81,210 results

  • Planning for green building design and technology in New Zealand

    Kirpensteijn, Helene

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Green building design and technology has been developed to lower the impacts of buildings on the environment while maintaining, and in some cases improving all the functions and values of a traditional building. Although the initial costs of green buildings are higher than those of traditional buildings, increased performance and efficiency means that green buildings are more cost effective in the long-term. However, because of these higher initial costs and other barriers such as knowledge barriers, behavioural barriers, and regulatory barriers, uptake is still low in many countries, including New Zealand. Local government and the profession of planning have revealed interests in managing green building uptake. Therefore, the objective of this research is to investigate whether planning provisions in New Zealand are an effective way of increasing green building design and technology uptake. To conduct this research, a mixed methods approach was used. This included performing a plan analysis, a Section 32 report analysis, a hearing report analysis for the Proposed Auckland Unitary Plan and the Christchurch Replacement District Plan. Interviews were also carried out with representatives from these councils and the New Zealand Green Building Council. The findings of this research was that mandatory provisions written into unitary/district plans can be effective in increasing green building uptake. However, Section 18 of the Building Act prevents them from doing so. Therefore, the most effective methods at this time are incentive based schemes such as reduced resource consenting time and costs for green building consents, and the use of height and density bonuses. In conclusion, in the current regulatory environment, planners cannot effectively implement mandatory green building provisions. However, they can effectively manage non-mandatory provisions for increasing green building uptake. If in the future planners were to be able to successfully execute mandatory provisions to increase green building uptake, then Section 18 of the Building Act would need to be amended. For implementing mandatory green building provisions in the future, it is recommended that an incremental, step-by-step approach is used so as to avoid unnecessary stress on homeowners and developers.

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  • Tourism and Arctic observation systems: exploring the relationships

    de la Barre, S.; Maher, P. T.; Dawson, J.; Hillmer-Pegram, K.; Huijbens, E.; Lamers, M.; Liggett, D.; Müller, D.; Pashkevich, A.; Stewart, E. J.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    The Arctic is affected by global environmental change and also by diverse interests from many economic sectors and industries. Over the last decade, various actors have attempted to explore the options for setting up integrated and comprehensive trans-boundary systems for monitoring and observing these impacts. These Arctic Observation Systems (AOS) contribute to the planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of environmental change and responsible social and economic development in the Arctic. The aim of this article is to identify the two-way relationship between AOS and tourism. On the one hand, tourism activities account for diverse changes across a broad spectrum of impact fields. On the other hand, due to its multiple and diverse agents and far-reaching activities, tourism is also well-positioned to collect observational data and participate as an actor in monitoring activities. To accomplish our goals, we provide an inventory of tourism-embedded issues and concerns of interest to AOS from a range of destinations in the circumpolar Arctic region, including Alaska, Arctic Canada, Iceland, Svalbard, the mainland European Arctic and Russia. The article also draws comparisons with the situation in Antarctica. On the basis of a collective analysis provided by members of the International Polar Tourism Research Network from across the polar regions, we conclude that the potential role for tourism in the development and implementation of AOS is significant and has been overlooked.

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  • Comparison of oxalate contents and recovery from two green juices prepared using a masticating juicer or a high speed blender

    Vanhanen, Leo P.; Savage, Geoffrey P.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    © 2015 The Authors. Background: Juicing is a popular health trend where green juice is prepared from a range of common vegetables. If spinach is included in the mix then the juice may contain significant quantities of oxalates and these are not safe to consume regularly in large amounts as they predispose some people to kidney stone formation. Methods: Green juice, prepared from spinach and other common vegetables using a high speed blender that produced a juice containing all the original fiber of the processed raw vegetables, was compared with a juice produced using a masticating juicer, where the pulp containing most of the fiber was discarded in the process. The oxalate contents of both juices were measured using HPLC chromatography. Results: Two juices were prepared using each processing method, one juice contained a high level of spinach, which resulted in a juice containing high levels of total, soluble and insoluble oxalates; the other was a juice mixture made from the same combination of vegetables but containing half the level of spinach, which resulted in a juice containing considerably (P < 0.001) lower levels of oxalates. Removal of the pulp fraction from the green vegetable juice had resulted in significantly (P < 0.01) higher levels of oxalates in the remaining juices made from both levels of spinach. Conclusion: Green juices prepared using common vegetables can contain high levels of soluble oxalates, which will vary with the type and proportion of vegetables used and whether or not the pulp fraction was retained during processing.

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  • Effect of Mouth Rinsing and Ingestion of Carbohydrate Solutions on Mood and Perceptual Responses During Exercise

    Ali, A; Moss, C; Yoo, MJY; Wilkinson, A; Breier, BH

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate whether mouth rinsing or ingesting carbohydrate (CHO) solutions impact on perceptual responses during exercise. Methods: Nine moderately trained male cyclists underwent a 90-min glycogen-reducing exercise, and consumed a low CHO meal, prior to completing an overnight fast. A 1-h cycle time trial was performed the following morning. Four trials, each separated by 7days, were conducted in a randomized, counterbalanced study design: 15% CHO mouth rinse (CHOR), 7.5% CHO ingestion (CHOI), placebo mouth rinse (PLAR) and placebo ingestion (PLAI). Solution volumes (1.5ml·g-1 ingestion trials and 0.33ml·kg-1 rinsing trials) were provided after every 12.5% of completed exercise. Perceptual scales were used to assess affective valence (feeling scale, FS), arousal (felt arousal scale, FAS), exertion (ratings of perceived exertion, RPE) and mood (profile of mood states, POMS) before, during and immediately after exercise. Results: There was no difference in RPE (CHOI, 14.0±9; CHOR, 14.2±.7; PLAI, 14.6±1.8; PLAR, 14.6±2.0; P=0.35), FS (CHOI, 0.0±1.7; CHOR, -0.2±1.5; PLAI, -0.8±1.4; PLAR, -0.8±1.6; P0.15), or FAS (CHOI, 3.6±1.1; CHOR, 3.5±1.0; PLAI, 3.4±1.4; PLAR, 3.3±1.3; P=725) scores between trials. While overall POMS score did not appear to differ between trials, the 'vigour' subscale indicated that CHOI may facilitate the maintenance of 'vigour' scores over time, in comparison to the steady decline witnessed in other trials (P=0.04). There was no difference in time trial performance between trials (CHOI, 65.3±4.8min; CHOR, 68.4±3.9min; PLAI, 68.7±5.3min; PLAR, 68.3±5.2min; P=0.21) but power output was higher in CHOI (231.0±33.2 W) relative to other trials (221-223.6 W; Plt0.01). Conclusions: In a CHO-reduced state, mouth rinsing with a CHO solution did not impact on perceptual responses during high-intensity exercise in trained cyclists and triathletes. On the other hand CHO ingestion improved perceived ratings of vigour and increased power output during exercise.

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  • Development and Analysis of a Solar Humidification Dehumidification Desalination System

    Enayatollahi, Reza

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    In this thesis, an investigation was performed in order to understand the performance of a solar humidification dehumidification (HDH) desalination system. Initially, a mathematical model of the system, including solar water heater, condenser, economizer and long duct humidifier was developed. Using a sensitivity analysis, it was found that improving the intensities of heat and mass transfer in the humidifier would significantly enhance the yield of the system. This led to the development of a novel cascading humidifier, in which air was directed through a series of falling water sheets. An experiment was performed to first identify and characterise flow regimes in the crossflow interactions, and from this, to develop correlations to describe the heat and mass transfer for such interactions. Four flow regimes were identified and mapped based on the Reynolds number of the air and the Weber number of the water. Subsequently, Buckingham’s π theorem and a least squares analysis was employed to develop a series of empirical relations for Nusselt and Sherwood numbers. This led to the proposal of three new dimensionless numbers named the Prandtl Number of Evaporation, the Schmidt Number of Evaporation and the Lewis Number of Evaporation. These describe the transfer phenomena in low temperature evaporation processes with crossflow. Finally, the new correlations for Nusselt and Sherwood numbers were used to develop a model of a cascading humidifier, incorporated in a solar HDH system. It was found that a cascading humidifier enhances the yield of the HDH system by approximately 15%, while reducing the evaporation area to approximately a quarter of that required in a long channel humidifier.

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  • Hydrolysis by Alcalase Improves Hypoallergenic Properties of Goat Milk Protein

    Jung, TH; Yun, SS; Lee, WJ; Kim, JW; Ha, HK; Yoo, M; Hwang, HJ; Jeon, WM; Han, KS

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Goat milk is highly nutritious and is consumed in many countries, but the development of functional foods from goat milk has been slow compared to that for other types of milk. The aim of this study was to develop a goat milk protein hydrolysate (GMPH) with enhanced digestibility and better hypoallergenic properties in comparison with other protein sources such as ovalbumin and soy protein. Goat milk protein was digested with four commercial food-grade proteases (separately) under various conditions to achieve the best hydrolysis of αs -casein and β-lactoglobulin. It was shown that treatment with alcalase (0.4%, 60℃ for 30 min) effectively degraded these two proteins, as determined by SDS-PAGE, measurement of nonprotein nitrogen content, and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Hydrolysis with alcalase resulted in a significant decrease in β-lactoglobulin concentration (almost to nil) and a ~40% reduction in the level of αs-casein. Quantification of histamine and TNF-α released from HMC-1 cells (human mast cell line) showed that the GMPH did not induce an allergic response when compared to the control. Hence, the GMPH may be useful for development of novel foods for infants, the elderly, and convalescent patients, to replace cow milk.

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  • The Role of Ecology and Molecular Evolution in Shaping Global Terrestrial Diversity

    McBride, Paul Derek

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The density of species varies widely across the earth. Most broad taxonomic groups have similar spatial diversity patterns, with greatest densities of species in wet, tropical environments. Although evidently correlated with climate, determining the causes of such diversity differences is complicated by myriad factors: many possible mechanisms exist to link climate and diversity, these mechanisms are not mutually exclusive, and they may overlap in the patterns they generate. Further, the importance of different mechanisms may vary between spatial scales. Generating uneven spatial diversity patterns in regions that are below equilibrium species richness requires either geometric or historical area effects, or regional differences in net diversification. Here, I investigate the global climate correlates of diversity in plants and vertebrates, and hypotheses that could link these correlates to net diversification processes, in particular through climate-linked patterns of molecular evolution. I first show strong climate–diversity relationships only emerge at large scales, and that the specific correlates of diversity differ between plants and animals. For plants, the strongest large-scale predictor of species richness is net primary productivity, which reflects the water–energy balance at large scales. For animals, temperature seasonality is the strongest large-scale predictor of diversity. Then, using two clades of New World passerine birds that together comprise 20% of global avian diversity, I investigate whether rates and patterns of molecular evolution can be linked to diversification processes that could cause spatial diversity patterns in birds. I find that most substitution rate variation between phylogenetically independent comparisons of avian sister species appears to result from mutation rate variation that is uncorrelated with climate. I provide evidence of nearly neutral effects in mitochondrial coding sequences, finding a significant, negative correlation between non-synonymous substitution rates and population size. Using phylogenetically independent comparisons, I also find that birds in low temperature seasonality, and isothermal environments, and birds with small elevational ranges have increased non-synonymous substitution rates, indicative of relaxed purifying selection. Other climate variables have no direct effect on molecular evolution. Molecular evolutionary patterns are dominated by mutation rate variation. Recovered patterns were stronger when mutation rate variation was controlled, indicating that such variation is a source of noise in analyses, and may be generally problematic across short genetic distances for analyses using mitochondrial genes. I bring these findings together with emerging literature to outline a framework for understanding net diversification patterns. Maintaining adaptations to climate, and the limits of those adaptations have population-genetic consequences that can affect lineage persistence and the processes of speciation and extinction in a fashion that is consistent with observations at multiple levels of diversity.

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  • Carbohydrate Mouth Rinsing Has No Effect on Power Output During Cycling in a Glycogen-reduced State

    Ali, A; Yoo, M; Moss, C; Breier, B

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Background: The effect of mouth rinsing with a carbohydrate (CHO) solution on exercise performance is inconclusive with no benefits observed in the fed state. This study examined the effect of CHO mouth rinse or CHO ingestion on performance in 9 moderately trained male cyclists. Methods: Four trials were undertaken, separated by 7 days, in a randomized, counterbalanced design. Each trial included a 90-min glycogen-reducing exercise protocol, immediately followed by a low CHO meal and subsequent overnight fast; the following morning a 1-h cycling time trial was conducted. The trials included 15 % CHO mouth rinse (CHOR), 7.5 % CHO ingestion (CHOI), placebo mouth rinse and placebo ingestion. Solutions were provided after every 12.5 % of completed exercise: 1.5 mL · kg−1 and 0.33 mL · kg−1 body mass during ingestion and rinse trials, respectively. During rinse trials participants swirled the solution for 8 s before expectorating. Blood samples were taken at regular intervals before and during exercise. Results: Performance time was not different between trials (P = 0.21) but the 4.5-5.2 % difference between CHOI and other trials showed moderate practical significance (Cohen’s d 0.57-0.65). Power output was higher in CHOI relative to other trials (P < 0.01). There were no differences between CHOR and placebo groups for any performance variables. Plasma glucose, insulin and lactate concentrations were higher in CHOI relative to other groups (P < 0.05). Conclusions: In a fasted and glycogen-reduced state ingestion of a CHO solution during high-intensity exercise enhanced performance through stimulation of insulin-mediated glucose uptake. The CHO mouth rinsing had neither ergogenic effects nor changes in endocrine or metabolic responses relative to placebo.

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  • Effects of a six week beginner pilates exercise programme on transversus abdominis thickness in low back pain subjects

    Spurdle, Anastasia (2004)

    Thesis
    Unitec

    PURPOSE Transversus abdominis has been shown to be dysfunctional in low back pain patients. Specific exercises involving contraction of core muscles of the spine have been shown to be effective in treating low back pain. Although it is widely claimed that pilates exercise develops the core muscles surrounding the spine, including transversus abdominis, there is little research to support this. OBJECTIVE To investigate the effect of a pilates exercise programme on transversus abdominis thickness in subjects with a history of low back pain. To investigate the reliability of ultrasound measurement of transversus abdominis thickness. STUDY DESIGN Test retest design, with subjects recruited via convenience sampling. METHOD Intra-tester reliability was investigated by measuring transversus abdominis thickness with B-mode ultrasound in eight subjects with a history of low back pain on two separate days. A further twenty-two subjects were recruited for a six week pilates matwork exercise programme with measurements of transversus abdominis thickness taken pre and post intervention. RESULTS The intra-tester reliability was found to be high in supine lying for transversus abdominis measurements taken one week apart (ICC = 0.92, 95% CI 0.60 to 0.99). There was a large and varied effect of the pilates intervention on the change in thickness of transversus abdominis (effect size = 1.27, CI -2.7 to 5.5). History of respiratory dysfunction was found to be very highly correlated with a decrease in transversus abdominis thickness measured at the end of expiration (r=0.7, CI 0.3 to 0.9). SUMMARY The ultrasound methodology was found to be reliable in measuring transversus abdominis thickness. It is not known why there was a wide variation observed in terms of magnitude and direction of change of transversus abdominis thickness after the pilates intervention. It is thought that changes in transversus abdominis thickness measured by ultrasound at the end of expiration (functional residual capacity) were related to respiratory function status. This relationship may have been modified by the six week beginner pilates exercise programme in subjects with a history of respiratory dysfunction. It is postulated that this relationship changed by reducing the contraction of transversus abdominis at the end of expiration. No definitive conclusions can be made, however, due to the small sample size in this preliminary study.

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  • Performance monitoring of various network traffic generators

    Kolahi, Samad; Narayan, Shaneel; Nguyen, D.D.T; Sunarto, Y. (2011-03-31)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    In this paper, in a laboratory environment, the performance of four network traffic generators (Iperf, Netperf, D-ITG and IP Traffic) are compared. Two computers with Windows operating systems were connected via a 100 Mbps link and for various payload sizes, ranging from 128 Bytes to 1408 Bytes, the TCP traffic on the link was measured using the various monitoring tools mentioned above. The results indicate that these tools can produce significantly different results. In the Windows environment, the bandwidth that the tools measure can vary as much as 16.5 Mbps for a TCP connection over a 100 Mbps link. For the same network set up, Iperf measured the highest bandwidth (93.1 Mbps) while IP traffic the lowest (76.7 Mbps). A comparison of capabilities of traffic generators is also provided.

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  • Ethnic Migrant Media Forum 2014 : curated proceedings. “Are we reaching all New Zealanders?". Exploring the role, benefits, challenges & potential of ethnic media in New Zealand

    Papoutsaki, Evangelia; Kolesova, Elena; Stephenson, Laura (2017-03-03)

    Unclassified
    Unitec

    These curated proceedings present what was discussed during the Ethnic Migrant Media Forum, a one-day event hosted by the Department of Communication Studies at Unitec Institute of Technology’s Mt Albert campus in 2014. It is also an attempt to provide an analysis of what was discussed by identifying a number of emerging themes. This publication brings together the curated statements by ethnic media practitioners, academics, and industry representatives involved with ethnic media in New Zealand, presenting a host of issues on ethnic media’s role within the country’s bicultural and multicultural context and organised around the three key themes: 1) Defining ethnic, migrant, diasporic media – what does it mean, who is it, what communities does it represent? 2) Roles and aims of ethnic media – why does ethnic media matter, who does it matter for and what role does ethnic media play in NZ? 3) Impact, challenges and potential – how can ethnic media be used more effectively, what are the challenges and potential? An introductory chapter by forum organisers and this publication’s editors, A/Prof. Evangelia Papoutsaki and Dr Elena Kolesova, presents a background context against which these themes are situated, while Dr Peter Thompson from Victoria University contributes a discussion chapter that brings in a different perspective. Selected information presented by Niche Media at the start of the forum is presented in infographics. Featuring panel discussion highlights and statements from participants, including: Dr Ruth De Souza (keynote address) Dr Arezou Zalipour Dr Camille Nakhid Fezeela Raza Dr Francis Collins David Soh Rene Molina Roshila Prasad Terri Byrne Mary Dawson Carol Hayward Lynda Chanwai-Earle Sue Elliott Mary Lose Dr Prue Cruickshank Rebecca Palmer Stephen Stehlin Taiha Molyneux Sandra Noronha Lisa Taouma Martin Pouwels Hao Peng Naoe Hashimoto Setita Miller Stefan Herrick

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  • The development of parents' capacity to self-regulate while participating in Group Teen Triple P

    Sutherland, F.; Blampied, N.M.; France, K.G. (2016)

    Conference Contributions - Other
    University of Canterbury Library

    Previous research has found that the capacity to self-regulate is associated with a number of positive life outcomes and deficits in self-regulation have been linked with poorer life outcomes. Therefore, parent and child self-regulation is an important focus of the Positive Parenting Program for Teenagers (Teen Triple P). The aim of this study was to investigate if Group Teen Triple P was effective in promoting parental self-regulation and adolescent behaviour change in families affected by the earthquakes in Canterbury NZ between 2010 and 2012. METHOD: Five families with teenagers aged 12-16 years were recruited from among families participating in a Group Teen Triple P program specifically implemented by the education authorities for parents self-reporting long-term negative effects of the earthquakes on their family. A single-case multiple-baseline across participants design was used to examine change in target teenager behaviour. Measures of self-regulation skill acquisition were taken using a coding scheme devised for the study from transcripts of three telephone consultations and from three family discussions at pre-intervention, mid-intervention, and post-intervention. Parents and their child also completed questionnaires addressing adolescent functioning, the parent-adolescent relationship and parenting at pre- and post-intervention. RESULTS: The multiple-baseline data showed that parents were successful at changing targeted behaviour for their child. Analysis of the telephone consultations and family discussions showed that parents increased their self-regulation skills over the therapy period and there was positive change in adolescent behavior reported on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Additionally, the results suggested that higher rates and levels of self-regulation in the parents were associated with greater improvements in adolescent behaviour. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that the Group Teen Triple P -Program was effective in promoting self-regulation in parents and behaviour change in adolescents, specifically in a post-disaster context.

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  • Effects of Micronutrients on Anxiety and Stress in Children

    Rucklidge, J.J.; Blampied, N.M.; Sole, E.J. (2016)

    Conference Contributions - Other
    University of Canterbury Library

    • Objective: Examined effects of micronutrients on children with clinically elevated stress and anxiety 23 to 36 months after experiencing a natural disaster (major earthquake). • Methods: A single-case design allocated 14 children (7 males, 7 females; aged 8-11 years; 10 with formal anxiety-disorder diagnoses) randomly to one, two or three week baselines. Participants then took eight capsules/day of a micronutrient formula (EMPowerplus) during an eight-week open-label trial. Assessment instruments were the Children’s Global Assessment Scale (CGAS), the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED), the Pediatric Emotional Distress Scale (PEDS), and the Revised Children’s Manifest Anxiety Scale (RCMAS). • Results: Symptom severity declined slightly in baseline for some children and declined much more during intervention for all children. Effect sizes at end of treatment were -1.40 (RCMAS), -1.92 (SCARED), +1.96 (CGAS) and -2.13 (PEDS). Modified Brinley plots revealed decreases in anxiety and improvements in overall functioning for 10 out of 11 completing participants. Side effects were mild and transient. • Conclusions: The study provided evidence that dietary supplementation by micronutrients reduces children’s post-disaster anxiety to a clinically significant degree. Future placebo-controlled randomised-controlled trials and treatment-comparison research is recommended to determine if this is true of anxiety in general.

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  • Innovation in the analysis of therapeutic change: Combining both idiographic and nomothetic approaches in one visual analysis

    Blampied, N.M. (2016)

    Conference item
    University of Canterbury Library

    For decades there have been calls for clinical research in psychology to be more idiographic and less dependent on group statistical inference, because what applies in aggregate (nomothetic research) does not necessarily apply to any specific individual (idiographic application). Recommended alternatives include more extensive use of graphs and visual analysis of data. This presentation describes the history, construction and interpretation of modified Brinley plots, a technique for analysing treatment outcomes for individuals within groups that is particularly suitable for therapy outcome research, especially during the treatment-development phase when full randomized controlled trials may be premature. Modified Brinley plots are scatter-plots that compare individual scores at time 1 (normally pretreatment) with scores at various times post-treatment. If the origin and axis scales of the graph are the same no or little change is shown by data points clustering on or about the 45o diagonal line. Change over time (improvement or deterioration) is shown by shifts away from the diagonal. Interpretation is aided by the addition of clinical cut-offs, and by the use of the Reliable Change Index (based on measurement error), features which partition the graph space into meaningful zones. In addition to displaying individuals’ data, these graphs may also display group effects such as means, variances, confidence intervals, and effect sizes. Both between-group and within-group data may be presented and analysed this way and large amounts of data can be efficiently presented and clearly understood within one figure.

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  • Characterising landscape and sea level dynamics to predict shoreline responses over the next 100+ years in a high energy tectonic setting, Kaikoura, New Zealand

    Berger, Hannah Victoria (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis examines local scale landscape dynamics and coastal responses to climate change along the tectonically active, high energy Kaikoura coastline, South Island, New Zealand. In New Zealand, the majority of urban infrastructure is built along low-lying coastal plains. As a result, expanding coastal communities face increasing exposure to coastal hazards, which will potentially be exacerbated by climate change-induced adjustments in sediment supply, wave climates and sea levels, amongst other factors. Sea level around New Zealand has been predicted to rise between 0.8 m and 1.0 m by 2115 as a response to increasing global temperatures. In Kaikoura, local relative sea levels may vary from regional projections based on local sediment dynamics in response to; local tectonic uplift and co-seismic sediment delivery, increased rainfall and storm intensity, ocean climate and tides. Local sediment dynamics are important to consider when managing relative sea-level variations, in terms of assessing erosion response affected by sediment supply. New Zealand Coastal Policy Statement (NZCPS, 2010) Policy 24 states that the effects of climate change on coastal sediment dynamics should be factored into 100 year hazard risk assessments. To this date there has been no combined assessment on tectonic, climatic, and anthropogenic controls on local sediment dynamics, to predict mixed sand and gravel morphology response to future climate change and sea level variation along the Kaikoura coastline. The main objective of the research is to predict how coastal geomorphology in Kaikoura is likely to respond to local tectonic and climate change- induced adjustments in landscape and sea level dynamics over the next 100+ years. In order to fulfil the research objective, the primary focus of this research was developing a conceptual framework for the preliminary assessment of local sediment dynamics as part of a sea-level rise response matrix. The methodology was developed using a Kaikoura area case study, including the coast between the Hapuku and Kahutara Rivers, Kaikoura Peninsula and the adjacent coastal progradation plain, and Seaward Kaikoura Ranges. This area encompasses key coastal sediment processes and controls in a small well-constrained region that produced findings that can be scalable to other areas in New Zealand and elsewhere. Tectonics, climate, and human interventions were identified as the main controls on local sediment dynamics in Kaikoura. Key physical (faults, watersheds, landforms) and anthropogenic (hard/soft engineering structures, regulatory frameworks) factors influencing the sediment dynamics were assessed at different temporal and spatial scales. Various climate, river gauge, and beach survey data alongside local tectonic assessments were used to characterise and assess each control. Determining how each control influences local scale sediment dynamics proved challenging in a relatively sparse data context. Rainfall, ocean climate, and beach profile data analyses provided sufficient information to construct a conceptual model for the preliminary assessment of local sediment dynamics, how tectonic and climate change-induced adjustments could affect sediment supply and how future relative sea level may manifest in the Kaikoura region.

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  • Submission to the Parliamentary Select Committee on Foreign Affairs, Defence and Trade on the New Zealand Intelligence and Security Bill

    Small, D. (2016)

    Unclassified
    University of Canterbury Library

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  • Submission to Parliamentary Select Committee on Education and Science on Education Amendment Bill (No 2)

    Small, D. (2014)

    Unclassified
    University of Canterbury Library

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  • Reliable Change and the Reliable Change Index in the context of evidence-based practice: A tutorial review

    Blampied, N.M. (2016)

    Conference Contributions - Other
    University of Canterbury Library

    Background: The concept of Reliable Change in the context of psychological treatment was introduced by Jacobson and colleagues in 1984. Their Reliable Change Index (RCI) specifies the amount of change a client must show on a specific psychometric instrument between measurement occasions for that change to be reliable, i.e., larger than that reasonably expected due to measurement error alone. Only if change is reliable is it then meaningful to consider if it is practically or clinically significant. Evidence of reliable change is, therefore, at the heart of evidence-based practice. Despite this, reliable change and the RCI is rarely considered either in applied/clinical research or practice.Aims: This talk will review the psychometric foundations of the RCI and relate this to clinical/applied/practical significance. Main contributions:In addition to showing how the RCI is calculated for any particular psychological measure I will also demonstrate a graphical procedure that practitioners can use to systematically track, client by client, if they are producing reliable change. I will also show how this can be extended to show if the change is clinically significant. Modifications of the RCI for neuropsychological testing to take account of practice effects will also be discussed. Conclusions: The paper will review the concept of Reliable Change and provide a tutorial in its use and interpretation for researchers and practitioners.

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  • Making the most of work resources: the moderating effect of regulatory focus on resilience development

    Connell, P. K. (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The ever changing, volatile business world calls for resilient organisations and resilient employees. While past research suggests the need to identify factors that contribute to employee resilience development, there is limited empirical research that clarifies these factors. Drawing from Conservation of Resources (COR) theory, the purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between social- and feedback-related resources, and resilient employee behaviours, and to explore the moderating role of regulatory foci (prevention and promotion) in this relationship. A survey was conducted among 162 participants from four organisations. Moderated multiple regressions, considering 3-way interactions, were conducted to test the theoretical assumptions. Findings from this study suggest that: 1) individuals with a high promotion and high prevention focus display higher levels of employee resilience, irrespective of resource levels, 2) the resilience of employees with a low promotion and low prevention profile is impacted by resource availability, and 3) mismatch in regulatory foci (i.e., individuals exhibiting high levels of one regulatory focus and low levels of the other) accounts for unique relationships between resources and resilient behaviours. This is the first study to examine the interaction between promotion and prevention, and to assess the prevalence and role of regulatory foci in workplace factors.

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  • An Archaeology of Madang Papua New Guinea

    Gaffney, Dylan; Summerhayes, Glenn R. (2017)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

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