80,747 results

  • The rise of legal graffiti writing in New York and beyond

    Kramer, Ronald (2017)

    Book
    The University of Auckland Library

    This pivot analyzes the historical emergence of legal graffiti and how it has led to a new ethos among writers. Examining how contemporary graffiti writing has been brought into new relationships with major social institutions, it explores the contemporary dynamics between graffiti, society, the art world and social media, paying particular attention to how New York City’s political elite has reacted to graffiti. Despite its major structural transformation, officials in New York continue to construe graffiti writing culture as a monolithic, criminal enterprise, a harbinger of economic and civic collapse. This basic paradox – persistent state opposition to legal forms of graffiti that continue to gain social acceptance – is found in many other major cities throughout the globe, especially those that have embraced neoliberal forms of governance. The author accounts for the cultural conflicts that graffiti consistently engenders by theorizing the political and economic advantages that elites secure by endorsing strong 'anti-graffiti' positions.

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  • Anti-consumption and society: Proceedings of ICAR 2012 Brisbane

    Lee, Michael; Cherrier, H; Rundle-Thiele, S (2012)

    Book
    The University of Auckland Library

    Griffith Business School is committed to research that develops and promotes social, financial and environmental approaches that lead to sustainable businesses and communities. In Volume 2, Issue 3 of the Journal of Social Marketing, Gerard Hastings asks “When a supermarket chain attains such dominance that it covers every corner of a country the size of the UK, threatens farmers’ livelihoods with its procurement practices, undercuts local shops and bullies planners into submission, it becomes reasonable to ask: does every little bit really help? Once the 100 billionth burger has been flipped and yet another trouser button popped it is sensible to wonder: are we still lovin’ it? As the planet heats up in response to our ever increasing and utterly unsustainable levels of consumption, it is fair to question: are we really worth it?” (Hastings, 2012). Ongoing attention needs to be directed by the research community to understand the impact that our consumption behaviour has on ourselves, our loved ones, our society, and our planet. Research attention that challenges society to question its own practices is central in assisting us to understand how we can build sustainable communities. The International Centre for Anti-consumption Research (ICAR) 2012 symposium encourages us to question whether our aim to live independently is ideal. A child’s desire to leave home may promote economic growth, but does little to keep loved ones and communities closely connected. Sustainable business practice models are needed if we are to step away from the economic growth model that underpins business today. Sharing rather than consuming may be one mechanism that business can use to reengineer business practice. Research presented at ICAR 2012 suggests that to achieve sustainable business and communities we need to understand the opposition and resistance, including boycotts that have emerged against business. This understanding is rapidly evolving in an Internet- dominated era where social media landscapes are mushrooming. To develop a more social approach that leads to sustainable business and consumption, researchers must understand that anti-consumption is not an exact opposite of consumption. A range of behaviours and their underlying motives remain under-researched, and avenues to broaden our focus are showcased at ICAR 2012. Sustainability requires that individuals and communities engage in a diverse range of behaviours including decreasing resource use (water, energy, and materials). A practical stance is introduced at ICAR 2012 with empirical evidence highlighting how community-based social marketing is being used throughout the world to foster sustainable behaviour change.

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  • Anti-consumption and Consumer Resistance: Concepts, concerns, conflicts, and convergence - ICAR/ NACRE 2010 Proceedings

    Lee, Michael; Roux, D; Cherrier, H; Cova, B (2010)

    Book
    The University of Auckland Library

    Consumer resistance and anti-consumption are without doubt topics of growing interest not only in consumer behaviour studies but also in the fields of sociology and cultural studies. Marseilles and the whole Mediterranean Basin appears to be a relevant place to discuss these topics. Indeed, as Thierry Fabre a major thinker from Marseilles coined, “the American way of life, which defines a consumption standard that exists at a global scale, is not our destiny. Markets and exchanges may have always been at the heart of Mediterranean societies, but money has never been our main value. Trading things involves first and foremost trading with other people, and we feel that the economic domain continues to be subordinated to the human one”. The Mediterranean way of life has not surrendered to this new world order. In the wake of the late Michel de Certeau, we can state that whereas certain pundits assert that an economic logic is the best way to organise life, assigning everyone and everything a place and a role, Mediterranean people react by silently extracting themselves from this conformist equation. They seek to invent their own daily lives through the way they do things, using subtle ruses and tactical resistance to divert products and codes for their own benefit, re-appropriating space and the utilisation thereof. The mission of Euromed Management takes into account of this Mediterranean way of thinking. Euromed Management not only has a vision of a business school, but it has indeed rather an understanding and interpretation of an economic reality. The Euro-Mediterranean history and tradition, that is one of multiple appearances and different truths, gives today a rich perspective to what is identified as the Euro-Mediterranean region. Marseilles and its region, crossroads of different worlds and a European capital city, has acquired a truly European sociology with a typical managerial and social thinking. The purpose of this first symposium hosted by Euromed Management is to provide a forum for international researchers sharing interest on Anti-consumption and Consumer Resistance, in order to identify redundancies and differences between these two topics. While they are still in the early stages of a growing interest, scarce research has examined their various conflicts and/or convergences in accounting for consumers’ ways of opposing, escaping or altering consumption. Concepts, frameworks, theories and fields settings that can advance their study and fresh examination of their tensions will be debated.

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  • Essays on Return Predictability

    Lu, Helen (2013-08-21)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    This dissertation is a collection of three essays that investigate the momentum effect and the short-run predictability in currency carry trade profits. The first essay investigates whether tail risks of momentum strategies make them unattractive within the context of prospect utility. Momentum returns have strongly asymmetric tail risks and that asymmetric tail risk is precisely what makes momentum strategies unattractive. This study is the first to document the undesirable tail risk characteristics of momentum returns. The second essay uncovers economically significant predictability in carry trade profits from shorting the low-yielding currencies. The monthly world equity index return, monthly changes in currency volatility and monthly changes in equity volatility predict carry trade profits from the short leg two months later, while monthly changes in commodity prices, monthly changes in currency volatility and monthly changes in equity volatility predict carry trade profits from the long leg three months later. Investors could have used the discovered leg-specific predictability to time the market and improve their trading outcomes, instead of staying fully invested or predicting carry trade profits from both legs with a single model. Evidence from two tests conducted in this essay points towards the gradual information diffusion model as the most likely explanation for the discovered predictability, while time varying risk premia do not seem to explain this effect. The last essay examines return predictability among carry trades, stocks and commodities in a dynamic vector auto regression setting. The predictive effect goes from commodities to stock, from stocks to low-yielding currencies and from commodities to high-yielding currencies. Variables in these markets are more strongly correlated in the high-risk regime than in the low-risk regime. Drops in the world equity index (commodity prices), but not rises, predict decreases in carry trade profits from low-yielding (high-yielding) currencies. Increases in currency volatility, but not decreases, predict drops in carry trade profits from low-yielding currencies. The in-sample asymmetric effects also exist out-of-sample, but these asymmetric prediction models do not consistently deliver better forecasts than symmetric models.

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  • Estimating Power Spectral Density for Acoustic Signal Enhancement - an Effective Approach for Practical Applications

    Hioka, Yusuke (2016-09-14)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    The acoustic signal enhancement has been still a challenging problem especially when a method has to be effective and feasible in practical applications although various approaches have been studied for many decades. Applying a postfilter such as the Wiener filter, which manipulates the spectral amplitude of a signal, is known to be an effective approach for the practical applications. However the power spectral densities (PSD) of sound sources need to be estimated beforehand for deriving the postfilter. In this talk a method for estimating the PSD of sound sources located in spatially different positions is introduced. The method estimates the PSD of each sound source from the observation of multiple beamformers (or more simply multiple directional microphones). After introducing the principle of the method several practical applications that utilise the proposed PSD estimation method will be presented with some experimental results demonstrating the potential of the proposed method for solving challenging practical problems. The talk will also refer to a few cases where the proposed method was applied to other acoustic applications such as blind estimation of the direct-to-reverberation ratio.

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  • The Morphology of Instant Whole Milk Powder from Different Industrial Plants

    Boiarkina, Irina; Ye, J; Prince-Pike, Arrian; Yu, Wei; Wilson, DI; Young, Brent (2016-09-25)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    The ability of instant whole milk powder (IWMP) to rapidly dissolve in water depends on its particle size distribution and agglomeration characteristics. This work develops an experimental technique to measure the morphological parameters of IWMP for inferring the state of agglomeration and then uses this data to compare powder produced from different industrial plants with differing dissolution properties. Light microscopy was used in combination with image processing in order to extract shape parameters such as the circularity, convexity, solidity and elongation for individual milk powder particles. It was found that the generated shape distributions were dominated by the large number of fine particles (number basis), and shape parameters were more meaningful for particles with a large diameter, which dominate on a mass basis. This meant that to find differences in the same type of powder, a large sample size, data pre-processing and filtering were all necessary to get a sufficient number of large particles for adequate shape characterisation. It was expected that the convexity and solidity would be good measures of agglomeration by quantifying the “openness” of the agglomerate and that lower convexity and solidity would correlate with dissolution properties. However, it was found that the powder from the plant with superior dissolution properties generally had higher convexity and solidity. In summary the combination of cost-effective light microscopy with simple image processing techniques allowed one to rapidly generate meaningful statistical distributions correlating shape factors with key functional properties for milk powder.

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  • Child Poverty in NZ: Finding ways to stand in the gap

    Russell, J; Langridge, F (2016-08-06)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Learning to Program is Easy

    Luxton-Reilly, Andrew (2016)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

    The orthodox view that "programming is difficult to learn" leads to uncritical teaching practices and poor student outcomes. It may also impact negatively on diversity and equity within the Computer Science discipline. But learning to program is easy --- so easy that children can do it. We make our introductory courses difficult by establishing unrealistic expectations for novice programming students. By revisiting the expected norms for introductory programming we may be able to substantially improve outcomes for novice programmers, address negative impressions of disciplinary practices and create a more equitable environment.

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  • Advances in conservation of Māori textiles; analysis and identification

    Smith, Catherine Ann; Lowe, Bronwyn J.; Paterson, Rachel A. (2016)

    Conference paper
    University of Otago

    A number of new methods and technologies for investigating Māori textiles have emerged from ten years of research in the Department of Applied Sciences - Clothing and Textile Sciences, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand. Research projects undertaken include development of numerous identification methods for textile plants endemic to New Zealand (bright field microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Micro-Computed tomography (micro-CT), Polarised Light Microscopy (PLM)); exploration and improvement of safe display parameters for naturally-dyed Māori textiles (artificial light-ageing, microfading); and testing the efficacy of consolidants recommended for remedial conservation treatment of black-dyed muka (fibre) from harakeke (New Zealand flax, Phormium tenax). Of note is the collaborative and interdisciplinary nature of the work undertaken (research partnerships with iwi (Māori tribal grouping), customary weaving practitioners, New Zealand museums, conservation laboratories and other University departments), in addition to the adaptation of international standard textile testing methods to better reflect the artefact types of interest (for instance testing of fibre aggregates rather than woven European fabrics). Research outcomes are of relevance to practitioners and artists as well as those caring for Māori taonga, and have added to knowledge about both Māori textiles, and plants and dyes used in Māori textiles production.

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  • Pneumatology and Union: John Calvin and the Pentecostals

    Ross, Peter Graham (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    The aim of this research is to identify whether affinities, or touch points, exist between John Calvin’s pneumatology and account of the union between the believer and Christ and Pentecostal thought on these issues. If it can be demonstrated that they do, then Calvin could be of great assistance to Pentecostals as they seek a global theology. John Calvin’s thought on the subjects is summarised, and a review undertaken of Pentecostal thought which focuses on Spirit release (the preferred term for what is most commonly termed Spirit baptism among Pentecostals), and the work of the Spirit in salvation. The narrowness of this review is necessary as a global Pentecostal theology which can be summarised in the same way as Calvin’s thought does not yet exist. With the respective positions established, conversations between them are constructed within three subjects: The Assurance of Faith; Providence and Guidance; and Justification. These subjects are chosen because of the heavy involvement of the Spirit within each in both systems, and the contribution made by the union as the arena of the Spirit’s work in each. Within each of these doctrines a number of touch points are identified, where there is either agreement between the systems or there is some common ground. The latter might be a similarity of process, or a matter of degree. For example, Macchia posits a direct role for the Spirit in justification, whereas for Calvin justification is entirely Christological. However, the work of the Spirit in establishing the prior union between the believer and Christ is necessary for justification in Calvin. This constitutes a touch point or affinity which rests on some common ground, not on direct agreement. In the final chapter, there is extended consideration of Spirit release. This firstly establishes the term as a valid description of the encounter to which Pentecostals testify at the core of their witness. Secondly, it shows that a concept can be developed which enables Spirit release to sit well as an extension from Calvin’s thought. With this linkage established, it is shown that the touch points identified under the above headings are so substantial that Pentecostals can usefully look to Calvin on pneumatology and union as ground on which they can develop their own views in order to deepen their own theology and so move towards a global Pentecostal theology.

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  • A feasibility study to introduce regular activity breaks in the workplace: monitoring the effect of regular activity breaks on occupational musculoskeletal discomfort, fatigue, and productivity

    Carter, Hannah (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Background: Regularly interrupting sedentary behaviour with light physical activity has been shown to reduce postprandial glycaemia. However, these effects have been examined in response to a single day of light activity bouts in a controlled lab setting. The effects of long- term change in sitting behaviour, over weeks or months, on postprandial glucose and insulin metabolism in a free-living setting have not been examined. Testing this would require a trial in which participants achieve a sustained increase in light activity bouts over weeks to months in their workplace. However, interventions investigating the practicality and effects of taking regular activity breaks to reduce sedentary time are scarce. Objective: To conduct a feasibility trial to test the effectiveness of methods to increase regular activity breaks in a sedentary workplace. In addition, to investigate the impact of increasing activity breaks during the workday on musculoskeletal discomfort, fatigue, and productivity. Methods: Twelve University of Otago employees were encouraged to perform light activity breaks (at least 2 min in duration) every 30 min of their 8 h workday, throughout a five-week intervention period. Break reminder applications (apps) and social media (Instagram) were used to encourage participants to take the breaks. Modified versions of the Nordic, Individual Strength, and Health and Work Questionnaires were self administered to assess workplace musculoskeletal discomfort, fatigue, and productivity respectively, at the end of baseline, weeks 1, 3, and 5. Feasibility Questionnaires were verbally administered at baseline, weeks 3 and 5, to explore participant’s attitudes around taking regular activity breaks. Results: The mean number of activity breaks per workday significantly increased from 12.4 at baseline to 15.8 at the end of the intervention (p<0.001). The total number of musculoskeletal discomfort reports over the past five workdays decreased from 27 at baseline, to 21 at the end of week 5. Total fatigue significantly decreased by 9.6 points (p=0.010). Significantly lower scores were observed in two of the subscales of fatigue, depicting decreased subjective fatigue (p-0.010) and increased levels of physical activity (p=0.040) from baseline to week 5. Although no significant differences in total productivity were observed, mean scores showed significant improvements in the subscales; impatience and irritability (p=0.049), work satisfaction (p=0.038), and personal life satisfaction (p=0.008). Feasibility Questionnaire transcripts showed that using break reminder apps and having the support of colleagues was helpful in facilitating regular activity breaks. Barriers to taking regular breaks included: work commitments, feeling less productive, and others perceiving them to be less productive getting up to take activity breaks every 30 min. However, the majority of participants planned to continue the activity breaks following the interventions completion. Conclusion: These findings suggest positive trends in reducing musculoskeletal discomfort, fatigue, and increasing productivity following the introduction of regular activity breaks into the workplace. Therefore these are unlikely to be barriers to taking regular activity breaks in an occupational setting. Modified versions of the Nordic, Individual Strength, and Health and Work Questionnaires trialled in this study are considered to be suitable in assessing workplace musculoskeletal discomfort, fatigue, and productivity in a large-scale study.

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  • Zinc status of athletes compared to non-athletes

    Holdaway, Cushla Rose (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Background: Zinc is an essential micronutrient to human physiology, and has many vital roles in physical exertion. It is understood that athletes have increased dietary requirements to support their physical training. However, there is a lack of evidence focusing on zinc status in athletes to establish whether zinc deficiency is a common issue of concern. Aims: The aim of this research project is to undertake a systematic review of the zinc status of athletes (aerobic, anaerobic, or a combination) compared to healthy non-athletes aged 18 to 65 years. The studies must be cross-sectional and assess at least one zinc biomarker. Design: Keywords and phrases were entered into PubMed, Scopus, SPORTDiscus, and the Cochrane Library. After removal of duplicates, all citation title and abstracts were screened for eligibility. The final data from the included literature was extracted and interpreted. Results: Sixteen studies were eligible for inclusion. Fifteen out of nineteen athletic groups had lower plasma zinc concentrations compared to non-athletes. Twelve out of 15 athletic groups had higher dietary zinc intakes compared to non-athletes. There was no obvious relationship between dietary zinc intake and plasma zinc concentration in athletes, but this does not exclude other factors affecting athletes zinc status compared to non-athletes. Conclusion: Plasma zinc concentration appears to be independent of dietary zinc intake in athletes, however, losses in sweat and urinary excretion may impact the zinc status of athletes. This review does not explain the implications zinc deficiency may have on athletic performance, nor does it describe how a zinc deficiency may exist in the absence of signs and symptoms. The main barrier to this lack of evidence is the absence of a single, robust zinc biomarker with internationally defined reference ranges.

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  • Application of pulsed electric field processing for production of low sulphite wine and the selective inactivation of non-Saccharomyces yeasts

    Vidya, Kethireddy (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Winemakers add sulphites during winemaking for their antimicrobial (control of indigenous and undesirable microbes) and antioxidant properties. However, the demand for no added sulphite (NAS) or reduced sulphite wines, coupled with a demand for wines with lower alcohol and a distinctive regional character is increasing interest in making wines with indigenous wine yeasts through mixed or spontaneous fermentations. Pulsed electric field (PEF) processing of grape must has previously been proven to enhance extraction of juice, polyphenols/bioactives and to reduce the microbial levels by either reversible or irreversible electroporation of cell walls. To determine the suitability of using PEF in wine making and to reduce the reliance on the use of sulphites, this study investigated the impact of PEF at levels suitable for extraction and/or sulphites on Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeasts during the cold soak conditions. The estimation of sub-lethal injury in S. cerevisiae using the traditional approach incorporating a maximum non-inhibitory concentration (MNIC) of sodium chloride (NaCl) was also tested and its accuracy was evaluated in light of the interactions between the initial processing stress and the subsequent selection stress. In addition, studies with PEF, sulphites and the combination of PEF (1.0-1.1 kV/cm and 18-260 kJ/kg) and sulphites (35-350ppm) at 4 and 7 Log CFU/mL at exponential and stationary growth phases in S. cerevisiae, P. kluyveri and H. uvarum were conducted during cold soak conditions for 8 days. Further biochemical analysis using oxidative damage (protein carbonyls and lipid peroxides) and antioxidant enzyme (SOD, CAT, GPx, GR) activity biomarkers was conducted following PEF (1.0 kv/cm,196 kJ/kg), the addition of sulphites (350 ppm) or PEF pre-treatment followed by sulphites in S. cerevisiae, P. kluyveri and H. uvarum over a period of 48h at cold soak conditions. The results confirm the versatility of PEF for the extraction of grape polyphenols while simultaneously managing the total yeast numbers during maceration, facilitating either mixed/ spontaneous fermentation or the introduction of commercial Saccharomyces spp. The evaluation of MNIC method for quantifying sub-lethal injury showed the shortcomings of the method and the need to delve further into the biochemical and molecular approaches to understand the impact of sub-lethal injury. Screening the impact of a range of PEF and sulphite levels at different initial concentrations and growth phases of the three yeast spp and the biochemical analysis monitoring oxidative stress markers following PEF, sulphites and PEF pre-treatment followed by sulphites showed that there was differential response among the yeast spp. In addition, the pre-treatment of PEF was proven to enhance the impact of sulphites and a differential response in S. cerevisiae, P. kluyveri and H. uvarum. This effect is suggested to be due to PEF (1.0-1.5 kV/cm) inducing reversible electroporation which facilitates the entry of sulphites into the cell. Growth phase, growth temperature and media pH were all found to be key parameters in the selective inactivation process. In conclusion, it is suggested that use of PEF during maceration at cold soak conditions is a feasible technology for the production of reduced sulphite wines.

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  • The Scope of the Validation Power in the Wills Act 2007

    Peart, Nicola; Kelly, Greg (2013)

    Journal article
    University of Otago

    When the new Wills Act was adopted in 2007 it made a number of changes to the law regulating wills. Probably the most radical change is the power in s 14 to validate wills that do not comply with the formal requirements for making a valid will in s 11. This change follows Australia’s lead, where a similar power, referred to as a dispensing power, has existed since 1975. Initial concerns that it would encourage sloppy will-making and result in uncertainty and a flood of applications turned out to be groundless. The constraints imposed by the wording of the Australian provisions together with judicial restraint in the exercise of the power, at least initially, as well as the increased cost, delays and uncertainty about the outcome of applications were strong incentives for complying with the formal requirements. The Australian experience and the benefits of saving wills from invalidity on purely technical grounds persuaded the New Zealand Law Commission to recommend the adoption of a similar, though not identical, power in its Report Succession Law — A Succession (Wills) Act in 1997. That recommendation was eventually implemented with the adoption of the Wills Act 2007. The Wills Act 2007 came into force on 1 November 2007. It applies to all persons dying on or after that date, regardless of the date of the will. It was not until August 2009, however, that the validation power was invoked for the first time. The reason for the delay may have been because the validation power could not then be applied to wills made before 1 November 2007 even though the will-maker died after that date. The transitional provisions prevented retrospective application of the validation power. An amendment in 2012 now enables the power to be used in respect of all non-compliant wills regardless of the date they were made. Since the first application to validate a non-compliant will in 2009 there has been a steady increase in the number of applications. By October 2012 at least 43 applications had been made, of which 41 were successful. The two applications that were declined failed because there was no jurisdiction at the time to validate wills made before 1 November 2007. In the 41 cases where jurisdiction did exist, the success rate was 100 per cent. From this body of case law a picture is beginning to emerge of a jurisdiction that has the potential to go well beyond its Australian counterpart in giving effect to testamentary intentions. The aim of this article is to evaluate the use of the validation power in New Zealand to determine its scope and assess the risks associated with a broad jurisdiction. Before embarking upon that task, it is necessary to outline the formal requirements for a valid will and explain their purpose.

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  • Reproduction and larval ecology of the toheroa, Paphies ventricosa, from Oreti Beach, Southland, New Zealand

    Gadomski, Kendall Lynn (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Paphies ventricosa is a large surf clam endemic to New Zealand with a patchy distribution and whose populations have substantially declined during the past century owing to overfishing and habitat degradation. Poor recruitment is now evident, and therefore, understanding the larval recruitment of P. ventricosa is key to developing and implementing conservation strategies for the species. In order to identify factors driving larval recruitment in toheroa, Paphies ventricosa, from Oreti Beach, Southland, New Zealand, the southernmost known extent of the species, various studies were carried out from 2011 to 2014 in the field and the laboratory In 2011, the reproductive cycle of P. ventricosa was examined over one year in a population at Oreti Beach. In 2012, the spatial variation in reproduction among four sites along Oreti Beach, including the site from 2011, was quantified from body indices and the histological examination of gonads. Based on changes in oocyte size, gametogenic stage and condition index, we observed a species with a primary spawning in spring and a second spawning event in late summer/autumn, with no resting phase but minimal reproductive activity over winter. Seasonal reproduction corresponded with warmer sea surface temperature and a peak in chlorophyll-a concentrations in the region. Small-scale (< 15 km) variation in the timing of spawning was also evident along Oreti Beach, with a degree of asynchrony that could affect fertilisation success in the population. These patterns may be an important consideration when identifying areas that may be considered for conserving source populations. Using scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy, fertilisation, and embryonic and larval development were observed at three culturing temperatures (12, 16 and 20 ºC). The progress of development follows that previously described for the family Mesodesmatidae, with P. ventricosa having a small egg (63–70 mm), with an 83–102 mm trochophore stage observed at 15 h, and a 100 mm D-veliger larva observed at 22 h at 12 and 16 ºC, and 37 h at 20 ºC. At 20 ºC, the pediveliger larval stage was reached by 31 d. While the morphology of the embryonic and larval stages of P. ventricosa is typical for bivalves, we show that in this species the shell field invagination occurs in the gastrula stage and that the expansion of the dorsal shell field occurs during gastrulation, with the early trochophore having a well-developed shell field that has a clearly defined axial line between the two shell lobes. The growth of P. ventricosa larvae cultured at 12, 16 or 20 ºC over 39, 33 and 31 d respectively, was faster at warmer temperatures. Using the temperature quotient Q10 at day 27 to quantify the response to temperature, values of Q10 = 1.82 for the range 12–16 ºC and Q10 = 2.33 for the range 16–20 ºC were calculated. Larval shape was not temperature dependent, suggesting that the smaller larvae found at colder temperatures reflect a slowing of larval development, rather than physiological damage by temperature resulting in abnormal larval development. Temperature is one of the most important environmental factors controlling development in marine invertebrates, and thus likely plays a critical in recruitment dynamics. The temperature thermal tolerance of fertilisation and early larval development in Paphies ventricosa was examined to understand the role of temperature in early larval recruitment success. Fertilisation was examined across a thermal gradient of 10.5 to 30 ºC in an aluminium heat block. Fertilisation was considered successful by microscopic observance of the breakdown of the germinal vesicle, and the appearance of the fertilisation envelope and polar body. The thermal tolerance of development was examined across a thermal gradient of 8.0 to 25.5 ºC in an aluminium heat block at 2, 15, 22, and 37 h post-fertilisation. Fixed samples were examined using light microscopy and classified into the developmental stages of unfertilised, fertilised, embryonic (2-64 cell embryos), blastula, trochophore, veliger, and abnormal. There was a significant effect of temperature on the fertilisation success which ranged from 4.6% to 46.7%. Fertilisation was > 30% successful between 16.0 and 21.0 ºC, and was successful beyond the natural temperature range of the species. P. ventricosa larva were tolerant to temperatures beyond the naturally occurring temperatures during spawning/development periods, but were most successful around 15 ºC. While temperature is important in the recruitment of marine invertebrate larvae, feed availability is also crucial, and often thought to be more important in overall larval development. The combined effects of temperature (12, 16, and 20 ºC) and feed concentration (1:1 mixed algal diet of Tetraselmis chui and Isochrysis galbana; 1,000, 10,000, and 20,000 cells ml-1) were examined in P. ventricosa larvae over 17 days. There was found to be significant combine effect of sampling day, temperature, and feed concentration on larval shell length. By 17-d post-fertilisation, the combined effect of feed concentration on larvae in each temperature became more apparent. Unlike the results of Chapter 3 when larvae were fed a single species (T. chui) diet at 10,000 cells ml-1, larvae reared at the colder temperatures had the largest shell lengths by 17-d post-fertilisation. At 17-d fertilisation, larvae at 12 ºC grew best when fed 20,000 cells ml-1, and 16 and 20 ºC grew best at 10,000 and 1,000 cells ml-1, respectively. Overall, the results of this research fill in many gaps in our knowledge about the life history of Paphies ventricosa. In particular, the reproduction of the local Oreti Beach population and the early larval ecology, with implications for both the northern and southern populations, have been explored in depth. This is the first study of its kind for many of its components, including the detailed microscopic (both scanning electron and light microscopy) examination and description of the early larval stages of toheroa, and the identification of the fertilisation and thermal development windows in the species. In addition, it is the first study in toheroa to examine the combined effects of temperature and feed concentration. The present study has greater implications in regards to other bivalves of similar distributions and habitats, and provides insight into the conservation and management of the species.

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  • The history and practice of lying in public life

    Peters, Michael A. (2015)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    This paper provides an introduction to the history and practice of lying in public life. The paper argues that such an approach is required to balance the emphasis on truth and truth-telling. Truth and lies, truth-telling and the practice of lying are concepts of binary opposition that help define one another. The paper reviews Foucault's work on truth-telling before analyzing the "culture of lying" and its relation to public life by focusing on Arendt's work.

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  • The postcolonial university

    Peters, Michael A. (2016)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Derrida is, perhaps, the foremost philosopher of the humanities and of its place in the university. Over the long period of his career he has been concerned with the fate, status, place and contribution of the humanities. Through his deconstructive readings and writings he has done much not only to reinvent the Western tradition by attending closely to those texts which constitute it but also he has redefined its procedures and protocols, questioning and commenting upon the relationship between commentary and interpretation, the practice of quotation, the delimitation of a work and its singularity, its signature, and its context – the whole form of life of literary culture, together with textual practices and conventions that shape it. From his very early work he has occupied a marginal in-between space –simultaneously, textual, literary, philosophical, and political – a space that permitted him a freedom to question, to speculate and to draw new limits to humanitas. Derrida has demonstrated his power to reconceptualize and to reimagine the humanities in the space of the contemporary university. This paper discusses Derrida’s tasks for the new humanities (Trifonas & Peters, 2005).

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  • Draft genome sequences of two New Zealand Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris isolates, ICMP 4013 and ICMP 21080

    Desai, D.; Li, J.-H.; van Zijll de Jong, E.; Braun, R.; Pitman, A.; Visnovsky, S.; Hampton, J. G.; Christey, M. C.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris is a necrotrophic bacterial pathogen of crucifers. We report here the draft genome sequences of isolates ICMP 4013 and ICMP 21080 from New Zealand. These sequences will facilitate the identification of race-specific factors in X. campestris pv. campestris.

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  • Climate change: seed production and options for adaptation

    Hampton, J. G.; Conner, A. J.; Boelt, B.; Chastain, T. G.; Rolston, P.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Food security depends on seed security and the international seed industry must be able to continue to deliver the quantities of quality seed required for this purpose. Abiotic stress resulting from climate change, particularly elevated temperature and water stress, will reduce seed yield and quality. Options for the seed industry to adapt to climate change include moving sites for seed production, changing sowing date, and the development of cultivars with traits which allow them to adapt to climate change conditions. However, the ability of seed growers to make these changes is directly linked to the seed system. In the formal seed system operating in developed countries, implementation will be reasonably straight forward. In the informal system operating in developing countries, the current seed production challenges including supply failing to meet demand and poor seed quality will increase with changing climates.

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  • Cohort Profile: Pacific Islands Families (Pif) Growth Study, Auckland, New Zealand

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    This article profiles a birth cohort of Pacific children participating in an observational prospective study and describes the study protocol used at ages 14-15 years to investigate how food and activity patterns, metabolic risk and family and built environment are related to rates of physical growth of Pacific children.

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