonic Patterning

    Rooney, Louise (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Early developmental events, such as the arrangement of the head-tail axis, are fundamentally driven by cell signalling cascades. Such incidents are regulated in a highly complex manner by promoters and inhibitors at many levels of the cascade. This complexity makes it difficult to understand where and when certain signalling occurs, and what effects additional factors have on the signalling system. Nodal signalling, executed by intracellular Smad2/3 signal propagation, is thought to induce the anterior-posterior and head-tail patterning of the early mouse embryo. Target gene outputs of this signalling are fine-tuned by a vast array of modulators; TGBβ co-receptors, extracellular ligand and receptor inhibitors, DNA binding cofactors, and intracellular enhancers and inhibitors. The endogenous target genes of this system cannot be used as a measure of signalling as they themselves feedback on the original system and others, creating diverse signals. In this body of work, we have distilled the Nodal signalling cascade to a single variable by creating a fluorescent genetic reporter to semi-quantitatively measure Smad signalling during early embryonic development. Reporter constructs contain Smad binding elements, a minimal promoter and fluorescent protein elements. Various sensitivity Smad binding elements were created to respond to different thresholds of signalling. Fluorescent microscopy and flow cytometry were used to verify responsiveness of reporter constructs, tested first in a mouse embryonic fibroblast line and subsequently in transgenic embryos. This study will provide an understanding of how extracellular cues dictate gene expression during early embryonic formation. The knowledge acquired from this work may have implications in dairy cattle and human fertility.

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  • Urban Tree Diversity - Taking stock and looking ahead

    Morgenroth, J.; Östberg, J.; Konijnendijk van den Bosch, C.; Nielsen, A.B.; Hauer, R.; Sjöman, H.; Chen, W.Y.; Jansson, M. (2016)

    Journal article
    University of Canterbury Library

    The first International Conference on Urban Tree Diversity hosted in June 2014 by the Swedish University of Agricultural Science in Alnarp, Sweden highlighted the need for a better understanding of the current state of urban tree diversity. Here we present and discuss a selection of urban tree diversity themes with the intention of developing and sharing knowledge in a research area that is gaining momentum. We begin by discussing the specific role of species diversity in ecosystem service provision and ecosystem stability. This is followed by exploring the urban conditions that affect species richness. Having determined that many ecosystem services depend on urban tree species diversity and that urban environments are capable of supporting high species diversity, we conclude by addressing how to govern for urban tree diversity.

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  • Recombinant protein immobilisation and display by alginate : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements of the degree of Master of Science in Microbiology at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand. EMBARGOED until 6 May 2018

    Jameson, Andrew (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Biopolymers are a diverse group of organic materials with important applications in a number of industries. Their ability to adsorb and encapsulate compounds has been widely utilised in both biotechnologies and pharmaceuticals. In the last decade, biopolymers have been given new and enhanced functionality, including the separation and purification of compounds. This field is of increasing relevance as advances in the bacterial cell culture process have improved productivity in the biomanufacturing industry, with the establishment of several bacterial host cell lines and optimised protein production systems. This increase in upstream productivity is leading to bottlenecks in downstream processing as current technology platforms reach their limits of throughput and scalability. While previous studies have generated functionalised protein biopolymers using polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) biopolyester beads, very few studies have examined the commercially significant biopolymer alginate. Alginate is an exopolysaccharide produced by algae and some bacteria, and is widely utilised in food, pharmaceutical, and biomedical industries because of its stabilising, haemostatic, biocompatible properties and its modifiable structure. In this study, a partially functional alginate-binding recombinant protein was produced, which contained an α-amylase domain from Bacillus licheniformis (BLA) translationally fused to the alginate-binding domain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa AlgX – an alginate acetyltransferase. An Ssp DnaB mini-intein was included between BLA and AlgX to facilitate recovery of BLA, following immobilisation and display on the surface of alginate. However, aberrant activity of the intein caused total cleavage of the recombinant protein between its BLA and AlgX domains before it could be recovered from the protein production system. Additionally, the absence of a key cysteine residue in the alginate-binding domain prevented the formation of a disulfide bond, which is an essential structural element for the folding and functionality of this region. While this study was unable to overcome intein hyperactivity, functional analysis of the BLA domain showed consistent and significant levels of α-amylase activity, leading to a positive outlook for the functionality of a full-length recombinant protein if proper intein activity can be restored and the necessary cysteine included. In this way, alginate could be specifically functionalised with a desired protein, and in turn, alginate beads could be used for the separation and enrichment of target proteins.

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  • Tree-based models for poverty estimation : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Statistics at Massey University, Manawatu

    Bilton, Penelope A (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    The World Food Programme utilises the technique of poverty mapping for efficient allocation of aid resources, with the objective of achieving the first two United Nations Sustainable Development Goals, elimination of poverty and hunger. A statistical model is used to estimate levels of deprivation across small geographical domains, which are then displayed on a poverty map. Current methodology employs linear mixed modelling of household income, the predictions from which are then converted to various area-level measures of well-being. An alternative technique using tree-based methods is developed in this study. Since poverty mapping is a small area estimation technique, the proposed methodology needs to include auxiliary information to improve estimate precision at low levels, and to take account of complex survey design of the data. Classifcation and regression tree models have, to date, mostly been applied to data assumed to be collected through simple random sampling, with a focus on providing predictions, rather than estimating uncertainty. The standard type of prediction obtained from tree-based models, a \hard" tree estimate, is the class of interest for classification models, or the average response for regression models. A \soft" estimate equates to the posterior probability of being poor in a classification tree model, and in the regression tree model it is represented by the expectation of a function related to the poverty measure of interest. Poverty mapping requires standard errors of prediction as well as point estimates of poverty, but the complex structure of survey data means that estimation of variability must be carried out by resampling. Inherent instability in tree-based models proved a challenge to developing a suitable variance estimation technique, but bootstrap resampling in conjunction with soft tree estimation proved a viable methodology. Simulations showed that the bootstrap based soft tree technique was a valid method for data with simple random sampling structure. This was also the case for clustered data, where the method was extended to utilise the cluster bootstrap and to incorporate cluster effects into predictions. The methodology was further adapted to account for stratification in the data, and applied to generate predictions for a district in Nepal. Tree-based estimates of standard error of prediction for the small areas investigated were compared with published results using the current methodology for poverty estimation. The technique of bootstrap sampling with soft tree estimation has application beyond poverty mapping, and for other types of complex survey data.

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  • Monitoring acute fatigue in soccer players : School of Sport and Exercise, College of Health, Massey University

    Wivell, Aidan (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Monitoring fatigue is a key consideration when managing the workloads of elite soccer players. A number of potential fatigue markers have been proposed, however, little work has been done in order to assess the correlation between such measures and actual performance.Therefore, the objectives of this study were:(1) to examine the correlation between a range of simple fatigue tests and physical performance; and (2) to develop a model by which readiness to perform could be predicted. In order to do this 14 amateur soccer players completed a range of fatigue tests (countermovement jump, resting heart rate variability, functional soreness, and subjective wellness) and a performance test (3x 30 m repeated sprint test) before and after (24, 48, and 72 hours post) undertaking a soccer simulation protocol (Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test; LIST). Following the LIST repeated sprint performance and countermovement jump height, and heart rate variability were reduced, perceived soreness increased, and subjective wellness declined. Of the fatigue measures used, only countermovement jump height was found to be correlated with repeated sprint performance. Three models for predicting performance were developed which differed in their degree of individuality. Individual models were found to have a greater strength than the general model. For practitioners, more work is required to develop individual models, however, predictions made from individual models are likely to be more accurate. Future studies are needed to refine these models in order that they might be used in practice to make decisions about readiness to train and perform.

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  • Perceptions of performance feedback for an Incredible Years trained teacher : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Educational Psychology at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

    Govender, Melanie (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Material from Appendix A redacted due to copyright restrictions. Adapted from: Webster-Stratton, C. (2012). Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management pyramid framework. Retrieved from http://www.incredibleyears.com/wp-content/uploads/800pxteaching-pyramid-good071213.jpg

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  • The development of L2 Arab writers' proficiency : autonomy, online self-access centres, and advisement : a dissertation presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Doctorate of Education at Massey University, Manawatu, New Zealand

    Denekamp, Carmen (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Autonomy has been identified as a contributing factor to language development and may affect the use and effectiveness of self-access centres (SACs). Numerous universities in non-English speaking countries have adopted English as the language of instruction with Western academic writing being a main form for assessment. SACs have been funded in many tertiary institutes to promote language proficiency through autonomous learning. The general purpose of writing SACs is to make a wide portfolio of resources available to aid L2 writers with the place of advisors an emerging field. The use of technology at SACs has been extended with some going completely online. This action research study involved the development of an online SAC for second language (L2) academic writers at a university in Qatar. The SAC provided volunteer students with out-of-class help in the form of multiple resources and tools. Additional help could also be accessed in the form of advisement both synchronously and asynchronously. The purpose of this study was to investigate the form of the L2 students’ individual autonomy to determine how this might be fostered and implemented online to develop their academic writing proficiency. The online research SAC was designed to offer aid with grammar, vocabulary, and writing skills and to be responsive to the needs and demands of the students. Interactions between participants and the researcher were available via email, chats, revisable assignments, and forums. Diverse data sources were integrated and analyzed, including questionnaires and interactive dialogues, to understand deeply the cultural dimension and situated perspective of the participating Arab students. The findings revealed that, contrary to expectations, the Arab participants manifested multi-dimensional autonomy. Most preferred to receive help with their writing via 1-1 advisory sessions together with some use of the online resources. Advisory sessions evolved into multiple dialogues whereby reactive autonomy could gradually become proactive. The addition of a structured component to the advisory sessions enhanced autonomy and writing development. The success of the SAC depended on various factors, such as aiding students’ language development and academic writing in a way that capitalized on the participants’ desires and perspectives without imposing Western ideologies. This study contributed to the body of research on developing academic writing proficiency in an under-researched context of Arab learners and with a special emphasis on autonomy, online SACs, and advisement. In doing so it broadened existing paradigms of constructivism and critical theory in the arena of education, and challenged the use of established concepts in the setting of the Arab world.

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  • Studying documentation requirements for quality assurance in healthcare software development environments following Scrum practices : a thesis submitted for examination for the degree of MPhil in Engineering at Massey University, New Zealand

    Wickramasinghe, Shanuka G (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Over the past decade software development has expanded into almost every sector of business and technology. Currently, Agile software development methods are much preferred over traditional software development methods which rely on heavy documentation. Agile methodologies such as Scrum (the focus of the study) rely on minimal documentation. However, software development organizations who seek accreditation against an internationally recognized quality management system (QMS) standard such as ISO 9001:2008 need to maintain a certain level of documentation to meet the requirements stipulated in the QMS standard. This study was undertaken to answer the following overall research question, in relation to healthcare software development: what would be the minimum level of documentation that would be acceptable for a Health-IT organization pursuing Scrum, if they are to maintain an internationally recognized QMS standard such as ISO 9001:2008? This overarching research question was first investigated through in-depth literature synthesis and subsequently discussed with a panel of experts. An iterative research design utilizing Delphi-like problem solving method was used to gather insights from Scrum practitioners. The study identified 23 documents to have varying levels of usefulness and importance to three categories of Scrum users, specifically Scrum Master, Product Owner, and Development Team. The study further identified the level of conciseness required in each document (to suit each category of Scrum users) and the stage in which each document should be prepared to add maximum value in using documentation. The study identified seven negative experiences Scrum practitioners come across: documents being difficult to understand by nontechnical customers; purpose of documents not being explicit; no follow-up with client’s feedback; excessive re-work on documents; deficiencies in document validation; lack of risk analysis reports and disruptions in software development. The study also identified seven problems practitioners face in creating important documents: lack of skilled document writers; last minute/hasty document preparation; misunderstanding the purpose/intent of Agile; lack of a common documentation standard; perceiving document creation as a burden; poor tooling for documentation and lack of right staff. It is expected that the study would benefit both the academia and the practitioner in gaining greater insights on the issue of documentation in Scrum.

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  • The cat effect : investigating the relationship between cat ownership and health : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Science in Psychology at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

    Taylor, Gweneth (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Companion animals are an important part of the New Zealand psychosocial environment and companion cats are particularly popular. A number of studies have explored the relationship between pet ownership and physical and psychological health but the results have been inconclusive. Despite a lack of conclusive evidence people continue to believe that the presence of pets can enhance health and wellbeing. Specifically, there is increasing interest in the benefits to be gained from animal assisted activities and therapies. Research based on the connection between animals and health has mainly focused on physical and psychological outcomes. The present qualitative research differs from the previous work in that the focus is on investigating the nature of the owner-to-cat relationship that underpins claims of enhanced health and wellbeing. A sample (N=10) comprising five males and five females 45-77 years of age were recruited for the study with the main inclusion criteria being that they owned a cat. Open ended interviews were transcribed and the transcripts were subjected to a thematic analysis technique to identify themes that captured common aspects relative to the person-to-cat relationship. Four themes were identified. First, communication enhanced connectedness and tended to be anthropomorphic in nature. Second, companionship was linked with pleasure and often involved a close bond. Third, inclusiveness enhanced a sense of belonging when cats were often presented as one of the family. Fourth, interdependence was linked to responsibility and a sense of purpose. The overarching theme, however, was the affirmation of identity for the owner that featured throughout the transcripts. Identity formation, maintenance and protection were found to be fundamental to the nature of the person-to-cat relationship. Identity affirmation was linked to a need to feel good, a need to belong, a need to feel competent, a need to have meaning in life and self esteem, all of which can enhance psychological health and a sense of wellbeing. These findings related to a small group of devoted cat owners so the findings may not apply to other types of ownership. Broader implications related to pet assisted activities are called into question when just having a cat around or a brief encounter may not be enough to have a positive effect on health. For this reason, if a relationship with a cat is to have a positive effect, you may have to really love your cat.

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  • Molecular epidemiology of waterborne zoonoses in the North Island of New Zealand : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Veterinary Science (Epidemiology and Public Health) at Institute of Veterinary, Animal and Biomedical Sciences (IVABS), Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Shrestha, Rima Devi (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Campylobacter, Cryptosporidium and Giardia species are three important waterborne zoonotic pathogens of global public health concern. This PhD opens with an interpretive overview of the literature on Campylobacter, Cryptosporidium and Giardia spp. in ruminants and their presence in surface water (Chapter 1), followed by five epidemiological studies of Campylobacter, Cryptosporidium and Giardia spp. in cattle, sheep and aquatic environment in New Zealand (Chapters 2-6). The second chapter investigated four years of retrospective data on Campylobacter spp. (n=507) to infer the source, population structure and zoonotic potential of Campylobacter jejuni from six high-use recreational rivers in the Wanganui- Manawatu region of New Zealand through the generalised additive model, generalised linear/logistic regression model, and minimum spanning trees. This study highlights the ubiquitous presence of Campylobacter spp. in both low and high river flows, and during winter months. It also shows the presence of C. jejuni in 21% of samples containing highly diverse strains, the majority of which were associated with wild birds only. These wild birds-associated C. jejuni have not been detected in human, suggesting they may not be infectious to human. However, the presence of some poultry and ruminant-associated strains that are potentially zoonotic suggested the possibility of waterborne transmission of C. jejuni to the public. Good biosecurity measures and water treatment plants may be helpful in reducing the risk of waterborne Campylobacter transmission In the third study, a repeated cross-sectional study was conducted every month for four months to investigate the source of drinking source-water contamination. A total of 499 ruminant faecal samples and 24 river/stream water samples were collected from two rural town water catchments (Dannevirke and Shannon) in the Manawatu- Wanganui region of New Zealand, and molecular analysis of those samples was performed to determine the occurrence of Campylobacter, Cryptosporidium, and Giardia spp. and their zoonotic potential. The major pathogens found in faecal samples were Campylobacter (n=225 from 7/8 farms), followed by Giardia (n=151 from 8/8 farms), whereas Giardia cysts were found in many water samples (n=18), followed by Campylobacter (n=4). On the contrary, Cryptosporidium oocysts were only detected in a few faecal (n=18) and water (n=3) samples. Cryptosporidium and Giardia spp. were detected in a higher number of faecal samples from young animals (≤ 3 months) than juvenile and adult animals, whereas Campylobacter spp. were highly isolated in the faecal samples from juvenile and adult ruminants. PCRsequencing of the detected pathogens indicated the presence of potentially zoonotic C. jejuni and C. coli, Cryptosporidium parvum (gp60 allelic types IIA18G3R1 and IIA19G4R1) and Giardia duodenalis (assemblages AII, BII, BIII, and BIV) in cattle and sheep. In addition, potentially zoonotic C. jejuni and Giardia duodenalis assemblages AII, BI, BII, and BIV were also determined in water samples. These findings indicate that these three pathogens of public health significance are present in ruminant faecal samples of farms and in water, and may represent a possible source of human infection in New Zealand. In the fourth study, PCR-sequencing of Cryptosporidium spp. isolates obtained from the faeces of 6-week- old dairy calves (n=15) in the third study were investigated at multiple loci (18S SSU rDNA, HSP70, Actin and gp60) to determine the presence of mixed Cryptosporidium spp. infections. Cryptosporidium parvum (15/15), C. bovis (3/15) and C. andersoni (1/15), and two new genetic variants were determined along with molecular evidence of mixed infections in five specimens. Three main Cryptosporidium species of cattle, C. parvum, C. bovis and C. andersoni, were detected together in one specimen. Genetic evidence of the presence of C. Anderson and two new Cryptosporidium genetic variants are provided here for the first time in New Zealand. These findings provided additional evidence that describes Cryptosporidium parasites as genetically heterogeneous populations and highlighted the need for iterative genotyping at multiple loci to explore the genetic makeup of the isolates. The C. jejuni and C. coli isolates (n=96) obtained from cattle, sheep and water in the third study were subtyped to determine their genetic diversity and zoonotic potential using a modified, novel multi-locus sequence typing method (“massMLST”; Chapter 5). Primers were developed and optimised, PCR-based target-MLST alleles’ amplification were performed, followed by next generation sequencing on an Illumina MiSeq machine. A bioinformatics pipeline of the sequencing data was developed to define C. jejuni and C. coli multi-locus sequence types. This study demonstrated the utility and potential of this novel typing method, massMLST, as a strain typing method. In addition to identifying the possible C. jejuni/coli clonal complexes or sequence types of 68/96 isolates from ruminant faeces and water samples, this study reported three new C. jejuni strains in cattle in New Zealand, along with many strains, such as CC-61, CC-828 and CC-21, that have also been found in humans, indicating the public health significance of these isolates circulating on the farms in the two water catchment areas. Automation of the massMLST method and may allow a cost-effective high-resolution typing method in the near future for multilocus sequence typing of large collections of Campylobacter strains. In the final study (Chapter 6), a pilot metagenomic study was carried out to obtain a snapshot of the microbial ecology of surface water used in the two rural towns of New Zealand for drinking purposes, and to identify the zoonotic pathogens related to waterborne diseases. Fresh samples collected in 2011 and 2012, samples from the same time that were frozen, and samples that were kept in the preservative RNAlater were sequenced using whole-genome shotgun sequencing on an Illumina MiSeq machine. Proteobacteria was detected in all the samples characterised, although there were differences in the genus and species between the samples. The microbial diversity reported varied between the grab and stomacher methods, between samples collected in the year 2011 and 2012, and among the fresh, frozen and RNAlater preserved samples. This study also determined the presence of DNA of potentially zoonotic pathogens such as Cryptosporidium, Campylobacter and Mycobacterium spp. in water. Use of metagenomics could potentially be used to monitor the ecology of drinking water sources so that effective water treatment plans can be formulated, and for reducing the risk of waterborne zoonosis. As a whole, this PhD project provides new data on G. duodenalis assemblages in cattle, sheep and surface water, new information on mixed Cryptosporidium infections in calves, a novel “massMLST” method to subtype Campylobacter species, and shows the utility of shotgun metagenomic sequencing for drinking water monitoring. Results indicate that ruminants (cattle and sheep) in New Zealand shed potentially zoonotic pathogens in the environment and may contribute to the contamination of surface water. A better understanding of waterborne zoonotic transmission would help in devising appropriate control strategies, which could reduce the shedding of Campylobacter, Cryptosporidium, and Giardia spp. in the environment and thereby reduce waterborne transmission.

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  • Teachers' perceptions of psychological services in educational settings in Aotearoa New Zealand : a thesis presented to the Institute of Education at Massey University, Manawatū, New Zealand, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Masters in Educational Psychology

    Williams, Olivia J (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Despite an increasing international knowledge base, there is a lack of New Zealand based research regarding teacher and school perceptions of educational psychology. This study discusses the findings of a survey of teachers’ perceptions of educational psychology services in New Zealand. A total of 164 teachers completed the survey that yielded both quantitative and qualitative data. Findings indicate that there is considerable alignment between educational psychologists and teachers in New Zealand regarding the role of educational psychology. Teachers from this survey reported little contact with educational psychologists, and rated educational psychology services as at least ‘slightly helpful’. Consultation and collaboration with both school staff and parents was recognised as the most important service educational psychologists in New Zealand should provide. The greatest barriers to educational psychology services were identified as insufficient funds, a personal lack of knowledge regarding services and referral processes, and a shortage of educational psychologists. Teachers reported feeling overwhelmed, unsupported and underequipped to properly support the wide ranging and seemingly ever increasing needs of our learners. Overall, the teachers surveyed expressed that too many students are missing out on desperately needed support. These findings suggest important implications for the future of educational psychology services in New Zealand. An increased promotion of psychological, social, and emotional health in schools is proposed as one potential area in which the role of educational psychologists in New Zealand could be further advanced.

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  • An exploratory study of mechanisms to transfer and embed a value-based culture : a thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Masters of Business Studies in Management at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

    Wallace, Andrew Mark (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This exploratory study seeks to build on the work of theorists who have proposed concepts to enhance organisational culture through a better alignment of values. The study seeks to gain additional support for the exploration of mechanisms to embed value-based cultures. This is achieved by better understanding the origins of goal-orientated values and the types of culture that manifest in small to medium enterprises. As a result of this study a model was developed, which could be implemented in future longitudinal research on the influence of embedding a value-based culture through the use of applied mechanisms. What distinguishes this study from others is the development of a comprehensive model to define, embed, and measure a value-based culture. To gain a deeper understanding of the concepts a multi-method qualitatively driven methodology was implemented to identify core mechanisms to embed value-based cultures. Additional quantitative data was used to enable a deeper, more robust, understanding of the influence the identified mechanisms have on goal-orientated values and the types of culture, which manifest in a small to medium enterprise. The study suggests that founders of small to medium enterprises can define a value-based culture and through the use of six mechanisms, embed a value-based culture that aligns with the organisation’s objectives. Gaining a better understanding of the concepts and mechanisms to embed a value-based culture enabled the development of a pragmatic process and model, which encompasses each of the key mechanisms identified in the literature. The study adds support to the work of theorists who have argued for value-based cultures and the concept of conflicting core values occurring in organisational cultures. The study builds on the work of others by proposing an applied model that draws the key concepts together into a single comprehensive model.

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  • Urban Rural Differences in Breast Cancer in New Zealand

    Lawrenson, Ross; Lao, Chunhuan; Elwood, Mark; Brown, Charis; Sarfati, Diana; Campbell, Ian (2016)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Many rural communities have poor access to health services due to a combination of distance from specialist services and a relative shortage of general practitioners. Our aims were to compare the characteristics of urban and rural women with breast cancer in New Zealand, to assess breast cancer-specific and all-cause survival using the Kaplan–Meier method and Cox proportional hazards model, and to assess whether the impact of rurality is different for Māori and New Zealand (NZ) European women. We found that rural women tended to be older and were more likely to be Māori. Overall there were no differences between urban and rural women with regards their survival. Rural Māori tended to be older, more likely to be diagnosed with metastatic disease and less likely to be screen detected than urban Māori. Rural Māori women had inferior breast cancer-specific survival and all-cause survival at 10 years at 72.1% and 55.8% compared to 77.9% and 64.9% for urban Māori. The study shows that rather than being concerned that more needs to be done for rural women in general it is rural Māori women where we need to make extra efforts to ensure early stage at diagnosis and optimum treatment.

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  • Relative Brauer groups of torsors of period two

    Creutz, B. (2016)

    Journal article
    University of Canterbury Library

    We consider the problem of computing the relative Brauer group of a torsor of period two under an elliptic curve. We show how this problem can be reduced to finding a set of generators for the group of rational points on the elliptic curve. This extends work of Haile and Han to the case of torsors with unequal period and index. Our results also apply to torsors under higher dimensional abelian varieties. Several numerical examples are given.

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  • Numerical Modelling of the Micromechanical Behaviour of Catastrophic Long Run-Out Rock Avalanches

    de Graaf, Kim L. (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Long runout rock avalanches occur in steep mountainous areas, typically due to the effects of heavy rain, freeze-thaw cycles or seismic shaking among others. The runout is renowned for travelling a large horizontal distance in comparison to the vertical fall height and the extent is largely determined by the volume of source rock. The material dynamically disintegrates during runout depositing angular fragments surrounded by rock flour and preserving the original stratigraphy. The propagation mechanism of long runout rock avalanches has been debated for over a century. The majority of the mechanical theories suggested to explain the long runout behaviour may focus on a particular aspect noted from one or several events, however, do not properly explain the angularity of the grains within the deposit or the possible internal behaviour of the avalanche. This thesis aims to investigate the fragmentation theory of rock avalanche propagation from a soil mechanics perspective. The rapid application of load and high speed shearing is postulated to cause the dynamic fragmentation of debris, where the rapid movement of fragments and fines reduces effective stress and therefore friction, increasing mobility. Material then moves rapidly until all available kinetic energy has been dissipated or no further dynamic fragmentation can occur. The potential influence of multiple dynamic fragmentation events occurring at once provides useful information for the prediction and extent of rock avalanches, along with micro scale behaviour of rock under rapid loading and high speed shearing for mining purposes. Discrete Element Modelling (DEM) via the use of PFC3D has been utilised to undertake oedometer and shear box testing of idealised samples. These tests are used to represent dominant mechanisms that occur in the two key periods of a long runout rock avalanche — the fall (modelled by high strain rate oedometer testing) and the runout (modelled by high speed shear box testing). Synthetic and fully calibrated bonded particle models are used to investigate the response of rock boulders under these conditions. The calibrated materials of sandstone, weak chalk and extremely weak chalk were chosen to represent typical large and small scale long runout events. Numerical oedometer testing reveals that the application of high strain rates normal to the ground surface produces fast and significant breakage along with a noticeable response in kinetic energy and a reduction in mobilised friction. The additional kinetic energy remains available in the system for a longer period of time than that produced by semi-static strain rates. The high strain rate oedometric tests suggest that dynamic fragmentation occurs under fast loading rates. It is plausible that dynamic fragmentation in a sturzstrom due to rapid loading at the transition point from fall to runout can enhance mobility. High speed shear box testing indicates a significant rise in normal and shear stresses resulting in intense crushing and dilation rather than dynamic fragmentation. Kinetic energy produced from breakages is quickly dissipated through dilation and does not remain in the system long enough to influence mobility. The majority of the shearing is likely to occur in a small zone at the base of the debris. The minimal mixing of layers during the shear testing and substantial dilation supports the observed preservation of stratigraphy and increase in debris volume seen at the majority of sturzstrom sites.

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  • Comparative analysis of the productivity levels achieved through the use of panelised prefabrication technology with those of traditional building system : a thesis submitted in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) in Construction, School of Engineering & Advanced Technology, Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

    Shahzad, Wajiha Mohsin (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Several studies have documented benefits of prefabricated building system compared to the traditional approach. Despite the acknowledged benefits of prefabrication, its application is generally low in the New Zealand construction industry. This low uptake is largely attributed to the fact that the documented benefits of prefabrication technology are anecdotal, or based on investigations of isolated case studies. This study aims to contribute to filling this knowledge gap by analysing cost savings, time savings, and productivity improvement achievable by the use of panelised prefabrication in place of the traditional building system. A two-phased mixed method of research was adopted for the study. The first phase involved the use of case study-based archival research to obtain qualitative data from records of 151 completed building projects in three cities of New Zealand – Auckland, Christchurch and Wellington. The second phase involved the use of questionnaire survey to obtain feedback from industry stakeholders. Results showed that the use of panelised prefabrication in place of traditional building system contributed to 21 percent cost saving, 47 percent time saving and 10 percent average improvement in the productivity outcomes in the building projects. Results further showed that 17 factors could significantly influence the levels of benefits achievable with the use of prefabrication technology. ‘Building type’ and ‘location’ were the factors having the most significant influence on the benefits achievable by the use of panelised prefabrication in place of the traditional building systems. Other factors that influence the benefits of prefabrication included (in diminishing order of influence): logistics, type of prefabrication, scale/repeatability, standardisation, contractor’s level of innovation, environmental impact, project leadership, type of procurement, whole of life quality, site conditions, site layout and client’s nature.

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  • The different shapes of love : a thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Communication in Expressive Arts at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand. EMBARGOED until 17 November 2018

    Wheelock, Tiffany (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The work is an extract or part of a creative non-fiction book in the autobiographical genre. The book is based on the author’s romantic relationships throughout her life to this point. The book follows a developmental journey as the author discovers who she is, what qualities are most important to her and what type of person she wants to end up with. The book describes different stages of relationships and the emotions one experiences, such as being very in love or very heartbroken, and touches on the author’s experience in dealing with these emotions.

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