81,203 results

  • Organisational Identity and Alcohol Use in Knowledge-Intensive Workplaces

    Walker, Benjamin Webster (2012)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The use of alcohol is an integral social act in many cultures and societies. The reasons for its use, as well as its mental and physical effects on people, have been a topic of academic interest for decades. This thesis examines the relationship between the work lives of individuals and their use of alcohol. At a more specific level, the thesis examines the relationship between alcohol use and the concept of organisational identity. Using data collected from interviews with members of a knowledge-intensive workplace, findings are presented that illustrate how alcohol use can be understood as an important part of processes of organisational identification, and how workers' alcohol use can be affected by an organisation's identity itself. The theoretical implications of these findings are numerous. Firstly, these findings suggest that organisational concepts, such as organisational identity, can be exceptionally useful in gaining an understanding of the reasons why individuals use alcohol in the ways that they do. In addition, the findings suggest that knowledge-intensive workplaces represent a valuable site for further advancing understandings of the work-alcohol relationship. Finally, it is argued that alcohol use in many situations should be understood as a part of individuals' organisational life, and not just a product or outcome of their participation in an organisation.

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  • “Pulling the Tail of the Cat”: An Exploration of Palestinian Peacebuilders' Conceptualisations of Men and Masculinities in the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict

    Foster, Alana (2011)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    To date, men as gendered beings have largely remained absent from the international literature on armed conflict and peacebuilding. In general, the literature omits men‘s gendered experiences as civilians, non-combatants and peacebuilders and instead, men remain confined by stereotypes of violence, soldiering and war-making. In this thesis, I aim to break these silences by producing a qualitative analysis of discourses of men and masculinities within semi-structured interviews conducted with fourteen Palestinian peacebuilders in the West Bank. This analysis explores the impacts of the ongoing occupation and armed conflict on non-combat related Palestinian masculinities, and further, how men and masculinities are thought to interact with local peacebuilding initiatives. Through the use of feminist critical discourse analysis, this study has uncovered a number of key themes relevant to gender and peacebuilding theory and practice. Firstly, it found that the ongoing conflict has resulted in a 'thwarting' of West Bank masculinities in which men are understood as finding it increasingly difficult to live up to social expectations of their traditional roles and identities. Secondly, this study found that men and masculinities have become somewhat estranged from civil society, informal peacebuilding schemes. Based on my findings, these initiatives seem to centre around feminised narratives that emphasise women's peacebuilding capacities, while masculinities and the peacebuilding roles of men are overlooked. Nevertheless, this thesis also presents the notion that men are actively involved in the nonviolent resistance movement within the West Bank, which opens up room for a novel, alternative understanding of 'masculinised' peacebuilding in Palestine. In sum, this study articulates the need to 'take masculinities seriously' in the pursuit of more inclusive and effective peacebuilding and post-conflict development practice.

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  • Interspecific Interactions: A Case Study using the Tuatara-Fairy Prion Association

    Corkery, Ilse (2012)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Some of the key relationships in the life of an organism are interactions with individuals of other species within the community, for example, negative interactions such as predation and competition are well known to shape natural communities. Positive interactions also have well documented influences, such as intertidal seaweed canopies extending the distribution of many organisms to higher tidal heights, by reducing thermal and desiccation stresses. However, investigating interactions and measuring their significance for fitness is notoriously difficult. For example, several groups of fish are known to ‘clean’ other fish species by feeding on their ectoparasites, a mutually beneficial arrangement. However, foraging by cleaners can damage scales of their hosts and this interaction can become parasitic in times of low ectoparasite abundance. Using both field and laboratory data, I investigated factors that influenced the dynamics of an unusual vertebrate association, the cohabitation of tuatara and fairy prions in a burrow. The end goal was to contribute to the understanding of the classification of this association. The fairy prion is a seabird that comes to land only for the breeding season and the tuatara is a burrowing reptile, active primarily at night in a temperate climate. Specifically, I measured the effects that this association had on tuatara thermoregulation, and demonstrated the difficulty in applying that information to categorize a complex interaction. Investigations into the temporal and spatial habitat of the tuatara, and the degree to which this influenced thermal opportunities, revealed that mean tuatara body temperatures were always within mean environmental temperatures. Males and females did not differ in mean body temperature or effectiveness of thermoregulation. Body size did not predict body temperature or cooling rates, but heating rates were influenced, with larger animals heating faster than smaller individuals. The presence of a fairy prion in a burrow increased humidity within the burrow, and tuatara that occupied burrows containing a fairy prion were able to maintain up to 1.8°C higher body temperatures through the night during the austral summer months. Thus, burrow use behaviour and burrow selection had greater influences on tuatara body temperature than an individual’s sex or size. Experimental evidence revealed that tuatara are capable of adjusting their habitat selection behaviour in response to different humidity constraints. More time was spent outside the burrows and tuatara were more active under humid laboratory conditions. Use of the burrow by tuatara almost halved the time that fairy prions spent at the burrow with their chick, indicating that tuatara were having a negative effect on fairy prions’ use of their burrow. There was no evidence to support the fact that fairy prions were gaining any fitness benefits from their association with tuatara. Thus, we cannot call this interaction a commensalism or a mutualism. In certain instances, it may be that this interaction is best classed as a parasitism with the tuatara benefitting from burrow use and easy predation opportunities, to the detriment of the lifetime reproductive success of the fairy prion. In other instances it may simply be a case of competition for a limited resource (a burrow) with the outcome varying depending on the individuals and the circumstances involved. Being able to categorize interactions between species of high conservation value or at least to have an understanding of the costs and benefits associated with the interaction is desirable for conservation purposes, as failure to consider the ecological network within which a threatened species is embedded, may lead to counterproductive management measures. Further, these results can be used to develop future research into how climatic changes in temperature and rainfall may interact with habitat availability to influence the full range of natural outcomes of the tuatara-fairy prion association.

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  • The Origins of Statutory Producer Control Legislation in New Zealand Agriculture 1914-1925

    Simpson, Todd Erl (1991)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis investigates the origins of statutory producer control that emerged out of the Board of Trade (Wool Industry) Regulations 1921, The Meat Export Control Act, 1921-22 and The Dairy Produce Export Control Act, 1923. Most histories have traced the formation of statutory producer organisations to the economic conditions that prevailed during the British Government's 1915-1921 bulk purchase agreement with New Zealand known as the 'Imperial Commandeer' and the commodity price slump that marked the Commandeer's conclusion. Analysis of agricultural income series and output data suggest that the popular view of a 'boom' and 'slump' cycle is overplayed. This thesis argues that net real farm incomes remained relatively static during the Commandeer while output contracted. The slump cycle beginning in 1920/21 was particularly severe given the interaction of key demand and supply variables. The contemporary argument for statutory intervention may have been based on misconceptions in some cases, yet when the economic arguments are evaluated a strong case emerges. The central role played by W.F. Massey and his Reform Party Government is also important to an understanding of how this legislation came about.

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  • Dances with Words: Issues in the Translation of Japanese Literature into English

    Donovan, Richard Ninian (2012)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Chapter One: Literary Translation Studies, Japanese-to-English Translation, and Izu no odoriko This introductory chapter explores aspects of Translation Studies relevant to Japanese-to-English literary translation. I employ extended metaphors from the case study, Kawabata Yasunari's novella Izu no odoriko,to re-illuminate perennial TS issues such as equivalence, 'style' and disambiguation, contrasting the translating approaches of Edward G. Seidensticker and J. Martin Holman. The chapter concludes with an outline of the investigative path I followed in analysing the sourcetext (ST) and comparing it with the target texts (TTs): the English translations. I explain the thesis's systematic corpus approach in using an NVivo database to establish a set of potentially problematic translation issues that arise out of the interaction of source language-target language (SL-TL) features. Chapter Two: A Taxonomy of Japanese Paradigmatic Features and the Issues Arising for Translation into English The Japanese and English languages have significant lexical and morpho-syntactic differences, which I contend give rise to potentially problematic translation issues. The chapter begins by differentiating cultural and linguistic features and explaining why the thesis will focus on the latter. The rest of the chapter presents a detailed analysis of ST exemplars of the most significant of the paradigmatic (lexical) features. Seidensticker and Holman's translations are analysed to determine how they have addressed the translation issues arising from these features. Chapter Three: A Taxonomy of Japanese Syntagmatic Features and the Issues Arising for Translation into English This chapter continues the analysis of linguistic differences between Japanese and English in the context of literary translation. Here the focus is on the syntagmatic (structural)features of Japanese in comparison with English, again examining examples from the ST and comparing how the translators address the issues arising in their translating decisions. Chapter 4: 'Shall We Dance?' Translation Acts in the English Translations of Izu no odoriko and Beyond The focus moves to the features of the translators' overall translation strategies, and how they apply these strategies in their translating decisions: so-called 'translation acts'. Conducting a close reading of the ST and TTs of a pivotal scene in Izu no odoriko, I draw on previous academics' frameworks to create a simple rubric for categorising the manifestation of these strategies at the discourse level. The chapter concludes by drawing together the theoretical and empirical strands of the thesis and demonstrating the relevance of this discussion to the English translation of Japanese literature. While acknowledging the necessarily subjective nature of the translational act, and the sophisticated techniques the translators employ to deal with complex issues, I propose that my analytic framework urges more care in the preservation of semantic and formal elements than can be observed in aspects of the translations examined.

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  • The Geology of Basement Rocks in the Southeastern Tararua Range, North Island, New Zealand

    Foley, Lisa Ann (1984)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Basement rocks within the southeastern Tararua Range belong to two associations: a sedimentary association (greywacke, argillite, calcareous siltstone, conglomerate and olistostrome) and a volcanogenic association (metabasite, chert, red argillite and limestone). Rocks of the sedimentary association are more abundant and have been deposited by turbidity currents and debris flows in a deep water, marine environment. Three turbidite and two intercalated non-turbidite lithofacies are recognized. Sedimentological data suggest that the sediment was deposited in a submarine fan system (mid-fan environment), probably in a trench. The alternating greywacke-argillite beds have detrital compositions which are essentially quartzo-feldspathic. Framework mode and geochemical analyses indicate that the sediment was derived from an active continental margin that was shedding detritus of mainly acid-volcanic and metamorphic origin. Rocks of the volcanogenic association, although volumetrically minor, are widely distributed. Geochemical analyses of metabasites suggest that they were erupted in an oceanic environment, both at a mid-ocean ridge and an intra-plate setting. The presence of radiolaria skeletons in red argillite and chert indicates a hemiplagic depositional environment for these rocks. Rocks of the volcanogenic association often have conformable contacts. These rocks have a related depositional environment and represent seafloor material. Where observed, contacts between rocks of the two associations are always faulted. Deformation in the field area is characterized by development of the following types of structures: several generations of folds, faults at both a low angle and high angle to bedding, shear foliation and melange. The region has undergone the following deformational events, outlined from oldest to youngest: 1) folding with at least two fold generations present. 2) fragmentation and disruption of the beds by faults. Low-angle to bedding faults and high-angle to bedding faults have disrupted the bedding. Where these structures have occurred to a great extent, a chaotically disrupted unit, melange, has formed. 3) post-melange folding. 4) recent faulting related to the present strike-slip regime in New Zealand. Rocks have undergone prehnite-pumpellyite facies metamorphism. The rock types, their field relationships and the deformation that the area has undergone is consistent with accretion at a convergent plate margin. Radiolaria were extracted from two red chert samples. In the study the radiolaria define a Middle Jurassic age, which indicates that the sediments in the southeastern Tararua Range must be of Middle Jurassic in age or younger (possibly Cretaceous). A similar sample from the Manawatu Gorge to the north of the study area contained radiolaria of Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous age. Sediments in both areas therefore belong to fossil zone 5 (Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous) of MacKinnon (1983).

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  • Creating and Sharing Knowledge through a Corporate Social Networking Site: The Impact of Employees' Perceptions on Effectiveness

    Figueroa Barraza, Julio David (2012)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This research investigates the perceptions of employees at South Winds (the pseudonym), a software engineering company, about using a corporate social networking site for sharing and generating knowledge. It focuses on understanding and explaining how the perceptions of employees from different organisational levels impacted on the usage of the social networking site. Methods of data collection included interviews and focus groups with C-level managers, middle managers and software engineers. Qualitative methods were used for analysing the collected data. Analysis drew on an extended Orlikowski and Gash's technological frames theory (1994) to identify five categories of perceptions relating to technology implementation and use. Applying the concept of framing in this study helped to surface specific areas within which divergence of perceptions occurred. Results showed significant divergences in perceptions about the corporate social networking site in 4 out of the 5 categories across the different levels of the organization. These divergences were found to have arisen largely as a result of information deficiencies. Furthermore, little understanding about the nature of the technology led top management to decide to use an adoption approach that discouraged knowledge sharing and creation through this tool. As a consequence, this study found that there appeared to be little likelihood of creating or sharing knowledge through the corporate social networking site under the observed implementation, although the corporate social networking site was widely perceived as a useful technology for sharing and creating knowledge. Recommendations for realizing potential benefits from using a corporate social networking site include developing plans for aligning organizational perceptions about the corporate social networking site and developing a suitable reward plan based on group performance in order to encourage the employees to create/share knowledge. The findings of this research suggest an extension of the Orlikowski and Gash's (1994) technological frames theory for knowledge management systems. This research also suggests that perceptions about different aspects of a technology may be arranged in a hierarchical chain. This would bring significant implications in designing and implementing technologies.

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  • The Genetic Profiles of TIF1 and TIF2 Duplicate Genes

    Venturi, Veronica (2012)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    As one of the key steps in protein synthesis, translation initiation is subjected to multi-level regulation which is achieved via diverse mechanisms. The cell adjusts protein synthesis accordingly to its status and environment. The degree of contribution of the processes involved in the regulation of translation initiation is still poorly understood. The first part of this study focuses on identifying mechanisms of regulation in a translationally deficient yeast system, impaired by the loss of one or the other of the TIF1/2 duplicate genes, which together code for the eukaryotic initiation factor 4A (eIF4A). A major finding of this research is related to the functional competences associated with the two duplicate members of the gene pair. Although the genetic profile associated with TIF1 highlights a connection with transcriptional process, the majority of transcription-translation inter-talk is allocated with TIF2, along with a dense network of genetic interactions surrounding the SAGA complex. TIF2 is also the only paralog devoted to interactions with a substantial group of functionally related genes involved in early meiotic gene expression. Protein degradation in the global control of protein synthesis represents a fundamental process and accounts for diverse points of control, in particular through ubiquitination/deubiquitination. This research concludes that functional turnover of proteins and the translation/transcription inter-talk emerges as the most significant contributors to the sophistically regulated translational regulation, The second part of this study aims to determine the extent of similarity and divergence between the TIF1 and TIF2 paralogs. Growth of their individual deletion strains was challenged under different chemical and environmental conditions with the intent to explore the relative contributions of each duplicate in response to an extend range of perturbations. The pair of duplicates appeared convincingly robust in coping with these adversities under disparate cellular contexts, thus suggesting a highly conserved and backed-up genetic network. One of the primary treatments made use of lithium, a condition which was hoped to help, along with furthering our understanding of the TIF1 and TIF2 networks, in formulating an explanation on how augmented translation initiation overcomes lithium toxicity. Although this approach did not return results that could be used to address this unresolved topic, evaluation of genetic inhibition and suppression was highly instructive regarding the mechanisms of response triggered upon lithium/galactose stress. Regulation and synchronization of basic cellular processes were affected: emphasis brought on aspects of cell communication highlighted mechanisms articulated by kinase enzymes and the importance of repression of cell cycle progression in control of protein synthesis. Data from the screen also indicated the stress that combined lithium/galactose treatment places on central metabolic pathways, for instance those between the Leloir, gluconeogenesis, and trehalose pathways.

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  • The Geology of the Torlesse Supergroup, Southern Tararua Range, North Island, New Zealand

    Orr, Thomas O. H. (1984)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Basement rocks in the southern Tararua Range are part of the Torlesse Supergroup, possibly Late Triassic to Late Jurassic in age, and form two distinct associations. The sedimentarv association consists mainly of quartzo-feldspathic sandstone and argillite with minor olistostrome, calcareous siltstone and microsparite. The sandstone and argillite were deposited as turbidites in a mid- to outer- submarine fan environment. The sediment was derived from a heavily dissected active continental margin that was shedding sediment of mainly plutonic and metamorphic origin. The volcanic association consists mainly of metabasite and coloured argillite with minor chert and limestone. Geochemical data indicate that the metabasites were erupted in an oceanic intraplate environment. The nature of amygdules in amygdaloidal metabasites suggests eruption in less than 800m of water. Coloured argillites have two distinct origins, namely sediments formed by the degredation of basalt; and also pelagic material modified by metal-rich effluent either from hydrothermal systems associated with mid-ocean ridges or intraplate volcanism. The rocks of the volcanic association indicate formation in an environment similar to present day mid-ocean islands. Nowhere were rocks of the two associations observed to be conformable. Coupled with this, the nature of the two associations suggests that they were formed in separate environments. The following structural history is proposed: 1) Early veining; 2) Isoclinal folding and development of a NNE striking cleavage; 3) Faulting both at low and high angles to bedding, extreme amounts of which have resulted in mélange; 4) NE-SW trending close to open folds; 5) E-W trending open to gentle folds; 6) Recent faulting, predominantly NE trending strike-slip faults. The nature of the two associations and the deformational style and history supports an accretionary prism model for the development of the Torlesse Supergroup. Rocks of the southern Tararua Range show many similarities with, and probably represent a northward continuation of, the Esk Head Mélange of the South Island.

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  • The Responsible Business: Corporate Social Responsibility in the Recession

    Rodgers, Isaac Jordan (2012)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The 2008 financial crisis and recession crippled some of the largest businesses in the world and caused severe recession across the world. However, prior to the focus on economic recovery, social responsibility and sustainability were major themes in the business world and debate centred on the role of business in society. The key question and area for research was how the financial crisis affected this debate. This thesis uses the financial crisis to explore the role and responsibilities of business. This research is located firmly within the literature on business and society, where the key debates centre on the role of business and the scope of business responsibilities. The literature on social responsibility has a notable gap in the fact that it does not address the impact of economic context on social responsibilities. The methodology of this paper uses a set of twenty-one interviews. These interviews consisted of three sets of seven interviews with different participant groups for each set. The participant groups consisted of consumers, policy managers and business managers. These interviews were analysed for themes through the data analysis method of coding. The findings of this paper suggest that the role of business in society should be focused on the generation of profit and that the recession or other economic influences do not change this role. These findings also suggest that although businesses are responsible only for complying with the law, they should also satisfy their customers, engage in activities beneficial to their long term interest and avoid actions which cause harm to others or undermine the long term viability of the business. The findings also imply that neither economic context nor profit, changes these responsibilities. These findings make important theoretical and practical contributions. The theoretical contributions support the literature arguing for a limited scope on the role of business. They also argue in favour of social responsibilities being voluntary. The finding that economic context and profitability have no impact on responsibility is important in its own right, but also suggests that business responsibilities are static. This paper makes another contribution through models which are based on the findings. These models combine social responsibility with corporate strategy to show the concept of a responsible business and the difference between voluntary, compulsory and strategic responsibilities.

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  • The Interpretation of Cultural Heritage: Sharing Māori Cultural Tourism Experiences with International Visitors

    Dwyer, Trisha (2012)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Māori cultural tourism can be an important part of the experience for visitors to New Zealand. The purpose of this research is to gain insights into the way guides manage visitor experiences in order to enhance the understanding and appreciation of Māori culture. International visitors are culturally and linguistically diverse. Therefore, not only are there differences in perspectives and beliefs, but also in communication. Furthermore, visitors arrive with differences in knowledge, interest and expectations. This thesis considers approaches to guiding and interpretation in Māori cultural tourism experiences by examining how guides, as cross-cultural mediators, share Māori cultural heritage so that it is meaningful and relevant to visitors. The literature on Māori tourism has examined issues of ownership, participation, control over representation, and the diversification of Māori tourism products. In spite of the shift to reflect tribal diversity, stereotypes are still reinforced in marketing images and tourism products. Although acknowledged as important, there are no published studies on the role of Māori guides. Developed from a social constructivist perspective, this study compares perspectives on and approaches to guiding and interpretation by Māori and non-Māori guides. Data collection was through semi-structured interviews with tour guides and a manager from the chosen case studies, Te Puia and Te Papa, with 21 interviews conducted in June and July 2011. Using a visitor-centred approach to interpretation, guides select information and find relevant connections. Furthermore, the quantity and complexity of information, as well as the style and level of communication is considered. Guides manage the relationship so that visitors feel comfortable, which not only enables interaction and encourages questions but is also important for managing visitors' attitudes. The main challenge identified is the language barrier and working with outside language interpreters. In the comparison between Māori and non-Māori guides, the key differences are found in the guide's background and ways of learning about Māori cultural heritage. This research contributes to the literature on interpretation and indigenous tourism by identifying factors influencing the process of the interpretation of cultural heritage. Furthermore, comparing the perceptions of Māori and non-Māori guides provides a key contribution. The findings of this study have management implications for training of guides.

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  • Mechanistic Investigation of 1,5-Anti Stereoinduction in Aldol Reactions

    Liu, Xuyu (2012)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Peloruside A (+)-1 is a novel secondary metabolite isolated from a New Zealand marine sponge (Mycale hentscheli) by Northcote and West of Victoria University. Because it has a polyketide backbone, aldol reactions have been widely employed for its total synthesis. Aldol reactions displaying 1,5-anti stereoinduction mediated by the C₁₅ stereocenter (according to peloruside A numbering) have proven useful for the synthesis of the C₁₁–C₁₂ bond of peloruside A and analogues. This project is the continuation of Stocker's and Turner's studies on the excellent stereoinduction of 2 in boron-mediated aldol reactions. The relative stereochemistry of the corresponding aldol product is consistence with the expectations of Kishi's C database for a 1,5-anti product. Furthermore, the diphenylsilyl acetal tethered eight-membered ring of 2 has proven to be essential for its stereoinduction, while the homoallylic oxygen does not appear to play a significant role. Although 1,5-anti aldol reactions have been used frequently in the syntheses of polyketidederived natural products, the underlying mechanism for the 1,5-anti-stereoinduction remains inconclusive. Three models have been proposed, including Hoberg's π-stacking model, Goodman's hydrogen-bonding model, and a modification of Abiko's diborylated model. The underlying mechanism for the stereoinduction of 2 was investigated using variable temperature NMR, 1D NOESY and 1D ROESY experiments. It was found that Hoberg's and Abiko's models are not able to explain the stereoinduction of 2 and that Goodman's model used for explaining the transition states of the aldol reaction of β-trimethylsilyloxy methyl ketones is also not suitable. A modification of Goodman's model has been proposed to explain the excellent 1,5-anti stereoinduction of 2. While attempts to couple 2 and 3 to a variety of bulky aldehydes bearing groups with different steric and electronic factors in boron-mediated aldol reactions were unsuccessful, the reaction of 3 with 4-bromobenzaldehyde using TiCl₄ and DIPEA afforded an excellent yield (>99%) of the aldol product. This revealed the six-membered ring in the TS of the boron-mediated aldol reaction is too compact for 2 and 3. However, it was found that 2 is incompatible with TiCl₄. Key questions regarding the 1,5-anti-stereoinduction of 2 have been answered and a modified procedure for the NMR investigation of an aldol reaction is described in this thesis.

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  • Anonymously Establishing Digital Provenance in Reseller Chains

    Palmer, Benjamin Philip (2012)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    An increasing number of products are exclusively digital items, such as media files, licenses, services, or subscriptions. In many cases customers do not purchase these items directly from the originator of the product but through a reseller instead. Examples of some well known resellers include GoDaddy, the iTunes music store, and Amazon. This thesis considers the concept of provenance of digital items in reseller chains. Provenance is defined as the origin and ownership history of an item. In the context of digital items, the origin of the item refers to the supplier that created it and the ownership history establishes a chain of ownership from the supplier to the customer. While customers and suppliers are concerned with the provenance of the digital items, resellers will not want the details of the transactions they have taken part in made public. Resellers will require the provenance information to be anonymous and unlinkable to prevent third parties building up large amounts of information on the transactions of resellers. This thesis develops security mechanisms that provide customers and suppliers with assurances about the provenance of a digital item, even when the reseller is untrusted, while providing anonymity and unlinkability for resellers . The main contribution of this thesis is the design, development, and analysis of the tagged transaction protocol. A formal description of the problem and the security properties for anonymously providing provenance for digital items in reseller chains are defined. A thorough security analysis using proofs by contradiction shows the protocol fulfils the security requirements. This security analysis is supported by modelling the protocol and security requirements using Communicating Sequential Processes (CSP) and the Failures Divergences Refinement (FDR) model checker. An extended version of the tagged transaction protocol is also presented that provides revocable anonymity for resellers that try to conduct a cloning attack on the protocol. As well as an analysis of the security of the tagged transaction protocol, a performance analysis is conducted providing complexity results as well as empirical results from an implementation of the protocol.

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  • Leading Ladies: Portraits of Principals: The Leadership Styles and Practices of Women Secondary School Principals Reflected within a Principal Professional Learning Community

    Snedden, Erika Helen (2011)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Recent New Zealand Ministry of Education documents highlight the challenge to provide professional learning opportunities for principals and the current initiative to support and strengthen school leadership through the Professional Leadership Strategy. There is a need for professional development strategies and opportunities that help principals more effectively understand their school contexts, responsibilities and their own competencies, leadership styles and practice. To transfer and be sustainable, effective leadership practice requires the building of principal leadership learning communities within individual New Zealand school contexts. This thesis builds on previous studies of New Zealand women principals' experiences of leadership, contributing to a greater insight into the identities, role and practice of women principals while modelling a framework for reflective practice as a tool for professional and educational leadership development. As an iconographic study of three New Zealand women secondary school principals this thesis exhibits the life stories and experiences which have impacted upon their personal theories about leadership styles and practice. Composed through a métissage (merging) of image and dialogue to create portraits of the principal's leadership identities it is set in situ within a principal professional learning community. A qualitative, multiple-case studies methodology was employed. The design was informed by a reflective practitioner approach and action learning orientation underpinned by arts-based inquiry, a methodological and theoretical genre that proposes a reinterpretation of the methods and ethics of human social research. The findings indicate that the personal development, self-awareness and growth of a leader are a catalyst to stimulate collective development and accomplishment.

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  • Learning Actions That Reduce Variation in Objects

    Bebbington, James (2011)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The variation in the data that a robot in the real world receives from its sensory inputs (i.e. its sensory data) will come from many sources. Much of this variation is the result of ground truths about the world, such as what class an object belongs to, its shape, its condition, and so on. Robots would like to infer this information so they can use it to reason. A considerable amount of additional variation in the data, however, arises as a result of the robot’s relative configuration compared to an object; that is, its relative position, orientation, focal depth, etc. Fortunately, a robot has direct control over this configural variation: it can perform actions such as tilting its head or shifting its gaze. The task of inferring ground truth from data is difficult, and is made much more difficult when data is affected by configural variation. This thesis explores an approach in which the robot learns to perform actions that minimize the amount of configural variation in its sensory data, making the task of inferring information about objects considerably easier. The value of this approach is demonstrated by classifying digits from the MNIST and USPS datasets that have been transformed in various ways so that they include various kinds of configural variation.

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  • Cambodian and Laotian Students' Experience of Language Barriers, Cultural Differences, and Teacher-Student Rapport in a University in Vietnam: A Grounded Theory Approach

    Doan, My Ngoc (2012)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    An increasing number of international students have enrolled in university degree programmes in Vietnam in recent years and this has presented a range of new pedagogical opportunities and challenges in the higher education context of the nation. Currently, little is known about international students’ academic experiences in Vietnamese universities although the literature suggests that effective teacher–student relationships are an important factor in establishing effective teaching and learning processes. This study employs grounded theory to examine the influence of teacher–student relationships on international students’ academic experiences at a university in Vietnam that is located in a region that draws in students from the neighbouring countries of Cambodia and Laos. A mixed research design combining data from questionnaires and in-depth interviews was used in this research. Data from questionnaires were collected from all Cambodian and Laotian international students who were enrolled at a university in the An Giang province in Vietnam’s Mekong Delta. These data were supplemented by in-depth interviews with a sample group of the students. The findings from this study show that while the Cambodian and Laotian international students reported good relationships with their Vietnamese teachers and having no difficulty in adapting to Vietnamese culture, they also struggled with the challenges of studying in a new language and this made it difficult for them to communicate effectively with their teachers or participate fully in classroom activities.

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  • Bishop Hobhouse: the Nelson episcopate (1859-1865) of the Rt. Rev Edmund Hobhouse D.D., first bishop of Nelson, New Zealand

    Clarke, Timothy Peter (1977)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    In 1841 New Zealand became a diocese of the United Church of England and Ireland and the Rev. George Augustus Selwyn, a former student and tutor of Eton, was consecrated as its bishop. Throughout the colony's earliest years Selwyn laboured alone to create for it a comprehensive episcopal system of ecclesiastical organisation. In 1856 he was joined by an old friend, the Rev. Henry John Chitty Harper who accepted the new bishopric centred on J.R. Godley's Church of England settlement in Canterbury. Further division of Selwyn's over-large diocese in 1858 created new dioceses in what had been the New Zealand Company's settlements at Wellington and Nelson and the Ven. Charles Abraham and the Rev. Edmund Hobhouse were appointed as their bishops. At the same time the volcanic plateau and east coast of the North Island became the missionary diocese of Waiapu with the Ven. William Williams as its bishop.

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  • Hyperfine Interactions in Organic Fragments

    Bailey, John Patrick Macarthur (1965)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis, the first thesis in theoretical chemistry submitted for the degree of Master of Science at Victoria University of Wellington, has been designed to illustrate two alternative approaches to theoretical studies. The first five chapters illustrate the modern use of operator methods; the last two are concerned mainly with molecular orbital calculations for large organic molecules, using a giant high speed electronic computer. I am deeply indebted to Mr Keith Morris, of the Applied Mathematics Division, Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, for his generous and highly competent help in writing computing programs, and operating computers, at all odd hours of the day and night, for the calculations in this thesis. I would also like to thank Dr R.M. Golding, for useful discussions, and the Director, Applied Mathematics Division, Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, for making computing facilities available.

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  • Calling to Complain: An Ethnographic and Conversation Analytic Account of Complaints to an Industry Ombudsman

    Dewar, Joe (2011)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Although the term complaining represents an ostensibly straightforward behaviour, it has come to obtain a range of meanings within academic and commercial works which have directed research toward understanding the behaviour and attempting to improve the way that it is undertaken, particularly in commercial environments where complaint handling constitutes an important field of commercial practice for many firms. It is proposed in this thesis that such variation in the way that complaining is approached is problematic, as it is treated ways that frequently underemphasise the fundamental point that it is overwhelmingly conducted in interpersonal interactions using language as its primary vehicle (Edwards, 2005). This thesis offers an approach to complaint handling and complaining that eschews such approaches in favour of an empirically grounded account based on the principles of ethnographic analysis, conversation analysis, and discursive psychology. Through investigating the complaint handling procedures as practiced by employees in an institution expressly dedicated to the receipt of complaints and enquiries from customers by employing participant observation and interviews, an account of complaint handling is developed that identifies how a range of forces works to impact on the way that it is performed in an institutional environment, furnishing complaint handling with a level of detail not currently offered in managerial literature dedicated to developing the practice. Next, two research chapters present the investigation of two different aspects of complaint interactions themselves. The first of these focuses on call openings as customers and institutional agents work to align themselves to the project of the call, demonstrating varying orientations to institutional complaining as callers demonstrate their own procedures for complaining (and enquiring) which may not match the institutional prerogatives and procedures of the agents receiving the calls. The final research chapter offers an analysis of a recurrent practice in the complaint calls themselves: callers’ use of self-disclosure in the service of rendering matters as problematic and warranting complaint. This finding adds to existing discursive understandings of how complaining is done. Taken together the findings offer an alternative approach to investigating complaint handling by treating it as an indexical practice bound to local demands. This offers a detailed depiction of complaint handling and complaining ‘in situ’ that may offer researchers and commercial entities a new approach to investigating how it is that complaining is done and how, in commercial or institutional contexts, complaint handling may be improved through the methods employed in the thesis.

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  • Sisters Walking Together: A Case Study of the CASA Model of Professional Midwifery Training

    Woodley Higgins, Jenny (2012)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Over the past three years there has been an increased focus on reducing global maternal mortality in developing countries. While substantial progress has been made, improvement remains slow in some areas. Making formal maternal healthcare services more acceptable, affordable and accessible to rural communities where the majority of maternal deaths occur, remains a considerable challenge. This study looks at the model of professional midwifery training employed at La Escuela de Partería Profesional de CASA [the CASA School of Professional Midwifery] in San Miguel de Allende, Mexico, whose aim is to train professional midwives who will provide culturally acceptable services in rural communities. It examines how the school's model reflects the development concept of community participation. This study adopted a single case study methodology to examine community participation at the CASA School of Professional Midwifery. Data collection techniques included the use of Semi-structured interviews, Focus Groups, Participant Observation and Document analysis. The study found that the CASA School included elements of participation within its model and highlights the different ways in which outsiders and insiders may arrive at implementing community participation-type processes in development initiatives. The study also finds that because of differences between the biomedical and development paradigms, the reality for many communities is that they are only permitted to participate in the maternal healthcare paradigms and models sanctioned by the state. The conclusion was that the CASA model of professional midwifery offers a new way to think about the relationship between maternal health professionals and the community, and of integrating communities back into the maternal health discourse.

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