82,469 results

  • Online Shopping: A Comparison of New Zealand and Chinese Shoppers

    Xing, Ye

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This research paper provides a comparative analysis of New Zealand and Chinese shoppers’ online shopping behavior. The dissertation examines consumers’ frequency of shopping, with particular focus on the comparison of online shopping behavior by Chinese online shoppers and New Zealand online shoppers. The advent and rise of technology in online shopping has led individuals to be able to undertake almost all their daily shopping needs through the use of online shopping websites. This research attempts to find clarification by proposing the mediating role of social influence between national culture and frequency of shopping online. It is important to provide an examination of the impact of social influence on online shopping behavior. The findings of the research indicate that social influence partially mediates between national culture and frequency of online shopping; that normative and informational social influence mediate frequency of online shopping. Future research can investigate relationships between frequency of online shopping and other factors such as level of trust by online shoppers.

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  • Exploring the Lived Experience of Opportunities and Challenges Faced by Entrepreneurial Women of Rural Nepal

    Baniya Badu, Nilam

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Nepal is a developing Asian country, and its economy is dependent on agriculture, tourism and foreign remittances. Nepalese women lag behind their male counterparts in all sectors, even though both genders are considered equal by the law. Deep-rooted patriarchal perceptions, stereotypical practices, unimplemented laws, illiteracy, and cultural and religious traditions adversely impact the everyday lives of Nepalese women. Women’s entrepreneurship is recognised as a crucial tool for economic growth, poverty reduction, and job creation of a country. However, women’s entrepreneurship has been seldom researched in Nepal and, further investigation and research on this topic is required to obtain relevant information and data. This thesis is an exploratory study that fills a gap in literature by adding scarce knowledge about lived experiences of women entrepreneurs of rural Nepal. It highlights differences on how entrepreneurship is practiced differently in developing countries when compared to developed ones. It also examines a unique perspective about rural entrepreneurial women residing in a male-dominated society. The purpose of this qualitative research is also to raise awareness about the complexity of their lives and also to encourage, support and promote their entrepreneurial activities. This research can help policymakers and organisations involved with women empowerment to support women and women entrepreneurs of Nepal. In addition, this study can also aid future studies. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eleven women entrepreneurs in a rural village of Nepal. They all started their enterprises to fulfil the basic needs of their families. Those women faced difficulties in their everyday lives because of their gender and the underlying poverty in the village. Cultural traditions, religious beliefs, patriarchal perceptions, lack of education, and migration of men and youths to the cities, adversely affected their everyday lives and their entrepreneurial journeys. Unreliable roads, frequent power outage, poor drinking water facilities, poor mobile networks, and a lack of mechanical tools and equipment decreased their efficiencies and increased their daily workloads. However, this study proved that these women, similar to western entrepreneurs, identified good opportunities, initiated their venture, and formulated a plan. This study indicated that education, training opportunities, financial access, and improved infrastructure are important to promote and empower women entrepreneurs of rural Nepal.

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  • Investigating Culturally Responsive Practices: Perceptions and Experiences of Secondary School Middle Leaders

    Morgan, Leigh

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The aim of this research was to critically examine the perceptions and understandings of culturally responsive practices carried out by secondary school middle leaders in low decile, multi-ethnic school settings in New Zealand. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with seven middle leaders from six different secondary schools in the Auckland region. Middle leaders’ understandings, experiences and challenges that they encountered in their schools were diverse and multi-faceted. The data revealed that culturally responsive leadership is influenced by personal, interpersonal and school factors. Possessing personal traits that allowed middle leaders to be innately culturally responsive, and which allowed them to effectively communicate and form learning and working relationships, were considered to be the most influential factors in effective culturally responsive middle leadership. The redesigned socio-ecological model presented in this thesis acknowledges the importance of both culturally responsive practices and culturally responsive leadership by middle leaders. A number of recommendations arose from this research. Culturally responsive leadership and practices involve a committed approach from principals, senior management, middle leaders and teachers to engage students and families in the community. Individual teachers need to critically reflect on their personal values and beliefs and how these might influence their teaching practices. The research also highlighted the importance of emphasising both bi-culturalism and multiculturalism if schools are to meet their obligations to Te Tiriti o Waitangi.

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  • Can Relative Motion Extension Splinting (RMES) Provide an Earlier Return to Function Than a Controlled Active Motion (CAM) Protocol? A Randomised Clinical Trial

    Collocott, Shirley

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Various active mobilisation protocols are used after repair of extensor tendons in zone V and VI. These include relative motion extension splinting (RMES) and controlled active motion (CAM) protocols. Similar outcomes are reported for most early active mobilisation protocols, however reports on RMES protocols suggest a possible earlier return to work and functional use of the affected hand. To date no published prospective trials have compared the RMES to other early active mobilisation protocols. This randomised clinical trial prospectively investigated whether patients with extensor tendon repairs in zone V and VI managed with an RMES protocol would return to functional use of the hand sooner than those managed with an extensor CAM protocol. Between January 2015 and February 2016, 42 participants who had undergone extensor tendon repair in zone V and/or VI were recruited to the study. They were randomised into two groups: one group was treated using a CAM protocol, the other an RMES protocol. Participants were reviewed at four and eight weeks post-operatively. The primary outcome was the Sollerman Hand Function Test (SHFT) score. Secondary outcomes included: days to return to work, total active motion (TAM), grip strength the QuickDASH (Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder and Hand) questionnaire and participant satisfaction. Complications were recorded. The RMES group demonstrated significantly better results than the CAM group at four weeks with regard to the SHFT mean score (p=0.0073), the QuickDASH score (p=0.77) and TAM (p=0.008). At eight weeks the RMES group continued to show better results than the CAM group for TAM (p=0.030), but there was no difference between groups for the SHFT and QuickDASH scores. Median days to return to work were similar between groups with RMES group 20 days (Interquartile range [IQR]: 12, 57) and CAM 18 days (IQR: 6, 55), (p=0.77). There was no significant difference between groups with regard to grip strength at eight weeks. RMES participants reported a significantly higher level of satisfaction with the splint than the CAM group (p<0.0001). No tendon ruptures occurred in either group. One RMES participant underwent tenolysis surgery and there was no significant difference in complication rates between groups. This is the first randomised clinical trial to prospectively compare an RMES protocol to a CAM protocol. Participants treated with an RMES protocol demonstrated better early return to functional use of the hand than those treated with a CAM protocol, and RMES participants continued to show better range of motion than CAM participants at eight weeks. RMES participants were also more satisfied with splinting than CAM participants. There was no difference in return to work timeframes, possibly due to factors outside the control of the study. No ruptures occurred in either group, complication rates were low and not significantly different between groups. This study has demonstrated that an RMES protocol provides an earlier return to hand function than a CAM protocol for patients who have undergone extensor tendon repair in zone V and VI.

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  • An Interpretive Review of Psychoanalytic Literature on Empathy in the Therapeutic Relationship

    Kistasamy, Kumeshni

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This dissertation is an interpretive review of psychoanalytic literature on empathy within the therapeutic relationship. The creative science of hermeneutics is used to explore the history of empathy and its function within the therapeutic relationship. A critical analysis of the literature provides the platform for assessing present arguments for the importance of empathy in the therapy relationship. This analysis identified three important areas neglected in the research. These are the wider context of the evolution of empathy, the role of culture and consideration of the client’s experience. A discussion of these areas concludes this dissertation.

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  • Health Literacy Among Pacific Mothers in New Zealand: Exploring the Associations of Demographic and Behavioural Factors With Health Literacy of Pacific Mothers in the Context of Pacific Health and Well-being.

    Sa'uLilo, Losi

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The physical and social factors related to non-communicable diseases (NCDs), including obesity, noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus or type 2 diabetes, ischemic heart disease, stroke, metabolic syndrome and some cancers, are multifaceted and complex (Ministry of Health [MoH], 2012a, 2012b, 2012c). One factor that may contribute to the inequitable burden of NCDs in Pacific people is health literacy; almost 90% of Pacific males and females aged 15 years and over have low health literacy (MoH, 2012c; University of Otago, & Ministry of Health, 2011). Health literacy is the ability to access, read, understand and interpret basic health related information to make informed health decisions to improve health outcomes (Kickbusch, Maag & Saan, 2005). Individuals with low health literacy are less likely to manage ill health including type 2 diabetes (Harris, 2000; Kim, Love, Quistberg & Shea, 2004), seek professional medical assistance (World Health Organisation [WHO], 2013), or interpret nutrition related information (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2005). To date, there is no evidence to show that health literacy is related to NCDs among Pacific people in New Zealand. Further, no studies showing any associations between health literacy and health outcomes with Pacific mothers in New Zealand have been published. Using both qualitative and quantitative research methodology, this research examined the extent to which health literacy and health outcomes are related in Pacific mothers in New Zealand. In doing so, this research comprised two studies: firstly a quantitative study to determine the association(s) between the single item literacy screener and weight status in Pacific mothers; and secondly a qualitative study using focus groups with Pacific mothers and semi structured interviews with health professionals in New Zealand to: 1) determine whether public health information is being appropriately interpreted by Pacific mothers and 2a) explore and discuss the experiences of health professionals with Pacific mothers and their health issues and 2b) examine best practice for these health professionals in addressing potential health literacy issues for Pacific mothers in New Zealand.

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  • The Nutritional Implications of Partner Switching in the Cnidarian-Dinoflagellate Symbiosis

    Matthews, Jennifer (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Reef-building corals form a symbiosis with phototrophic dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium. Specificity in the host-symbiont partnership is widespread, despite the potential for flexibility in endosymbiont community composition to provide a mechanism of environmental acclimatisation and adaptation. The potential for partner switching may be linked to the nutritional flux between the two partners, with optimal nutritional exchange determining success. Further research is therefore necessary to determine how novel symbiont types (i.e. not originally detected in the host) affect the nutritional biology of the cnidarian host, and ultimately the capacity for the evolution of novel associations in the cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis. The specific objectives were: 1) to design an effective method of providing aposymbiotic host organisms for experimental symbiont colonisation studies; 2) to determine how colonisation with a novel symbiont affects the gene-to-metabolite response of the host; 3) to deduce how the quantity and identity of translocated photosynthetic products from symbiont to host is affected by the symbiont type; 4) to determine whether natural differences in the Symbiodinium community composition affect the metabolite profile of the same cnidarian host. Chapter 2 demonstrates that menthol-induced bleaching effectively and efficiently provides experimental aposymbiotic (i.e. symbiont-free) sea anemones (Aiptasia sp.) for colonisation studies. The menthol treatment produced aposymbiotic hosts within just 4 weeks (97–100% symbiont loss), and the condition was maintained long after treatment when anemones were held under a standard light:dark cycle. The ability of Aiptasia to form a stable symbiosis appeared to be unaffected by menthol exposure, as demonstrated by successful reestablishment of the symbiosis when anemones were experimentally re-colonised with the homologous Symbiodinium (i.e. originating from the same host species). Furthermore, there was no significant impact on photosynthetic or respiratory performance of re-colonised anemones. A novel application of statistically integrated transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses was applied in Chapter 3 to explore the molecular and metabolic pathways underlying symbiosis specificity in the cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis. Aposymbiotic individuals of the sea anemone Aiptasia generated by the methods optimised in Chapter 2 were colonised with either the homologous Symbiodinium type B1 or the novel Symbiodinium type D1a. RNA-seq gene expression analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolite profiling were conducted on the isolated host tissues. Analysis of the gene and metabolite expression profiles revealed that a novel symbiont confers an expression pattern intermediate between hosting a homologous symbiont, and having no symbiont. Although the formation and autotrophic potential of the novel association was similar to the homologous association, as determined by O₂ flux measurements, the novel association resulted in an increase in the catabolism of metabolic stores (glycogen, lipid and protein), presumably in order to meet the energy requirements associated with the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. Integrated pathway analysis revealed reduced energy storage, an increased catabolism of stores, metabolic signalling and cellular redox homeostasis were molecular processes involved in the hosts’ response to a novel symbiont type. This raised interesting questions as to how differences in the composition of symbiont-derived metabolites might feature in the specificity of the symbiosis. Metabolite profiling was subsequently coupled with ¹³C-labelling in Chapter 4, to identify the specific differences in the identity and quantity of photosynthetic carbon products translocated to the Aiptasia host when in symbiosis with the novel Symbiodinium type D1a versus the homologous Symbiodinium B1. A reduction in the diversity and quantity of net translocated products was observed in the novel association, despite achieving a similar autotrophic potential to the homologous association, as determined by O₂ flux measurements. Interestingly, however, there was a continued fixation and translocation of carbon products to the host, suggesting that novel associations are, at least in part, metabolically functional in terms of photosynthate provision. Nevertheless, the decreased diversity and abundance of translocated products were associated with modifications to biosynthesis, increased catabolism of host energy stores, and oxidative stress-related signalling pathways in hosts colonised with the novel Symbiodinium type D1a.The impact of symbiont type on the host’s metabolite profile in an experimental setting raised the interesting possibility that the metabolite profiles of a cnidarian that forms natural flexible associations with different Symbiodinium types may also have dissimilar metabolite profiles, with implications for the nutritional physiology of the symbiosis. This was tested in Chapter 5. An in situ field survey of the metabolite profiles of Montipora capitata, a dominant reef-building coral in Hawai’i that forms homologous symbioses with Symbiodinium in clades C and clade D, revealed the metabolite pools of a coral host were not affected by Symbiodinium community composition. Given prior evidence that clade D can be less nutritionally beneficial to the coral host than some other symbiont types, the reasons for the similarity in metabolite profiles remains unclear. However, possible explanations are: 1) host heterotrophic compensation for the presence of a less beneficial symbiont; 2) modifications to the abundance and identity of metabolites exchanged in the symbiosis, perhaps via host selection of its symbiont community over time to provide an optimal state; or 3) adjustment to the host’s metabolic pathway activity in response to different host-symbiont interactions, that produces similar free-metabolite profiles in the host. Nevertheless, this served to highlight that a coral host in a naturally flexible association, and under ‘normal’ environmental conditions, may maintain a steady metabolite profile irrespective of its Symbiodinium community composition. Notably, this contrasts with the findings that heterologous symbionts (i.e. those not usually associated with a particular host species) may have negative nutritional implications for the host that could ultimately restrict the success and persistence of novel host-symbiont pairings. This study provides important evidence that optimal nutritional exchange and mechanisms of coping with oxidative stress in both partners are important determinants in the evolution of novel cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbioses. However, it also raises the possibility that such novel pairings, should they persist, may evolve over time to a more beneficial symbiotic state; this is worthy of further study. Indeed, we need to continue our efforts to understand the molecular and physiological mechanisms underpinning the adaptation of the cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis to climate change, to facilitate the development of robust management strategies to safeguard the world’s coral reefs.

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  • Chinese international students travelling with friends: Group decision-making and disagreement prevention

    Zhu, Hanru (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis investigates the group decision-making process of Chinese international students travelling with friends in New Zealand. Focusing on groups of friends, a neglected decision-making unit, it explores models of group decision-making and disagreement prevention and resolution strategies of Chinese international students making travel-related decisions. Qualitative research method governed by the interpretive paradigm was adopted. Sixteen Chinese international students from Victoria University of Wellington were interviewed. They were from eleven travel groups and had experience of independent leisure travel in non-family groups in New Zealand. Given that Chinese independent visitor market to New Zealand keeps growing, and Chinese international students have been referred as “China's first wave of independent travellers” (King & Gardiner, 2015), this study adds knowledge to the understanding of the travel behaviours and decision-making process of this market travelling in New Zealand. Tourism attractions were the most discussed travel-related decision during the group decision-making process, followed by decisions on travel activities, food and restaurants, accommodation and transportation. Three group decision-making models were identified: leadership, division of work, and shared decision-making. Leadership includes three roles of leaders, namely the travel initiator who has the initial idea for the trip and who gets potential members together, the main plan-provider who is responsible for collecting travel information and travel tips to make the whole travel plan and arrange travel schedules, and the main decision-maker who makes the final decision in the travel group. The former two roles are with less dominance, while the latter is with higher dominance in the decision-making process. The division of work model refers to dividing the tasks (e.g. organising accommodation or transport) within the travel group and includes two roles: the plan-provider who is responsible for making the plan for the allocated task, and the decision-maker who made the decision on the allocated task. In the shared decision-making model, the group members make the travel-related decisions collectively by discussion and voting. Most travel groups were found to use multiple group decision-making models conjointly, with a few groups only using the shared decision-making model. Overall, the most used models were shared decision-making and leadership. Most travel group who adopted the leadership model tended to then use either shared decision-making model or the division of work model depending on the level of dominance of group leader. Most interviewees indicated that there was lack of disagreement during the group decision-making process. Thus the research focus has shifted from the disagreement resolution to the disagreement prevention. Five disagreement prevention strategies and one influencing factor were identified: travelling with like-minded people, adequate preparation, empathy and mutual understanding, tolerance, compensation and external factors. If disagreements occurred, one or more of tight strategies were adopted by the interviewees to resolve them, namely making concessions, discussing and voting, looking for alternatives, persuasion, toleration, splitting up, accommodating and delaying. Implications and recommendation for industries and future studies are discussed.

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  • The cost of being under the weather: Droughts, floods, and health care costs in Sri Lanka

    De Alwis, Diana; Noy, Ilan (2017)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    We measure to cost of extreme weather events (droughts and floods) on health care in Sri Lanka. We find that frequently occurring local floods and droughts impose a significant risk to health when individuals are exposed directly to these hazards, and when their communities are exposed, even if they themselves are unaffected. Those impacts, and especially the indirect spillover effects to households that are not directly affected, are associated with the land-use in the affected regions and with access to sanitation and hygiene. Finally, both direct and indirect risks associated with flood and drought on health have an economic cost; our estimates suggest Sri Lanka spends 52.8 million USD per year directly on the health care costs associated with floods and droughts, divided almost equally between the public and household sectors, and 22% vs. 78% between floods and droughts, respectively. In Sri Lanka, both the frequency and the intensity of droughts and floods are likely to increase because of climatic change. Consequently, the health burden associated with these events is only likely to increase, demanding precious resources that are required elsewhere.

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  • The development of science epistemology in senior science courses: A quantitative study

    McIntosh, Edit (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Epistemological development is a pivotal aspect of liberal education because the ability to distinguish between knowledge and pseudo-knowledge and the ability to use the particular methods of reasoning associated with various disciplinary fields equips people to make judgements in complex issues. The present study examines the extent to which studying each of the different science disciplines in secondary years 12 and 13 supports the development of science epistemology. A further aim was to determine the relationship between epistemological development in science and the completion of inquiry-type coursework. Data were collected from 735 year 12 and 13 students from 11 schools, mainly from the Wellington region. A survey, designed for this study, comprised statements about the nature of science and scientific argumentation conceptions, two pivotal aspects of science epistemology. Using a quasi-experimental design, this quantitative study explores the extent of the development of science epistemology over a year of studying science, by comparing students’ scores in Term 1 with scores in Term 3 on the instrument. The findings showed a more advanced epistemic view among science students; however, a positive effect of science studies on epistemic development was not evident. It was concluded that a greater emphasis on authentic inquiry is essential for epistemic development and, while understanding of the philosophical assumptions underpinning scientific knowledge is important, this should arise from authentic science inquiries – or the processes of science – rather than being taught in isolation from the practice of the discipline of science. This leads to a question the extent to which an emphasis should be placed on the ontological aspects of the philosophy and the sociology of science, potentially at the expense of developing sound understanding of science epistemology.

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  • The unfortunate regressivity of public natural hazard insurance: A quantitative analysis of a New Zealand case

    Owen, Sally; Noy, Ilan (2017)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Natural hazard insurance is almost always provided through public-private partnerships. Given the dominant role of the public sector, it is surprising that equity issues have not faced more scrutiny with respect to the design of hazard insurance. We provide a detailed quantification of the degree of regressivity of the New Zealand earthquake insurance program – a system that was designed with an egalitarian purpose. We measure this regressivity as it manifested in the half a million insurance claims that resulted from the Canterbury earthquakes of 2011. As in other cases, this can be remedied with modifications to the program’s structure.

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  • A Novel System for Monitoring in vivo Cell Signaling Pathways Involved in Early Embryonic Patterning

    Rooney, Louise (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Early developmental events, such as the arrangement of the head-tail axis, are fundamentally driven by cell signalling cascades. Such incidents are regulated in a highly complex manner by promoters and inhibitors at many levels of the cascade. This complexity makes it difficult to understand where and when certain signalling occurs, and what effects additional factors have on the signalling system. Nodal signalling, executed by intracellular Smad2/3 signal propagation, is thought to induce the anterior-posterior and head-tail patterning of the early mouse embryo. Target gene outputs of this signalling are fine-tuned by a vast array of modulators; TGBβ co-receptors, extracellular ligand and receptor inhibitors, DNA binding cofactors, and intracellular enhancers and inhibitors. The endogenous target genes of this system cannot be used as a measure of signalling as they themselves feedback on the original system and others, creating diverse signals. In this body of work, we have distilled the Nodal signalling cascade to a single variable by creating a fluorescent genetic reporter to semi-quantitatively measure Smad signalling during early embryonic development. Reporter constructs contain Smad binding elements, a minimal promoter and fluorescent protein elements. Various sensitivity Smad binding elements were created to respond to different thresholds of signalling. Fluorescent microscopy and flow cytometry were used to verify responsiveness of reporter constructs, tested first in a mouse embryonic fibroblast line and subsequently in transgenic embryos. This study will provide an understanding of how extracellular cues dictate gene expression during early embryonic formation. The knowledge acquired from this work may have implications in dairy cattle and human fertility.

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  • Drifting 3D Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks for Pollution Monitoring

    Ren, Yu (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Increasing demands by a growing population for food and oil have resulted in synchronous rises in the past 40 years of aquaculture and offshore oil drilling. Growth in these industries has highlighted the potential crippling impacts of coastal pollution, with marine farms likely to be susceptible to damage from harmful algal blooms and oil platforms to cause oil spills, as headlined by the 2010 Deepwater Horizon incident in the Gulf of Mexico. Drifting underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) represent a technology that can greatly enhance our understanding of such processes. Consisting of a swarm of untethered sensor nodes, an UWSN can be deployed over a large segment of the feature. The feature is carried through to different positions by underwater currents, the nodes, also drifting with the currents, are able to follow it and track it. To enable UWSNs, work is proceeding at multiple laboratories throughout the world on the design of localization, medium access control and routing protocols that can adapt to the problem that a drifting network topology has over short time intervals: frequent neighbour changes. However, the long-term impact that current drift has on 3D drifting UWSNs is poorly understood. Current mobility models used to generate the motion of drifting nodes in simulation do not reflect how devices in real-life will disperse in water. At present, UWSN protocol schemes are evaluated in simulations where the current mobility of nodes is generated by unrealistic land-based random waypoint and other stochastic mobility models, or coarsely resolved numerical ocean models. Recently, a physically-inspired current mobility model known as MCM has been proposed. This is only defined along the water's surface, in 2D, however, and 3D extensions of this model have been simplistic and arbitrary. The lack of realistic 3D current mobility models motivates this thesis to develop one so that the simulated evolution of UWSNs can more accurately reflect real-life. A consideration of the oceanographic data on which MCM is based is used to derive a 3D extension of the model that reflects observed features of the Gulf Stream current. The speed of the current declines with depth. This model is utilized to advect a drifting UWSN in an oil plume monitoring scenario and study the performance of two pressure routing protocols, Depth Based Routing (DBR) and HydroCast, over time. Previously, these schemes had only been validated in unrealistic stochastic and depth-invariant mobility models and their time-averaged performances were only reported. Our findings show that 3D UWSNs cannot expect to stay connected and functioning if nodes only passively drift with the currents, with results demonstrating that a fully connected network can be so dispersed after three hours that no paths to sinks exist at all. Nodes must be equipped with some form of mobility to prevent their being separated and carried out of the monitoring region. Autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) capable of omnidirectional motion are expensive however, and instead UWSNs consisting of pro ling floats are considered in this thesis. Floats can move up and down by adjusting their buoyancy, which also allow them to move in 3D by exploiting water layers that are flowing in different directions to proceed along a desired heading. Recently, promising results in 2D path planning and formation control of floats have been presented. However, these works consider the floats to have infinite vertical velocity whereas in reality this is around 0:3 metres per second. In this thesis, a practical node movement scheme is proposed for extending the coverage lifetime of a 3D UWSN consisting of floats. By accounting for the finite profiling velocity of floats, the scheme is able to position nodes at coverage holes with greater precision than existing 2D strategies. The scheme's performance is analysed by simulations. The results support the use of floats for achieving partial coverage, which can achieve similar levels of coverage as an AUV strategy while requiring less cost to deploy. In determining the lifetime of the network, we find that both energy and dispersion limit the lifetime of the network. Without propulsion, the nodes are carried out of and cease to cover the monitoring region. Using mobility to remain with the region, at the end of a 5 day mission duration floats have had to use up some or almost all of their battery capacity in profiling.

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  • Urban Tree Diversity - Taking stock and looking ahead

    Morgenroth, J.; Östberg, J.; Konijnendijk van den Bosch, C.; Nielsen, A.B.; Hauer, R.; Sjöman, H.; Chen, W.Y.; Jansson, M. (2016)

    Journal article
    University of Canterbury Library

    The first International Conference on Urban Tree Diversity hosted in June 2014 by the Swedish University of Agricultural Science in Alnarp, Sweden highlighted the need for a better understanding of the current state of urban tree diversity. Here we present and discuss a selection of urban tree diversity themes with the intention of developing and sharing knowledge in a research area that is gaining momentum. We begin by discussing the specific role of species diversity in ecosystem service provision and ecosystem stability. This is followed by exploring the urban conditions that affect species richness. Having determined that many ecosystem services depend on urban tree species diversity and that urban environments are capable of supporting high species diversity, we conclude by addressing how to govern for urban tree diversity.

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  • Politics as creative pragmatism: rethinking the political action of contemporary university students in Aotearoa New Zealand

    Nissen, Sylvia Esther (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis reconsiders the political action and agency of contemporary university students in Aotearoa New Zealand. Although the twenty-first century has witnessed a global growth in student protest (Brooks 2017), there does not seem to have been a noticeable increase in political activism among New Zealand students, with critics variously labelling students as apathetic, selfish, distracted or disinterested (Green 2015; McClennen 2015). However, this thesis argues there is more to contemporary New Zealand student political action and attitudes than has been previously understood. The political attitudes of New Zealand students are examined through 70 in-depth interviews with students at New Zealand’s eight universities, supplemented by observation in the period 2014 to 2015. The thesis provides a conceptual framework of ‘3 Ds’ for understanding the experiences of contemporary students that inform their political action: desires for different types of politics, demands of contemporary university environments and doubts in an era of political ambiguity. This framework challenges and extends dominant theoretical explanations of student political action in the early twenty-first century, specifically theories of agency, political economy and social network analysis. In advancing a ‘3 Ds’ framework, this thesis also identifies a particular form of political agency emerging among New Zealand students that can be synthesised and understood through a concept of ‘creative pragmatism’. Creative pragmatism is a term advanced here to describe a ‘realistic’ orientation among students towards their social world, and their creative but cautious negotiation of political environments. The term also acknowledges a willingness amongst students to rethink how they engage politically, while retaining a strong ideal that a ‘different politics is possible’.

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  • Novel N-heterocyclic carbene ligands for use in asymmetric catalysis

    Kerr, Will (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This investigation sought to establish new and adaptable methods for incorporating an enantiomeric component into NHC ligands and to develop novel precatalyst prototypes capable of asymmetric induction for use in transition metal mediated catalysis. This thesis details the fulfilment of these objectives through the design, synthesis and characterisation of forty‐eight previously unreported compounds including twenty‐six new NHC proligands and fourteen NHC complexes. NHC derivatives of the chiral mono‐terpene camphor are explored in Chapter 2, primarily through the synthesis of a series of bornyl‐acetamide linked NHC proligands, demonstrating expedient incorporation of an enantiomeric moiety by acetamide linkage. Bornyl‐acetamide NHC complexes of Ag(I), Pd(II), Pt(II) and Ru(II) are studied and structural elucidation supported by comparison with the Pd(II) and Pt(II) complexes of an achiral cyclohexyl‐acetamide analogue (Chapter 3). Chapter 4 introduces metallo‐ NHC proligands derived from imidazo[4,5‐f][1,10]phenanthroline, capable of backbone coordination of a ruthenium‐polypyridine component. Alternatively, use of an acetamide‐tether provides metallo‐NHC proligands of 5‐acetamido‐1,10‐ phenanthroline and 4‐acetamido,2,2’‐bipyridine (Chapter 5). Also outlined is the synthesis of several remarkable hetero‐dinuclear NHC complexes in addition to the effective enantiomeric resolution of a metallo‐NHC proligand. The performance of selected systems in an asymmetric Suzuki coupling is examined in Chapter 6. Several of the organic‐NHC ligands elicit comparable activity to reported systems, however, product formation is not observed when using an acetamide‐linked metallo‐NHC ligand. This is most likely related to amide‐group coordination which occurs readily for the metallo‐NHC ligands compared with the bornyl and cyclohexyl analogues. Such conclusions are supported by the comprehensive structural elucidation of all NHC complexes prepared in this thesis, providing evidence for the behaviour of catalytic intermediates involving these ligands.

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  • A viable and cost-effective weather index insurance for rice in Indonesia

    Kusuma, Aditya; Noy, Ilan; Jackson, Bethanna (2017)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The potentially adverse effects of droughts on agricultural output are obvious. Indonesian rice farmers have no financial protection from climate risk via catastrophic weather risk transfer tools. Done well, a weather index insurance (WII) program can not only provide resources that enable recovery, but can also facilitate the adoption of prevention and adaptation measures and incentivise risk reduction. Here, we quantify the applicability, viability, and likely cost of introducing a WII for droughts for rice production in Indonesia. To reduce basis risk, we construct district specific indices that are based on the estimation of Panel Geographically Weighted Regressions models. With these spatial tools, and detailed district level data on past agricultural productivity and weather conditions, we present an algorithm that generates an effective and actuarially sound WII, and measure its effectiveness in reducing income volatility for farmers. We use data on annual paddy production in 428 Indonesian districts, reported over the period 1990-2013, and climate data from 1950-2015. We use the monthly Palmer Drought Severity Index and identify district-specific trigger and exit points for the insurance plan. We quantify the impact of this hypothetical insurance product using past production data to calculate an actuarially-robust and welfare-enhancing price for this scheme.

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  • Fostering incidental vocabulary uptake from audio-visual materials: The role of text comprehension

    Nguyễn, Chí Đức (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This research project explores various factors that may influence the rate of incidental foreign/second language (L2) vocabulary acquisition from audio-visual materials, with a special focus on procedures that enhance learners’ comprehension of these input materials. Informed by relevant theories and research findings in the fields of L2 listening comprehension and incidental vocabulary acquisition, I investigate the effects of having learners (a) view a TED Talks video twice rather than once, (b) sum up the content of the video before watching it a second time, (c) watch TED Talks videos on the same subject in order to increase familiarity with that subject, and (d) exchange summaries of TED Talks videos with peers so as to assist each other’s subsequent processing of those videos. As these interventions are all deemed to facilitate L2 listening comprehension, they are also expected to create favourable conditions for incidental vocabulary uptake to occur. The effects on incidental vocabulary acquisition of the above interventions were gauged in a series of classroom experiments with Vietnamese EFL learners. Although vocabulary uptake was generally far from spectacular, all of the tested procedures were found to result in statistically significant vocabulary gains. The insertion of the output tasks (i.e., the summary activities) was particularly useful. First, they helped to enhance the learners’ text comprehension. Second, they created opportunities for the learners to use newly met words and thus consolidate their knowledge of these lexical items. A thread through the experimental data is the strong association between the learners’ vocabulary uptake and their comprehension of the input content. The findings from this research project are consistent with several established notions, models and theories in the fields, including Ausubel’s Advance Organizer (1978), Hulstijn and Laufer’s Involvement Load Hypothesis (2001), Krashen’s Input Hypothesis (1985), Nation’s Vocabulary Generation (2013), Swain’s Output Hypothesis (2005), and Wittrock’s Model of Generative Teaching of Comprehension (1991). However, there are also findings that go beyond the core tenets of these, and that can further our understanding of how learners process new lexical items in meaning-focused input and output tasks. Regarding pedagogical implications, this research project confirms that fostering L2 listening comprehension creates favourable conditions for incidental vocabulary acquisition to happen, and that the aforementioned classroom procedures are facilitative in this regard, albeit to different degrees.

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  • A Paleoclimate Reconstruction of the Little Ice Age to Modern Era Climate Conditions in the Eastern Ross Sea, Antarctica as Captured in the RICE Ice Core

    Brightley, Hannah (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The Little Ice Age (LIA) (1400-1850 AD) represents one of the most significant climatic shifts over the past 5000 years. Previous studies from Antarctica indicate generally cooler and stormier conditions during this period, but this pattern shows distinct spatial and temporal variability. The Roosevelt Island Climate Evolution (RICE) ice core provides a new opportunity to study the drivers behind this variability at annual/seasonal resolution, in a relatively under-sampled and climatically sensitive region in the eastern Ross Sea. Contrary to previous studies, isotope measurements suggest warm conditions during the LIA at Roosevelt Island. This study presents analysis of eight major ions (Na⁺, Mg²⁺, Ca²⁺, K⁺, MS⁻, Cl⁻, NO₃⁻, SO₄²⁻) using both Ion Chromatograph and ICP-MS data, in order to reconstruct the atmospheric circulation pattern, sea ice extent and marine primary productivity across this LIA to Modern Era (ME) at Roosevelt Island. The dataset is tied to a robust age model allowing annual dating and the opportunity to accurately reconstruct rates of change during this ME-LIA. Challenges revolving around the calibration of the Ion Chromatograph are also discussed. The major ion record determines whether the lack of cooling in the Roosevelt Island core implied by the stable isotopes represents a true temperature anomaly or whether the atmospheric circulation pattern caused an isotopic enrichment that masks an underlying cooling. It was determined that Roosevelt Island experienced during the LIA (i) an increase in marine air mass intrusions along with weaker katabatic winds compared to the 200 years prior, (ii) decreased biological productivity and (iii) increased sea ice. From the 1850-1880s to 1992 AD, there is a shift to reduced marine winds, increased katabatics, increased biological productivity and decreased sea ice until 1992. In the wider Ross Sea context, this suggests an east-west divide in terms of the dominance of katabatics versus marine wind influence. This divide is attributed with the warming signal seen in the RICE record in the Eastern Ross Sea and the cooling in the Western Ross Sea records. It is also likely linked to the influence of climate indices on the depth/position of the Amundsen Sea Low.

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  • A design methodology for performance maintenance of 3D Network-on-Chip with multiplexed Through-Silicon Vias

    Madipour, Farhad; El-Sayed, M.; Murakami, K.; Said, M. (2017-05-10T05:37:43Z)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    3D integration is an emerging technology that overcomes 2D integration process limitations. The use of short Through-Silicon Vias (TSVs) introduces a significant reduction in routing area, power consumption, and delay. Though, there are still several challenges in 3D integration technology need to be addressed. It is shown in literature that reducing TSV count has a considerable effect in improving yield. The TSV multiplexing technique called TSVBOX was introduced in [1] to reduce the TSV count without affecting the direct benefits of TSVs. The TSVBOX introduces some delay to the signals to be multiplexed. In this paper, we analyse the TSVBOX timing requirements and deduce a design methodology for TSVBOX-based 3D Network-on-Chip (NoC) to overcome the TSVBOX speed degradation. Performance comparisons under different traffic patterns are conducted to verify our solution. We show that TSVBOX-based 3D NoC performance is highly dependent on the NoC traffic pattern and in most simulation scenarios we tried, it shows almost the same performance of the conventional 3D NoC.

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