4,429 results for 2016

  • Anthropogenic Influences on the Sedimentary Evolution of the Coromandel Harbour

    Harpur, Alexander (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The Coromandel Harbour is located on the eastern side of the Coromandel Peninsula, North Island, New Zealand. To date, sedimentological research conducted in the harbour has been confined to nearshore areas, with limited data existing for the subtidal regions of the harbour. The primary aim of this thesis is to identify whether and how various human activities in the catchment have altered harbour-wide, intertidal and subtidal, sedimentation rates and sediment geochemistry. A secondary aim is to identify the sedimentary evolution of the whole Coromandel Harbour over broad time scales (i.e. thousands of years). Sedimentological data has been collected from 17 intertidal and subtidal sediment cores. Cores have been analysed for down-core changes in sediment texture, mineralogy, observational characteristics and geochemistry measured through portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF). A facies model constructed from this data has been used to interpret the sedimentary development of the harbour. Pre-human and anthropogenic sediment accumulation rates (SARs) have been estimated using radiocarbon dating, qualitative pollen analysis and facies analysis. Anthropogenic heavy metals have been interpreted against pre-human baselines to identify influences on natural contaminant levels, with specific values compared with regional contaminant guidelines to assess ecological threats. Deeply weathered soils developed in a subaerial environment somewhere between the last interglacial at c.120 ka and the extended last glacial maximum (eLGM) at 29 ka. These soils were overtopped by streambank and floodplain deposits at the eLGM to the onset of the mid-Holocene sea level rise at c.7500 cal yr B.P. As sea level rose, inundated eLGM and early estuarine sediments were initially pyritised in a stratified, restricted marine setting. Over time, sea level rose and the stratification of the harbour was destroyed, ceasing pyritisation. Streams began to rapidly aggrade at the harbour with the positive change in base level, giving early estuarine (c.7500-5000 cal yr B.P) subtidal SARs of ~0.31-0.45 mm/yr. As streams reached stable profiles, SARs decreased to generally conformable rates of 0.25-0.47 mm/yr in the intertidal regions and ~0.1-0.25 mm/yr in the subtidal regions during the pre-Polynesian phase (c.7500-700 cal yr B.P). Polynesian SARs (700-130 cal yr B.P) decreased to ~0.05-0.13 mm/yr. Whole European (1820 A.D-present) SARs in the northern parts of the harbour are ~0.52-0.77 mm/yr and appear to be chiefly related to mining and deforestation. Recent European (1975 A.D-present) SARs are ~3.52-10.37 mm/yr in the southern parts of the harbour and are chiefly related to pine plantation erosion. A secondary depocentre for pine plantation sediments appears to be at the inlet where rates of ~4.98 mm/yr occur. Only arsenic and mercury exist over Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council (ANZECC) Interim Sediment Quality Guidelines (ISQG) Low concentrations in anthropogenic sediments analysed. Maximum harbour-wide arsenic concentrations of up to 33.5 mg/kg that exceed the ISQG-Low value of 20 mg/kg are associated with mining related sediments near the Whangarahi Stream mouth. Maximum arsenic concentrations in pine plantation sediments is 22.3 mg/kg. Mercury may also exceed ISQG-Low/High values throughout all harbour sediments, though it is unclear whether mercury has been incorrectly measured by pXRF.

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  • Characterisation of dairy strains of Geobacillus stearothermophilus and a genomics insight into its growth and survival during dairy manufacture : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Microbiology at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Burgess, Sara (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    The thermophilic bacilli, such as G. stearothermophilus, are an important group of contaminants in the dairy industry. Although these bacilli are generally not pathogenic, their presence in dairy products is an indicator of poor hygiene and high numbers are unacceptable to customers. In addition, their growth may result in milk product defects caused by the production of acids or enzymes, potentially leding to off-flavours. These bacteria are able to grow in sections of dairy manufacturing plants where temperatures reach 40 – 65 °C. Furthermore, because they are spore formers, they are difficult to eliminate. In addition, they exhibit a fast growth rate and tend to readily form biofilms. Many strategies have been tested to prevent the formation of thermophilic bacilli biofilms in dairy manufacture, but with limited success. This is, in part, because little is known about the diversity of strains found in dairy manufacture, the structure of thermophilic bacilli biofilms and how these bacteria have adapted to grow in a dairy environment. In Chapters 2 and 3, phenotypic approaches were taken to understand the diversity of strains within a manufacturing plant. Specifically in Chapter 2, strains of the most dominant thermphilic bacilli, G. stearothermophilus, were isolated from the surface of various locations within the evaporator section and ten strains were evaluated for different phenotypic characteristics. Biochemical profiling, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and fatty profiling demonstrated that the population was diverse. In Chapter 3, it was shown that the same ten strains varied in their ability to form biofilms and produce spores. Three strains of G. stearothermophilus, A1, P3 and D1, were selected for further analysis. SEM demonstrated that there were differences in biofilm morphologies between the three strains, particularly D1 versus the other two strains, A1 and P3. In Chapters 4, 5 and 6 a comparative genomics approach was taken to determine how these bacteria are able to grow and survive within a dairy manufacturing environment, as well as how they differ from other strains of Geobacillus. In Chapter 4 draft genome sequences were generated for three strains of G.stearothermophilus. Identification of a putative lactose operon in the three dairy strains provided evidence of dairy adaptation. In Chapter 5 a phylogenomics approach was taken to resolve relationships within the Geobacillus genus and to identify differences within the G. stearothermophilus group itself. Finally in Chapter 6 comparison with the model organism B. subtilis, gave a genomics insight into the potential mechanisms of sporulation for Geobacillus spp.

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  • Exploring the development potential of Saudi Arabian Airlines, the national flag carrier of Saudi Arabia : a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Aviation at Massey University, (Manawatu), New Zealand

    Gamraoyi, Khaled (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis will examine the possible factors that could greatly influence the future development of the legacy carrier of Saudi Arabia: Saudi Arabian Airlines. Furthermore, this thesis delved into the feasibility of a new route from Jeddah to Auckland and how this route could impact the growth of Saudi Arabian Airlines. The research questions were answered through the use of a mixed method approach. The research was carried out in two phases. The first phase involved environmental scanning through the process of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis, where the strengths and weaknesses of the internal environment of Saudi Arabian Airlines were appraised. It also examined the possible opportunities and threats of the external environment (i.e. the Middle East region), where Saudi Arabian Airlines is situated. The second phase involved a survey where the feasibility of a new route (i.e. Jeddah–Bali–Auckland) was examined and evaluated. The results suggested that the exponential growth of the aviation industry in the Middle East can be capitalized by Saudi Arabian Airlines by using its recognized strengths and addressing the concerns that have emerged in this study. A possible strategy by which these concerns can be addressed is through establishing a new route that Saudi Arabian Airlines can take advantage of in the future to fulfil its ambitions of becoming one of the top airlines in the aviation industry. One specific route that the thesis examines is the Jeddah–Bali–Auckland route, where there is a substantial market which will yield an increased profit margin and therefore impact the growth of Saudi Arabian Airlines.

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  • The recovery experiences of refugees from Middle Eastern backgrounds with concussions : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Psychology at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

    Zaytoun, Ruba (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    With the growing number of Middle Eastern refugees in the world, there is a need for more culturally and refugee specific research to examine the ongoing and idiosyncratic nature of the stress and trauma refugees’ experience. As a result of the arduous journeys refugees undergo, they become susceptible to a number of mental and physical illnesses, including Traumatic Brain Injuries (TBI) such as concussions. Little research so far has been dedicated to understanding Middle Eastern refugees’ experiences of TBI and how understandings of this injury can impact on their journeys to recovery. In this small Australian, community-based, qualitative study six individuals from Middle Eastern refugee backgrounds, who have experienced a concussion in the past five years were interviewed. Participants included two females and four males, aged from mid 20s to early 60s. The interviews focused on participants’ conceptualisation of concussions and their experience of recovery. Interview data was investigated through the Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) lens. Six main themes emerged from interview data, these related to: Coping, consequences of injury, professional relationships, conception of brain and brain injuries, refugee related experiences, and experiences of concussion. All participants stressed the importance of family as a source of support in coping with consequences of injury. Faith in a higher power was highlighted as a core value in Arabic Middle Eastern cultures, common in most interviewee accounts. One source of distress in some participants was the worry that others will perceive them as having mental illness as a consequence of their concussion. Future research is encouraged to examine the stigma underlying mental illness in the Middle East, and the obstacles preventing people with similar backgrounds from seeking help.

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  • Volcanology of the basaltic lava succession within the Auckland pit of the Bombay Quarry, Bombay Volcanic Complex, South Auckland Volcanic Field

    Kapasi, Aliasgar (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The South Auckland Volcanic Field (SAVF), which was active 1.59 – 0.51 million years ago and comprises around 82 volcanic centres, represents a complete history of a monogenetic field preserved in the geological record. The Auckland pit in the Bombay Quarry was recently exposed, revealing an infilled palaeovalley of volcanic and sedimentary deposits possibly associated with the nearby Bombay Volcanic Complex. A set of vertical drill cores from across the quarry were available for this study. The stratigraphy of the volcanic and sedimentary deposits and the facies architecture were examined and described from the drill cores available, and a set of stratigraphic logs were produced. Volcanic and sedimentary units identified were: basement Waitemata and Tauranga group sediments, three individual ponded basalt lavas with intercalated scoria and Quaternary alluvium and/or Kauroa ash deposits. Facies identified include: moderately vesicular basalt (A.1), vesicular basalt with vesicle trails (A.2), non-vesicular basalt (A.3), poorly vesicular basalt (A.4), scoria deposit (B), scoriaceous basalt (C) and intercalated silt/clay (D). Petrographic characteristics were analysed by optical microscopy, which show that all three basalt lavas have minerals comprising: olivine and clinopyroxene phenocrysts, and a groundmass of plagioclase, opaques and mafic minerals, however, the proportions of each mineral vary between samples. Olivine, clinopyroxene and plagioclase elemental compositions for each of the three basalt units were determined by electron microprobe analysis and revealed that the middle basalt had relatively lower proportion of Mg- and Ca-rich minerals compared to the upper and lower basalts. Furthermore, mineral compositions were consistent with the broad group B rock type of the SAVF lavas. Bulk-rock geochemical characteristics were analysed by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry where the basalt samples were classified as basanites and ne-hawaiites. The lower and upper basalts have a relatively wide range of major and trace element compositions; whereas, the middle basalt has less variation. The three basalt lava flows represent pahoehoe and/or transitional lava flows, which occurred during magmatic eruptions separated by periods of volcanic quiescence represented by Quaternary alluvium and/or Kauroa ash deposits. The magma source beneath the Bombay area reveals that it consists of dominantly a garnet-bearing peridotite source where only group B type lavas were erupted over time. This process indicates a polygenetic-like eruption history within a monogenetic field, which may be an ideal analogue for understanding the future of shield volcanism in the South Auckland and Auckland Volcanic Field.

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  • Foreign Affairs in a Native Context: The Significance of Foreign Relations on Thomas Jefferson's Native American Views

    Berry, Shane (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    There has been considerable research into Native American history in recent times, with much analysis of what transpired in the early years of the United States, and how events from the late 18th and early 19th centuries have impacted on the Native Americans. As a prominent figure, Thomas Jefferson made decisions that undoubtedly affected the Native tribes, yet his Native American ideas have not received as much attention from scholars as his thinking about most other topics. Most literature that has been produced which relates to Jefferson’s attitudes about Native Americans, has not considered adequately the importance that foreign relations played in shaping his thinking. The purpose of this study is to examine the significance of foreign affairs on Jefferson’s views about Native Americans, and to determine whether foreign affairs was a critical factor in influencing his plans for the Native Americans. To ascertain the importance of foreign relations in shaping Jefferson’s thinking about the Native Americans, an exploration of his writing was conducted, in which all documents that fell within the scope of this research project were analysed, and all relevant material used in this thesis. The documents used for this study were found online in the Jefferson Papers at the United States National Archives. Findings from this study clearly show that foreign relations had a major impact on Jefferson’s thinking about the Native Americans. The two predominant themes that emerged from his writing were conflict and land; foreign affairs primarily influenced Jefferson’s views in relation to these topics. Because of the prominence of these themes, they were chosen as the focus of the two chapters for this thesis. Within the themes of conflict and land, the affect that foreign relations had on Jefferson’s thinking is evident on a number of issues. He believed that most of the conflict with the Native Americans occurred because of the interference of foreign agents. The impact of foreign affairs can be seen in Jefferson’s views about trade with the Native Americans, and his thoughts on agriculture were clearly shaped by concerns about other nations. The influence of foreign relations is unmistakeable in Jefferson’s thoughts about national security, and its effect can also be seen in the development of his ideas about Native American removal. Findings from this thesis add depth to an important factor that shaped Jefferson’s thinking, and help in gaining an understanding of his decision making regarding the Native American.

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  • Recording and Tracking Design Decisions in Interactive System Development

    Yang, Wanying (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Experience economy is prompting the innovation of traditional product design. The design concept - "user-centered design" has received wide recognition. In the face of many professional or non-professional users, the priority of interaction design is to ensure the usability of the interactive product, and then a good user experience of the product. The user interface is an intermediary between human and computer. Users exchange information with the computer via the user interface. The user interface is an important part of a computer system. It is a big part of the software development. The quality of the user interface directly affects the performance of the software. For most users, the user interface is all they know from a product. So for these users, a program with a good interior design but a bad user interface design is a bad program. In this project we investigate different ways of recording design decisions in interactive system development which may allow us to think of the different variants and alternatives that are possible (within a design space) in some formal notation, which then allows us to either reason about their suitability or record the decisions made to understand the impact of decisions and how well they support the given criteria. The goal of this project will involve finding out what the influences are which help drive the design process; considering the effects of individual vs. team design; deciding how and when decisions occur; thinking about useful ways to record decisions and their influences; and investigating the usefulness of the approach through the working examples identified as case studies

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  • Digital reading: From the reflective self to social machine

    Peters, Michael A.; Jandric, Petar (2016)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Using the form of dialogue, this paper analyzes reading in the digital age. The paper reveals the history of reading from Augustine to Wittgenstein as a changing and evolving set of practices such as the cultural invention of silent reading, mass reading, and rise of specialized reading publics. It analyzes various 153  changes to these practices in the age of digital technologies, and links digital reading practices to the bundle of related practices such as writing, viewing, listening, and surfing the Web. The paper shows that digital reading is a fundamental question in education at all levels. Situated within radical concordance of various media, digital reading expands human artificial memory and causes profound changes in human natural memory. The paper inquires these changes from various perspectives includ- ing neuroscience and psychology, and concludes that digital reading is predominantly a social phenomenon. It looks into the relationships between digital reading and cognitive capitalism, and shows that the theory of digital reading should recognize the topology and dynamics of the Web. It inquires this dynamics using the per- spective of cultural studies, and analyses digital reading in the context of cyber- cultures, community cultures, and algorithmic cultures. Finally, it develops the view to digital reading as a cybercultural concept which understands reading as a cultural behavior that emphasizes an ecosystem of digital practices.

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  • The International Law Gaze: The Plain Victory of Tobacco Plain Packaging Legislation in Philip Morris Asia v Australia

    Alvarez-Jimenez, Alberto (2016-12-01)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    The legal regime on the protection of foreign investment through international investment agreements passed a very important test recently with the award rendered by an arbitration tribunal (the tribunal) adjudicating the dispute between Philip Morris Asia and Australia (Philip Morris Asia v Australia, Award on Jurisdiction and Admissibility, 17 December 2015. https://www.pcacases.com/web/view/5). The origin of the controversy was the adoption of tobacco plain packaging legislation by the latter in 2011, which Philip Morris regarded as a violation of the standards of protection provided for in the Agreement between the Government of Hong Kong and the Government of Australia for the Promotion and Protection of Investment, signed on September 15, 1993 (the BIT). According to Philip Morris, the legislation barred the use of intellectual property on tobacco products and packaging and had, therefore, substantially reduced the value of Philip Morris’s investment in Australia. Fearing that Australia’s example would start being followed by other nations, Philip Morris did not hesitate in requesting far-reaching relief orders from the tribunal: suspension of the plain packaging legislation and compensation that could be of the order of billions of Australian dollars. (PMA v Australia, para. 8). The tribunal concluded that Philip Morris had carried out an abuse of process, that its claims were inadmissible and, consequently, that the tribunal was precluded from exercising jurisdiction to settle the dispute. (PMA v Australia, para. 588).

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  • Gender and sexuality I: Genderqueer geographies?

    Johnston, Lynda (2016)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    This review considers gender diversity across a range of spaces and places. I note that while the notion of gender has been troubled, there exists opportunities to trouble it further. I highlight the scholarship that has sought to deconstruct genders, and the binary framing of man/woman and male/female roles and relationships. The queering of sexuality has meant that geographers are now tracing the ways in which lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex, queer (LGBTIQ) bodies experience and live their gender beyond normative binaries. Research concerned with relational gendered subjectivities within LGBTIQ communities is discussed, and I flag the trend that this research may conflate gendered experiences while privileging sexual subjectivities. Finally, I turn to the recent interest by geographers who - drawing on queer and trans* theories - argue for new and innovative understandings of gender diversity.

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  • Reverse greed in energy and transport

    Kingham, S.; Muir, S. (2016)

    Conference item
    University of Canterbury Library

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  • Appraisal of the environmental sustainability of milk production systems in New Zealand : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Science in Life Cycle Management at Massey University, Manawatū, New Zealand

    Chobtang, Jeerasak (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) plays an important role in the environmental assessment of agricultural product systems, including dairy farming systems. Generally, an LCA study accounts for the comprehensive resource use and environmental emissions associated with the life cycle of a studied product system. The inventoried inputs and outputs are then transformed into different environmental impact categories using science-based environmental cause-effect mechanisms. There are different LCA modelling approaches (e.g. attributional LCA [ALCA] and consequential LCA [CLCA]) that can be used to address different research questions; however, there is currently no consensus on the most appropriate approach and when to use it. These LCA approaches require different types of data and methodological procedures and, therefore, generate different sets of environmental information which may have different implications for decision-making. In the present research, a series of studies utilising different LCA modelling approaches were undertaken of pasture-based dairy farming systems in the Waikato region (the largest dairy region in New Zealand). The purposes of the studies were to: (i) assess the environmental impacts and identify environmental hotspots of current pasture-based dairy farming systems, (ii) compare environmental hotspots between high and low levels of dairy farm intensification, (iii) investigate the environmental impacts of potential alternative farm intensification methods to increase milk productivity, and (iv) assess the environmental impacts of different future intensified dairy farming scenarios. Twelve midpoint impact categories were assessed: Climate Change (CC), Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP), Human Health Toxicity - non-cancer effects (Non-cancer), Human Health Toxicity - cancer effects (Cancer), Particulate Matter (PM), Ionizing Radiation - human health effects (IR), Photochemical Ozone Formation Potential (POFP), Acidification Potential (AP), Terrestrial Eutrophication Potential (TEP), Freshwater Eutrophication Potential (FEP), Marine Eutrophication Potential (MEP) and Ecotoxicity for Aquatic Freshwater (Ecotox). Firstly, the environmental impacts of 53 existing pasture-based dairy farm systems in the Waikato region were assessed using ALCA. The results showed that both the offfarm and on-farm stages made significant contributions to a range of environmental impacts per kg of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM), and the relative contributions of the stages varied across different impact categories. Farms classified as high intensification based on a high level of farm inputs (i.e. stocking rate, level of nitrogen (N) fertiliser and level of brought-in feeds) had higher impact results than low intensification farms for 10 of 12 impact categories. This was driven mainly by the offfarm stage, including production of brought-in feeds, manufacturing of agrichemicals (e.g. fertilisers and pesticides), and transport of off-farm inputs for use on a dairy farm. The exceptions were the environmental indicators PM, POFP, AP and TEP; their results were determined mainly by ammonia emissions from the on-farm activities. Secondly, environmental consequences resulting from meeting a future increase in demand for milk production (i.e. 20% more milk production per hectare relative to that in 2010/11) by using different farm intensification scenarios for dairy farming systems in the Waikato region were assessed using CLCA. In this study, only technologies/flows that were actually affected by use of different intensification options to increase milk production were accounted for. The identified intensification methods were: (i) increased pasture utilisation efficiency, (ii) increased use of N fertiliser to boost on-farm pasture production, and (iii) increased use of brought-in feed (i.e. maize silage). The results showed that improved pasture utilisation efficiency was the most effective intensification option since it resulted in lower environmental impacts than the other two intensification options. The environmental performance between the other two intensification options varied, depending on impact categories (environmental tradeoffs). Thirdly, prospective ALCA was used to assess the environmental impacts of six prospective (future) dairy farming intensification scenarios in the Waikato region, primarily involving increased stocking rate, that were modelled to increase milk production per hectare by 50% in 2025. In this study, prospective (future) average flows that were derived from extrapolation were accounted for. The potential intensification scenarios were: (i) increased animal productivity (increased milk production per cow), (ii) increased use of mixed brought-in feed, (iii) improved pasture utilisation efficiency, (iv) increased use of N fertiliser to boost on-farm pasture production, (v) increased use of brought-in maize silage, and (vi) replacement of total mixed brought-in feed in the second scenario by wheat grain. The results showed that, apart from improved animal productivity which was considered the best option, improved pasture utilisation efficiency was the second environmentally-preferential option compared with other intensification options for pasture-based dairy farming systems in the Waikato region. There were environmental trade-offs between other intensification options. The present research demonstrated that pasture-based dairy farming systems in the Waikato region contribute to a range of environmental impacts. More intensive farming systems not only have increased milk productivity (milk production per hectare) but also increased environmental impacts (per kg FPCM) in most environmental impact categories. Farm intensification options associated with improved farm efficiency (e.g. animal productivity or pasture utilisation efficiency) are promising as they have lower environmental indicator results (per kg FPCM) compared with other intensification methods. Increased use of off-farm inputs (e.g. N fertilisers and brought-in feeds) increases some, and decreases other, environmental indicator results. Therefore, decision-making associated with choice of alternative farm intensification options beyond farm efficiency improvements will require prioritisation between different environmental impacts and/or focusing on the ability of key decision-makers to effect change (for example, by distinguishing between local and global activities contributing to environmental impacts). The present research has shown that different LCA modelling approaches can be used in a sequential manner to maximise the usefulness of environmental assessment. Initially, ALCA (based on current average flows) can be used to identify environmental hotspots in the life cycle of dairy farming systems. This will generate environmental information that can assist in selection of improvement options. Subsequently, the improvement options selected should be evaluated using CLCA (based on marginal flows). This will produce comparative environmental information resulting from implementing the selected improvement options, strategies or policies in relation to a non-implementation scenario, when the wider contribution of co-products is accounted for. Finally, prospective ALCA (based on future average flows) can be used to assess total or net environmental benefits.

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  • The phenomenology of near-death experiences in Northland Māori of New Zealand : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Psychology at Massey University, Palmerston North Campus, Manawatū, New Zealand

    Young, Hannah Joy (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Near-death experiences (NDEs) can be described as profoundly life-changing, subjective events, that typically manifest in those who have been pronounced clinically dead. Over the past four decades, NDEs have been a field of interest for many researchers. However, the majority of NDE research has been conducted in Western contexts, with fewer than ten studies completed in non-Western regions (Sleutjes, Moreira-Almeida, & Greyson, 2014). The limited non-Western NDE research makes it difficult to determine the role culture may play in the development or interpretation of the NDE. The focus of the current study is the phenomenology of the NDEs of Maori residing in Northland, Aotearoa New Zealand. Because of the Maori focus, Kaupapa Maori Research was selected as the most appropriate methodological framework for this study. A ‘whanau of supervisors’ consisting of five Kaumatua and Kuia assisted the non-Maori researcher with respect to Kaupapa Maori. Six participants took part in unstructured interviews. Findings revealed the significant role of tikanga Maori within the NDEs of participants’, as well as a high similarity with the features often reported by NDErs of Western culture. Based on these results, it is suggested the two positions previous authors have regarded as conflicting, are not in fact mutually exclusive. The NDE may be cross-cultural in nature and culturally interpreted, but incorporate elements developed in reference to culture.

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  • Correction: First demonstration of antigen induced cytokine expression by CD4-1⁺ lymphocytes in a poikilotherm: Studies in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    Yoon, Sohye; Mitra, Suman; Wyse, Cathy; Alnabulsi, Ayham; Zou, Jun; Weerdenburg, Eveline M.; van der Sar, Astrud M.; Wang, Difei; Secombes, Christopher J.; Bird, Steve (2016)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Correction of the article "First demonstration of antigen induced cytokine expression by CD4-1⁺ lymphocytes in a poikilotherm: Studies in zebrafish (Danio rerio)", https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0169149

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  • The development of parents' capacity to self-regulate while participating in Group Teen Triple P

    Sutherland, F.; Blampied, N.M.; France, K.G. (2016)

    Conference Contributions - Other
    University of Canterbury Library

    Previous research has found that the capacity to self-regulate is associated with a number of positive life outcomes and deficits in self-regulation have been linked with poorer life outcomes. Therefore, parent and child self-regulation is an important focus of the Positive Parenting Program for Teenagers (Teen Triple P). The aim of this study was to investigate if Group Teen Triple P was effective in promoting parental self-regulation and adolescent behaviour change in families affected by the earthquakes in Canterbury NZ between 2010 and 2012. METHOD: Five families with teenagers aged 12-16 years were recruited from among families participating in a Group Teen Triple P program specifically implemented by the education authorities for parents self-reporting long-term negative effects of the earthquakes on their family. A single-case multiple-baseline across participants design was used to examine change in target teenager behaviour. Measures of self-regulation skill acquisition were taken using a coding scheme devised for the study from transcripts of three telephone consultations and from three family discussions at pre-intervention, mid-intervention, and post-intervention. Parents and their child also completed questionnaires addressing adolescent functioning, the parent-adolescent relationship and parenting at pre- and post-intervention. RESULTS: The multiple-baseline data showed that parents were successful at changing targeted behaviour for their child. Analysis of the telephone consultations and family discussions showed that parents increased their self-regulation skills over the therapy period and there was positive change in adolescent behavior reported on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Additionally, the results suggested that higher rates and levels of self-regulation in the parents were associated with greater improvements in adolescent behaviour. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that the Group Teen Triple P -Program was effective in promoting self-regulation in parents and behaviour change in adolescents, specifically in a post-disaster context.

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  • Effects of Micronutrients on Anxiety and Stress in Children

    Rucklidge, J.J.; Blampied, N.M.; Sole, E.J. (2016)

    Conference Contributions - Other
    University of Canterbury Library

    • Objective: Examined effects of micronutrients on children with clinically elevated stress and anxiety 23 to 36 months after experiencing a natural disaster (major earthquake). • Methods: A single-case design allocated 14 children (7 males, 7 females; aged 8-11 years; 10 with formal anxiety-disorder diagnoses) randomly to one, two or three week baselines. Participants then took eight capsules/day of a micronutrient formula (EMPowerplus) during an eight-week open-label trial. Assessment instruments were the Children’s Global Assessment Scale (CGAS), the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED), the Pediatric Emotional Distress Scale (PEDS), and the Revised Children’s Manifest Anxiety Scale (RCMAS). • Results: Symptom severity declined slightly in baseline for some children and declined much more during intervention for all children. Effect sizes at end of treatment were -1.40 (RCMAS), -1.92 (SCARED), +1.96 (CGAS) and -2.13 (PEDS). Modified Brinley plots revealed decreases in anxiety and improvements in overall functioning for 10 out of 11 completing participants. Side effects were mild and transient. • Conclusions: The study provided evidence that dietary supplementation by micronutrients reduces children’s post-disaster anxiety to a clinically significant degree. Future placebo-controlled randomised-controlled trials and treatment-comparison research is recommended to determine if this is true of anxiety in general.

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  • Innovation in the analysis of therapeutic change: Combining both idiographic and nomothetic approaches in one visual analysis

    Blampied, N.M. (2016)

    Conference item
    University of Canterbury Library

    For decades there have been calls for clinical research in psychology to be more idiographic and less dependent on group statistical inference, because what applies in aggregate (nomothetic research) does not necessarily apply to any specific individual (idiographic application). Recommended alternatives include more extensive use of graphs and visual analysis of data. This presentation describes the history, construction and interpretation of modified Brinley plots, a technique for analysing treatment outcomes for individuals within groups that is particularly suitable for therapy outcome research, especially during the treatment-development phase when full randomized controlled trials may be premature. Modified Brinley plots are scatter-plots that compare individual scores at time 1 (normally pretreatment) with scores at various times post-treatment. If the origin and axis scales of the graph are the same no or little change is shown by data points clustering on or about the 45o diagonal line. Change over time (improvement or deterioration) is shown by shifts away from the diagonal. Interpretation is aided by the addition of clinical cut-offs, and by the use of the Reliable Change Index (based on measurement error), features which partition the graph space into meaningful zones. In addition to displaying individuals’ data, these graphs may also display group effects such as means, variances, confidence intervals, and effect sizes. Both between-group and within-group data may be presented and analysed this way and large amounts of data can be efficiently presented and clearly understood within one figure.

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  • Submission to the Parliamentary Select Committee on Foreign Affairs, Defence and Trade on the New Zealand Intelligence and Security Bill

    Small, D. (2016)

    Unclassified
    University of Canterbury Library

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  • Reliable Change and the Reliable Change Index in the context of evidence-based practice: A tutorial review

    Blampied, N.M. (2016)

    Conference Contributions - Other
    University of Canterbury Library

    Background: The concept of Reliable Change in the context of psychological treatment was introduced by Jacobson and colleagues in 1984. Their Reliable Change Index (RCI) specifies the amount of change a client must show on a specific psychometric instrument between measurement occasions for that change to be reliable, i.e., larger than that reasonably expected due to measurement error alone. Only if change is reliable is it then meaningful to consider if it is practically or clinically significant. Evidence of reliable change is, therefore, at the heart of evidence-based practice. Despite this, reliable change and the RCI is rarely considered either in applied/clinical research or practice.Aims: This talk will review the psychometric foundations of the RCI and relate this to clinical/applied/practical significance. Main contributions:In addition to showing how the RCI is calculated for any particular psychological measure I will also demonstrate a graphical procedure that practitioners can use to systematically track, client by client, if they are producing reliable change. I will also show how this can be extended to show if the change is clinically significant. Modifications of the RCI for neuropsychological testing to take account of practice effects will also be discussed. Conclusions: The paper will review the concept of Reliable Change and provide a tutorial in its use and interpretation for researchers and practitioners.

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  • Making the most of work resources: the moderating effect of regulatory focus on resilience development

    Connell, P. K. (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The ever changing, volatile business world calls for resilient organisations and resilient employees. While past research suggests the need to identify factors that contribute to employee resilience development, there is limited empirical research that clarifies these factors. Drawing from Conservation of Resources (COR) theory, the purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between social- and feedback-related resources, and resilient employee behaviours, and to explore the moderating role of regulatory foci (prevention and promotion) in this relationship. A survey was conducted among 162 participants from four organisations. Moderated multiple regressions, considering 3-way interactions, were conducted to test the theoretical assumptions. Findings from this study suggest that: 1) individuals with a high promotion and high prevention focus display higher levels of employee resilience, irrespective of resource levels, 2) the resilience of employees with a low promotion and low prevention profile is impacted by resource availability, and 3) mismatch in regulatory foci (i.e., individuals exhibiting high levels of one regulatory focus and low levels of the other) accounts for unique relationships between resources and resilient behaviours. This is the first study to examine the interaction between promotion and prevention, and to assess the prevalence and role of regulatory foci in workplace factors.

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