81,203 results

  • Fifteenth and Sixteenth-Century Northern European Prints at the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa

    Sippel, Annika (2012)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis examines the collection of fifteenth- and sixteenth-century German, Dutch and Flemish prints at the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa. Beginning with the donation of Bishop Monrad in 1869, prints from the Northern European schools have been added to the collection either through the generosity of private collectors or the museum's direct purchases which continue to the present day. The lives and collecting practices of these collectors are considered, as well as the artists and prints represented in the collection. An analysis of the history of collecting prints from the Northern European schools demonstrates that their recognition as individual works of art was a rather slow process, whereas a canon of the great printmakers was established almost immediately. The place of Northern printmakers in this canon will be considered, as well as the changing ideas about prints and print collecting from the sixteenth to the twentieth centuries. The most significant collectors for Te Papa's print collection were Bishop Monrad and Sir John Ilott, who together donated more than half of the 164 prints analysed here. While the collecting practices of Monrad and Ilott have been studied individually before, it is worthwhile comparing them and considering their reasons for buying fifteenth- and sixteenth-century Northern European prints in particular. They emerge as collectors with similar financial means, who both made use of agents and had direct contact with dealers. Other private individuals have also emerged as print collectors, who made significant contributions to the collection, yet they have remained mostly unknown until now. In addition to this, Te Papa still has an active policy of purchasing more prints for the collection. Finally the prints themselves are examined in detail, considering both their physical qualities and art historical significance, in order to highlight the strengths of the collection. Some prints from the collection will be analysed for the first time here, as no extensive research has previously been conducted on this particular part of Te Papa's print collection, and some of the prints were added very recently and have thus not been available for viewing until now.

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  • Seeking Narrative Coherence: Doctors' Elicitations and Patients' Narratives in Medical Encounters

    Barone, Susan Marie (2012)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis presents research on how doctors and patients negotiate meaning through interaction, focusing on the role of narrative in the medical encounter. Within sociolinguistics, most previous studies using discourse analysis to analyze patients’ narratives have adopted the canonical (Labovian) framework. This thesis adds more recent approaches to narrative analysis, within an interactional sociolinguistics (IS) framework in order to examine the relationship between doctor elicitations and patient narratives. The analysis also explores the clinical approach of Narrative Medicine (NM), which offers patients “space” in which to construct their narratives, to create an interdisciplinary lens for exploring data. The data comprised 69 videotaped medical interviews, amounting to 18 hours of naturally occurring medical interactions, plus evaluative feedback from questionnaires and interviews with 12 doctors. All interactions were initially analyzed for canonical narrative components. Twelve interactions were then selected for more detailed analysis on the basis of the frequency of doctors’ elicitations, which represent medical interview approaches. The analysis of these interactions demonstrates how and to what extent participant roles and identities frame the co-construction of patient narratives. Evaluations of three of the interactions by 12 doctors provided information on how aspects of patient narratives are perceived by clinicians, particularly with respect to the types and amounts of patient information considered necessary for making diagnostic decisions. Key findings demonstrate that both patients and doctors seek to construct narrative coherence. The analysis shows how the frame of developing narrative coherence offers insights on the interactional narratives as they are co-constructed by participants. Patients living with chronic illness may have difficulty constructing coherent narratives, and thus, strategies for developing narrative coherence are important for both patients and doctors when managing patients’ chronic illnesses. Additionally, in constructing narrative coherence, patients present important aspects of their identities potentially offering important information related to their illness and intervention. Evaluating doctors’ also engaged in using this frame which offers insight into one way doctors develop their professional identities and perhaps indicates the strength of the role of narrative in our lives. This research represents a first attempt to use both interactional sociolinguistics and NM to contribute to the understanding of doctor-patient interaction. Overall, the research indicates that narrative plays an important part in constructing relevant meanings in medical interactions between doctor and patient. Patients strive to create a coherent narrative as they present their medical problem to their doctor. Although this analysis provides further evidence of the relevance of the power asymmetry in medical interviews, it also suggests ways in which patients can shape their narratives to construct themselves as active agents to their benefit in medical interactions.

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  • We Do Not Have an Adequate Conception of Art Until We Have One that Accommodates Gardens

    Powell, John Francis (2012)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    In the first part of this thesis (chapters 1 – 4) I argue that we do not have an adequate conception of art until we have one that accommodates gardens. I argue for this by demonstrating that gardens are sufficiently like paradigmatic types of art to be included in the category of art. While doing this I show not just how gardens are similar to other types of art but also how they combine qualities shared with other types of arts in a way that is unique. In the second part (chapters 5 and 6) I develop this claim. I consider the dynamic nature of gardens and argue that gardens are most like performance arts such as music and dance, and that their distinctiveness relies on the particular dynamic character of the living organisms that constitute their principal materials. I concludes this thesis (chapter 7) by considering gardens in the context of the contemporary art genres of installation and environmental art.

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  • Critical Analysis of the Composition Techniques and Devices Used in Troy Roberts' Album 'The XenDen Suite'

    Crawford, Michael Victor (2012)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Troy Roberts is a jazz saxophonist, originally from Perth, West Australia. At present, no academic research has been done on Roberts’ compositions or playing, making this research project a positive way of contributing new information to the academic body of knowledge. His album, ‘The Xen-Den Suite’ was chosen as the material best suited to provide insight into Roberts’ musicianship (particularly focussing on his compositional and arranging techniques), as it is both intellectually complex and also musically innovative. The aim of the study was to identify and describe the use of various techniques and devices (including their relevance, purpose and function) present in Roberts’ music. Through this study, this researcher attempted to gain a basic overview of Roberts’ musical characteristics, with the objective to be able to utilise this information to further this researcher’s musical development (including compositions, arrangements and saxophone playing). The findings were useful for direct application (i.e. the techniques could be used in the same manner as they appeared in the XenDen Suite, and could therefore be immediately applied to other areas such as composition, arrangement and improvisation), but the many different ways in which the techniques were used compositionally by Roberts provided a more insightful look into broader musical concepts, and their application.

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  • Explorations in Parallel Linear Genetic Programming

    Downey, Carlton (2011)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Linear Genetic Programming (LGP) is a powerful problem-solving technique, but one with several significant weaknesses. LGP programs consist of a linear sequence of instructions, where each instruction may reuse previously computed results. This structure makes LGP programs compact and powerful, however it also introduces the problem of instruction dependencies. The notion of instruction dependencies expresses the concept that certain instructions rely on other instructions. Instruction dependencies are often disrupted during crossover or mutation when one or more instructions undergo modification. This disruption can cause disproportionately large changes in program output resulting in non-viable offspring and poor algorithm performance. Motivated by biological inspiration and the issue of code disruption, we develop a new form of LGP called Parallel LGP (PLGP). PLGP programs consist of n lists of instructions. These lists are executed in parallel, and the resulting vectors are summed to produce the overall program output. PLGP limits the disruptive effects of crossover and mutation, which allows PLGP to significantly outperform regular LGP. We examine the PLGP architecture and determine that large PLGP programs can be slow to converge. To improve the convergence time of large PLGP programs we develop a new form of PLGP called Cooperative Coevolution PLGP (CC PLGP). CC PLGP adapts the concept of cooperative coevolution to the PLGP architecture. CC PLGP optimizes all program components in parallel, allowing CC PLGP to converge significantly faster than conventional PLGP. We examine the CC PLGP architecture and determine that performance

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  • A Multi-Regional Computable General Equilibrium Model for New Zealand

    Robson, Nathaniel (2012)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Although New Zealand has had an active CGE modelling community since the 1980's, a multi-regional CGE model for the country has not been developed until now. This thesis presents a prototype multi-regional CGE model to demonstrate the feasibility of developing a comprehensive model that captures the benefits of modelling agent behaviour with a bottom-up approach. The prototype model is built upon bottom-up regional micro-foundations and New Zealand data is used to operationalise a particular implementation of the model. The thesis fills an important gap in the New Zealand CGE modelling literature as none of the models in current use have a structure involving bottom-up regional modelling. The method of implementation is also a key contribution, utilising a maximum-entropy approach to overcome data shortages. An illustrative simulation of a natural disaster that strikes the Wellington central business district demonstrates the strengths of the bottom-up multi-regional approach - that the model can capture differential effects across regions of shocks that occur at the regional level, and incorporate flow-on and feedback effects between regions. Sensitivity testing of the substitution elasticity between domestic sources of products reinforces the importance of empirically-estimated parameters in CGE models. The basic model is extended in two ways. The first is to introduce modelling of distribution services as has been done in the ORANI and subsequently FEDERAL models. The key structural difference here is that products identified as distribution services are required to facilitate movement of other products from seller to buyer. Thus there are no opportunities to substitute away from these services if they become relatively more expensive. To implement the additional structure, sets of coefficients are specified to control technical possibilities in the usage of the distribution services. These include switches that can dictate, for example, that wholesale trade is only involved in the delivery of tangible products, that retail trade is only used by in-region purchasers, and that transport is required for moving physical products across regional borders or to exporters. That these assumptions can be integrated seamlessly into the database highlights the strength of the maximum-entropy approach used to generate the multi-regional input-output database. Simulations of an oil price shock show that the regional assumptions surrounding the distribution networks are material to the results. The second extension to the model is the addition of a module to control the degree of inter-regional labour mobility. Essentially the user is given the ability to specify the extent to which households respond to regional real wage di erences by moving to regions with relatively higher rates. Therefore, in short-run simulations labour can be made more mobile than capital, while in the long-run it can be less mobile than capital. The module also introduces additional structure to link populations, households, and labour market components. One important element of this new structure is a link back to the endogenous labour supply theory of the basic model. Publicly available demographic and labour market data are used to implement the mobility module. The importance of a mobility response to relative real wage changes is explored in an illustrative application looking at the impact of regionally-concentrated immigration flows. The simulations suggest that population movements can work to dissipate the welfare effects of such migration inflows.

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  • Claims Made Insurance Policies in New Zealand and Australia: Should New Zealand Enact a Statutory Deeming Regime?

    Bourne, Stephen Grant (2012)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    A claims made policy protects an insured person or business in relation to claims made against that person or business during the policy period, regardless of when the cause of loss occurred, and regardless of when the claim is notified to the insurer (subject always to the terms of cover and the relevant law). The trigger event for a claim against the insurer is the receipt of the claim or demand by the insured. However, issues can arise when the insured has knowledge of circumstances that may lead to a claim, but the claim itself is delayed, a situation sometimes addressed by way of a contractual 'notice of circumstances' provision coupled with a deeming provision. The proposition in this dissertation is that New Zealand should have a statutory deeming regime affecting claims made insurance policies, similar to that contained within section 40 of Australia’s Insurance Contracts Act 1984 (Cth). However, to properly consider that proposition, it is necessary to review the context within which section 40 arose, its practical effect in that context, and the perceived issues that might be addressed in New Zealand by way of a statutory deeming regime. In particular, it is necessary to acknowledge the juxtaposition of sections 40 and 54 of the Insurance Contracts Act (Cth), and the implications of section 9 of New Zealand's Insurance Law Reform Act 1977.

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  • How Can Geomorphology Inform Ecological Restoration? A Synthesis of Geophysical and Biological Assessment to Determine Restoration Priorities

    Cooper, Leicester (2012)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The central concern that this study addresses is how an understanding of geomorphological processes and forms may inform ecological restoration; particularly practical restoration prioritisation. The setting is that of a hill country gully system covered in grazing pasture which historically would have been cloaked in indigenous forest. The study examines theory in conjunction with an application using a case study centred on Whareroa Farm (the restoration site) and Paraparaumu Scenic Reserve (the reference site) on the southern Kapiti Coast, north of Wellington. The impact that the change of land use has had on the soil and geomorphic condition of Whareroa and the influence the changes may have on the sites restoration is investigated. The thesis demonstrates a method of choosing reference sites to be used as templates for rehabilitating the restoration site. Geographical Information Systems and national databases are used and supplemented with site inspection. The reference site chosen, Paraparaumu Scenic Reserve, proved to be a good template for the restoration site particularly given that it is located in the midst of a heavily modified area. On-site inspection considering dendritic pattern and floristic composition confirms the database analysis results. Soil variables (bulk density, porosity, soil texture, pH, Olsen P, Anaerobic Mineralisable N, Total N (AMN), Total C and C:N ratio) are investigated and statistical comparisons made between the sites to quantify changes due to land-use change, i.e. deforestation and subsequent pastoral grazing. Factors investigated that may explain the variation in the soil variables were site (land use), hillslope location, slope aspect, and slope angle. Permutation tests were conducted to investigate the relationships between the independent factors and the SQI (dependent soil variables). Land use and slope angle were most frequent significant explanatory factors of variation, followed by hillslope location whilst slope aspect only influenced soil texture. A number of soil variables at Whareroa were found to be outside the expected range of values for an indigenous forest soil including AMN, Total N, Olsen P, and pH ...

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  • Churches as Communities of Practice and the Place of Libraries in Information Sharing

    Hedley, Lauryn Maria (2011)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Research problem: Churches are communities of people who journey together, to grow in knowledge and understanding of their faith. One way churches can support this journey is through a library service. In this project, churches are viewed as a Community of Practice; they are united under a “domain of knowledge” which sets the community apart, their identity as a community, and the pursuit of tacit knowledge- sharing and developing knowledge with each other in order to put knowledge into action. Church libraries were researched to determine the role of libraries in church CoPs, whether libraries are fulfilling their purpose in this role, and to identify best-practice solutions for CoP libraries. Methodology: Seven churches in Wellington City who have libraries were chosen for this study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with participants from each of the seven churches. Results: Church libraries have a lot of old content, as the majority of stock comes from donations- collection development is influenced largely by donations. Resources are modest or non-existent, which means that any best-practice solutions have to accommodate these resources restrictions. Libraries are used to a moderately satisfactory level, but all could benefit from best-practice suggestions. Implications: Unlike other types of libraries, church libraries are not considered to be essential to the running of the organisation, so there is little input or expectations from management. They are not business-driven entities, nor should they be. CoP libraries are one of many possible ways to share knowledge and information and support their communities. Having said this, there are some practical, economical steps that can be taken to improve the service: formalizing policies, procedures and a mission statement; making collections accessible in a database format; exploring web 2.0, social media and cloud-based technology to promote and/or facilitate libraries; undertaking informal user-needs research by asking community members what others in the community are wanting from a library service.

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  • Behavioural and Neurochemical Consequences of MDMA Self-Administration in Rats

    Do, Jennifer (2012)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Rationale: Over the past few decades, MDMA has been shown to produce persistent detrimental effects. Animal models have been developed to investigate the effects of self-administered drugs on brain and behaviour, but only a limited number of studies have investigated effects of MDMA. Objectives: The present thesis sought to determine the effects of MDMA self-administration on working memory and tissue levels of 5HT in rats. The role of the 5HT₁ₐ autoreceptor in MDMA-produced deficits in tissue levels of 5HT was also evaluated using neurochemical and behavioural assays. Methods: Rats self-administered a total of 165mg/kg MDMA, and were then tested in the Novel Object Recognition (NOR) task 1 week or 9 weeks following the last session of MDMA self-administration. Tissue levels of 5HT were measured in separate groups of rats, following self-administration of a total dose of 165mg/kg or 315mg/kg. 8-OH-DPAT-induced lower lip retraction (LLR) was measured in rats 2 weeks following either self-administered (315mg/kg) or experimenter-administered (40mg/kg) MDMA. In subsequent studies, chronic 8-OH-DPAT (daily injections over 7 days; 1.0mg/kg/day), chronic trazodone (continuous infusion over 14 days via osmotic minipump; 10mg/kg/day) and tryptophan loading (oral administration over 7 days; 125mg/day via gavaging needle) were administered after MDMA treatment (either self-administered; 315mg/kg or experimenter-administered; 40mg/kg) and tissue levels of 5HT were measured. Results: Self-administered MDMA produced deficits in NOR that recovered 10 weeks following self-administration. There was a small decrease in tissue levels of 5HT at both 2 weeks and 10 weeks following the low dose of self-administered MDMA. Two weeks following the high dose, tissue levels of 5HT were decreased by about 30% in all brain regions examined, and there was recovery 10 weeks following exposure. 8-OH-DPAT-induced LLR was unchanged in MDMA-treated rats. Furthermore, none of the treatments restored tissue levels of 5HT following MDMA exposure, even though the treatment (chronic 8-OH-DPAT) shifted the basal 8-OH-DPAT-induced LLR curve to the right, suggesting autoreceptor desensitisation. Conclusions: Self-administered MDMA produced deficits in NOR, which may reflect impaired attention, encoding, novelty seeking or other cognitive processes. Dose- and time-dependent deficits in tissue levels of 5HT were modest compared to those produced by experimenter-administered MDMA. Therefore, MDMA self-administration may be important for pre-clinical investigation of long-term consequences of MDMA. The findings are not consistent with the idea that the 5HT₁ₐ autoreceptor became supersensitive as a result of MDMA exposure, and it is therefore not a viable pharmacological target for restoring tissue levels of 5HT.

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  • I Am that I Am: Subjectivity and World View in the Science Fictions of Philip K. Dick

    Rose, Bradley (2012)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    In this account of American science fiction writer Philip K. Dick's work, the aim has been to describe the involvement of assumptions inherited from philosophical and scientific discourse in both the understanding and experience of subjectivity. It is argued that Dick's representations of identity both picture the tensions engendered by the prevalent reality standard with which he had to deal and, in their development, come to articulate a path beyond the impasse this standard presents. The fundamental insufficiency of the world view Dick's fiction both encounters and embodies is epitomised by the twin questions with which he characterised his work: 'what is human?' and 'what is real?' In coming to terms with the significance of these questions the work of the Austrian philosopher and scientist Rudolf Steiner has been engaged as a critical foil to Dick's fictionalising. Special attention is given to the epistemological basis of Steiner's anthroposophy and its account of the world and our peculiar situation in it that, far from asserting any external and unvarying standard of truth, describes a process essentially evolutionary and unfixed. It is claimed that in Steiner, as in Dick, the human contribution to both identity and reality constitutes the validity of each, a matrix of subject and object from which one's self is delivered, in each instance a new beginning.

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  • Lithic Inclusions in the Taupo Pumice Formation

    Chernet, Tadiwos (1987)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The Taupo Pumice Formation is a product of the Taupo eruption of about 1800a, and consists of three phreatomagmatic ash deposits, two plinian pumice deposits and a major low-aspect ratio and low grade (unwelded) ignimbrite which covered most part of the central North Island of New Zealand. The vent area for the eruption is located at Horomatangi Reefs in Lake Taupo. Lithics in the phreatoplinian ash deposits are negligible in quantity, but the plinian pumice deposits contain 5-10% lithics by volume in most near-vent sections. Lithics in the plinian pumice deposits are dominantly banded and spherulitic rhyolite with minor welded tuff, dacite and andesite. The ground layer which forms the base of the ignimbrite unit consists of dominantly lithics and crystals and is formed by the gravitational sedimentation of the 'heavies' from the strongly fluidized head of the pyroclastic flow. Lithic blocks in the ground layer are dominantly banded and spherulitic phenocryst-poor rhyolite, welded tuff with minor dacite and andesite. Near-vent exposures of the ground layer contain boulders upto 2 m in diameter. Friable blocks of hydrothermally altered rhyolite, welded tuff and lake sediments are found fractured but are preserved intact after transportation. This shows that the fluid/pyroclastic particle mixture provided enough support to carry such blocks upto a distance of 10 km from the vent. The rhyolite blocks are subdivided into hypersthene rhyolite, hypersthene-hornblende rhyolite and biotite-bearing rhyolite on the basis of the dominant ferromagnesian phenocryst assamblage. Hypersthene is the dominant ferromagnesian phenocryst in most of the rhyolite blocks in the ground layer and forms the major ferromagnesian crystal of the Taupo Sub-group tephra. The rhyolite blocks have similar whole rock chemistry to the Taupo Sub-group tephra and are probably derived from lava extrusions associated with the tephra eruptions from the Taupo Volcanic Centre in the last 10 ka. Older rhyolite domes and flows in the area are probably represented by the intensely hydrothermally altered rhyolite blocks in the ground layer. The dacite blocks contain hypersthene and augite as a major ferromagnesian phenocryst. Whole rock major and trace element analyses shows that the dacite blocks are distinct from the Tauhara dacites and from the dacites of Tongariro Volcanic Centre. The occurrence of dacite inclusions in significant quantity in the Taupo Pumice Formation indicates the presence of other dacite flows near the vent area. Four types of andesite blocks; hornblende andesite, plagioclase-pyroxene andesite, pyroxene andesite and olivine andesite occur as lithic blocks in the ground layer. The andesites are petrographically distinct from those encountered in deep drillholes at Wairakei (Waiora Valley Andesites), and are different from the Rolles Peak andesite in having lower Sr content. The andesite blocks show similar major and trace element content to those from the Tongariro Volcanic Centre. The roundness of the andesite blocks indicates that the blocks were transported as alluvium or lahars in to the lake basin before being incorporated into the pyroclastic flow. Two types of welded ignimbrite blocks are described. The lithic-crystal rich ignimbrite is correlated with a post-Whakamaru Group Ignimbrite (ca. 100 ka ignimbrite erupted from Taupo Volcanic Centre) which crops out to the north of Lake Taupo. The crystal rich ignimbrite is tentatively correlated with the Whakamaru Group Ignimbrites. The lake sediment boulders, pumiceous mudstone and siltstone in the ground layer probably correlate to the Huka Group sediments or younger Holocene sediments in the lake basin. A comparative mineral chemistry study of the lithic blocks was done. A change in chemistry of individual mineral species was found to accompany the variation in wholerock major element constituents in the different types of lithics. The large quantity of lithic blocks in the ground layer suggests extensive vent widening at the begining of the ignimbrite eruption. A simple model of flaring and collapse of the vent area caused by the down ward movement of the fragmentation surface is presented to explain the origin of the lithic blocks in the ground layer. The lithics in the Taupo Pumice Formation are therfore produced by the disruption of the country rock around the vent during the explosion and primary xenoliths from depths of magma generation were not found. Stratigraphic relations suggest that the most important depth of incorporation of lithics is within the post-Whakamaru Group Ignimbrite volcanics and volcaniclastic sedimentary units.

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  • The Role of Misrule in the Practice of Performance

    Cameron, Gregor (2012)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    In the theatre we are familiar with how rehearsal and collaboration can lead to a number of unintended discoveries that can cause a production to change tack. At the heart of this thesis is discovery- of oneself as an artist, as part of community collaboration and as part of a story told on stage. Using carnival as a frame for the space we work in, accepting that the ʻtricksterʼ cultural figure can be a manifestation of the carnival, it should be possible for the role of trickster to be taken on by someone in the rehearsal process. This is often but not always the director. These ʻhappy accidentsʼ can in fact arise through the directorʼs deliberate disruption of the community. At times, problems that raise their heads are solved through this creative process. Misrule is my definition of this and I offer my experience of this within the process of bringing Saint Punch, a carnivalesque/ Grand Guignol show, to the stage. I compare this with some other practitionersʼ experience of this process of disruptive imagination as defense of my position. By recognizing it in both theory and practice through a critical analysis my aim is to seek a synthesis intended to enrich the theatrical experience of the audience.

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  • Reputation Description and Interpretation

    Chard, Ryan (2012)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Reputation is an opinion held by others about a particular person, group, organisation, or resource. As a tool, reputation can be used to forecast the reliability of others based on their previous actions, moreover, in some domains it can even be used to estimate trustworthiness. Due to the large scale of virtual communities it is impossible to maintain a meaningful relationship with every member. Reputation systems are designed explicitly to manufacture trust within a virtual community by recording and sharing information regarding past interactions. Reputation systems are becoming increasingly popular and widespread, with the information generated varying considerably between domains. Currently, no formal method to exchange reputation information exists. However, the OpenRep framework, currently under development, is designed to federate reputation information, enabling the transparent exchange of information between reputation systems. This thesis presents a reputation description and interpretation system, designed as a foundation for the OpenRep framework. The description and interpretation system focuses on enabling the consistent and reliable expression and interpretation of reputation information across heterogeneous reputation systems. The description and interpretation system includes a strongly typed language, a verification system to validate usage of the language, and a XML based exchange protocol. In addition to these contributions, three case studies are presented as a means of generating requirements for the description and interpretation system, and evaluating the use of the proposed system in a federated reputation environment. The case studies include an electronic auction, virtual community and social network based relationship management service.

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  • A Mechanical Verification of the Independence of Tarski's Euclidean Axiom

    Makarios, Timothy James McKenzie (2012)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis describes the mechanization of Tarski's axioms of plane geometry in the proof verification program Isabelle. The real Cartesian plane is mechanically verified to be a model of Tarski's axioms, thus verifying the consistency of the axiom system. The Klein–Beltrami model of the hyperbolic plane is also defined in Isabelle; in order to achieve this, the projective plane is defined and several theorems about it are proven. The Klein–Beltrami model is then shown in Isabelle to be a model of all of Tarski's axioms except his Euclidean axiom, thus mechanically verifying the independence of the Euclidean axiom — the primary goal of this project. For some of Tarski's axioms, only an insufficient or an inconvenient published proof was found for the theorem that states that the Klein–Beltrami model satisfies the axiom; in these cases, alternative proofs were devised and mechanically verified. These proofs are described in this thesis — most notably, the proof that the model satisfies the axiom of segment construction, and the proof that it satisfies the five-segments axiom. The proof that the model satisfies the upper 2-dimensional axiom also uses some of the lemmas that were used to prove that the model satisfies the five-segments axiom.

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  • An Impedance Study of the Membrane Polarisation Effect in Simulated Rock Systems

    McKubre, Michael Charles Harold (1976)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Work is reported on the development of a high precision, low frequency impedance bridge, and the use of impedance measurement in characterising the induced polarisation effect of unmineralised material. Impedance spectra for a variety of laboratory model clay/rock/electrolyte systems are analysed in terms of an equivalent circuit. By measuring the dependence of the parameters of this circuit, on such variables as electrolyte type and concentration, temperature and pore geometry, an electrochemical model for membrane polarisation has been developed. Polarisation is considered to arise from diffusional limitation of cations at the membrane/electrolyte interface of clay aggregations in rock pores, and this is found to be amenable to a Warburg diffusional impedance analysis.

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  • The Influence of Spatial Position on Affect

    Burrows, Michael T (2011)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Conceptual metaphor theory posits that the physical domain (e.g. the vertical dimension) is used to understand abstract concepts (e.g. affect); creating expressions such as, “falling into a deep depression.” Previous research concerning vertical metaphors has found that people more rapidly process positive and negative words when the valence was metaphorically consistent with vertical position (Meier & Robinson, 2004) and that mood traits were metaphorically consistent with vertical attentional biases (Meier & Robinson, 2006). The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of vertical perceptual biases on mood; whether shifting perception could have an effect upon the emotional experience of an individual. In Experiment 1, vertical attention was manipulated by having university students move letters upwards or downwards on a computer screen, with measures of mood completed before and after the manipulation. In Experiment 2, participants completed the same task, but moved schematic faces that were either happy or sad. In both experiments vertical attention was biased; however a significant change in mood state was produced only when schematic faces were used as stimuli in the task. The results suggest that shifting an individual’s vertical perception can influence their mood, when the task is emotionally arousing.

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  • Government Communication in New Zealand : Changing Roles and Conventions

    Urlich, Judith May (2005)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    A brief study of democratic theory as it relates to public participation and government communications within a New Zealand context. A literature review identifies the traditional communications conventions pre-state sector reform and a survey of state sector communications managers reveals the conflict between this traditional approach as it is articulated, and actual practice in the post-state sector reform environment. A new convention is presented based on three divisions within the core public service: primarily policy; primarily operational; and mixed objective. Communications conventions for state-owned enterprises, Crown entities and Crown research institutes are also identified.

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  • A Study of the Frequency Domain Induced Polarisation Effects Displayed by Clay and by Cation Exchange Resin, Model Soil Systems

    McKubre, Michael Charles Harold (1972)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Work is reported of the development of clay and resin model soil systems for the observation of induced polarisation phenomena. A measuring technique is developed to determine impedance spectra of such models over the frequency range of 10-3 to 10 4 Hz, and a variety of model cells tested varying such parameters as temperature, electrolyte type and concentration, and bead size of resin. An increase in impedance with decrease in frequency is observed, consistent with field observation of the induced polarisation phenomenon associated with moist, non-mineralised soils, and a number of empirical observations of the form of this are made.

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  • Genetic Factors Associated with Variation in Abundance of the Invasive Yellow Crazy Ant (Anoplolepis gracilipes)

    Gruber, Monica Alexandra Maria (2012)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    A key component of successful invasion is the ability of an introduced population to reach sufficient abundance to persist, spread, and alter or dominate the recipient biological community. Genetic diversity is one of many factors that may contribute to population dynamics, but has important ramifications for biological fitness, and thus invasion success in the long term. I explored genetic factors associated with variation in abundance (i.e., differential invasion success) of the yellow crazy ant Anoplolepis gracilipes in the Indo-Pacific region, primarily focussing on Arnhem Land in Australia's Northern Territory. I explored five aspects that I hypothesised could contribute to variation in the abundance of this ant: 1) I investigated the unusual reproductive mode of A. gracilipes, and tested whether it involved dependent-lineage genetic caste determination (DL GCD) in Arnhem Land. In DL GCD systems populations require hybridisation between genetically distinct groups to produce both reproductive and worker castes. Asymmetry in the ratio of different lineages may result in low abundance and population collapse. I found no evidence for a DL GCD system in A. gracilipes, and thus its abundance in Arnhem Land does not appear to be constrained by any lineage ratio asymmetry. Worker reproduction (either of males or asexual production of other workers) also appeared unlikely. The reproductive mode of the species remains fascinating but enigmatic; 2) I explored whether multiple source populations were responsible for the observed variation in abundance in Arnhem Land (i.e., is abundance associated with propagule pressure, or populations from different sources), and if the population has diverged since introduction. The A. gracilipes population in Arnhem Land stemmed from a single source, and thus propagule pressure was apparently not responsible for variation in abundance. In contrast to many invasive ants, population divergence has occurred since introduction; 3) I tested the hypotheses that genetic variation was associated with variation in abundance in Arnhem Land, and that ecological success was density-dependent. While the population divergence found in Chapter 3 was not related to variation in abundance, genotypic diversity was higher in more abundant nest clusters. These more abundant nest clusters were in turn associated with lower native ant species diversity, and a difference in composition of the invaded ant community (i.e., greater ecological success); 4) I revisited the invasion of the yellow crazy ant in Tokelau to determine whether a haplotype that was linked to greater abundance and dominance of the ant community has increased in distribution. Although ants of the inferred dominant haplotype were implicated in most new invasions, their abundance was substantially lower than previously observed in Tokelau; 5) I conducted a preliminary analysis of the metagenomic diversity of A. gracilipes endogenous parasites and symbionts among populations from Christmas Island, Okinawa, Samoa and Arnhem Land. Bacterial community composition and diversity differed between the study populations. Variation in abundance among A. gracilipes populations in Arnhem Land was not due to parasite load on populations with low abundance. However, low abundance of A. gracilipes was correlated with lower microbial diversity overall, and higher prevalence of some groups, notably two that confer antibiotic properties. Together, my findings suggest that propagule pressure, reproductive mode and haplotype-specific effects do not appear to be associated with variation in A. gracilipes abundance. Other genetic factors I investigated do appear to be associated with the variation in A. gracilipes abundance and effects on the invaded ant communities. Genotypic diversity was positively related to the abundance of A. gracilipes in Arnhem Land, and this relationship may be affected by population divergence through population bottlenecks. In addition, differences in bacterial diversity among populations highlighted several candidate bacteria that could be associated with variation in abundance, which would be a topic of future work. Although genetic factors are often implicated in the successful establishment of invasive species, my thesis demonstrates that genetic factors may also be associated with post-establishment population dynamics.

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