82,469 results

  • The development of a decision support system for energy cost management, using an expert system shell : a case study in the integrated use of software packages : report presented in fulfilment of the thesis requirements for the degree of Master of Technology (Computing Technology)

    Robertson, L J (1989)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The theory of minimizing total energy usage is well known (if not well documented), and the techniques are widely practiced. Because of the way in which energy is sold, the total cost incurred may be affected even more strongly by the time-distribution of the energy usage, than by the total quantity used. A major subject of ECM is the MANAGEMENT of this time-distribution of energy usage, with the objective of minimizing of total energy costs to the user. A software package (named ECMES, Energy Cost Management Expert System) has been developed using the Lotus Symphony integrated spreadsheet software package. The ECMES application consists (currently) of three modules offering analyses of several aspects of electrical energy cost management (plus three corresponding modules for gas costs, which are not considered further). The Symphony ECM application modules have been developed over the last few years, largely on a spare time basis, by Professor W Monteith of Massey University's Production Technology Department. The analysis of Energy Cost Management on a PC is one which requires functions supplied by several standard software packages, particularly spreadsheet, graphics, database and expert system. The relatively recent availability of moderately priced and user-friendly expert system development packages has brought an additional set of powerful tools within the reach of the application developer. A Decision Support System (using an Expert System shell) has been developed, which is well integrated with the spreadsheet data, and with a database, to expand the functions of the original spreadsheet ECM analysis tool. Theoretical work on the data requirements and the production rules has opened up possibilities for future work.

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  • Ethanol metabolism in humans : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor in Philosophy at Massey University, New Zealand

    Couchman, Kenneth George (1979)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis outlines the development breath alcohol measurement and investigations of the rate of absorption, equilibration and elimination of alcohol from the body using breath analysis. After a historical outline, the methods of alcohol detection are reviewed a comparitive study of some modern breath alcohol testing instruments detailed. The results show that the gas chromatograph Intoximeter was the most reproducible and accurate instrument. Of the fuel cell instruments, the Alcolimiter gave reproducible readings but with a higher frequency of mechanical breakdowns and the Alcometers failed to hold a calibrated value on repeated testing. The chemical analysis of the Borkenstein Breathalyzer offered portability and freedom from calibration but with a lowering of accuracy. No instrument offered the degree of flexibility required for laboratory investigation of factors affeecting breath alcohol concentrations. Consequently a gas chromatograph was modified for breath sampling at 30 second intervals. The partition coefficients for alcohol between air and blood were found to be related to the water content of the blood sample. Breath alcohol concentrations increased with expiration volume and were related to a rise in breath temperature. After correcting to a standard temperature of 34°, a linear increase in alcohol concentration remained which was greater with higher blood alcohol levels. Equations for estimating the distribution volume of alcohol in the body were derived and the Widmark factor 'r' was found to be related to the ratio, body water over blood water. The blood alcohol time curves resulting from a fixed dose of alcohol given to semi-fasted subjects were analysed to determine the apparent distribution volumes in the body. Volumes exceeding physiological limits were found in some subjects and ascribed to either a faster rate of metabolism during the absorptive phase or to anomalies in equilibration. A markedly non-linear alcohol elimination curve was seen in one alcoholic. Faster rates of alcohol oxidation were discussed in relation to the Michaelis-Menten kinetics of enzymatic catabolism and it is suggested that some subjects have a second enzyme for alcohol metabolism which operates at a higher Km than normal. The fluctuations of blood alcohol level during the absorptive phase were examined by measuring the abundance of a tracer dose of deuterated alcohol given orally after a loading dose of unlabelled alcohol. The fluctuations were ascribed to contractions of the pyloric sphincter releasing alcohol into the duodenum in an irregular fashion. The studies were extended to subjects drinking in a private bar. The rate of alcohol absorption appeared to keep pace with the rate of drinking which was spread over at least a three hour period. The rates of alcohol elimination from the blood were faster than in a previous study with a lower dose of alcohol. This is explained by lower blood alcohol levels from a smaller dose and is consistent with the enzyme kinetics of alcohol catabolism. An equation was derived to enable the estimation of blood alcohol levels from amount consumed which compared favourably with traditional methods for this calculation. The accuracy, rapidity and ease with which breath alcohol analyses could be made to determine alcohol concentrations in the body enabled its use with large groups of people consuming alcohol at party situations or in hotel bars and two examples of such studies are presented in the appendix.

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  • q-space, restricted diffusion and pulsed gradient spin echo nuclear magnetic resonance : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Physics at Massey University

    Coy, Andrew (1995)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    The theory and technique of Pulsed Gradient Spin Echo (PGSE) Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) are presented. Particular attention is paid to the Fourier relationship between the average propagator of motion and the echo attenuation function. Using the q-space formalism, existing PGSE theory for diffusing molecules trapped between parallel barriers is extended to include the effects of relaxation at the walls. Computer simulations have been performed to test this extension to the theory and also to investigate the effect of finite gradient pulses in such an experiment. PGSE experiments were performed on pentane inside rectangular microslides of 100 μm width. Diffraction-like effects predicted by theory for such experiments were observed where the PGSE data has a minimum when the gradient wavevector q is equal to the reciprocal width of the microslides. Through the use of non-linear least squares fitting techniques the PGSE data is fitted to theories for perfectly reflecting walls, partially reflecting walls and wall with variable spacings. NMR microimaging experiments were performed on the microslide capillaries. The images revealed edge enhancement effects which can be explained through the signal attenuation expressions used in PGSE experiments. A brief theoretical discussion shows that the effect is due to the restricted diffusion of the molecules at the boundaries compared with the center of the sample. A pore hopping technique is presented which allows analytic expressions to be found for diffusion in porous media. PGSE experiments are performed on water diffusing in the interconnecting voids formed by close packed, monodisperse, micron sized polystyrene spheres. Diffraction-like interference effects predicted by theory are obsevered where the PGSE data has a maximum when q is equal to the reciprocal lattice spacing of the porous network. Using non-linear least squares fitting techniques the PGSE data is fitted to the pore hopping theory for a pore glass with some variation in pore spacing. The use of an appropriate structure function for the pore shape is analysed by modelling the true pore shape and comparing it to the structure function for a sphere. The parameters revealed by fitting theory to data are consistent with the known dimensions and show that important structural information can be revealed by this technique. Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) experiments are performed on the quasi-one-dimensional organic conductor (FA)2PF6. PGSE experiments on the conduction electrons show restricted diffusion effects. The PGSE data is analysed using both an impermeable relaxing wall model and a permeable pore hopping model. Fitting the data to these models show that a hopping model is more consistent with the data. PGSE experiments are performed on semi-dilute solutions of high molecular weight polystyrene dissolved in CCl4. The reptation model of diffusion is reviewed and features of this model relevant to PGSE experiments are detailed. PGSE experiments are performed and the mean square displacement of the entangled polymers is obtained as a function of diffusion time. Transitions from t to t1/2 scaling of the mean square displacement are found, and a region exhibiting t1/4 scaling is also observed, this region often being considered the signature for reptation. The PGSE-MASSEY technique, which pervides a method to correct for gradient pulse mismatch, is described. The details of the hardware and software implementation of this technique are also give. PGSE-MASSEY experiments are performed on the semi-dilute polymer solutions and enable structure functions to be acquired. These structure functions are compared to the primitive chain structure function enabling an estimate of the Doi-Edwards tube diameter to be made.

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  • A non-linear boundary value problem arising in the theory of thermal explosions : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Mathematics at Massey University

    Carter, Michael Rowlinson (1976)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    When a heat-producing chemical reaction takes place within a confined region, then under certain circumstances a thermal explosion will occur. In investigating from a theoretical viewpoint the conditions under which this happens, it is necessary to study the behaviour of the solution of a certain non-linear parabolic initial-boundary value problem. A frequently used approach is to study the problem indirectly, by investigating whether positive steady-state solutions exist; the underlying assumption is that positive steady-state solutions exist if and only if a thermal explosion does not occur. The main theme of this thesis is the development and application of an alternative direct approach to the problem, involving the construction of upper and lower solutions for the parabolic problem and the application of appropriate comparison theorems. The assumption here is that a thermal explosion will not occur if and only if the solution of the parabolic problem remains bounded for all positive time. Following three chapters of introductory material, Chapter 4 contains a survey of some of the important known results concerning the existence of positive steady-state solutions, especially those dealing with the effect on the theory of different assumptions as to the rate at which heat is produced in the reaction. The comparison theorems that are used in the alternative approach, which are modified versions of known results, are proved in Chapter 5. In Chapter 6, the equivalence of the two criteria mentioned above for the occurrence or non-occurrence of a thermal explosion is established under fairly general conditions. Also in this chapter, a critical value λ is defined for a parameter λ appearing in the problem, such that a thermal explosion will not occur if the value of λ is smaller than λ, but will occur if the value of λ is greater than λ. In Chapter 7, upper and lower solutions are constructed for the time-dependent problem under a variety of assumptions as to the rate at which heat is produced in the reaction, and these are used to obtain a number of theorems concerning the behaviour of the solution of the problem, especially as the time variable tends to infinity. The information obtained from these theorems is related to and compared with that known from investigations of the existence of positive steady-state solutions. In conclusion, a theorem is proved concerning the effect of reactant consumption on the theory. This is examined in the light of some recent research, and an apparent defect which is thereby revealed in the usual criteria for the occurrence of a thermal explosion is discussed. The theorems of Chapter 7 are employed in Chapter 8 to obtain rigorously derived bounds for the critical parameter λ, for a number of different shapes of the region in which the reaction takes place; these bounds are compared with known estimates for λ obtained using an empirically derived formula. The thesis concludes, in Chapter 9, by using the methods of Chapters 7 and 8 to obtain some results concerning the case where the boundary condition is non-linear.

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  • Studies on parasitic protozoa of the genus Sarcocystis : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Veterinary Science at Massey University

    Collins, George Henry (1980)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Earlier investigations into the biology of Sarcocystis are briefly reviewed; information reported since 1972 is reviewed in detail. The relative efficiency of haemagglutination (HAT, macro and micro systems), complement fixation (CFT, macro and micro systems) and the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) was studied using macrocysts (S. gigantia) from sheep oesophagi as antigen. In the HAT, macro system titres were always higher than micro system titres. Hyper immunised rabbits had higher titres than hyperimmunised sheep. Fifteen of 24 naturally infected sheep had negative titres. The macro CFT gave comparable results: the micro CFT was affected by persistent anticomplementary factors in sheep serum. The IFAT was both sensitive and repeatable. In all test systems, Sarcocystis antibody titres were minimal in infected adult sheep and in pasture-raised lambs. The value of serology in surveys of prevalence and in diagnosis of sarcocystosis is discussed. Two types of macrocyst were found in skeletal muscle of sheep at slaughter: 'fat' cysts resembled oesophageal cysts (S. gigantia) grossly and in ultrastructure of the wall; 'thin' cysts (S. medusiformis n. sp.) were narrower and ultrastructurally distinct. The relative prevalences of the three sheep macrocysts were independent. Fat and thin macrocysts were transmitted to cats and similarly sized sporocysts produced. S. gigantia sporocysts failed to infect lambs; reasons for this are discussed. Survival of S. gigantia macrocysts was studied using an oxygen electrode and by cat feeding. Macrocysts were viable after 10 minutes at 52.5°C but not after 20 minutes at 55°C or 10 minutes at 60°C. Macrocysts survived 60 days at -14°C, cysts stored at 10°C for 13 days and 4°C for 30 days metabolised vigorously. Sheep meat should be exposed to 60°C for at least 20 minutes to render it non-infective for cats. Using muscle digestion and histology, Sarcocystis spp. were found in (%; number examined); feral goats (28;60), red deer (30;50), wild pig (10;50), norway rat (84;50), mouse (8;50) and rabbit (16;50); none in 62 opossums and 8 wallabies. A goat species was transmitted to dogs (sporocysts 13.6±0.69x9.25±0.55), a rabbit species to cats (sporocysts 12.5±0.31x9. 29±0.45) and one in rats to cats (sporocysts 10.59±0.52x7.87±0.41). Appropriate sporocysts failed to infect laboratory rats or rabbits. A survey showed that feral cats inhabit and breed in a variety of terrains in most parts of New Zealand. The commonest foods eaten were rabbit (22% total reports), opossum (18%), sheep (16.6%) and birds (14.5%). The development and pathogenesis of a dog-derived species was studied in goats. Doses of 5 x 106 sporocysts caused death at 18 and 19 days after infection; necropsy revealed extensive petechial haemorrhages. Schizonts occupied endothelial cells, especially in renal glomeruli. 6 x 105 sporocysts caused death at 24 and 34 days; lesser doses caused pyrexia, anaemia, anorexia and stunting. Sarcocysts were found in muscle fibres at 34 days, appeared mature at 80 days and were infective for dogs at 129 days. Changes in levels of Hb, PCV, TP, SGOT and Saracocystis antibodies were shown. Four sheep given sporocysts were not infected. The potential importance of sarcocystosis in animal production and the need for further research is discussed.

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  • An investigation into the techniques of direct drilling seeds into undisturbed, sprayed pasture : a thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Baker, Christopher John (1976)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Methods of evaluating the techniques and equipment used for direct drilling of seeds into untilled soils were reviewed and developed. Field tests were used to highlight seedling establishment problems and were complimented by a tillage bin technique which sought to isolate variables such as climate, soil type and soil moisture regime. The tillage bin technique involved collecting half-tonne undisturbed blocks of turf in open ended steel bins using a special turf cutting machine. These tillage bins were subjected to a common climate and moisture supply by placing them beneath transparent rain canopies and applying water artificially. Drilling utilized a support bed on which several bins were placed end to end and which was straddled by a moving gantry and tool testing apparatus operating on rails alongside. This facility allowed close visual appraisal to be made of the action of coulters and seed deposition and was operated at speeds which were infinitely variable, within limits. Seed metering was precisely controlled and selected coulter forces and soil physical properties were measured with the apparatus. Turf blocks, in their tillage bins, were returned to the rain protection canopies after drilling for plant response studies. Soil cover over the seed appeared to be important in promoting seedling emergence. Field covering devices were evaluated and a bar harrow was developed and adopted as a standard covering procedure. The importance of covering the seed appeared to be more pronounced with large seeds such as maize and barley than with smaller seeds such as lucerne. A strong relationship between visual scoring of the amount and type of cover, and seedling emergence data was established. This favoured covering media with a predominance of unbroken dead pasture mulch, compared with loose soil and rubble. The performances of a range of drill coulters operating at slow speeds in association with the bar harrow, were compared in terms of plant responses under soil moisture stress. An experimental chisel coulter was developed to obviate the noted shortcomings of some of these existing coulters. In contrast to the "V" shaped grooves left by most coulters, the chisel confined most of its soil disturbance to sub surface layers, with a narrow opening at the surface. With all coulters, seed germination appeared to be less affected by coulter design than seedling emergence because of sub surface mortality of seedlings. In this respect clear seedling emergence responses favoured the chisel coulter. Maximum wheat seedling emergence with the chisel coulter assembly was 77%, which was significantly greater than hoe and triple disc coulters with 27% and 26% respectively. As the initial soil moisture level was raised in other experiments the magnitude of these differences decreased but the order of ranking remained. A 22% comparative decrease in initial soil moisture content was necessary to reduce the performance of the chisel coulter to a similar level to that of the hoe and triple disc coulters. Difficulty was experienced in accurately monitoring in-groove soil moisture regimes, but irrigation responses and gravimetric determinations of sub samples suggested that the ability of grooves to retain available soil moisture was a critical factor in the plant emergence responses. Soil temperatures appeared not to be greatly affected by coulter type in these experiments although the in-groove minimum temperature with the chisel coulter was significantly higher than the hoe and triple disc coulters in one experiment. Observation of the modes of action of coulters showed that the chisel and hoe coulters produced some upward soil heaving while the triple disc appeared to operate with a downward and outward wedging action in the soil. An increase in soil density under the groove resulted from passage of the triple disc coulter but no effect on density was seen with the chisel or hoe coulters. The down forces required for 38 mm penetration of all coulters tested, appeared also to be closely related to their modes of action and relatively insensitive to soil moisture content in the stress range. In this respect the triple disc required 1.4 times more force than the dished disc coulter and from 2.3 to 4.6 times more force than a range of 4 other coulters. Field tests of the wear rates of chisel coulters constructed of various steel based materials, with and without hardening treatments, suggested a number of preferred treatments but could not establish any difference in wear rate from coulters operating in the tractor wheel marks compared with those operating in unmarked soil.

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  • Key Elements for Engaging Dairy Farmers in Action Towards Healthy Waterways: a Case Study in the Aorere Catchment, New Zealand

    Robertson, Jodie (2011)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Over the past few years, there has been increasing attention in New Zealand drawn to the pollution of water bodies from dairy farm effluent, and ways to mitigate this. The aim of this research is to identify the key elements involved in engaging farmers in community based action to mitigate agricultural water pollution. The study examines a Landcare project that has shown signs of apparent success, entitled the Aorere Catchment Project (ACP), in Golden Bay, New Zealand. The ACP was initiated after the Aorere River was found to have high pathogen levels, likely resulting from dairy farm runoff. This research evaluates the projects apparent success, and follows the evolution of the project to gain an understanding of the key success factors in engaging farmers. Surveys of dairy farmers in the Aorere valley were undertaken in 2007 and again in 2010 to identify management practices and identify changes in issues and farmer attitudes over this period. This study found that the ACP has had extensive success, both in resolving waterway issues and engaging farmers in action for healthy waterways. The underlying community led philosophy of the project has been vital in the success of this project. The key project principles, ‘farmers as leaders’, and ‘experts on tap not on top’ have contributed greatly to the projects uptake. There are however some catchment specific elements that have aided the apparent success of this initiative. The Aorere catchment project model unchanged would not be suitable for every catchment in New Zealand, as not all the elements of success were under the projects control. The model does however serve as a good example for similar projects in other New Zealand catchments, and also the importance of a suitable indicator of success.

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  • Appraisal: a process for control or development?: a study of teacher accountability, power and decision-making with emphasis on the New Zealand context

    Aikin, Sandra Wendy (1994)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This sociological-historical study aims to contribute to the understanding and analysis of the changing pattern of power and decision-making in education apparent in the development of teacher appraisal policy. The study provides an account of the factors influencing the New Zealand teacher appraisal policy draft which at the time of writing is still to be released. A range of considerations to be taken into account is exposed and the signposts for the development of teacher appraisal policy are made explicit. This is achieved by making the process transparent as well as recognising and evaluating the contribution made by participants. A key feature of this study is the examination of the 'policy importation' process as the emerging demand for greater teacher accountability in both the United Kingdom and New Zealand has resulted in the formalisation of the assessment of teachers' professional performance through appraisal policies. This study argues that three perspectives have shaped the debate on teacher appraisal: neo-liberal market; managerial; and professional. It posits that a noticeable shift has been made towards the requirements of managerial accountability and examines the reasons for this.

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  • Crystal Specific Constraints on Subvolcanic Processes Preceding Eruptions at Mt Taranaki, New Zealand

    Martin, Sarah Alicia (2012)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Andesitic magmas are the product of a complex interplay of processes including fractional crystallisation, crystal accumulation, magma mixing and crustal assimilation. Recent studies have suggested that andesitic rocks are in many cases a complex mixture of a crystal cargo and melts with more silicic compositions than andesite. In situ glass- and mineral-specific geochemical techniques are therefore key to unravelling the processes and timescales over which andesitic magmas are produced, assembled and transported to the surface. To this end, this thesis presents a detailed in situ glass- and mineral-specific study of six Holocene eruptions (Kaupokonui, Maketawa, Inglewood a and b, and Korito) at Mt Taranaki to investigate the petrogenetic processes responsible for producing these sub-plinian eruptions at this long-lived (130 000 yr) andesitic volcano. Mt Taranaki is an andesitic stratovolcano located on the west coast of New Zealand’s North Island and as such it is distinct from the main subduction related volcanism. Crystal-specific major and trace element data were combined with textural analysis and quantitative modelling of intensive magmatic parameters and crystal residence times to identify distinct mineral populations and constrain the magmatic histories of the crystal populations. Least-squares mixing modelling of glass and phenocryst compositions demonstrates that the andesitic compositions of bulk rock Mt Taranaki eruptives results from mixing of a daciticrhyolitic melt and a complex crystal cargo (plagioclase, pyroxene, amphibole) that crystallised from multiple melts under a wide range of crustal conditions. Magma mixing of compositionally similar end members that mix efficiently also occurred beneath Mt Taranaki, and as such only produced prominent disequilibrium textures in a small proportion of the minerals in the crystal cargo. The chemistry of the earliest crystallising amphibole indicates crystallisation from an andesitic-dacitic melt at depths of ca. 20-25 km, within the lower crust. Magmas then ascended through the crust relatively slowly via a complex magmatic plumbing system. However, most of the crystal cargo formed by decompression-driven crystallisation at depth so 6-10 km, as is indicated by the dominance of oscillatory zoning and the equilibrium obtained between mineral rims and the host glasses. Taranaki magmas recharge on timescales of 1000-2000 yrs. The eruptions investigated here provide a snapshot of the end of one cycle and the beginning of another. The younger Kaupokonui and Maketawa eruptions (ca. 2890 - < 1 week.

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  • Ion channels of the tonoplast membrane of Nitella hookeri

    Younger, Mark (2001)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Ion channels in cytoplasmic droplets of the characean algae Nitella hooketi have been studied using the patch clamp technique. This technique enables the measurement of the ionic current through single membrane channels. Several channels have previously been identified and characterised in characean tonoplast membranes. These include at least one type of potassium channel (in Chara australis; Lühring, 1986, C. gymtlophylla; Andjus et aI., 1999 and Djurisic & Andjus, 2000, and C. corallina; Tyerman & Findlay, 1989) and one chloride channel (in C. coraiiilla; Tyerman & Findlay, 1989). The tonoplast membrane of N. hooken was surveyed for its similarity to those in previous studies. A potassium channel was observed that correlated with reports of either a 60pS channel (Tyerman & Findlay, 1989), or a 170pS channel that showed a predominant subconductance state that had a conductance of 60pS (Luhring, 1999). Other potassium channels observed conducted at ~40pS, ~20pS, and ~80pS. A chloride channel was recorded that resembled that reported in the tonoplast membrane of C. Coralline (21pS). Other Chloride channels observed conducted at ~78pS, and ~100pS. A channel protein's reaction to glycation, via the Maillard reaction, was studied using the improved patch clamp technique. Preliminary results show that methylglyoxal (a glycating agent) addition decreases channel conductance while a control of time (no addition) showed no similar reduction. It is hypothesised that cross-linking and other covalent modification, known to result from the Maillard reaction, has altered the channel's structure to induce this change. A similar experiment using glutaraldehyde (another glycating agent known to react at a greater speed) gave similar preliminary results.

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  • Self-regulation and violent offending

    Zegerman, Brenda (2001)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Recent advances in the sexual offending area have resulted in the development of a metatheoretical framework which in essence 'knits' previously unrelated theoretical work together under a new framework that accounts for aspects of the phenomenon for which individual theories could not account. Ward and Hudson's (1998) self-regulatory model of the offense process of sexual offending is an exercise in such theory knitting. While a reasonable amount is known regarding the broad variables that are thought to be relevant to the etiology of violence, little if anything is known about the actual processes involved in the execution of the violent behavior as it relates to non-sexual, non-domestic interpersonal violence. These descriptive models of the process have considerable utility in identifying treatment needs. The purpose of the present work is to ascertain the applicability of the self-regulatory model to the offense processes of violent offenders. A review of the literature regarding relapse prevention in sexual offending and self-regulation is followed by an overview of the self-regulation model as it applies to sexual offending. Thereafter is a brief review of available literature regarding violent offending. Analysis of the offense chains of 22 incarcerated men who had offended violently showed that the offense processes of such men closely matched those of men who had offended sexually. Results indicated that while there was considerable overlap between the offense processes described by the men in this study, there were also some points of departure with the self-regulatory model developed to describe these processes in sexual offenders. Further, most participants were insecurely attached and showed significant anger on the STAXI). Suggestions for research and clinical work are briefly described.

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  • The interaction between caffeine and anxiety level during stress

    Whitley, A. O. (1985)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    An experiment was conducted to examine the potential interaction of caffeine and psychological stress in human subjects. More specifically, subjects comprised of those who showed 'high' and 'low' trait anxiety levels as determined by administration of the Spielberger Trait - Anxiety Inventory. Each student consumed caffeine on a regular basis (2 or more cups of coffee and/or tea per day). Subjects were run in a single-blind, randomized crossover design with caffeine (400mg) and placebo. Each subject participated in two, one and a half hour experimental sessions held one week apart. The cardiovascular effects of a high (400mg) dose of caffeine, equivalent to 4 or 5 cups of coffee, were measured during periods of rest and psychological stress. The stressor involved the administration of a mental arithmetic task (serial subtraction) with a set time limit. Subjects were required to perform as well as they could challenging conditions. In addition, subjects "alertness" and "tension" after each part under reported of each subjective session, using 10cm visual analogue scales representing each of these two dimensions. Previous investigations have documented correlations between caffeine intake and variables of heart rate, blood pressure, alertness, tension, and performance, but there has been no experimental work comparing the response of high and low trait anxiety subjects with respect to these variables. Since caffeine is a central nervous system stimulant it is reasonable to suggest that the drug could be used as a means for low anxiety people to reach an optimal level of arousal, and hence perform optimally in a stressful situation (eg. exams or public speaking). Likewise, it is equally reasonable to suggest that caffeine usage may well be avoided by those people who have high anxiety levels if they are to perform well. The experimental results showed that the order of drug presentation proved more than caffeine administration to be the most recurrent and important variable involved in interaction. Caffeine did not appear to have a potential additive effect on the cardiovascular measurements and subjective self reports, with that produced by psychological stress. High anxiety female subjects showed the greatest elevation in resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure with caffeine consumption. Low anxiety males showed the greatest elevation in diastolic blood pressure with caffeine consumption during the stressful situation. High anxiety males and low anxiety females showed the greatest elevations in heart rate during rest. Males showed greater reported levels of tension with caffeine consumption both at rest and during stress, than did females. High anxiety subjects showed greater elevations in alertness both at rest and during stress following caffeine consumption than low anxiety subjects. Finally, caffeine consumption was found to have no effect on performance in a mental arithmetic task, in both high and low anxiety groups. It is concluded from the results that caffeine administration (400mg) cannot be used as a means for a low anxiety person to reach an optimal drive or stress level to perform optimally during a stressful situation. Likewise, there was no evidence to suggest that those who have high anxiety levels should avoid caffeine consumption to achieve such a goal.

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  • The effect of tidal level on energy balance of the greenshell mussel, Perna canaliculus

    Weatherhead, Mark A. (1993)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This study investigated the energetics of the greenshell mussel, Perna canaliculus, one of New Zealand's most commercially important aquaculture species. Aerial and aquatic rates of O₂ uptake, filtration rate, assimilation efficiency and nitrogen excretion were measured for mussels collected from Taylors Mistake at two shore levels (0.0 (low shore) and 1.0 m (high shore) above mean low water). Measurements were made for winter (May to August) and summer (November to January) collected mussels. I also calculated the dry weight condition index for high and low shore level P.canaliculus from Taylors Mistake four or five times during the year. Cl was consistently higher for mussels found at the low shore level (yearly mean = 80.3 ± 7.6) than high shore mussels (yearly mean = 68.8 ± 1). Scope for growth (SFG) of Perna canaliculus was calculated for high and low shore mussels collected during winter and summer. Aerial and aquatic O₂ uptake increased with body weight with weight exponents between 0.57 and 0.91. Aerial and aquatic oxygen uptake was similar for high and low shore mussels. Aerial VO₂ was maximal at 10°C during winter and 15°C in summer. This energy conservation was interpreted as a mechanism to reduce desiccation. Clearance rates were calculated for mussels fed on a monoculture of Isochrysis galbana. They were higher for upper shore collected P.canaliculus than low shore mussels during both winter (high shore = 3.6 l hr -¹ g-¹; low shore = 2.5 l hr-¹ g-¹) and summer (high 2.1 l hr-¹ g-¹; low = 0.7 l hr-¹ g-¹). This was interpreted as an adaptation to compensate for reduced feeding time due to aerial exposure of high shore animals. Assimilation efficiency of P.canaliculus fed on a monoculture of I.galbana was constant over a broad range of algal concentrations with an average value of 83%. Assimilation efficiencies were similar for high and low shore mussels. Excretion rates of ammonia-nitrogen (NH₄-N) were higher in winter than summer. Winter rates of excretion were 59.7 and 20.3 μg NH₄ - N hr-¹ g-¹ for high and low shore mussels respectively. Summer rates were 14.6 for high shore and 13.7 for low shore mussels. Higher excretion rates during winter are thought to be due to utilisation of bodily reserves due to starvation. Scope for growth was greater for high shore collected mussels than low shore mussels due mainly to increased clearance rates. When SFG was adjusted to take into account reduced feeding time due to aerial exposure, high and low shore animals had a similar SFG during winter. However, high shore animals had increased SFG during summer. In contrast with findings of SFG calculations, natural growth rates of upper shore P.canaliculus appear to be slower than their low shore counterparts. This is reflected by a consistently lower Cl and a smaller average shell length (high shore = 57.6 ± 20.8 mm; low shore = 80.2 ± 20.8 mm). Although P.canaliculus has the ability to increase its filtration rate with reduced periods of tidal submersion the increased energy intake appears not to compensate for metabolic demand. During summer high shore mussels would experience high air temperatures when exposed causing increased anaerobic metabolic rates and risk of desiccation. It is concluded that the upper tidal limits of Perna canaliculus may be limited by physical factors such as temperature stress and desiccation before energetic constraints apply.

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  • Comparative analysis of psychotherapy integrative theories

    Tojcic, Irena (2000)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Psychotherapy represents a diverse and controversial field. It is characterised by an excessive proliferation of various psychotherapeutic approaches accompanied by the sectarian attitudes of a majority of psychotherapists. In response to these, the psychotherapy integration movement was established. Within this movement three ways of psychotherapy integration have emerged, namely, theoretical integration, common factors approach and technical eclecticism. Methodological issues of theoretical integration are the focus of interest in this thesis. The current methodological recommendations in this area seem to be very limited. A specific method of assimilative integration has been proposed and the necessity of the existence of metatheoretical congruence between theories to be integrated has been emphasised. Both of these recommendations are in need of further elaboration and extension. In order to clarify some of these methodological issues, the current "state of the art" of theoretical integration is explored by comparatively analysing existing integrative theories. In this way, their similarities and differences are revealed with the unveiling of some aspects of the integrative assimilation that was used in their creation. On the basis of these findings some guidelines for future theoretical integration are proposed that might prompt further theoretical and empirical research in this area.

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  • WorkAbilities : A study of chronic pain and work disability

    Thompson, Bronwyn F. (1999)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Many people in New Zealand stop working, and then remain off work after developing musculoskeletal pain. Some individuals return to work after some time, others remain off work despite receiving a great many biomedical and other interventions. That one group of individuals with the diagnosis of chronic pain syndrome are able to return to work while others with the same diagnosis fail to return to work suggests that factors other than the presence or absence of pain determine whether an individual develops and maintains a work disability. This thesis explores the generation of a model of work disability for individuals with chronic musculoskeletal pain who have completed a pain management programme at the Burwood Pain Management Centre. Abductive method of theory development has been used to guide the process. This method of reasoning works back from identified phenomenon to presumed cause, and explicitly acknowledges those parts of the research process that are not always considered important enough to be mentioned in the hypothetico-deductive method. These aspects include the constraints of the setting in which the research problem has arisen, the prominent role of early data collection and analysis, generation of models to explain data patterns which may have been identified during exploratory analysis, and the approach to theory appraisal which incorporates consideration of explanatory coherence, simplicity and analogy as well as empirical robustness. The thesis describes features of the clinical setting, and issues raised by the literature, in order to form the question: “Is it possible to conceptualise work disability so that individuals with chronic pain can develop skills to overcome their challenges for return to work?”. An assessment process and intervention programme developed for the Pain Management Centre, Burwood Hospital, was used as the vehicle for exploring individuals' understanding of their problem, and generating a model of work disability. The intervention programme also provided preliminary outcomes for evaluating and enriching the model of work disability.

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  • Food resource utilisation by Tenagomysis chiltoni (Crustacea, Mysidacea)

    Waite, Roger P. (1981)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The interrelationships existing between some different parameters which may have influenced the diet of Tenagomysis chiZtoni (Crustacea, Mysidacea) were investigated in Lake Ellesmere, South Canterbury, New Zealand (43°48'S, 172°22'E). The mysid was found to be omnivorous and ingested foods having both aquatic and terrestrial origins. The stomach contents of 1113 mysids were examined. The diet was mainly composed of macrophyte detritus, filamentous algae, diatoms, calanoid and harpacticoid copepods, chironomids, amphipods and ostracods. Seasonal variations in the length-frequency structure of T. chiltoni populations were observed. These variations were due to the emergence and development of successive broods. An associated variation in the male:female ratios was found, and may be due to males dying out before females belonging to the same cohort. The most important intrinsic factor exerting an influence on the diet of an individual was the length of a mysid which was partly dependent on the sex of an individual. Hunger did not affect the nature of the food ingested. Changes in the length-frequency structure of the population were observed which influenced the quality and quantity of the diet of T. chiltoni. Some environmental parameters also influenced the quantity ingested. The nature of the water column and, to a lesser extent, benthic, food resources, regulated the selection of diet by the mysid which was controlled by physical considerations. Seasonal cyclical variations in the availability of some food resources caused changes in the diet of T. chiltoni. The observed diet of T. chiltoni is a product of the complex interaction of intrinsic and extrinsic factors and varies in space and time.

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  • Aspects of the behaviour of the South Island fantail, Rhipidura fuliginosa fuliginosa

    Ude Shankar, Maxine J. (1977)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The fantail is a small passerine belonging to the family Muscicapidae (subfamily Muscicapinae), which also contains such birds as tits, robins and flycatchers. The fantails of the genus Rhipidura inhabit Australia, New Guinea, the Philippines, parts of South-East Asia, New Zealand and many remote islands of the Pacific (Gilliard 1958). The New Zealand Fantail is divided into three subspecies which are dimorphic with pied and black phases which freely interbreed. This study is concerned with the subspecies Rhipidura fuliginosa fuliginosa (the South Island Fantail). Although the New Zealand Fantail is common throughout its range, very little information is available on its biology and behaviour. The few studies undertaken in New Zealand have been concerned with plumage patterns, particularly with respect to differences between pied and black phases (Fleming 1949, Soper 1964, Kinsky 1965). In a related study. Caughley (1969) studied the genetics of melanism in the fantail. The only study which provided some insight into the behaviour of this bird was undertaken by Blackburn (1965); his work was on the North Island Fantail and it was mainly concerned with the breeding biology of the subspecies rather than the behaviour. A few notes on the sighting of fantails, or brief descriptions on the nesting and re-use of nests by New Zealand Fantails have been published (Moncrieff 1931. Fleming 1949, Cunningham 1954. Blackburn 1966, Coates 1966, Flux 1974).

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  • Shelf-to-canyon sedimentation on the South Westland Continental Margin, Westland, New Zealand.

    Radford, Josh (2012)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The South Westland Continental Margin (SWCM) is incised by two major active canyon channels, the Hokitika and Cook canyons, which export large volumes of terrigenous sediment from the active New Zealand landmass to the deep ocean basins. This thesis examines modern sediment textures and compositions of shelf and canyon heads, to interpret depositional and transport processes in shelf-canyon interactions and the dispersal and provenance of SWCM surface sediments. This is the first detailed study of modern sediments south of the Whataroa River which focuses on both shelf and canyon head sediments. Submarine canyons that incise active continental shelves are major conduits for sediment transfer. The frequency and magnitude of this transfer has important implications for ocean nutrient cycling (i.e. organic carbon), the stratigraphy and morphology of continental shelves, and the development of economic mineral deposits. Grain size analysis, petrology, geochemistry, detrital magnetite analysis (microprobe), swath bathymetry, and wave hindcast data are used to interpret the spatial distribution, dispersal, and provenance of surface grab samples, canyon cores, and beach and river samples on the SWCM. Four main surficial facies are defined from textural and compositional results, primarily reflecting the supply and storm dominated nature of the SWCM. Facies 1 is comprised of inner shelf very fine to medium sand sized quartz, metamorphic lithics, and feldspar. This facies occurs above the mean Hsig wave base (48 m) where silts, clays, and sand sized micas are bypassed further offshore. Facies 2 is a transitional sand to mud facies between 40 -70 m depth where increasing clay, silt, and mica reflect a decrease in the frequency and magnitude of wave orbital remobilisation. Facies 3 is a mud dominated (80-90%), clay rich (7-9%) facies with the highest mica and Al₂O₃ content of all the SWCM facies. The shelves south of the Hokitika canyon are blanketed beyond the inner shelf in facies 3 towards the shelf break. Facies 4 is restricted to the canyon head north rims and is characterised by mixed relict and modern terrigenous sediments and glaucony. Net transport on the SWCM shelf is to the north, particularly during south-westerly storms where wind drift and storm swells may stir and transport the deeper Facies 2 and 3 sediments. The SWCM has an energetic wave climate and numerous high yield mountainous rivers. As a result the shelf has an extensive coverage of silts and clays with sediment transport most likely dominated by nepheloid layers and fluid mud flows during wet storms. North of the Hokitika canyon, shelf width increases as fluvial supply falls, resulting in a more storm dominated shelf as the prevailing hydraulic conditions prevent modern silts and clays from blanketing the outer shelf. Narrower shelf widths and higher fluvial supply between the Hokitika canyon and the Haast region results in more fluvial dominated shelves. Contrasting canyon rim textures and compositions reflect the major influence the Hokitika and Cook canyon heads impose on the SWCM by intercepting modern net northward shelf transport paths. This interception creates a leeward sediment deficit on the canyon north rims where low sedimentation rates prevail and relict sediments are partially exposed. The south and east rims of both canyons are characterised by modern fine grained terrigenous textures and compositions similar to the SWCM middle to outer shelf facies 3. The build-up and storage of these unconsolidated sediments at the south and east rims provides favourable environments for sediment gravity flows that feed into the canyon systems. Wave orbitals can resuspend fine sands up to 50 m below the canyon rims during large storms. This resuspension will be a main driver of canyon head sedimentation in the form of fluid mud flows. Gully networks along the south and east rims of the Hokitika and Cook canyons indicate active submarine erosion, unconfined fluid flow, and sediment gravity flows operate here. ii In contrast, the north canyon rims are characterised by gravels and coarse sands out of equilibrium with the prevailing modern hydraulic regime. Relict gravels are particularly prevalent on the Hokitika canyon north rim between 90 – 150 m depth. A lack of active gully networks and the presence of relict terraces and cuspate channels provide further evidence for a relict origin of HCH north rim sediments and little influx of modern fine sediments. North rim sediments on the Hokitika canyon between 90 – 125 m have features characteristic of relict beach and littoral environments. These features include pebble and coarse sand sized siliciclastics, high heavy mineral percentages (i.e. garnet), high Zr and Y levels, elevated SiO₂/Al₂O₃ ratios, and relict shell fragments. Mature glaucony is common on the north rims of both canyons, especially between 180 -200 m depth providing further evidence for extended periods of little to no modern sediment deposition in the canyon lee. Glaucony grains have experienced limited transport and are probably parautochthonous. The bulk composition of SWCM shelf, canyon, river, and beach sediments is controlled mainly by the hydrodynamic sorting of Alpine Schist derived material. Regional changes in catchment geology are identified in modern SWCM shelf sediments. Ultramafic signals (i.e. enriched trace element patterns and Cr/V and Ni/Y ratios) from the Pounamu Ultramafics and Dun Mountain Ultramafics were identified on the North and Cascade shelves respectively. The contribution of other lithologies to the bulk composition of SWCM sediments is localised due to rapid dilution with Alpine Schist detritus. The low carbonate and skeletal content on the SWCM is due to the energetic wave climate and high fluvial supply on the shelves. A variety of Cr-rich spinels and magnetites are supplied to the SWCM shelves and vary with regional changes in catchment geology. The Cascade shelf is rich in chromites (containing up to 215,000 ppm Cr) and Cr – rich magnetites sourced from the Dun Mountain Ultramafics via the Cascade River. Shelf, beach, and river samples between the Haast River and Waitaha River are dominated by low-Cr magnetite grains which represent the ‘background’ magnetite composition sourced from rivers draining the Alpine Schist dominated catchments. The dispersal of Cr-rich spinels is limited due to the dilution with low Cr-magnetites from rivers and littoral sediments. Glacio-eustatic lowstands such as the Last Glacial Cold Period (LGCP), represented periods of robust connection of local rivers with the Hokitika and Cook canyon heads, increased interception of littoral transport paths, and compartmentalisation of inter-canyon shelves. Hokitika canyon cores reflect these changes with textural and compositional ‘spikes’ indicating higher terrigenous input during the LGCP. The geochemistry of the terrigenous fraction in the Hokitika canyon provides evidence for enrichment in ferromagnesian and Cr-rich minerals during the LGCP. This is due to the increased connectivity of the Cr-spinel bearing Hokitika River to the canyon head. The Cr/V ratio in particular demonstrates its effectiveness as a proxy for interglacial – glacial change in submarine canyon stratigraphy. Increases and decreases in the connectivity of Cr-bearing fluvial systems during lowstands and highstands respectively can be observed with this ratio.

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  • Studies in the life history and taxonomy of the genus Enteromorpha

    Rawlence, David J. (1966)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The genus Enteromorpha is usually placed in the family Ulvaceae (Bliding, 1963; Taylor, 1937, 1960; Chapman, 1956). This family includes those green algae with flat or tubular thalli, and cells with one or two lateral chromatophores and a single pyrenoid. The asexual spore-producing and sexual gamete-producing generations are morphologically identical (Bliding, 1963 P.41). Enteromorpha includes the branched or unbranched monostromatic members of the Ulvaceae which are hollow and tubular. A variety of life histories have been described for the Genus. These include monomorphic diplontic - Enteromorpha intestinalis var asexualis (Bliding, 1963), Enteromorpha biflagellata (Bliding, 1944); Monomorphic diplohaplontic - several species including Enteromorpha ramulosa (Hartmann, 1929), Enteromorpha intestinalis (Kylin, 1930 a.; Eliding, 1948 a.); Monomorphic haplontic Enteromorpha stipitata P. Dangeard var linzoides nov. var. (Bliding, 1960). No dimorphic diplohaplontic life histories have as yet been described for any member of the Ulvaceae. There have, however, been indications of their existence in some genera. Pocock (1961) investigated this possibility in Letterstedtia. Chapman (1956) discussed the possible alternation of a branched and unbranched generation in Enteromorpha australiensis unsupported to date by experimental evidence. The main object of this thesis was to study any local Enteromorpha population which appeared to have a dimorphic diplohaplontic life history. The writer, found evidence of such a life history in an Enteromorpha population in the Motunau River, North Canterbury. This thesis details a series of observations and experiments with the object of confirming this observation. During preliminary experimental work, however, several additional problems emerged. These required investigation before the original objective could become meaningful. One of those problems was the classification of the populations studied. Early attempts to classify the Motunau River population proved difficult. The characters usually considered to be of greatest taxonomic importance were found to vary considerably within the population. As a result a dichotomous key would not place a plant unambiguously into a single species. It was felt that a greater knowledge of the variation in the diagnostic characters was necessary before any species could be accurately identified. In order to elucidate the systematic position as well as the life history of the Motunau Enteromorpha population it was necessary to establish cultures. Fertile plants had to be collected and zooid release effected in the laboratory. Extreme difficulty was experienced in both these respects. It was difficult to find any fertile plants and even more so to effect zooid release. Emphasis was therefore placed upon periodicity observations and the conditions influencing zooid release in the laboratory and natural environment. Once the desired cultures were established, the extreme variability of orthodox taxonomic criteria led to the search for others, and the possibility of using embryology as a taxonomic criterion was investigated. Here additional problems emerged. Plants of the same age were observed to have widely different embryo form. This situation was found in a number of populations. The objectives of this thesis therefore became to study (1) the natural variation of selected taxonomic characters, (2) zooid release in the natural environment and in the laboratory, (3) the variation in embryology of several populations, and (4) to determine the type of life history possessed by an Enteromorpha population growing in the Motunau River, North Canterbury.

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  • Can the visual arts benefit health and healing?

    Stock-Johnston, H. M. (1977)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The present research aimed to investigate whether the visual arts could benefit health and healing. Three experiments were conducted testing two hundred participants in all. Experiments one and two were conducted in a University environment. The emotional response of eighty students in each experiment to a stressful experience was tested in four different visual environments (colourful art, scenery, provocative art, bare walls) under controlled conditions. Pleasant artworks (condition one and two) were associated with improved mood, more positive emotional memory and lower subjective stress ratings. The findings suggested that pleasant artworks may benefit health and healing. Experiment three was conducted in a hospital environment and compared the emotional state of patients on the basis of three different well-being measures. Forty patients in similar physical condition were tested in two visually different environments, a bare wall and an artwork condition. Experiment three, in the hospital environment with patients, could not confirm the results obtained at the University with students. It was concluded that the hospital research was contaminated with a number of uncontrolled extraneous variables having a positive influence on patients' stress experience. The stress experience could not be controlled for, thus leaving the effect of the artwork on patients' emotional state inconclusive. The implications of this research will be discussed and suggestions for future research will be given.

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