82,021 results

  • Documentary analysis hui: an innovative research method employed to bring documents to life through culturally responsive conversation

    Cardno, Carol; Anderson, N.; McDonald, M. (2017-05-10T05:35:31Z)

    Conference item
    Unitec

    Kaupapa Māori research is collectivist – oriented towards benefitting all research participants and their agendas Self-determination is a key dimension – providing agentic positioning for research participants Māori language, culture, knowledge and values are accepted in their own right. ... In this case courage was needed to align research action with the principles of Kaupapa Māori research – namely agentic positioning, partnership, participation and respect for the knowledge of the participants.

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  • Residential household electrical appliance management using model predictive control of a grid connected photovoltaic-battery system

    Ahmad, Aziz; Anderson, T.; Swain, A.; Lie, T.; Currie, J.; Holmes, Wayne (2017-05-10T05:35:41Z)

    Conference item
    Unitec

    Grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) based power generation technology is being pushed to the forefront as a viable alternative source of renewable energy, particularly in small-scale domestic applications. Due to the variable nature of solar energy, PV usually works well with battery storage to provide continuous and stable energy. However, by incorporating storage with such systems there is a need to develop controllers that allow the owners to maximize the benefit of such systems and so require sophisticated control strategies. In this work a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) state space model of a PV array, load energy demand, battery bank and utility grid was used to develop a model predictive control setup for a grid connected photovoltaic-battery power generation system. Artificial neural network (ANN) based energy demand prediction was used as the output measured disturbance for the MPC. Switched constraints were used for the MIMO state space model to mimic the dynamic behavior of the storage system. Simulation results show that the proposed MPC would activate non-critical electrical appliances usage at periods when excess PV energy was available from the PV array. Further, it would also allocate energy to the battery storage when this was available, and, when load energy demand was more than the PV array produced would deactivate non-critical appliances (dish washer, washing machine and dryer) and use battery energy if necessary.

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  • Analysis of NTP DRDoS attacks’ performance effects and mitigation techniques

    Sarrafpour, Bahman; Abbaro, C.; Pitton, I.; Young, C.; Madipour, Farhad (2017-05-10T05:35:42Z)

    Conference item
    Unitec

    Denial of Service (DoS) attacks are a type of interruption (malicious and/or unintended) that restrict or completely deny services meant for legitimate users. One of the most relevant DoS attacks is Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack which is a variant of DoS, but on a larger scale using previously compromised, malware infected computers known as “bots” or “zombies”. DDoS attack occurs by generating large amounts of traffic towards an intended victim. This paper focuses on analyzing a variant of DDoS attacks known as Network Time Protocol (NTP) Distributed Reflective Denial of Service (DRDoS) attack. The impact of the attack will be measured in the utilization of processor, memory, network and ping of most relevant devices. Further focus is on the host and network based layered “defense indepth” of NTP DRDoS attack mitigation techniques.

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  • 'Gimme Shelter': The 'othering' of refugees in forming identity in Australia and New Zealand

    Kolesova, Elena; Allen, M. (2017-05-10T05:35:30Z)

    Conference item
    Unitec

    Questions to consider: How are refugees perceived in Australia and New Zealand (historically and currently)? How does ‘othering’ refugees influence how we contruct ideas of who ‘we’ are? How does Edward Said’s Orientalism speak to the notion of ‘othering’ in the current context?

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  • What can facial behaviour reveal about animal welfare?

    Descovich, Kris; Wathan, J.; Leach, M.; Buchanan-Smith, H.; Flecknell, P.; Farningham, D.; Vick, S. J. (2017-05-10T05:35:26Z)

    Conference item
    Unitec

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  • Facing the challenges in a changing tertiary environment : the voices of senior and middle leaders

    Howse, Jo (2017-05-10T05:35:25Z)

    Conference item
    Unitec

    Increased excessive workload for middle leaders (new) Cascading academic responsibility from the senior leadership to middle leaders Inadequate preparation and training for the new middle leadership roles Lack of leadership development opportunities Lack of time for middle leaders to think and to plan strategically Increased and excessive workload Imbalance between work and personal life

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  • Te reo kiriti : when Euripides speaks Maori. Intercultural collaborative practice as instinctive teaching methodology

    Davies, John (2017-05-10T05:35:52Z)

    Conference item
    Unitec

    This paper takes the form of a report on an artistic project [a Māori Bacchae] and the task I have been given bring matauranga Maori into mainstream tertiary teaching of our department, of performing and screen arts at Unitec. The two are connected in that I wish, through the artistic project to learn more about, and find a way to expose our mainstream students to Maori knowledge and ways of learning. [...] My artistic question of our work is: Does the stylization and power of Maori performance and aesthetics release principles of Aristotle’s poetics and embedded dramatic themes from within Greek tragedy?

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  • Cervical screening for women with physical disabilities

    Hanlon, Erin (2017-05-10T05:35:21Z)

    Conference item
    Unitec

    The National Cervical Screening Programme (NCSP) implemented NZ in 1990 Incidence of & deaths associated w cervical cancer has decreased ~ 40% and 60% The NCSP records results in their centralised database (register) ~ NCSP-R International evidence suggests: Women w disabilities (WWD) are < likely to have regular screening. WWD have lowest “compliance” rates Why is this?

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  • Environmental accounting disclosures of manufacturing and mining listed companies in Shandong Province, China

    Rainsbury, Liz; Hao, Gloria (2017-05-10T05:35:46Z)

    Conference item
    Unitec

    The study examines factors that affect the environment accounting disclosure levels for a sample of manufacturing and mining listed company in the Shandong province China. The empirical results show that larger companies are more likely to disclose higher levels of environmental accounting disclosures. Companies operating in industries that produce heavy pollution are also more likely to disclose higher levels of environmental accounting information. Contrary to expectations companies that are more profitable are less likely to have higher disclosures levels. These results suggest that economic performance is of major importance compared to environmental matters.

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  • Exploring governance design options for new and emerging sports : the case of stand up paddling in New Zealand

    Meiklejohn, Trevor; Ferkins, Dr Lesley; O'Boyle, I. (2017-05-10T05:35:48Z)

    Conference item
    Unitec

    Sport governance “is the responsibility for the functioning and direction of the organisation and is a necessary and institutionalised component of all sports codes from club level to national bodies, government agencies, sport service organisations and professional teams around the world” (Ferkins & Shilbury, 2010, p. 235). In considering wider not for profit, commercial and public contexts, Rhodes (1996) and Rosenau (1995) take a broader view suggesting that governance is the process by which an organisation, network of organisations or a society steers itself, allocates resources and exercises control and co-ordination. Research and theoretical attention to this topic is still limited and has not yet moved to fully grasp the complexities of governance within the sport context (Hoye & Doherty, 2011, Shilbury, Ferkins & Smythe, 2013). Such complexities are due to the multi-layered federated network of not for profit clubs, regional sport organisations (RSOs), national sports organisations (NSOs) and international governing bodies (IGBs) that are common to most traditional sports (Ferkins & Shilbury, 2010; Hoye & Cuskelly, 2007; Dickson, Arnold & Chalip, 2005; Soares, Correia & Rosado, 2010; Taylor & O’Sullivan, 2009). As such, a majority of research has focussed on governance at an organisational level avoiding the wider governance system and the multifaceted governance structures that many organisations (and groups of organisations) have evolved toward (Hoye & Doherty, 2011; Cornforth, 2011). To further add to the recognised complexities inherent in sport governance, the sport landscape is undergoing substantial change. Government agencies for sport are cognisant of this with Sport New Zealand in its ‘Future of Sport in New Zealand’ document (2015) highlighting trends such as a growth in the offering of sport from both not for profit and for profit sectors, the individualisation of the sporting experience and a move away from traditional sporting communities offered by clubs. This suggests that despite the complicated federated systems of traditional sports, new and emerging sports with alternative structures, cultures and new entrants (participants and providers) may further complicate the sport governance landscape. Consistent with this, Kellet and Russell (2009) highlight the sport of skateboarding where entrepreneurs have taken advantage of an open system without the institutionalised boundaries present in traditional sports to gain easy entry for profit maximisation. They observed that this field is fragmented, lacking in formal structures and contains overlapping roles of suppliers, participants and program developers, quite different to traditional sporting structures. They contend there is a dearth of understanding as to how new and emerging sports are structured and governed, and that this lack of knowledge compared to mainstream sports (which is still limited) seems remiss given the growth of these sports. This proposed research is the next frontier of knowledge development in sport governance. Specifically, it aims to explore governance options for new and emerging sports. To do this, a systemic governance approach that encapsulates the mosaic of current and potential stakeholders will be employed (Kellet & Russell, 2009; Soares et al., 2010). This conceptual presentation will examine the need for such a study within sport governance and also pose a context where such a study could take place, that of stand up paddling, reported as the fastest growing water sport in the world. In doing so it intends to build on the limited body of knowledge in sport governance in general, systemic sport governance, and the governance of new and emerging sports.

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  • Enriching Māori entrepreneurship (Māuipreneurship) : Te Haerenga o Te Awa = The Journey of Te Awa

    Molyneux, Ngaire (2017-05-10T05:35:39Z)

    Conference item
    Unitec

    The aim of this research is to map the journey and development of “Te Awa” an undergraduate entrepreneurship (pathway) programme at Unitec Institute of Technology. Some key objectives of Te Awa are to effectively recruit more Māori students into innovation and entrepreneurship courses, and to deliver these courses in a way that potential Māori entrepreneurs are more likely to enrol and respond positively to the content to become successful entrepreneurs. Thus providing a vehicle and unlocking the latent potential of the cultural competitive advantage for Aotearoa. Te Awa takes a pragmatic yet creative approach and is very applied and relevant to the needs of people operating in real enterprise based on Māori kaupapa (Te Ao Māori) with Mātauranga Māori embedded throughout the curriculum. The following questions will be addressed; how will tauira Māori respond to the pedagogy of Te Awa; how will tauira Māori respond to Te Awa in terms of recruitment and retention; will Te Awa achieve the vision set out “to nurture and support Māori “entrepreneurs” enabling them to be more innovative developing an enterprise doing what they are passionate about. The[se] have informed critical success factors for Māori entrepreneurs. There is a particular focus on the use of the Māuipreneurship framework Understanding Māori Entrepreneurship (Keelan and Woods 2006) and the Māuipreneur (Keelan 2009)

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  • Evidence of an Australasian divide : exploring little penguins using DNA barcodes

    Waugh, John (2017-05-10T05:35:32Z)

    Conference item
    Unitec

    The use of DNA barcodes (haplotypic variation in a 648 bp segment of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene within the mitochondrial genome, starting from base 58 at the 5’ end of the gene) as part of a species description is an accepted part of modern taxonomy. The evidence COI provides is compelling since a sequence of DNA is biological data obtained from living material. Early in the use of COI, it became apparent that it might highlight potential cryptic species and inform the debate around their status. The little blue penguin (Eudyptula minor) has been the subject of such debate. DNA barcodes from 60 little blue penguins were assessed to determine the specific status of this species across its range. Analysis of these data indicates distinct Australian and New Zealand haplotypes that may be indicative of separation at the species level. The specific status for the two populations is also supported by behavioural evidence and geographic isolation.

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  • The effect of Mepitel Film on skin reaction severity in patients undergoing radiation therapy for head and neck cancer: a feasibility study

    Wooding, Hayley (2017)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    Radiation skin reactions are a common side effect of radiation therapy and can be distressing and painful for patients. Head and neck cancer patients receive a high dose of radiation to the skin and are therefore at high risk of acute skin toxicity. There have been many clinical trials investigating topical agents to reduce or prevent these reactions but the evidence to date is lacking and many centres still base their practice on anecdotal evidence. Recently clinical trials in breast cancer patients have shown that using Mepitel Film® (Mölnlycke Health Care AB, Gothenburg, Sweden) reduced skin reaction severity and stopped the development of moist desquamation when used prophylactically (from the first day of radiation therapy). Mepitel Film and other soft silicone dressings that adhere very closely to the folds of the skin, have been hypothesized to decrease skin reaction severity by stopping friction by clothing and allow the radiation damaged skin to repair itself. The aim of this randomised controlled feasibility study in this thesis was to investigate whether Mepitel Film dressings were superior to Sorbolene cream in reducing or managing radiation-induced skin reactions in patients with head and neck cancer Head and neck cancer patients are prescribed a higher dose than breast cancer patients, have an uneven surface for the Mepitel Film to adhere to and have complex non-homogenous dose distributions, This means that testing the effect of Mepitel Film in this cohort would be challenging. Despite this, it was hypothesised that Mepitel Film was superior to standard Sorbolene cream in decreasing the severity of acute radiation-induced skin reaction in patients receiving radiation therapy for head and neck cancer. In order to test this hypothesis a randomised, controlled, multi-centre, international, open label intra-patient feasibility study was conducted in New Zealand and China. This thesis analyses a subset of 12 patients recruited at the Canterbury Regional Cancer and Haematology Service (CRCHS) at Christchurch Public Hospital. For the first six patients, the study area was chosen as the area of first erythema which was divided into equal halves. Each half was randomised to either Mepitel Film or Sorbolene cream. Mepitel Film was applied as soon as erythema was visible (management protocol). For the next six patients, the study area was chosen at the planning stage to include an area of relatively uniform high dose (>40Gy). This area was divided into two equal halves; one half was randomised to Mepitel Film the other half to Sorbolene cream. Mepitel Film was applied from day one of radiation therapy treatment (prophylactic protocol). Sorbolene cream was applied twice a day by the patient. The Modified Radiation-induced Skin Reaction Assessment Scale (RISRAS) and the Modified Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) skin toxicity score were used to assess skin reaction severity three times a week. Patients also filled out the New Zealand validated Distress screening tool once a week and completed exit questionnaires at the end of the follow-up period. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were used to measure the actual dose to the skin underneath Mepitel Film and the control cream for all patients. When results of all 12 patients were combined, there was a statistically significant decrease in skin reaction severity in favour of Mepitel Film of 29% for combined scores, of 15% for researcher scores and of 49% for patients’ scores (p= 0.001, 0.002 and 0.004 respectively). The difference in peak RISRAS score between skin covered with Mepitel Film and control skin covered in cream was also significantly lower (p=0.02). The results were disappointing compared to those reported by the breast cancer trial where skin reaction severity was reduced by more than 90% when Mepitel Film was used prophylactically. Several factors may explain the lack of effectiveness of the Mepitel Film in this patient cohort. Dose to the skin was significantly higher in head and neck cancer patients and Mepitel Film did not adhere well to skin with heavy beard stubble, which meant Mepitel Film needed to be replaced almost daily for the first few weeks of radiation therapy. The latter may also explain why there was no difference in the Mepitel Film effect between the skin of patients on the management protocol and those on the prophylactic protocol which should have had the strongest skin protective effect. In addition, compared with skin covering the breast area, skin in the neck area may be “tougher” and less likely to benefit from “friction protection”. The results suggest that Mepitel Film does reduce skin reaction severity in head and neck cancer patients but the increase in skin folds, beard growth and high skin dose mean that the protective effects of Mepitel Film are limited, particularly in men with heavy beard growth. Mepitel Film appeared to be more effective in women but there were too few women in this trial to perform a statistically meaningful analysis. Future research should include clinical studies in different cohorts of head and neck patients, such as in women and men with less beard growth.

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  • The New Zealand feed grain industry : production, marketing and utilization : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Business Administration in Agriculture at Massey University

    Booth, Donald M (1978)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    THE NEW ZEALAND FEED GRAIN INDUSTRY: PRODUCTION, MARKETING, AND UTILIZATION D. M. Booth The New Zealand feed grain industry has expanded considerably over the last decade yet to date very little is known about the influence of both the economic and non-economic factors on grain production. Even less has been written about the marketing and utilization of these grains. One objective of this study was to examine the functions and activities of the many participants in the feed grain industry. A secondary objective was to develop a model of feed grain supply for maize and barley crops which would reveal the reactions of producers to the changing economic and non-economic variables that were prevalent in the marketplace when actual production decisions were made. From a grain producer's point of view many decisions have to be made. Initially the producer has to decide on one or several production alternatives in which to invest his limited resources. "Will I produce maize this year or will I buy more breeding stock?" is a typical decision that has to be made. There are several non-economic factors influencing production decisions at the farm level such as: (1) constraints imposed by nature (delayed seeding, etc), (2) cultural constraints (crop rotations, etc.), (3) fixed factors involved in agricultural production, (4) institutional constraints (price for wheat set by the New Zealand Wheat Board), (5) uncertainty and imperfect knowledge (prices, etc.). All of the above factors influence production decisions at the farm level. The New Zealand feed grain industry is made up of many participants starting initially with the producer and his grain merchant. Grain merchants are involved in many activities such as: (1) the establishment of annual feed grain prices, (2) the management of the grain contracting system, (3) the marketing of agricultural inputs and other services to the primary producer, (4) marketing of feed grains to both the domestic and export markets. The majority of the feed grains produced in New Zealand are produced under contract to a grain merchant. Approximately 95% of the maize and 80% of the barley acreage is contracted each year at specified prices subject to certain grading standards. In New Zealand there is no "formal" marketplace (such as a commodity exchange) for the establishment of feed grain prices. Prices are negotiated by the producer and his grain merchant on an individual basis with generally the same price quoted for each producer. As acres are contracted and it seems that production will not be sufficient for the expected demand, then a higher contract price is offered which hopefully generates the necessary production that is needed. All contract prices are equalized within a region by the individual grain merchant. Competitive grain merchants set their own prices but again prices tend to equalize within a region. Price differentials between regions generally account for the differing transportation costs of moving the grain from producer to end user. Another participant in the grain industry is the grain broker. The grain broker brings buyers and sellers together. For example, somebody has grain they want to sell while another needs grain. The grain broker contacts both and without the buyer knowing who the seller is, the sale is negotiated at a mutually agreeable price. Prices fluctuate depending upon supply and demand and the position of the grain (i.e. is it readily deliverable? transportation costs, etc?") The grain broker handles grain sales between merchants and also between merchants and feed manufacturers. New Zealand grain has primarily two end sources - the domestic or the export market. The domestic market is divided into grain for stock feeding, industrial uses and for human consumption. A major participant at this stage is the feed manufacturer. He performs several important functions in the grain sector: (1) participates in the establishment of prices, (2) makes the necessary transport arrangements to move the grain from free-on-rail or ex-silo positions, (3) manufactures and retails feed grains in bulk and bag form, (4) provides technical and economic services for end users. An attempt to quantify some of the relationships within the feed industry was carried out in the form of a supply response model. A simple linear regression model was used. A generalized model took the following form: Q*t = ao + ai pgt/tct - a2 pLt +a3Zt + a4T + at where Q*t = acreage of grain in period t pgt = price of grain in period t pct = price of the major competitive grain in the specific region in period t pLt = price of major livestock alternatives in the specific region in period t Zt = non-economic factors in period t T = linear trend variable et = error term ao,a1,a2,a3,a4 = regression coefficients to be estimated. The analysis was divided into two parts, the North Island and the South Island regions. Each region was estimated for the major feed grains produced. Barley on the South Island and both barley and maize on the North Island. For example in the South Island barley analysis, the model explained 86% of the variations in production with all variables statistically significant at the 1% level. This particular model estimated that for a 10% increase in the price of wool, the area sown to barley would decrease by 5.4%. Similarily, a 10% increase in the barley to wheat price ratio would result in a 25% increase in the area sown to barley. For maize, one of the estimated equations explained 87% of the variation in maize acreage. The elasticity at the mean was estimated and for a 10% increase in the maize price, the acreage of maize increased by 15%. This was based on 15 years of data. Several grain marketing alternatives were discussed. These included grain cooperatives, feed grain marketing boards and also making better use of the services of the grain broker. All have merits and of course certain limitations but as the feed grain industry expands there will be increasing pressure for changes within the New Zealand feed grain industry. This study hopefully has shed some light onto the functions and activities of the major participants in the New Zealand feed grain trade. This is just a starting point. More accurate grain statistics are necessary before any extensive research can be conducted. Hopefully this is an area where government and industry can come together.

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  • An exploration of influences on the careers of professional women planners : a 152.803 research report presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements of the Master of Business Studies at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

    Campbell, Phillipa Jean (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The literature which explores key influences on women’s career pathways suggests women’s careers are a blend of the work and non-work facets of their lives. The kaleidoscope career model (Mainiero & Sullivan, 2005, 2006) portrays the attributes of authenticity, balance and challenge as constants in a woman’s life and drivers which move constantly to shape her career at any particular point in its trajectory. The model seeks to explain why women ‘opt-out’ or work in different ways throughout their career. There is little knowledge or research on professional women planners and the influences on their careers. The report explores key influences using thematic analysis to analyse interview data from six participants. The results show professional women planners are adept at crafting their careers and taking into account their own particular objectives, needs and life criteria. They are able to work in a range of ways throughout their careers, from the corporate and local government sectors through to running their own consultancy practices in the private sector. The report finds they are able to do this without ‘opting out’, and integrate the facets of the kaleidoscope career model to take into account their own particular circumstances.

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  • Fat extraction from mechanically deboned beef with various pH and alkalis : a thesis presented in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Technology at Massey University

    Wu, San-Der (1994)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The study showed that meat surimi with a 1.3% fat content could be prepared from mechanically deboned beef. The process used in the laboratory to prepare the meat surimi was a relatively simple process requiring few unit operations, unit operations which are already used for the manufacture of fish surimi. It is therefore expected that the meat industry would have few problems in preparing meat surimi from mechanically deboned beef given the fact that the technology has already been demonstrated for the commercial production of fish surimi. The key processing steps are firstly the preparation of a mechanically deboned slurry with cold water to assist in the centrifugal removal of the "free" fat present in mechanically deboned meat. The centrifugal separation also removes the sarcoplasmic proteins which could be used for the production of meat flavours, soup stock and possibly pharmaceuticals. The second crucial step in the process is a sieving operation of the myofibrillar/collagen slurry to remove the collagen and "bound" fat from the myofibrillar protein. The subsequent collagen free myofibrillar protein could be concentrated by either further centrifugation or by pressing. The study also showed that most alkali washes had no significant impact on the fat removal efficiencies of the process, with the possible exception of sodium carbonate, compared to the use of fresh, potable water. It was further demonstrated that it was unnecessary to increase the pH of the wash water beyond a pH of 7.0 as no additional fat separation efficiencies were obtained at the higher pH's. The neutral pH requirements of the ,process would reduce chemical costs, and possibly also limit equipment wear compared to htgh wash treatments of pH 9.0 advocated by other researchers. The low pH requirements of the process could also be expected to minimise protein damage which can occur, if held for extended periods at the higher pH's of 9.0 or higher. The present study has only demonstrated the feasibility of producing meat surimi from mechanically deboned beef. Other uses for the sarcoplasmic and collagen fractions should be established and then a financial feasibility of the whole process should be carried out to establish whether the outlined process is commercially feasible.

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  • The New Zealand Chinese gooseberry export industry and its future development : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Agricultural Science in Agricultural Economics at Massey University

    Milne, D. W. (1972)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    New Zealand's dependence on the traditional exports, meat, wool, butter and cheese for the major overseas earners is well documented, (see (1)). New Zealand is one of the world's most efficient producers of these commodities but market access and short term political and social expediency has tended to reduce the gains of economic rationalization. During the last year (1971) butter and cheese have been placed in long term jeopardy due to Britain's impending union1 1. This is not an unexpected development. Britain first applied for membership in 1961 and was rejected in 1963 - negotation restarted in 1966 and entry will date from the 1/1/73. However, the provisions of the Common Agricultural Policy will not come into force until 1/1/74. with the European Economic Community. Wool suffered a serious price reversal in 1967 and although a price revival has occurred in the past year it is doubtful if this will be a long term recovery. Lamb exports to the U.K. are experiencing greater competition than ever from other meats, especially cheaply produced poultry. The beef quota for the U.S.A. cannot be considered safe as it depends to a large extent on seasonal production variations in the U.S.A. and the strength of the U.S.A. farm lobby. The existence of tariff and non-tariff barriers to trade, together with low price and income elasticities of demand for primary exports has placed emphasis on manufactured exports and import substitution in New Zealand, but many attempts at such diversification are often misdirected.2 2.An obvious example of this in New Zealand - The Automobile Industry. (see The World Bank Report on the New Zealand Economy 1968) though the farming industry has some protected sectors also. New Zealand has no absolute or comparative advantage in citrus production, hop production, wheat production - consequently all are protected by trade barriers in common with many other countries. Condliffe (5) has a cautionary note about this: "It is necessary to aim at competitive production for the world market rather than protected production for a small local market."

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  • (Re)constructing selves : emplaced socio-material practice at the Men's Shed North Shore : an ethnographic case study : a thesis submitted in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Psychology at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

    Anstiss, David (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Retirement can bring about significant disruption for men who spend a large amount of their lives in paid employment. When leaving paid employment, men also leave places where they have developed a sense of self, secured resources, found meaning, participated in social networks, and engaged in practices of health and gender. How men respond to such a challenging life stage by creating spaces for participating in positive and affirming practices, is largely overlooked. In this thesis, I explore the ways in which a group of older, retired men jointly (re)construct a sense of self through emplaced socio-material practice in the Men’s Shed North Shore. Amid a dearth of literature on men’s caring and supportive social relationships, this research contributes to an understanding of the ways men in Aotearoa, New Zealand come to re-know themselves and develop supportive relationships through a shared community project. The research is informed by an ethnographic case-based orientation that draws on participation-observation fieldwork, interviews, and a focus group with men who participate at the Men’s Shed North Shore. Findings illustrate the effort these men put into the communal reworking of self, the maintenance of health and dignity in a disruptive life stage, their pragmatic approach to retirement, and their (re)production of place and space. A central focus in the analysis is the importance of socio-material practice in the Shed. In particular, the analysis explores the role of material practice as an essential relational practice in the Shed. Through construction projects, men connect with, and reproduce, the material essence of the Shed, and engage meaningfully with other men. The analysis also demonstrates the importance of material practice for these men in maintaining health and dignity in later life. The men agentively and pragmatically respond to displacement in retirement by (re)constructing a sense of self and reemplacing themselves through familiar and shared labour practices. The analysis also demonstrates how the daily material activities of the Shed reflect an ongoing enactment of wellbeing, enabled and demonstrated through social interaction and productive activity.

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  • Testing Macromolecular Rate Theory

    Kraakman, Kirsty Leigh (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Enzymatic rate increase with respect to temperature has widely been described by transition-state theory. The experimentally observed rate decline above an optimum temperature (Tₒₚₜ) for enzymes has previously been attributed to thermal denaturation, despite the known discrepancies with this rationalisation. Recently, a new model has been proposed to describe the temperature dependence of enzymatic rates: macromolecular rate theory (MMRT). This new theory incorporates heat capacity into the rate equation to provide a more robust thermodynamic description of rates, and account for the distinct curvature seen in biological temperature-rate profiles. The current study explores the effect of enzyme vibrational modes on heat capacity, and how alterations to the distribution of these modes, by heavy isotope substitution, affect the change in heat capacity along the reaction coordinate. The results presented show clear evidence for the role of vibrational mode frequency distributions in governing the curvature of temperature-rate profiles, and present a hypothesis for how this shift differs for the enzyme-substrate complex and the enzyme-transition state complex. The study also addresses the ability of MMRT to accurately model enzymatic rates over a wide temperature range for two different enzymes. As a result of this study, a new MMRT equation was generated to include a temperature dependence term for the heat capacity, a factor previously considered negligible. The data generated has shown that heat capacity is temperature dependent and this is a significant factor in accurately describing enzymatic rates with respect to temperature. In particular, for complex enzymatic reactions whose enthalpy distribution is significantly narrowed over the reaction co-ordinate. These findings have helped to develop MMRT to provide more accurate descriptions of a broader range of data. Additionally, the conclusions regarding vibrational mode distribution provide insight into the physical basis for heat capacity changes over the course of the enzymatic reaction. Investigation of the hypotheses generated from this research will offer further insight into the mechanistic contributions of vibrational modes and heat capacity in enzyme catalysis.

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  • An Evaluation of an Impaired Driver Treatment Programme Facilitated by Tūhoe Hauora

    Waru, Nicole Arihia (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Driving while impaired is a substantial issue in Aotearoa. It has the potential to result in loss of life and cause significant health and economic strain on society. Recidivist impaired drivers are major contributors to this problem. Countermeasures of impaired driving have previously included liquor licencing, drinking age restrictions, health promotion campaigns and health rehabilitation therapies. The Ministry of Health offer an Impaired Driving therapy throughout Aotearoa as countermeasure to this issue. The programme is administered through the funder-contract system. Participation is compulsory for those mandated by court order. This study evaluates an Impaired Driver programme facilitated by Tūhoe Hauora; a kaupapa Māori mental health and addiction provider based in Taneatua, Eastern Bay of Plenty. The course is delivered once weekly over a period of ten weeks to a group of twelve or less recidivist impaired drivers or first time offenders who were convicted of driving with excessive levels of breath alcohol. The evaluation draws from a community psychology paradigm in exploration of the lived experiences of programme participants, in the context of course 2 of the 2014 Tūhoe Hauora Impaired Driving course. The experiences of five individuals were explored using in-depth face to face interviews and presented using a case-by-case approach. Participant observation, document review, evaluation visits and participant surveys were used as supplement methods of inquiry. The findings illustrated that Tūhoe Hauora met contract requirements by addressing impaired driving recidivism to date of interview. The evaluation also found the course actualising the mission of Tūhoe Hauora which was to address the holistic well-being of programme participants. The research did present areas in the programme that could be improved particularly pertaining to the referral process and a need for agency collaboration. Recommendations were formulated in attempt to address the programme gaps and discussion is offered in addressing the multi-layered oppression that was experienced throughout the evaluation process by both Tūhoe Hauora and the evaluation participants.  

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