4,318 results for 2016

  • Community Participation in Education: A Case Study in the Four Remote Primary Schools in Samlot District, Battambang Province, Cambodia

    To, Loeurt (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This study was conducted to investigate the nature of community participation in education in a remote district in Cambodia. A case study approach was used to explore the issue and employed mixed research methods for data collection. Epstein‘s participation and Bray‘s degree of community participation were used as analytical frameworks. The study contributes to a wide body of literature in participation in education, but which is under-researched for rural Cambodia. The study focussed on the forms and processes of participation by parents, community members and education stakeholders in primary schools in remote areas. The study discovered a range of social practices in community participation in education. The degrees of participation varied depending on the types of participation and the participants. Parents had direct participation in their children‘s learning at home, and indirect participation through resource contribution for school development. In addition, the community participated in education through their main representatives, the School Support Committees (SSCs). SSCs were found to possess power in the decision-making processes in school and education development. The most common type of participation was collaborative resource contribution for school development. This practice reflected the traditional culture of participation of Cambodian society but there was also a sign of behavioural change to focus more on children‘s learning. Teachers and School Support Committees were the drivers in bringing community and parents to participate in education. They were the facilitators, communicators, network connectors and mobilizers for school and education development. This case study suggests that a shift in focus (on the part of the government, non-governmental organizations and education stakeholders) to support parental involvement in children‘s learning, rather than the traditional resource mobilisation, may better promote children‘s learning. Further research on parental involvement in children‘s learning could be conducted.

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  • New public management and information communication technology : organisational influences on frontline child protection practice

    Webster, Mike; McNabb, David (2016)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    In this paper the authors examine the new public management (NPM) philosophy influencing the organisational environment in which child protection social workers are located. NPM prioritises outputs through policies, such as results based accountability (RBA) predicated on the expectation that responsibility to achieve designated programme outcomes is sheeted to the agency and its workers. Ongoing funding depends on programme results. NPM ideology assumes that workers and managers in agencies tasked with delivering care and protection services are able to control the variables influencing outputs which contribute to outcomes. The authors will analyse four key aspects of NPM thinking (RBA, outputs, outcomes and key performance indicators) and explore their organisational consequences. The influence on social work practice of information and communications technology (ICT), on which NPM depends, is also considered. The paper is not an ideologically based rejection of NPM, but rather an assessment of its consequences for care and protection practice. The authors call for a return to the centrality of relationally based social work processes embodied in common factors (CF) practice, such as the therapeutic alliance. We argue that CF approaches offer a contrasting and more appropriate practice philosophy than NPM thinking while still enabling achievable, multifaceted organisational benefits.

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  • Housing issues in Auckland

    Haigh, David (2016-02)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    Recently, I went to hear Alan Johnson (Salvation Army Policy Analyst) speak on the topic of housing, and how Auckland itself got into this mess. Here are some of my thoughts on that speech. Alan Johnson started by asking how Government is failing Auckland and came up with four key points: Making promises that are not real promises Failing to come up with genuine ideas that will work Failing to understand Auckland and the governance of Auckland Being guilty of not caring

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  • The Prevalence of Postgraduate Education in Youth Health Among High School Clinicians and Associated Student Health Outcomes

    Denny, S; Farrant, B; Utter, J; Fleming, T; Bullen, P; Peiris-John, R; Clark, T (2016-11)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Purpose Despite numerous calls to improve training in adolescent health, there is little known about the prevalence or effectiveness of specialized training in adolescent health. Methods A two-stage random sampling cluster design was used to collect nationally representative data from 8,500 students from 91 high schools. Student data were linked to data from a survey of school health clinicians from participating schools on their level of training in youth health. Multilevel models accounting for demographic characteristics of students were used to estimate the association between nurses and physicians training in youth health and health outcomes among students. Results Almost all nurses and physicians reported some training in youth health, either having attended lectures or study days in youth health (n = 60, 80%) or completed postgraduate papers in youth health (n = 13, 17.3%). Students in schools where the nurses and physicians had received postgraduate training in youth health were less likely than students from schools with clinicians having attended lectures or study days in youth health to report emotional and behavior difficulties (11.8 vs. 12.7, p = .002) and binge drinking (19.6% vs. 24.9%, p = .03). There were no significant associations between depressive symptoms, suicide risk, cigarette, marijuana, contraception use, or motor vehicle risk behaviors among students and level of training among clinicians in their schools' health service. Conclusions Postgraduate training in youth health among nurses and physicians in school health services is associated with fewer students reporting mental health difficulties and binge alcohol use. These findings support specialized training in youth health for clinicians working predominantly with young people.

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  • Hongi Hika’s Self-Portrait

    Brown, Deidre (2016-06-01)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Teacher narratives as theorisation of teaching: A Chinese teacher's perspectives on communicative language teaching (CLT)

    Bao, C; Zhang, Lawrence; Dixon, HR (2016)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Teaching as a profession is unique in that all the people who enter the profession have had extensive experience of it, which was built up over many years in classrooms as students. However, the pre-existing set of beliefs about teaching and learning, which were based on, and reinforced by, their own experiences, might cause perplexity for teachers who work in different cultural contexts. How to balance pedagogical principles becomes one of the important considerations for these teachers when faced with the perplexity. This study, therefore, was taken to explore the beliefs of a Chinese language teacher, who was educated in a traditional teaching system (three-centeredness) in Mainland China and was teaching Chinese to speakers of other languages (TCSOL) in New Zealand. It was aimed to unveil how a TCSOL teacher coped with such challenges. Narrative inquiry and thematic analysis were adopted in examining this teacher’s experience. Results show that composite factors impacted this teacher’s beliefs about teaching and learning. The research process and findings are expected to offer some implications for fostering effective TCSOL teachers’ professional development.

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  • Re: Is there an alternative to centralization for pancreatic resection in New Zealand?

    Windsor, JA; Pandanaboyana, S; Bartlett, ASJR (2016-09)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Additive Manufacturing of High Resolution Embedded Electronic Systems

    Wasley, T; Li, J; Ta, D; Shephard, J; Stringer, Jonathan; Smith, P; Esenturk, E; Connaughton, C; Kay, R (2016)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes can facilitate the rapid iterative product development of electronic devices by optimising their design and functionality. This has been achieved by combining two additive manufacturing processes with conventional surface mount assembly to generate high resolution embedded multilayer electronic circuits contained within a 3D printed polymer part. Bottom-up DLP Stereolithography and material dispensing of isotropic conductive adhesives have been interleaved to deposit microscale features on photopolymer substrates. The material dispensing process has demonstrated the high density deposition of conductors attaining track widths of 134μm and produced interconnects suitable for directly attaching bare silicon die straight to the substrate. Interconnects down to a diameter of 149μm at a pitch of 457μm have been realized. In addition, this research developed a novel method for producing high aspect ratio z-axis connections. These were simultaneously printed with the circuit and component interconnects by depositing through-layer pillars with a maximum aspect ratio of 3.81. Finally, a method to accurately embed the packaged circuit layer within the printed part has been employed using bottom-up stereolithography.

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  • The significance of powder breakdown during conveying within industrial milk powder plants

    Boiarkina, Irina; Sang, C; Depree, N; Prince-Pike, Arrian; Yu, Wei; Wilson, DI; Young, BR (2016)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Instant whole milk powder is designed to rapidly dissolve in water, which depends on the particle size distribution (PSD). The fragile powder exiting the dryer is conveyed for packing which breaks down the particles, worsening the dissolution properties. This work investigated the effect of conveying on the final functional properties using two industrial plants with differing transport systems; a pneumatic system and bucket elevator. It was expected that the plant with the bucket elevator consistently produced powder with superior dissolution due to lower breakdown during transport. This was evaluated using the change in PSD. It was found that the plant with the bucket elevator had at least as large a change in the median particle size as the plant with the pneumatic transport system, contrary to the expectation. However, the plant with the bucket elevator had an initially larger particle size, and so the percentage of fine particles that negatively impact dissolution, remained low post transport. When quantified using the change in bulk density, having an initially low bulk density compensated for large increases in bulk density during conveying and powder with lower bulk density pre-transport showed better wettability post transport. Thus in order to produce powder with the desired functionalities the focus should be on improving the initial agglomeration and generating larger particles and lower bulk density pre-transport, as opposed to optimising the powder transport.

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  • Acoustic Echo and Noise Canceller for Personal Hands-Free Video IP Phone

    Fukui, M; Shimauchi, S; Hioka, Yusuke; Nakagawa, A; Hanead, Y (2016-11)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    This paper presents implementation and evaluation of a proposed acoustic echo and noise canceller (AENC) for videotelephony-enabled personal hands-free Internet protocol (IP) phones. This canceller has the following features: noise-robust performance, low processing delay, and low computational complexity. The AENC employs an adaptive digital filter (ADF) and noise reduction (NR) methods that can effectively eliminate undesired acoustic echo and background noise included in a microphone signal even in a noisy environment. The ADF method uses the step-size control approach according to the level of disturbance such as background noise; it can minimize the effect of disturbance in a noisy environment. The NR method estimates the noise level under an assumption that the noise amplitude spectrum is constant in a short period, which cannot be applied to the amplitude spectrum of speech. In addition, this paper presents the method for decreasing the computational complexity of the ADF process without increasing the processing delay to make the processing suitable for real-time implementation. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed AENC suppresses echo and noise sufficiently in a noisy environment; thus, resulting in natural-sounding speech.

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  • Delayed neuroprotection in the era of hypothermia: What can we add?

    Gunn, Alistair; Groenendaal, F (2016)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Despite the successful clinical translation of therapeutic hypothermia for perinatal encephalopathy into routine care, treatment is only partially effective. It is likely that this reflects the formidable challenges of initiating treatment for neonatal encephalopathy within a few hours after birth. In randomized controlled trials, cooling has been typically initiated at a mean of 4 to 5 h after birth. This is clearly not optimal, given accumulating evidence that cooling is significantly more effective when it can be initiated before 3 h. In this review, we propose that given the consistent evidence that milder hypoxic-ischemic injury is associated with slower evolution of damage, any future clinical trials of delayed treatment starting more than 6 h after an insult should target infants with milder encephalopathy. We then critically examine the evidence that erythropoietin is one of the most promising preclinical candidates either for co-treatment with the mild therapeutic hypothermia or to support neuroregeneration after the therapeutic window for acute neuroprotection.

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  • Goal-based Testing of Semantic Web Services

    Jokhio, M; Sun, J; Dobbie, G; Hu, T (2016-12-01)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Context: Recent years have witnessed growing interests in semantic web and its related technologies. While various frameworks have been proposed for designing semantic web services (SWS), few of them aim at testing. Objective: This paper investigates into the technologies for automatically deriving test cases from semantic web service descriptions based on the Web Service Modeling Ontology (WSMO) framework. Method: WSMO goal specifications were translated into B abstract machines. Test cases were generated via model checking with calculated trap properties from coverage criteria. Furthermore, we employed mutation analysis to evaluate the test suite. In this approach, the model-based test case generation and code-based evaluation techniques are independent of each other, which provides much more accurate measures of the testing results. Results: We applied our approach to a real-world case study of the Amazon E-Commerce Service (ECS). The experimental results have validated the effectiveness of the proposed solution. Conclusion: It is concluded that our approach is capable of automatically generating an effective set of test cases from the WSMO goal descriptions for SWS testing. The quality of test cases was measured in terms of their abilities to discover the injected faults at the code level. We implemented a tool to automate the steps for the mutation-based evaluation.

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  • Measures of outcome in lung cancer screening: maximising the benefits

    Young, RP; Hopkins, Raewyn (2016-10)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    In their article, Miller and colleagues report on the survival results of smokers enrolled in their communitybased multicentre computed tomography (CT) screening program for lung cancer (1). In a cohort of 1,267 primarily moderate to high risk smokers, followed with annual CT screening for 5 years, 36 subjects underwent biopsy, 30 were confirmed to have lung cancer of which 28 were primary lung cancers. Overall 5-year survival was 64% and 5-year lung cancer specific survival was 71% in the screened patients, where the overall-survival compared favourably to the 5-year survival in a group of non-screened lung cancer patients (64% vs. 19% respectively, P<0.001) (1).

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  • A randomised controlled demonstration trial of multifaceted nutritional intervention and or probiotics: the healthy mums and babies (HUMBA) trial

    Okesene-Gafa, K; Li, M; Taylor, Rennae; Thompson, John; Crowther, Caroline; McKinlay, Christopher; McCowan, Lesley (2016-11-24)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background Maternal obesity is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and has lifelong negative implications for offspring health. The Institute of Medicine recommends limited gestational weight gain (GWG) in obese women for optimal maternal and infant outcomes. However, there is a gap regarding an effective and sustainable intervention strategy to achieve this goal. The aim of the healthy mums and babies (HUMBA) demonstration trial is to assess whether a multifaceted nutritional intervention and/or an oral probiotic treatment in obese pregnant women can reduce excessive GWG and optimise pregnancy outcomes. Methods and design The study is a two by two factorial randomised controlled demonstration trial conducted in Counties Manukau health region, New Zealand, a multi-ethnic region with a high prevalence of obesity. A total of 220 non-diabetic obese women with a singleton pregnancy will be recruited between 120 and 176 weeks. At recruitment, women are randomised to receive either a culturally tailored multifaceted dietary intervention or routine dietary advice, and either an oral probiotic or placebo capsule. Randomisation is undertaken via a web-based protocol, randomize.net, with a 1:1 ratio using stratification by body mass index (BMI) category (BMI of 30–34.9 or BMI ≥35 kg/m2). The dietary intervention includes 4 customised nutrition education visits by a trained community health worker combined with motivational text messaging. Probiotic capsules consist of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Bifidobacterium lactis BB12 at a dose of 7 × 109 colony-forming units one per day until birth. Probiotic and placebo capsules are identically pre-packed and labelled by a third party, and are prescribed in a double blinded fashion. Research assessments are conducted at enrolment, 28 weeks, 36 weeks, at birth and at 5 months post-delivery. The primary outcomes for the study are proportion of women with excessive GWG and infant birthweight. Discussion The HUMBA demonstration trial will assess the efficacy of a culturally tailored multifaceted dietary intervention and probiotic treatment in limiting excessive GWG and optimising birthweight in a multiethnic sample of obese pregnant women. If successful, either one or both of the interventions may be incorporated into future studies powered to investigate important pregnancy outcomes. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry registration number: ACTRN12615000400561, Universal Trial Number: U1111-1155-0409. Date registered: 29th April 2015.

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  • Non-English major postgraduates’ English learning needs:A perspective from the Output-driven Hypothesis

    Shen, Y; Zhang, Lawrence; Pan, H (2016-11-18)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Curriculum development for EFL education needs to be based on learner needs. From the perspective of Output-driven Hypothesis, we conducted a questionnaire survey of learning needs and interests among non-English major postgraduates at a national key university. The results showed 1) a majority of participants were strongly motivated to learn English, with a particularly strong interest in improving their productive language skills 2) there were significant disciplinary differences in the perceptions of reading, writing and translation skills 3) there were notable discrepancies between the perceived importance of macro language skills and self-reported interested courses. The study further put forward that English curriculum design for non-English major postgraduates should be based on disciplinarity and learner needs, be oriented around production skills, and holistically meet diverse learner needs. 本研究从“输出驱动假设”视角对吉林省某重点高校非英语专 业研究生的英语学习需求进行问卷调查,结果显示:(1)研究生有提高英语输出能力的迫切需求;(2)理工和人文学科背景的研究生对英语阅读、写作和翻译技 能的认识存在显著性差异;(3)研究生对英语技能的重视程度与需求程度并不完全相符。研究进而提出研究生公共英语课程设置应基于学科专业性和学生需求,以 “输出”为导向,整体上满足学生的多样化学习需求。

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  • Doing it together: a story from the co-production field

    Kidd, Jacqueline; Edwards, G (2016)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Purpose – Co-production in the context of mental health research has become something of a buzzword to indicate a project where mental health service users and academics are in a research partnership. The notion of partnership where one party has the weight of academic tradition on its side is a contestable one, so in this paper the authors “write to understand” (Richardson and St Pierre, 2005) as the purpose of this paper is to examine the experiences of working in a co-produced research project that investigated supported housing services for people with serious mental health problems. Design/methodology/approach – The authors set out to trouble the notion of co-produced research though a painfully honest account of the project, while at the same time recognising it as an idea whose time has come and suggesting a framework to support its implementation. Findings – Co-production is a useful, albeit challenging, approach to research. Originality/value – This paper is particularly relevant to researchers who are endeavouring to produce work that challenges the status quo through giving voice to people who are frequently silenced by the research process.

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  • Comparison of seismic design provisions for buckling restrained braced frames in Canada, United States, Chile, and New Zealand

    Tremblay, R; Dehghani, M; Fahnestock, L; Herrera, R; Canales, M; Clifton, George; Hamid, Z (2016-11)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    Seismic design provisions for buildings in Canada, the United States, Chile and New Zealand are presented for buckling restrained braced frames, with focus on design requirements for seismic stability. P-delta effects are explicitly considered in seismic design in Canada, the U.S. and New Zealand. In Chile, stability effects are limited by means of more stringent drift limits. The provisions are applied to a 9-storey building structure located in areas in each country having similar seismic conditions. For this structure, comparable seismic loads are specified in Canada and Chile, whereas significantly lower seismic effects are prescribed in the U.S. In all countries, use of the dynamic (response spectrum) analysis method resulted in lighter and more flexible structures compared to the equivalent static force procedure. Seismic stability requirements had greater impact on designs in Canada and New Zealand. Frame design in the U.S. was only affected by stability effects when applying the stability requirements from AISC 360-10.

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  • Multidirectional In Vivo Characterization of Skin Using Wiener Nonlinear Stochastic System Identification Techniques

    Parker, Matthew; Jones, LA; Hunter, IW; Taberner, Andrew; Nash, Martyn; Nielsen, Poul (2016-11-04)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    A triaxial force-sensitive microrobot was developed to dynamically perturb skin in multiple deformation modes, in vivo. Wiener static nonlinear identification was used to extract the linear dynamics and static nonlinearity of the force–displacement behavior of skin. Stochastic input forces were applied to the volar forearm and thenar eminence of the hand, producing probe tip perturbations in indentation and tangential extension. Wiener static nonlinear approaches reproduced the resulting displacements with variances accounted for (VAF) ranging 94–97%, indicating a good fit to the data. These approaches provided VAF improvements of 0.1–3.4% over linear models. Thenar eminence stiffness measures were approximately twice those measured on the forearm. Damping was shown to be significantly higher on the palm, whereas the perturbed mass typically was lower. Coefficients of variation (CVs) for nonlinear parameters were assessed within and across individuals. Individual CVs ranged from 2% to 11% for indentation and from 2% to 19% for extension. Stochastic perturbations with incrementally increasing mean amplitudes were applied to the same test areas. Differences between full-scale and incremental reduced-scale perturbations were investigated. Different incremental preloading schemes were investigated. However, no significant difference in parameters was found between different incremental preloading schemes. Incremental schemes provided depth-dependent estimates of stiffness and damping, ranging from 300 N/m and 2 Ns/m, respectively, at the surface to 5 kN/m and 50 Ns/m at greater depths. The device and techniques used in this research have potential applications in areas, such as evaluating skincare products, assessing skin hydration, or analyzing wound healing.

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  • Linking Design Model with Code

    Eckert, C; Cham, Brian; Sun, Jing; Dobbie, Gillian; Li, P (2016-11)

    Journal article
    The University of Auckland Library

    With the growing in size and complexity of modern computer systems, the need for improving the quality at all stages of software development has become a critical issue. The current software production has been largely dependent on manual code development. Despite the slow development process, the errors introduced by the programmers contribute to a substantial portion of defects in the final software product. Model-driven engineering (MDE), despite having many advantages, is often overlooked by programmers due to lack of proper understanding and training in the matter. This paper investigates the advantages and disadvantages of MDE and looks at research results showing the adoption rates of design models. It analyzes different tools used for automated code generation and displays the reasons that led to technical decisions such as the programming language or design model used. In light of the findings, an educational tool, namely Lorini, was developed to provide automated code generation from the design models. The implemented tool consists of a plug-in for the Astah framework aimed at teaching Java programming to students through UML diagrams. It features instantaneous code generation from three types of UML diagrams, code-diagram matching, a feedback panel for error displays and on-the-fly compilation and execution of the resulting program. We also explore the possibility of generating assertion constraints from the design model and use them to verify the implementation. Evaluation of the tool indicated it to be successful with unique educational features and intuitive to use.

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  • Expatriate selection: A historical overview and criteria for decision-making

    Ott, DL; Michailova, S (2016)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

    Purpose: The International Human Resource Management literature has paid less attention to the selection of expatriates and the decision-making criteria with regard to such selection, than to issues relating to expatriates' role, performance, adjustment, success, and failure. Yet, before expatriates commence their assignments, they need to be selected. The purpose of this book chapter is to provide an overview of issues related specifically to expatriate selection. In particular, the chapter traces the chronological development of selection over the last five decades or so, from prior to 1970 until present. The chapter subsequently identifies five expatriate selection criteria that have been applied in regard to traditional international assignments, but are also relevant to alternative assignments. Methodology/approach: We begin by reviewing expatriate selection historically and its position within expatriate management based on changing business environments. Then, drawing from over five decades of literature on international assignments, we identify and discuss five organizational, individual, and contextual level criteria for selecting expatriates. Findings: Emphasis on different issues tends to characterize expatriate selection during the various decades since the literature has taken up the topic. The chapter describes those issues, following a chronological perspective. In addition, the chapter organizes the various selection criteria in five clusters: organization philosophy, technical competence, relational abilities, personal characteristics, and spouse and family situation. Research limitations and practical implications: While there are studies on expatriate selection, there is more to be understood with regard to the topic. Provided all other expatriation phases are subsequent, if selection is not understood in detail, the foundations of studying phases and processes that take place once expatriates are selected may not be sound. While the scholarly conversations of other expatriate-related issues should continue, the international human resource management literature can absorb more analyses on selection. A better understanding of expatriate selection will assist its better management. The chapter provides a basis for human resource management professionals to be able to map the various criteria for selection, and decide, under particular circumstances, which ones to prioritize and why. Originality/value: The chapter brings clarity to a topic that has remained less researched when compared to other areas of interest related to expatriates and their international assignments by tracing the historical development of this important phase of the expatriation process. In addition, the chapter organizes a number of selection criteria along five core areas and discusses each of them to gain insights that help explain expatriate selection in greater detail.

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