81,200 results

  • Supporting lower-achieving seven-and-eight-year-old children with place value understandings

    Bailey, Judy (2015)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    The article focuses on the importance of listening to children to identify their current understandings and developing on them systematically, using the materials, to promote a conceptual understanding. It mentions that classroom teachers are responsible for supporting children in their class even when the children represent mathematical understandings and competence.

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  • Guide for subterranean clover identification and use in New Zealand

    Book
    Lincoln University

    This project, initiated in 2015 and funded by the Sustainable Farming Fund (SFF Project 408090), was created to identify, describe and promote methods to increase the subterranean clover content on summer dry farms throughout NZ. This first edition of “Guide for subterranean clover identification and use in New Zealand” provides information for dryland farmers to; gain knowledge of sub clover; identify the main sub clover cultivars currently available in New Zealand, and understand their suitability for different dryland farm environments.

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  • Epsilonproteobacteria in Humans, New Zealand

    Cornelius, A. J.; Chambers, S.; Atiken, J.; Brandt, S. M.; Horn, B.; On, S. L. W.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Using PCR–denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, we examined 49 fecal samples from healthy volunteers and 128 diarrhea specimens to assess the distribution of Epsilonproteobacteria that might be routinely overlooked. Our results suggest that certain taxa that are not routinely examined for could account for a proportion of diarrhea of previously unknown etiology.

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  • Symptoms and causes of poverty in a rural Vietnamese commune: does ethnicity matter?

    Le, V.; Lyne, Michael; Ratna, Nazmun N.; Nuthall, Peter L.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    © 2014, Kassel University Press GmbH. All rights reserved. This study uses data from a sample survey of 200 households drawn from a mountainous commune in Vietnam’s North Central Coast region to measure and explain relative poverty. Principal components analysis is used to construct a multidimensional index of poverty outcomes from variables measuring household income and the value of domestic assets. This index of poverty is then regressed on likely causes of poverty including different forms of resource endowment and social exclusion defined by gender and ethnicity. The ordinary least squares estimates indicate that poverty is indeed influenced by ethnicity, partly through its interaction with social capital. However, poverty is most strongly affected by differences in human and social capital. Differences in the amount of livestock and high quality farmland owned also matter. Thai households are poorer than their Kinh counterparts even when endowed with the same levels of human, social, physical and natural capital considered in the study. This empirical result provides a rationale for further research on the causal relationship between ethnicity and poverty outcomes.

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  • Adoption of social media in the Australian and New Zealand wine industries

    Forbes, Sharon L.; Goodman, S.; Dolan, R.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Purpose - This paper examines the adoption of social media technologies across the Australasian wine industries, how wineries are using social media, and the issues that limit adoption. Design/methodology/approach - Data for this exploratory study was obtained from a survey of wineries across Australia and New Zealand. Findings - The level of social media adoption by wineries is the same across both nations (65%), with Facebook and Twitter being the most adopted platforms. Wineries are predominantly utilising social media to communicate and provide event information to existing customers, as well as to advertise and gain new customers. Originality/value - This study adds to current knowledge regarding the use of social media in the wine industry, including a comparison of the use across Australasian wineries to wineries in other nations. It also identifies the main barriers affecting the use of social media by wineries; time constraints, effectiveness, and lack of knowledge.

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  • Effectiveness of Problem Gambling Interventions in a Service Setting: A Protocol for a Pragmatic Randomised Controlled Clinical Trial

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Introduction: The primary purpose of this study is to evaluate the relative effectiveness of 2 of the best developed and most promising forms of therapy for problem gambling, namely face-to-face motivational interviewing (MI) combined with a self-instruction booklet (W) and follow-up telephone booster sessions (B; MI+W+B) and face-to-face cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT). Methods and analysis: This project is a single-blind pragmatic randomised clinical trial of 2 interventions, with and without the addition of relapse-prevention text messages. Trial assessments take place pretreatment, at 3 and 12 months. A total of 300 participants will be recruited through a community treatment agency that provides services across New Zealand and randomised to up to 10 face-to-face sessions of CBT or 1 face-toface session of MI+W+up to 5 B. Participants will also be randomised to 9 months of postcare text messaging. Eligibility criteria include a self-perception of having a current gambling problem and a willingness to participate in all components of the study (eg, read workbook). The statistical analysis will use an intent-to-treat approach. Primary outcome measures are days spent gambling and amount of money spent per day gambling in the prior month. Secondary outcome measures include problem gambling severity, gambling urges, gambling cognitions, mood, alcohol, drug use, tobacco, psychological distress, quality of life, health status and direct and indirect costs associated with treatment. Ethics and dissemination: The research methods to be used in this study have been approved by the Ministry of Health, Health and Disability Ethics Committees (HDEC) 15/CEN/99. The investigators will provide annual reports to the HDEC and report any adverse events to this committee. Amendments will also be submitted to this committee. The results of this trial will be submitted for publication in peerreviewed journals and as a report to the funding body. Additionally, the results will be presented at national and international conferences.

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  • The Design of Control Strategy for Blended Series-Parallel Power-Split PHEV – a Simulation Study

    Ding, N; Lie, T; Prasad, K

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Electric Vehicles (EVs) have been extensively researched to reduce the fuel consumption and tailpipe emission. The series-parallel power-split Plug-in Electric Vehicle (PHEV) has been considered as one of the most suitable candidates. It contains both an internal combustion engine (ICE) and an electrical storage system (ESS) to achieve a better driving performance. The energy management system (EMS) is significant for a PHEV to improve the efficiency of the whole system. Electric vehicle mode (EV), charging depletion (CD) and charging sustaining (CS) modes will be discussed to build a control strategy in this study. This control strategy will be implemented with the state of charge (SoC) to show its impact through a simulation study.

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  • Reverse greed in energy and transport

    Kingham, S.; Muir, S. (2016)

    Conference item
    University of Canterbury Library

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  • Seismic vulnerability assessment of residential buildings using logistic regression and geographic information system (GIS) in Pleret Sub District (Yogyakarta, Indonesia)

    Saputra A; Rahardianto T; Revindo MD; Delikostidis I; Hadmoko DS; Sartohadi J; Gomez C (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Canterbury Library

    Background: The Southeast of Yogyakarta City has had the heaviest damages to buildings in the 2006 of Yogyakarta Earthquake disaster. A moderate to strong earthquake of 6.3 Mw shook the 20 km southeast part of the Yogyakarta City early in the morning at 5:54 local time. On top of extensive damage in Yogyakarta and Central Java, more than 5700 people perished; 37,927 people were injured in the collapse of more than 240,396 residential buildings. Furthermore, the earthquake also affected the infrastructure and local economic activities. The total damages and losses because of the earthquake was 29.1 trillion rupiahs or equal to approximately 3.1 million US dollar. Two main factors that caused the severe damages were a dense population and the lack of seismic design of residential buildings. After reconstruction and rehabilitation, the area where the study was conducted grew into a densely populated area. This urbanistic change is feared to be potentially the lead to a great disaster if an earthquake occurs again. Thus, a comprehensive study about building vulnerability is absolutely needed in study area. Therefore, the main objective of this study has been the provision of a probabilistic model of seismic building vulnerability based on the damage data of the last big earthquake. By considering the relationship between building characteristics, site conditions, and the damage level based on probabilistic analysis, this study can offer a better understanding of earthquake damage estimation for residential building in Java. Results: The main findings of this study were as follows: The most vulnerable building type is the reinforced masonry structure with clay tile roof, it is located between 8.1-10 km of the epicentre and it is built on young Merapi volcanic deposits. On the contrary, the safest building type is the houses which has characteristics of reinforced masonry structure, asbestos or zinc roof type, and being located in Semilir Formation. The results showed that the building damage probability provided a high accuracy of prediction about 75.81%. Conclusions: The results explain the prediction of building vulnerability based on the building damaged of the Yogyakarta earthquake 2006. This study is suitable for preliminary study at the region scale. Thus, the site investigation still needs to be conducted for the future research to determine the safety and vulnerability of residential building.

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  • Stratigraphy, structure and geological history of mid-Cretaceous sedimentary rocks across the Torlesse-like/non Torlesse boundary in the Sawtooth Range-Coverham area, Marlborough.

    Ritchie, D. D. (1986)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis describes the geology of an approximately 100km2 area lying between the Clarence River and Kekerengu. The objectives were to determine the relationship of the "Torlesse-like" sawtooth Group to the late Early Cretaceous Coverham Group; to determine the relationship between the coeval Split Rock and Burnt Creek Formations within the Coverham Group; and to investigate the nature of Cretaceous events which led to the traditional differentiation into older Torlesse type "basement" and younger Cretaceous "cover". Geological mapping indicates the presence of three packets (Glencoe, Pikes and Coverham Blocks) of sedimentary rocks separated by the major Ouse and Pikes Faults. These packets comprise probable submarine fan flysch, massivE? sandstone, massive siltstone, acid tuffs and conglomerate of Sawtooth Group (Torlesse-like Urutawan - Motuan) unconformably overlain by probable slope basin flysch, massive siltstone, Inoceramus shellbed, and conglomerate of Coverham Group (non-Torlesse). The unconformity is most commonly angular but in a few places is a more subtle paraconformity. A further minor unconformity occurs at the base of the Ouse Member within the Split Rock Formation of the Coverham Group and is thought to reflect the presence of the growing Ouse Anticline. The Coverham Group rocks have similar Motuan - Teratan ages on each side of the Ouse Fault. The Split Rock Formation, previously used only for rocks in the middle Clarence Valley, has been extended to the Coverham area and used for rocks west of the Ouse Fault. The partly coeval Burnt Creek Formation east of the Ouse Fault was probably deposited some distance from the Split Rock Formation in a different basin separated by a structural high. They were juxtaposed by low angle reverse movement on the Fault in the Late Cretaceous. structural/deformation characteristics cannot be used as criteria for separating the Torlesse-like rocks from non-Torlesse rocks in the study area. It is dangerous to assume that 'Torlesseness' is a certain and particular state of deformation. Both the Torlesse (Sawtooth) and Coverham Group rocks exhibit a whole spectrum of deformation from 'broken formation' to more or less undisturbed beds. The pattern of deposition and deformation suggests an accretionary prism setting for these rocks. Sawtooth Group rocks are likely to represent 'younger' Pahau Terrane rocks which were deformed by a single intra-Motuan event either tectonic or perhaps a huge submarine slide, creating widespread unconformity between them and the Coverham Group slope deposits. Continuing instability is likely to have led to growing folds and further minor unconformities. The termination of the Rangitata Orogeny occurred in a progressive and evolutionary way representing a mid-Late Cretaceous change from a compressional subduction regime to a tensional rifting regime. Andesitic-rhyolitic volcanism was common in the late Early Cretaceous.

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  • Reconstructing Social Prehistory from Genomic Data in the Indo-Pacific Region

    Cox, Murray Paul (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Reconstructing the evolutionary history of our species has traditionally been the purview of archeology and linguistics, but is now increasingly influenced by genetics. However, the information held in our DNA cannot be read like a book, but must instead be extracted using population genetic theory, advanced statistical methods and computational tools that can handle large genome-scale datasets. In this series of published studies, these approaches have been applied to reconstruct human prehistory, with a special focus on the social features of past communities in the Indo-Pacific region. They reveal that marriage between Asian women and Melanesian men was favored during the spread of farming populations in the Neolithic period, that Madagascar was settled by a small number of Indonesian families with close female relatives, and that extremely complex marriage rules continue to define and structure small traditional communities in the Indo-Pacific region even today. These studies are largely unique in moving beyond a traditional emphasis in molecular anthropology of identifying and dating human migrations to instead reveal key aspects of the social rules by which those communities lived.

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  • The role of cross-presenting dendritic cells in tumour progression and immunotherapy

    Gilfillan, Connie Bep (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    The recognition and eradication of cancer cells by the immune system is reliant on dendritic cells (DCs). DCs are professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that are integral for the initiation of an adaptive immune response targeted to eliminate cancer cells. DCs are capable of cross-presentation, a necessary function for priming of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses. Specialised DC subsets are reported to be superior at cross-presenting and have been implicated as crucial cells for CTL responses against tumour progression. However, DCs are often inactive in the presence of immune-suppressive tumours and require stimulation to become activated. Immunotherapy can be utilised to provide stimulatory factors that drive the activation of DCs and subsequent initiation of effective anti-tumour responses. The immunotherapies investigated in this thesis were poly I:C, a toll-like receptor (TLR) 3 ligand; and combination of the danger signal monosodium urate crystals (MSU) and a Mycobacterium (M.smegmatis) that provides pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Peritumoural treatments with immunotherapies were successful at slowing tumour growth and prolonging survival of mice bearing 4T1 murine mammary tumours and B16 melanoma tumours. To investigate the role of cross-presenting DCs in the efficacy of immunotherapies, a mouse model was used whereby specialist cross-presenting DCs can be deleted. CD8α+ and CD103+ cross-presenting DCs express the C-type lectin domain family 9 member A (Clec9A) and through administration of diphtheria toxin (DT) in Clec9A-DTR mice, successful depletion of CD8α+ and CD103+ DCs is achieved. MSU+M.smegmatis immunotherapy was dependent on Clec9A+ DCs for efficacy. Conversely, poly I:C immunotherapy remained successful in the absence of these cells, suggesting an effective T cell response can be induced in mice lacking specialist cross-presenting DCs. The antigen-specific T cell responses generated with poly I:C were investigated in basic leucine zipper ATF-like transcription factor 3 (BATF3) knockout (KO) mice, which are deficient in CD103+ DCs. In the absence of Batf3-dependent DCs, treatment with poly I:C immunotherapy still induced proliferation of antigen-specific CTLs that were capable of producing IFNγ; however, their ability to kill target cells was impaired. To identify DCs involved in the anti-tumour response initiated by poly I:C immunotherapy, DC subsets were examined for the ability to acquire and present antigen. CD8α+, CD103+, triple negative (TN), CD11b+ and monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs) were able to capture cell-associated tumour antigen. Furthermore, these DC subsets were able to acquire soluble ovalbumin (OVA), with CD11b+ DCs demonstrating the greatest uptake. Interestingly, moDCs were unable to induce antigen-specific T cell proliferation ex vivo, whereas the CD11b+ and CD11b- DCs were capable of stimulating T cell expansion. There is considerable interest in combining chemotherapy with immunotherapy, as chemotherapeutic agents are capable of inducing immunogenic cell death. Treatment of 4T1 tumours with doxorubucin successfully reduced tumour growth; however, combination of MSU+M.smegmatis immunotherapy with doxorubicin provided no additional benefit to single treatments. Conversely, combination of poly I:C immunotherapy with doxorubicin enhanced anti-tumour responses compared to either monotherapy. In summary, the findings from this thesis show that MSU+M.smegmatis immunotherapy requires CD8α+ and CD103+ DCs for efficacy, whereas poly I:C immunotherapy remains successful in their absence. This finding also emphasises the ability of multiple DC subsets to acquire and cross-present antigen, leading to successful induction of anti-tumour responses.

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  • Quantifying morphologic changes of a coastal foredune using a low-cost remotely piloted aerial system (RPAS)

    Moloney, Julia (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Mid-latitude sandy coasts are dynamic environments. Monitoring coastal morphodynamics is important for understanding the response of coasts to short-term storm events, for understanding the response of coasts to long-term environmental change, and for managing beach-dune systems. Remotely piloted aerial systems (RPAS) (or drones) present new opportunities for coastal monitoring. This type of platform is inexpensive, efficient, requires minimal expertise, and also provides high resolution aerial imagery. Photogrammetry can be used to derive digital surface models (DSMs) or digital terrain models (DTMs) from RPAS imagery. This thesis assesses the efficacy of low-cost RPAS for describing the morphology and morphodynamics of coastal foredunes. The first objective is to compare DSMs produced by RPAS surveying with DTMs derived using conventional survey methods. Objective two assesses the accuracy and precision of RPAS surveying to quantify morphologic changes of a coastal foredune. The third objective is to examine the influence of vegetation on RPAS-derived DSMs. Comparisons are made between total station, RTK-GPS, terrestrial laser scanner and RPAS surveys conducted on the St. Kilda beach foredune, Dunedin. The surveying methods are compared based on survey efficiency, cost, accuracy of the DTM/DSM, and their sensitivity to atmospheric and environmental limitations. RPAS photogrammetry is used to develop a time series of DSMs, which describe short-term patterns of sedimentation and morphological changes in the lee of this foredune. Vegetation surveys were conducted on the foredune at Mason Bay, Stewart Island, and the areas are classified as uniform and dense, variable, and sparse vegetation, or bare sand. Plots containing each class were surveyed with RPAS and RTK-GPS, to produce a DTM and a DSM that are compared to determine the elevation difference. The RPAS survey was the most efficient method for developing DSMs, even when considering the set-up and data processing time (Objective 1). The RPAS produced the second most precise surface, with a RMSE of 8 cm. The RPAS is more sensitive to environmental and atmospheric conditions; however, this method is very rapid, and undesirable weather conditions can be avoided. The results show there is un-modelled systematic error in the DSM caused by lens distortion, which increases outside the GCP network – areas outside the network were not used for subsequent analysis. Vegetation presence can prevent the derivation of accurate DTMs. The RPAS did not accurately quantify sand deposition due to the presence of vegetation (Objective 2). The sand dampened the vegetation, causing a decrease in elevation in the change model. The sensitivity of the RPAS to vegetation is insignificant in areas with bare or sparse vegetation, or when quantifying large-scale changes (for example, foredune erosion). Vegetation height, vegetation cover/density, GSD, the structural properties of the plant, and the surface spectral properties, were identified as factors causing an elevational offset in the DSM (Objective 3). The elevation of the areas with bare sand were statistically equal in the DTM and DSM, however, the dense, variable and sparsely vegetated areas were statistically different. The elevation difference between the DSM and DTM is the largest in the densely vegetated areas (30 cm). Low-cost RPAS are capable of achieving high-quality morphologic surveys of coastal foredunes. The method affords the advantages of efficiency and flexibility. However, due to the sensitivity of the method to vegetation, low-cost RGB RPAS are more suited to quantifying the morphology of bare sand or sparsely vegetated areas, quantifying large-scale changes, or for long-term morphologic monitoring. Low-cost RPAS are not capable of accurately quantifying small-scale changes in areas with dense vegetation. However, as RPAS platforms develop, it is expected that sensors capable of penetrating vegetation will become more accessible for low-cost platforms.

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  • Appraisal of the environmental sustainability of milk production systems in New Zealand : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Science in Life Cycle Management at Massey University, Manawatū, New Zealand

    Chobtang, Jeerasak (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) plays an important role in the environmental assessment of agricultural product systems, including dairy farming systems. Generally, an LCA study accounts for the comprehensive resource use and environmental emissions associated with the life cycle of a studied product system. The inventoried inputs and outputs are then transformed into different environmental impact categories using science-based environmental cause-effect mechanisms. There are different LCA modelling approaches (e.g. attributional LCA [ALCA] and consequential LCA [CLCA]) that can be used to address different research questions; however, there is currently no consensus on the most appropriate approach and when to use it. These LCA approaches require different types of data and methodological procedures and, therefore, generate different sets of environmental information which may have different implications for decision-making. In the present research, a series of studies utilising different LCA modelling approaches were undertaken of pasture-based dairy farming systems in the Waikato region (the largest dairy region in New Zealand). The purposes of the studies were to: (i) assess the environmental impacts and identify environmental hotspots of current pasture-based dairy farming systems, (ii) compare environmental hotspots between high and low levels of dairy farm intensification, (iii) investigate the environmental impacts of potential alternative farm intensification methods to increase milk productivity, and (iv) assess the environmental impacts of different future intensified dairy farming scenarios. Twelve midpoint impact categories were assessed: Climate Change (CC), Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP), Human Health Toxicity - non-cancer effects (Non-cancer), Human Health Toxicity - cancer effects (Cancer), Particulate Matter (PM), Ionizing Radiation - human health effects (IR), Photochemical Ozone Formation Potential (POFP), Acidification Potential (AP), Terrestrial Eutrophication Potential (TEP), Freshwater Eutrophication Potential (FEP), Marine Eutrophication Potential (MEP) and Ecotoxicity for Aquatic Freshwater (Ecotox). Firstly, the environmental impacts of 53 existing pasture-based dairy farm systems in the Waikato region were assessed using ALCA. The results showed that both the offfarm and on-farm stages made significant contributions to a range of environmental impacts per kg of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM), and the relative contributions of the stages varied across different impact categories. Farms classified as high intensification based on a high level of farm inputs (i.e. stocking rate, level of nitrogen (N) fertiliser and level of brought-in feeds) had higher impact results than low intensification farms for 10 of 12 impact categories. This was driven mainly by the offfarm stage, including production of brought-in feeds, manufacturing of agrichemicals (e.g. fertilisers and pesticides), and transport of off-farm inputs for use on a dairy farm. The exceptions were the environmental indicators PM, POFP, AP and TEP; their results were determined mainly by ammonia emissions from the on-farm activities. Secondly, environmental consequences resulting from meeting a future increase in demand for milk production (i.e. 20% more milk production per hectare relative to that in 2010/11) by using different farm intensification scenarios for dairy farming systems in the Waikato region were assessed using CLCA. In this study, only technologies/flows that were actually affected by use of different intensification options to increase milk production were accounted for. The identified intensification methods were: (i) increased pasture utilisation efficiency, (ii) increased use of N fertiliser to boost on-farm pasture production, and (iii) increased use of brought-in feed (i.e. maize silage). The results showed that improved pasture utilisation efficiency was the most effective intensification option since it resulted in lower environmental impacts than the other two intensification options. The environmental performance between the other two intensification options varied, depending on impact categories (environmental tradeoffs). Thirdly, prospective ALCA was used to assess the environmental impacts of six prospective (future) dairy farming intensification scenarios in the Waikato region, primarily involving increased stocking rate, that were modelled to increase milk production per hectare by 50% in 2025. In this study, prospective (future) average flows that were derived from extrapolation were accounted for. The potential intensification scenarios were: (i) increased animal productivity (increased milk production per cow), (ii) increased use of mixed brought-in feed, (iii) improved pasture utilisation efficiency, (iv) increased use of N fertiliser to boost on-farm pasture production, (v) increased use of brought-in maize silage, and (vi) replacement of total mixed brought-in feed in the second scenario by wheat grain. The results showed that, apart from improved animal productivity which was considered the best option, improved pasture utilisation efficiency was the second environmentally-preferential option compared with other intensification options for pasture-based dairy farming systems in the Waikato region. There were environmental trade-offs between other intensification options. The present research demonstrated that pasture-based dairy farming systems in the Waikato region contribute to a range of environmental impacts. More intensive farming systems not only have increased milk productivity (milk production per hectare) but also increased environmental impacts (per kg FPCM) in most environmental impact categories. Farm intensification options associated with improved farm efficiency (e.g. animal productivity or pasture utilisation efficiency) are promising as they have lower environmental indicator results (per kg FPCM) compared with other intensification methods. Increased use of off-farm inputs (e.g. N fertilisers and brought-in feeds) increases some, and decreases other, environmental indicator results. Therefore, decision-making associated with choice of alternative farm intensification options beyond farm efficiency improvements will require prioritisation between different environmental impacts and/or focusing on the ability of key decision-makers to effect change (for example, by distinguishing between local and global activities contributing to environmental impacts). The present research has shown that different LCA modelling approaches can be used in a sequential manner to maximise the usefulness of environmental assessment. Initially, ALCA (based on current average flows) can be used to identify environmental hotspots in the life cycle of dairy farming systems. This will generate environmental information that can assist in selection of improvement options. Subsequently, the improvement options selected should be evaluated using CLCA (based on marginal flows). This will produce comparative environmental information resulting from implementing the selected improvement options, strategies or policies in relation to a non-implementation scenario, when the wider contribution of co-products is accounted for. Finally, prospective ALCA (based on future average flows) can be used to assess total or net environmental benefits.

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  • The phenomenology of near-death experiences in Northland Māori of New Zealand : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Psychology at Massey University, Palmerston North Campus, Manawatū, New Zealand

    Young, Hannah Joy (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Near-death experiences (NDEs) can be described as profoundly life-changing, subjective events, that typically manifest in those who have been pronounced clinically dead. Over the past four decades, NDEs have been a field of interest for many researchers. However, the majority of NDE research has been conducted in Western contexts, with fewer than ten studies completed in non-Western regions (Sleutjes, Moreira-Almeida, & Greyson, 2014). The limited non-Western NDE research makes it difficult to determine the role culture may play in the development or interpretation of the NDE. The focus of the current study is the phenomenology of the NDEs of Maori residing in Northland, Aotearoa New Zealand. Because of the Maori focus, Kaupapa Maori Research was selected as the most appropriate methodological framework for this study. A ‘whanau of supervisors’ consisting of five Kaumatua and Kuia assisted the non-Maori researcher with respect to Kaupapa Maori. Six participants took part in unstructured interviews. Findings revealed the significant role of tikanga Maori within the NDEs of participants’, as well as a high similarity with the features often reported by NDErs of Western culture. Based on these results, it is suggested the two positions previous authors have regarded as conflicting, are not in fact mutually exclusive. The NDE may be cross-cultural in nature and culturally interpreted, but incorporate elements developed in reference to culture.

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  • Correction: First demonstration of antigen induced cytokine expression by CD4-1⁺ lymphocytes in a poikilotherm: Studies in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    Yoon, Sohye; Mitra, Suman; Wyse, Cathy; Alnabulsi, Ayham; Zou, Jun; Weerdenburg, Eveline M.; van der Sar, Astrud M.; Wang, Difei; Secombes, Christopher J.; Bird, Steve (2016)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Correction of the article "First demonstration of antigen induced cytokine expression by CD4-1⁺ lymphocytes in a poikilotherm: Studies in zebrafish (Danio rerio)", https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0169149

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  • The International Law Gaze: The ICSID Award in Philip Morris v Uruguay and the Near End of the “Aesthetic Experience”.

    Alvarez-Jimenez, Alberto (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    It was the large economic value of tobacco’s “aesthetic experience” that Philip Morris (PM) sought to preserve in its litigation against Uruguay before an international tribunal operating under the jurisdiction of the International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID). There, PM claimed that Uruguay was in violation of the Agreement between the Swiss Confederation and the Oriental Republic of Uruguay on the Reciprocal Promotion and Protection of Investments, dated October 7, 1988 (the BIT). The reason? Uruguay’s decision to enact tobacco control measures, in particular, its single presentation requirement (SPR) prohibiting tobacco manufacturers from selling more than one variant of cigarette per brand family and the increase in the size of health warnings included on cigarette packets from 50% to 80% of the surface of the front and the back (80/80 Regulation). As a result, manufacturers had only 20% of the room on cigarette packs for trademarks, logos, and other information.

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  • Tourism and Arctic observation systems: exploring the relationships

    de la Barre, S.; Maher, P. T.; Dawson, J.; Hillmer-Pegram, K.; Huijbens, E.; Lamers, M.; Liggett, D.; Müller, D.; Pashkevich, A.; Stewart, E. J.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    The Arctic is affected by global environmental change and also by diverse interests from many economic sectors and industries. Over the last decade, various actors have attempted to explore the options for setting up integrated and comprehensive trans-boundary systems for monitoring and observing these impacts. These Arctic Observation Systems (AOS) contribute to the planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of environmental change and responsible social and economic development in the Arctic. The aim of this article is to identify the two-way relationship between AOS and tourism. On the one hand, tourism activities account for diverse changes across a broad spectrum of impact fields. On the other hand, due to its multiple and diverse agents and far-reaching activities, tourism is also well-positioned to collect observational data and participate as an actor in monitoring activities. To accomplish our goals, we provide an inventory of tourism-embedded issues and concerns of interest to AOS from a range of destinations in the circumpolar Arctic region, including Alaska, Arctic Canada, Iceland, Svalbard, the mainland European Arctic and Russia. The article also draws comparisons with the situation in Antarctica. On the basis of a collective analysis provided by members of the International Polar Tourism Research Network from across the polar regions, we conclude that the potential role for tourism in the development and implementation of AOS is significant and has been overlooked.

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  • Planning for green building design and technology in New Zealand

    Kirpensteijn, Helene

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Green building design and technology has been developed to lower the impacts of buildings on the environment while maintaining, and in some cases improving all the functions and values of a traditional building. Although the initial costs of green buildings are higher than those of traditional buildings, increased performance and efficiency means that green buildings are more cost effective in the long-term. However, because of these higher initial costs and other barriers such as knowledge barriers, behavioural barriers, and regulatory barriers, uptake is still low in many countries, including New Zealand. Local government and the profession of planning have revealed interests in managing green building uptake. Therefore, the objective of this research is to investigate whether planning provisions in New Zealand are an effective way of increasing green building design and technology uptake. To conduct this research, a mixed methods approach was used. This included performing a plan analysis, a Section 32 report analysis, a hearing report analysis for the Proposed Auckland Unitary Plan and the Christchurch Replacement District Plan. Interviews were also carried out with representatives from these councils and the New Zealand Green Building Council. The findings of this research was that mandatory provisions written into unitary/district plans can be effective in increasing green building uptake. However, Section 18 of the Building Act prevents them from doing so. Therefore, the most effective methods at this time are incentive based schemes such as reduced resource consenting time and costs for green building consents, and the use of height and density bonuses. In conclusion, in the current regulatory environment, planners cannot effectively implement mandatory green building provisions. However, they can effectively manage non-mandatory provisions for increasing green building uptake. If in the future planners were to be able to successfully execute mandatory provisions to increase green building uptake, then Section 18 of the Building Act would need to be amended. For implementing mandatory green building provisions in the future, it is recommended that an incremental, step-by-step approach is used so as to avoid unnecessary stress on homeowners and developers.

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  • Comparison of oxalate contents and recovery from two green juices prepared using a masticating juicer or a high speed blender

    Vanhanen, Leo P.; Savage, Geoffrey P.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    © 2015 The Authors. Background: Juicing is a popular health trend where green juice is prepared from a range of common vegetables. If spinach is included in the mix then the juice may contain significant quantities of oxalates and these are not safe to consume regularly in large amounts as they predispose some people to kidney stone formation. Methods: Green juice, prepared from spinach and other common vegetables using a high speed blender that produced a juice containing all the original fiber of the processed raw vegetables, was compared with a juice produced using a masticating juicer, where the pulp containing most of the fiber was discarded in the process. The oxalate contents of both juices were measured using HPLC chromatography. Results: Two juices were prepared using each processing method, one juice contained a high level of spinach, which resulted in a juice containing high levels of total, soluble and insoluble oxalates; the other was a juice mixture made from the same combination of vegetables but containing half the level of spinach, which resulted in a juice containing considerably (P < 0.001) lower levels of oxalates. Removal of the pulp fraction from the green vegetable juice had resulted in significantly (P < 0.01) higher levels of oxalates in the remaining juices made from both levels of spinach. Conclusion: Green juices prepared using common vegetables can contain high levels of soluble oxalates, which will vary with the type and proportion of vegetables used and whether or not the pulp fraction was retained during processing.

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