82,469 results

  • Experimental modelling of fragmentation processes within phreatic and hydrothermal eruptions

    Foote, Lauren Charlotte (2012)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Phreatic and hydrothermal eruptions often occur with little or no warning representing a significant hazard within geothermal regions. These violent eruptions occur at a range of temperatures and pressures within varying rock types. A range of mechanisms including heating or decompression, allows hydrothermal/supercritical fluid to rapidly flash to steam, expanding and shattering the surrounding rock to produce an eruption, with no direct magmatic influence. These eruptions are highly variable resulting in the current wide ranging classification schemes, many of which are based on characteristics that are hard to observe and define. This has resulted in confusing nomenclature with many different terms used to describe the same eruptive phenomena. Here a new classification scheme is presented, based on the easily definable features of eruption size, trigger type (natural or anthropogenic) and geological setting (volcanic or hydrothermal). This ultimately produces a classification dividing the eruptions into either phreatic, where magma interacts with cold water but no juvenile material is erupted; or hydrothermal where eruption occurs from an already heated hydrothermal system. Examples are then provided for each classification type. Previous studies have focused exclusively on either physical characteristics of eruptions, small scale experimental modelling of trigger processes or mathematical modelling of various eruption characteristics. Here, a new experimental procedure has been developed to model phreatic fragmentation, based on shock tube experiments for magmatic fragmentation by Alidibirov and Dingwell (1996). Water saturated samples are fragmented from a combination of argon gas overpressure and steam flashing within vesicles. In this thesis, these experimental results have been integrated with the physical characteristics of porosity, permeability and mineralogy to create two new models of phreatic fragmentation. Firstly a generalised model to explain fragmentation processes and secondly a specific model describing the eruption forming Lake Okaro, within the Taupo Volcanic Zone of New Zealand. These models were developed with the overall aim to improve understanding of these eruption types, ultimately improving future hazard modelling. Experiments were performed on Rangitaiki ignimbrite, through which the Okaro eruption occurred. In order to evaluate alteration effects, both unaltered ignimbrite and hydrothermally altered ignimbrite samples were analysed. Experiments were performed at room temperature and 300°C with pressures from 4 to 15 MPa, to reflect likely geothermal conditions while also assessing the effect of liquid water on fragmentation. Results indicate that within these samples 5 to 8 MPa of decompression is required to trigger an eruption, fitting well with the previously identified trend between decompression and porosity for magmatic samples. The fragmentation front propagates through the sample at speeds ranging between 14 m/s to 42 m/s, increasing with higher applied pressures and higher sample porosity. Most importantly, grain size analysis from these experiments show a clear shift to smaller grain sizes when liquid water flashes to steam (independent of pressure or sample type), reflecting the greater energy involved with steam flashing. Previous grain size analysis of the Okaro breccia deposits have indicated that the highest weight percentage of fragments fall between -3.5 and 1.5 phi, with our experimentally produced fragments fitting right within this range at -0.5 to 1.0 phi. Here the first parameterisation of conditions for phreatic and hydrothermal eruptions is presented creating a general fragmentation model along with a case study on Lake Okaro. These models describe how eruptions occur, with stages from initial system priming and overpressure development through to the last stages of eruption and crater formation.

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  • An evaluation of the nutritive value and endophyte of a new perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) cultivar (Aries HD) : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (Ph. D.), Institute of Natural Resources, College of Sciences, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Bluett, Stephanie Jane (1999)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Content removed due to copyright restrictions: Bluett, S. J., Hodgson, J., Kemp, P.D., & Barry, T.N. (1997). Animal evaluation of Aries HD perennial ryegrass selected for high digestibility. Proceedings Of The Conference- New Zealand Grassland Association, 59, 245-249.

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  • The microscope of wit : I.A. Richards and English literary criticism : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in English at Massey University

    Needham, John David (1973)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis examines some aspects of the analytical approach to poetry which is associated with such critics as I.A. Richards and F.R. Leavis. It also examines the resemblances between this approach and that which in eighteenth century literary criticism appears as a preoccupation with "propriety" in poetic language. I.A. Richards is discussed first and at greatest length since he is the most persistently theoretical of the critics with whom this thesis deals, and consequently affords an opportunity for an exposition of the principles which underlie this analytical approach. This exposition is followed by an account of some fundamental features of the doctrine of "propriety", illustrated chiefly from Dr. Johnson's Shakespeare criticism. It is suggested that key ideas of Richards', such as "complexity" and "realisation" correspond with central ideas in eighteenth century literary criticism. This correspondence reveals itself as an interest in the fact that words in poetry interconnect with each other in complex ways. I.A. Richards' term (developed most thoroughly in Coleridge on Imagination) for such interconnection is "interinanimation". The corresponding eighteenth century term is "propriety". The thesis then examines the literary criticism of T.S. Eliot, F.R. Leavis and W. Empson. The ideas they hold in common with I.A. Richards are outlined, and then what may be called the distinctive features of their respective approaches are discussed. The emphasis, throughout the thesis, is upon some methods of analysing poetic language and upon the principles which underlie such methods. The thesis does not attempt to give a complete account of the critics with whom it deals, nor to examine the question of what influence they may have exerted upon each other.

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  • The occurrence of chromatiaceae in waste treatment lagoons and their utilisation to treat fellmongery effluent : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Biotechnology at Massey University

    McFarlane, Paul Northcote (1979)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    A study of the occurrence of Chromatiaceae in waste treatment lagoons was made. To determine the important factors leading to their dominance, an investigation of the effect of various environmental parameters on the growth of a Chromatium species was made. Chromatium minutissimum was isolated and identified from an anaerobic lagoon treating meatworks effluent. An experimental design was used to screen the effects of temperature, pH, sulphide and acetate concentrations and light intensity on the batch growth of this bacterium in pure culture. Empirical models were developed which described the maximum population and the exponential growth rate as a function of these variables. Comparison of these models with lagoon data indicated that they provided a conservative estimate of the exponential growth rate and maximum population under lagoon conditions and that, under the range of environmental conditions expected in New Zealand, the hydraulic retention time is of major importance in limiting the development of this phototrophic bacterium in lagoons. The developed models may possibly be used to characterise the growth of other Chromatiaceae. To study the growth of the Chromatiaceae in mixed culture various lagoon samples were incubated in daylight. A succession from anaerobic non-phototrophic bacteria to phototrophic bacteria to algae was observed in these batch cultures. Thus, in addition to low hydraulic retention times preventing the growth of the Chromatiaceae, competition from the algae precludes their dominance at longer retention times. Seven lagoon systems in which the Chromatiaceae were known to occur were then investigated. The lagoons studied ranged from facultative to anaerobic. The wastes treated varied from domestic sewage to strong industrial and agricultural effluents. A succession from non-phototrophic anaerobes to Chromatiaceae to algae was observed in many instances and a three stage succession theory was formulated. This theory was used to explain the occurrence of the Chromatiaceae in all the lagoon systems studied and it may be used to design lagoons in which the dominance of the Chromatiaceae is favoured or prevented. The study of the lagoon systems indicated the potential of the Chromatiaceae for treating effluents containing reduced sulphur compounds. In N.Z., fellmongery effluent is the most important sulphide-bearing effluent. Experiments were therefore performed to develop criteria for the design of anaerobic lagoons using the Chromatiaceae to treat fellmongery effluent. Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of temperature and sulphide concentration on the performance of .088 m3 laboratory lagoons, in which Thiocapsa roseopersicina was dominant, treating a synthetic fellmongery effluent. Temperatures from 10°C to 25°C and influent sulphide concentrations of 200 mg/l to 1,500 mg/l were studied. Good treatment was obtained under a wide range of conditions although inhibition of growth occurred at influent sulphide concentrations of approximately 900 mg/l. Concentrated fellmongery effluents may therefore be treated by these lagoons. COD removals varied from 66.1% - 87.1% and sulphide removals from 89.5% - 98.4%. Design equations which described the performance of the laboratory lagoons were developed. To confirm the accuracy of these equations, pilot scale experiments were conducted on a 5.74 m3 lagoon system treating actual fellmongery effluent. A good degree of treatment was again achieved and the laboratory-developed equations provided a good estimate of the pilot-scale effluent over the range of conditions studied. Suitable criteria have therefore been developed for the design of anaerobic lagoons using the Chromatiaceae to treat fellmongery effluent.

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  • Industrial militancy in New Zealand : the contributing influence of the Industrial Conciliation and Arbitration Act, and its administration, 1894-1908 : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at Massey University

    Williams, Alan (1976)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis will attempt to demonstrate that the legal and administrative evolution of the IC and A Act after 1894, contributed to a developing climate of industrial militancy down to 1908. It will further attempt to argue that the underlying reasons for such a development stemmed from changes in the operational philosophy of the IC and A system, most notably, in a movement away from stress on conciliation toward mandatory acceptance of decisions handed down by the Court of Arbitration, under threat of penalty. This movement toward coercion is explained in terms of a number of institutional and administrative policies. These include: a major change in the law itself, by amendment in 1901, that permitted parties the right to by-pass conciliation and go immediately to arbitration, a tendency toward legalism exhibited by consecutive Presidents of the Arbitration Court, in the period 1903 - 1908, and the emergence of a policy of wage restraint that stemmed from the Arbitration Court's role as a wage fixing agency. The study goes on to examine the way in which the administrative philosophy of Edward Tregear, the Secretary of Labour in the crucial years after the departure of William Pember Reeves, was given free rein in terms of organisational growth and policy, this particular after 1896. In addition attention will be directed toward the way in which Tregear was able to influence the shape of the industrial legislation, and by doing so extend the controlling powers of his department. In the latter part of the study attention will be concentrated upon a number of important issues, which became the focus of trade union hostility, notably: under-rate permits, the provision for preference clauses in industrial awards end agreements, and the matter of apprenticeship regulations. These issues will also be used to demonstrate the unique nature of the statutory powers enjoyed by the Arbitration Court as an institution untrammelled in its authority, save by the sovereign will of Parliament. In the final section of the thesis the problems facing the Ward government as it strove to find a legislative response to a situation where industrial conflict was re-emerging, will be considered in some detail. Here the difficulties facing John Andrew Miller in his attempts to pass legislation that would control conflict, will be examined against a situation where the emerging sectional interests of industrial labour and the employers' made such efforts virtually impossible. The overarching conclusion of the study will be that the evolving IC and A system, was a contributing influence in the shaping of industrial militancy as it manifested itself in 1906 and 1907, and that such influences profoundly influenced not only the industrial events of 1912 - 1913; but later public attitudes towards industrial militancy in New Zealand.

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  • The production of lactic acid from whey by continuous culture as a possible means of waste disposal : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Biotechnology at Massey University

    Marshall, Kevin Raymond (1972)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    A study was made of the fermentation of lactose in lactic casein whey to lactic acid using a strain of Lactobacillus bulgaricus. Both batch and continuous culture were used. A culture vessel capable of being operated under controlled conditions was designed and built for this study. Temperature, pH, gas atmosphere, degree of agitation and medium flow rate could be altered and controlled. A meter was developed for the continuous measurement of lactic acid production. The meter used a capacitance probe to measure the volume of alkali added to the culture to maintain a constant pH. The kinetics of lactic acid production in a batch culture of whey were characterized by : dP/dt = (αdN/dt + βN) Pm - P/Kp + Pm - P The kinetics of bacterial cell growth were consistent with the normally accepted Monod equation but no direct verification of this was made. A notable feature of the production of lactic acid in a batch culture was the considerable amount of lactic acid formed by non-dividing bacterial cells. More than 50 percent of the acid produced during a batch culture was synthesised while the cell population was in a stationary growth phase. The maximum cell number was not limited by the concentration of lactose. Supplementation with tryptophan, casamino acids and a number of vitamins increased the cell population and the rate of acid production and decreased the batch time. Sodium caseinate was a good source of essential and stimulatory nutrients. The optimum heat treatment of the whey involved heating to 69°C. In unsupplemented whey the removal of suspended material by centrifuging and filtration prevented the formation of acid. To maintain maximum acid formation rates the impeller Reynolds number had to be greater than 10,000. The presence of oxygen prevented the growth of the bacterial cell population, but once the maximum cell population had been reached oxygen did not effect the acid synthesis. In a single stage continuous culture reactor the concentration of lactic acid was given by : P = N (α + β/D) Pm - P/Kp + Pm - P The constants were determined from batch culture data. A single stage continuous culture is not suitable for the conversion of all the lactose in the whey to lactic acid. If lactic acid production by continuous culture is to be considered as a means of waste disposal it will be necessary to use feed back of cells to a single - stage reactor or multi-stage stirred tanks. In continuous culture studies it was shown that the optimum temperature for the fermentation of lactic casein whey was 46°C. A pH in the rage 5.4 - 6.0 was best. Outside this range, productivity and yield were decreased. It can be concluded that though continuous production of lactic acid from whey is feasible, multi-stage continuous reaction systems and/or cell feedback are necessary to reduce the lactose concentration to an acceptable level. The whey should be supplemented with a source of amino acids.

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  • Temporary Migration as Development Tool? The Potential of Pacific Seasonal Workers to Meet New Zealand and Australia's Development Goals for the Pacific Islands

    Kwant, Stacey (2012)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The concept of temporary migration is commanding increasing attention. As the global community searches for new ways of promoting development in the developing world, and economically-advanced countries continue to experience labour shortages, labour mobility and temporary migration have arisen as potential ‘triple-win’ solutions. This thesis explores the concept of temporary migration as a development tool, using New Zealand’s Recognised Seasonal Employer scheme and Australia’s Pacific Seasonal Worker Employer Scheme as models. It examines the extent to which these two recently-adopted temporary migration schemes have the potential to meet the development goals and objectives of New Zealand, Australia and the Pacific region. This thesis argues that in fact, temporary migration can potentially provide a development ‘triple-win’ situation – for the countries that receive the workers, for workers who migrate, and for countries that send the workers in the first instance. However, in the case of New Zealand, Australia and the Pacific, the extent of that triple win depends on a number of factors. Some factors relate to the lessons derived from countries with past temporary migration experiences, about how to manage schemes effectively. Others are specific to the Pacific Island context, the development priorities present in the region, and the unique relationships that exist between New Zealand, Australia and the island states. Therefore, this thesis explores how two temporary migration schemes can be formulated, designed and implemented, in a particular context, to potentially address pressing concerns about development. This thesis does not attempt to analyse whether development objectives have actually been achieved through the schemes but rather assess their potential, as a step towards increasing what we know about how to achieve development in the Pacific, and how other regions of the world can adapt this knowledge in the future.

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  • The Benefits and Challenges for Cambodian Teachers Implementing Peer Coaching

    Mom, Pheng (2012)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    In Cambodia, the professional development of teachers is a priority. Although many training programmes and workshops are provided for teachers to learn new skills and improve practice, the rate of their transferring these learned skills into the classroom is still low. According to the Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sports (2005) one explanation for this low rate of skills transfer is the lack of collaboration between peers. To address this issue, this thesis explores the benefits and challenges for Cambodian teachers implementing coaching as a way to improve peer collaboration. It seeks to discover their perceptions and experiences in undertaking peer coaching and to find out the strategies that could work for Cambodian teachers when they engage in peer coaching. To address the study’s research questions, action research and a qualitative, interpretive design were used. Six Cambodian teachers teaching English in one school volunteered to participate in this study. Data were collected through reflective notes, seminars, individual interviews, and a focus group. The interview data were transcribed and coded using the inductive content analysis in order to categorise them and draw conclusions. The findings indicate that the implementation of peer coaching was influential in shaping participants’ understanding of current practice and improving their teaching, such as teaching methods, reflections and collaborations. This study found that administrative support, constructive feedback and a change in the peer coaching process could inspire Cambodian teachers to collaborate. It also found that there are some major challenges impacting on peer coaching, including lack of time for undertaking peer observations, lack of teaching resources, big class size, and nervousness of the teachers and students. The study, however, suggests that the success of undertaking peer coaching requires both administrative support and individual teachers’ self-efficacy. Further research into the effectiveness of providing feedback on teachers’ practice needs to occur to see if this phenomenon is widespread.

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  • Imagination and empathy in the novels of Janet Frame

    Hawkey, M. C. (2000)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis investigates the claims Janet Frame makes for the imagination in her novels and three volumes of autobiography. Proceeding from an outline of the Romantics' conception of the imagination, the thesis moves on to a discussion of the philosopher Immanuel Kant's theories of the imagination, and concludes that there are striking similarities in the arguments that both Kant and Frame make for the imagination. The argument of the thesis is structured along the development of Frame's oeuvre, and is discussed in terms of three broad phases which I have labelled romantic or modernist, apocalyptic postmodernist and finally transcendental postmodernist, and Ihab Hassan's writings on postmodernism have been used to outline the features of this third phase. A major feature of the first two of these phases is the narcissism of those characters that Frame deems imaginative, and the thesis demonstrates the attempts Frame makes to resolve the narcissism of her characters by reconciling them to their role in society, while allowing them to keep their artistic authenticity. The writings of psycho-analyst Heinz Kohut are used in the discussion of narcissism, and they complement Kant's writings on the imagination in their emphasis on the importance of empathy in maintaining worthwhile relationships. It is the emphasis that both these writers and Janet Frame herself place on empathy that motivates the changes she makes in her concept of the imagination, and which allows the possibility of 'immanence', glimpsed in the final phase of her writing to date. The final chapter of this thesis applies these phases and the conclusions drawn from Frame's novels to her autobiography, arguing that each volume of the autobiography represents one of those phases. I draw the conclusion that this is a conscious attempt by Frame to argue against the sometimes negative critical receptions of both her novels and particularly her personal decisions as a writer.

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  • Oddities and atrocities : A preliminary study of Camille Pagli

    Day, Wendy Kathleen (1996)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis examines the work of Camille Paglia as a critic of literature and the academy. Its aim is to focus on Paglia as a critic rather than as a controversial public figure. Much of the criticism on Paglia tends to deal with her from a political angle, critiquing, for example, her conservative views and her attacks on feminism. Paglia's criticism of the academy and feminism will be touched upon, but the intended focus is on Paglia as an art critic rather than as a controversial social commentator, particularly on sexual mores and feminism. The first two chapters deal with Paglia's style, showing how it differs from academic convention and its consequent degree of persuasiveness. Next, Paglia's theory and methodology is outlined and examined. Finally, I will assess Paglia's criticism of literature and feminist aesthetic theory. My thesis finds Paglia largely unpersuasive, but concedes that some of her ideas and critiques are legitimate particularly in the areas of literary criticism and feminist aesthetics.

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  • Aspects of Uwe Johnson's Das dritte Buch uber Achim

    Alack, Sonja (1973)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Aspects of Uwe Johnson's Das dritte Buchllber Achim, a thesis presented by Sonja Alack for the degree of Master of Arts at the University of Canterbury, intends to examine and assess the success of techniques used by Johnson. The work is shown within its literary and historical context, bringing out the influences upon it and its relationship to contemporary norms, and it is analysed in this light. The elements contributing to its unity are investigated, with special reference to Johnson's handling of time and space. In this way an approach is made to the process of the creation of the novel's atmosphere which is seen in relation to the dilemmas of modern literature, centring on the search for ultimate truths and absolute communication. The alienation resulting from these dilemmas is fundamental to this work and is treated from different standpoints, presenting the reader with a multiperspective novel employing various techniques developed by the theorists of Cubism. Following a study of Johnson's use of language, the work is presented in conclusion as a literary exercise of considerable merit, firmly within the modern prose tradition.

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  • Colloquy and continuity : the integrated dialogues of Blanche Edith Baughan

    Bond, Emma Katherine (1998)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Blanche Edith Baughan quickly created a niche for herself on her arrival in New Zealand, firstly with her poetic career, and later in her work as social reformist. While she is remembered for both these endeavours, she remains better known for her poetry. Accordingly, there has been a good deal of supposition as to why she chose to abandon her relatively successful literary vocation. The research for my thesis began by investigating this puzzling moment in her career. It has generally been acknowledged that there was a radical break in Baughan's life, and that, at about the time she ceased her output as writer, her energies were diverted to humanitarian concerns. However, via an investigation of Baughan's archival papers, this thesis proposes a continuity between these ostensibly separate careers, the key to which is colloquy, or a complex network of dialogues. I have outlined the development of Baughan's colloquy by exploring those conversations central to her life here. The first chapter looks at the cultural nationalist narrative, and the somewhat awkward positioning of Baughan within a framework that emphasises the 'man alone.' It also recognises that there is an alternative way to read her writing, for Baughan refused to acknowledge factors central to masculinism and instead immersed herself in a network of multiple conversations. Both writing and social work were part of this integrated discourse which enabled her to occupy different areas of engagement contemporaneously. After investigating her literary relationships in Chapter Two, I consider the effects of Baughan's mystical experiences and her involvement with Vedanta in Chapter Three. The concluding chapter concentrates on her interest in creating 'Beauty from Ashes,' with a reading of the numerous dialogues that make up her penal reform work.

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  • A study of individual and organizational variables in relation to charge nurse behaviour : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at Massey University

    Kinross, Nancy J. (1981)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Content removed due to copyright restrictions Appendices K4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3 (Profile sheets)

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  • Zeichensprache und Privatmythologie im Werk Peter Huchels : a thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in German at Massey University

    Vieregg, Axel Jürgen Artur (1972)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Peter Huchel, born in 1903, editor of the leading East German literary periodical Sinn und Form until 1962 when he was forced to resign for political reasons, lived in isolation near Potsdam, East Germany, until May 1971 when he was allowed to move to the West. Hitherto critics have been interested in his poetry mainly for its political and biographical import, although Huchel himself had warned against an exclusively biographical approach and indicated that his poems had more than one level of meaning. These other levels of meaning, however are not adequately described by the term "Naturlyrik" which has frequently been applied to his poetry. It has been recognized that, with either approach, a point is soon reached beyond which Huchel's poetry becomes "cryptic" (John Flores: Poetry in East Germany) and it has been suggested that this only seems to be the case because his system of private metaphors, which operate within a private mythology, has not yet been elucidated. The present thesis attemps such an elucidation. As an introduction to Huchel's technique the first chapter analyses a number of poems in which the political implications are masked behind allusions to classical and biblical mythology. Thus the poem Elegie seemingly describes the voyage into death of the blind Homer, from Chios, where it is believed he was born, to Ios, where he died. Only one word, "Telegraphendrahte" (telegraph wires), evokes the present and makes it apparent that Homer's voyage into darkness and death is a parable of the approach of a political night. Both Homer and Huchel, the first through his blindness, the second through his isolation, are left with an inner vision. This already announces, at the beginning of the volume, the mask of the Old Testament prophet which Huchel puts on in his later poems, which deal with the fate of Germany. Thus the poem Ankunft, significantly published in a magazine on Berlin, mirrors the situation of Germany by means of Bible quotations, which refer to the partition and final destruction of the old Israelite Kingdom as a punishement for sin. With each of the poems analysed it became clear that there were other levels of meaning present which a political interpretation fails to explore. These are the disappearance of God and the deification, instead, of the Earth in terms of the Great Mother of early matriarchal mythology. A detailed analysis of the poem Widmung (für Ernst Bloch) shows that through self-quotation, allusion to Germanic myth (the Wild Huntsman) and to Hölderlin (the private metaphor "goldner Rauch" - golden smoke) Huchel relates the political darkness to the void created by the absence of the divine element, an absence which is also lamented by the Hölderlin poem from which Huchel quotes. Unlike Hölderlin, however, Huchel does not long for its return but, in an act of Promethean rebellion, extinguishes the "oil" in the "lamps" which God had commanded to be lit to celebrate the covenant (Haus bei Olmitello). The fishermen return empty-handed, because the fish, symbol of Christ, cannot be found, darkness and death have not been overcome (San Michele). 'Fish' and 'empty nets' are recurring images, so are 'smoke' and 'fog' as signs of metaphysical darkness and death. For a time Huchel seems to find consolation in the deification of the Earth: "Dich will ich rühmen, Erde" (You, Earth will I praise), - and visualizes her as the Great Mother, embodied in "Magd" (maid), "Frau" (woman), and "Greisin" (old woman), with her attributes of moon, womb of night and death ("Tor"), cow, milk, bread etc. The very plants with which she comes in contact, the mugwort for instance ("Beifuss", Latin "Artemisia") denote her sphere. He celebrates the cyclic structure of the world, of the seasons, and the continuation of the species, in the male counterpart of the Mother Goddess, the phallic element of the tree of life, especially the poplar tree which grew on the banks of the Acheron as a symbol of rebirth. The cycle breaks down, however, when it comes to the death of the individual ("Der nicht zu Ende geschlagene Kreis" - the uncompleted circle - Abschied von den Hirten ) and the life-giving aspect of the Great Mother is superseded by the female as the great swallower, the Terrible Mother ("die wendischen Weidenmütter, die warzigen Alten mit klaffender Brust" the Wendish willow mothers,the warty hags with gaping breasts - Ölbaum und Weide) approaches in the end and her friendly moon symbol has turned into the moon with the hatchet (Unter der Hacke des Mondes). All of Huchel's private metaphors and images are ultimately connected with this concept, which, it seems, assumes for Huchel the importance of a private religion not unlike Hölderlin's.

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  • Mechanistic studies on sheep liver aldehyde dehydrogenases : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Chemistry at Massey University, New Zealand

    MacGibbon, Alastair Kenneth Hugh (1976)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Irregular pagination: missing page 28

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  • Aspects of radiobiogeochemistry : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Chemistry at Massey University

    Whitehead, Neil Evan (1970)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Section I: A routine assay for uranium was instituted, and a fluorimeter suitable for the assay designed and constructed. A new method of fusion-pellet manufacture is described. The optimum conditions for the assay were determined. The calibration curve is linear up to about three micrograms of uranium; the lowest limit of detection is about twenty nanograms (about 0.10 microgram/g of sample). Routine alpha and beta counting of samples was developed. Section II: The forms of naturally occurring data distributions are discussed, and customary methods of examining these noted, together with their defects. A versatile computer programme was developed to determine the form of natural distributions, and to calculate correlation coefficients and their significances. Section III: An orientation survey of a known mineralised area in the Buller Gorge of New Zealand showed that C.australis, N.fusca, Q.acutifolia, and W.racemosa are suitable for biogeochemical prospecting for uranium. Analysis figures were more nearly log-normally distributed than normally distributed, and multiple distributions were often present. Alpha counts of plant material also proved suitable as indicators of the amount of uranium in the soil, as did the amount of iron in the leaves. Section IV: Aquatic bryophytes from streams draining mineralised areas were analysed and the results found to be indicative of the presence or otherwise of uranium in the various catchment areas. Even better was the use of specially prepared peat, allowed to soak in the stream water. The accumulation factor for uranium, from stream water, was about ten thousand. Section V: The gamma-ray spectra of plants and soils were carefully characterised by solvent extraction, and ion-exchange techniques. Plants were found to absorb radium and uranium and lead, but not thorium. B.procerum, and M.berteroana, however absorbed both thorium and actinium. Calculation showed that most of the alpha particles emitted by the samples studied were from 238U. Section VI: Extraction and characterisation of uranium complexes in C.australis leaves showed the presence of a protein-uranium complex, and an RNA-uranium complex. The latter is at least partially an artefact of the extraction technique, and examination of fresh material showed that more than half the uranium was bound to cell wall proteins. No other types of compound besides protein and nucleic acids possessed measurable binding capacity for uranium.

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  • Designing interactive learning environments : a dissertation presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Computer Science at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Kemp, Raymond Henry (1995)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    The trend towards teaching by facilitating learning rather than by direct instruction is an important one. As part of this movement, there is a growing interest in the concept of interactive learning environments (ILEs), where students learn by experimenting with a computer system that simulates some device, system or situation. Although ILEs can act as effective teaching aids they are time-consuming to create. In this thesis, principles that are useful for guiding the development of these systems are proposed, and design issues are explored. In order to determine what the principles for development should be, the history of teaching by computer is reviewed, with an emphasis on interactive systems that have a learning rather than instructional bias. The important concepts of modelling, discovery learning and fidelity are examined in some detail. One of the conclusions of the initial survey is that it is not feasible to think in terms of general design primitives that can be used for the development of all interactive learning environments. Since there is a diverse range of possible environments, two specific types are examined. In each case, a framework for design is proposed. First, the teaching of procedural skills is considered. These skills include the ability to understand the operation of mechanical devices, to be able to carry out tasks with them, and to correctly assemble and dismantle pieces of equipment. Providing a realistic model which can include informative feedback is seen as important. It is demonstrated that a scheme adapted from AI planning can economically provide an appropriate level of fidelity for modelling device operation. A compatible notation for denoting tasks is also developed. A methodology for the design of ILEs for teaching procedural skills is proposed, complete with graphical specification for both domains and tasks. It is envisaged that such a scheme would allow domain experts and teachers to take a full part in the design process, even if they are unable to write or understand computer programs. The second kind of ILE considered involves the simulation of human behaviour. Two schemes for knowledge-based simulation are examined: one based on CYC and one on Schank and Abelson's behavioural model. The former is used to outline a system for simulating problem-oriented policing. The latter is extended to facilitate the development of knowledge-based simulation teaching systems. This second scheme is then applied to the simulation of domestic disputes. Since many of the problems of simulating real world events by computer software have yet to be solved, a full computer implementation is not yet a realistic proposition. Instead, the domestic disputes model is tested using a 'Wizard of Oz'approach. Results show that a scheme based on the model proposed is feasible, that subjects can successfully use such a system and that, as a result, they believe their understanding of the issues being presented is improved.

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  • Pathogenic free-living amebae-occurrence in New Zealand thermal regions, together with investigations into their disinfection, immunity and virulence : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Microbiology at Massey University, New Zealand

    Cursons, Raymond Thomas Michael (1978)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Content removed due to copyright restriction: Brown, T., & Cursons, R. (1977). Pathogenic free-living amebae (PFLA) from frozen swimming areas in Oslo, Norway. Scandinavian Journal Of Infectious Diseases, 9(3), 237-240. Cursons, R., Brown, T., & Keys, E. (1978). Virulence of pathogenic free-living amebae. The Journal Of Parasitology, 64(4), 744-745. Brown, T. & Cursons, R. (1976). Classification and identification of the aetiological agents of primary amebic meningo-encephalitis. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 10(2), 245-262. Cursons, R., Brown, T., & Keys, E. (1978). Diagnosis and identification of the aetiological agents of Primary Amoebic Meningo-encephalitis (PAM). New Zealand Journal of Medical Laboratory Technology, 32(1), 11-14. Cursons, R., & Brown, T. (1978). Use of cell cultures as an indicator of pathogenicity of free-living amoebae. Journal Of Clinical Pathology, 31(1), 1-11. Cursons, R.T., Brown, T.J. & Keys, E. (1977). Letters to the Editor: IMMUNITY TO PATHOGENIC FREE-LIVING AMŒBÆ. The Lancet, 310(Originally published as Volume 2, Issue 8043), 875-876. Cursons, R.T., Brown, T.J. & Keys, E. (1976). Letters to the Editor: IMMUNOPEROXIDASE STAINING OF TROPHOZOITES IN PRIMARY AMŒBIC MENINGOENCEPHALITIS. The Lancet, 308(Originally published as Volume 2, Issue 7983), 479. Cursons, R., & Brown, T. (1975). The 1968 New Zealand cases of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis--Myxomycete or Naegleria?. The New Zealand Medical Journal, 82(546), 123-125. Cursons, R., Brown, T., Bruns, B., & Taylor, D. (1976). Primary amoebic mengingoencephalitis contracted in a thermal tributary of the Waikato River--Taupo: a case report. The New Zealand Medical Journal, 84(578), 479-481.

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  • NMR studies of internal rotation : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Chemistry at Massey University

    Furness, Alan Robert (1975)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Density matrix theory has been used to develop a computer program for the solution of a four-nuclear spin system. A description of the theory used to develop this program is given in Chapter Three. This theory has been used to study a range of p-substituted nitrosobenzenes. The activation parameters have been determined and for N,N-dimethyl-p-nitrosoaniline, a comparison has been made with previous studies which have used more approximate methods. The solvent dependency of the barrier to rotation has been investigated in the N,N-dialkyl-p-nitrosoanilines and no significant solvent dependence found. In the early stages of this thesis, attempts were made to find a tetrahedral cobalt (II) complex involving ligand exchange, but no such complex suitable for a detailed NMR investigation was found. The investigation, though unsuccessful, has been briefly reported. These findings may aid further work in this area.

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  • The image of Spain in non-dramatic French literature from Chateaubriand to Montherlant, 1800-1936 : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in French at Massey University, New Zealand

    Rollason, Bryan (1970)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Irregular pagination: missing page 129

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