82,061 results

  • A note on the profitability of dairy farms in selected areas of Bangladesh : a comparison with New Zealand dairy farms

    Alam, J.; Nartea, G. V.; Sarker, M. A.

    Book
    Lincoln University

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  • Potatoes: distribution and processing

    Hughes, S. A.; Sheppard, R. L.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    Incorrect ISSN on title page.

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  • Food miles - comparative energy / emissions performance of New Zealand's agriculture industry

    Saunders, C.; Barber, A.; Taylor, G.

    Report
    Lincoln University

    Food miles measures the distance food travels from producer to consumer. Food that has travelled long distances is perceived as being harmful to the environment and has some media attention in New Zealands's key markets, especially in Europe. However, this report argues that it is not the distance that should be assessed but the total energy used, production to plate including transport. The results of this analysis show that New Zealand products compare favourably with lower energy and emissions per tonne of product delivered to the UK compared to other UK sources. In the case of dairy New Zealand is at least twice as efficient; and for sheep meat four times as efficient.

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  • Effect of suckling on response to nematode parasites in young lambs

    Iposu, S.

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    The series of experiments described in this thesis were designed to investigate the role of suckling or late weaning in the response of young lambs to nematode infection. All experiments were conducted outdoors with grazing animals and no supplementation but for suckled groups of lambs whose counterparts were weaned to ryegrass – white clover swards. The parasite of interest was mainly Teladorsagia circumcincta solely but with mixed infection of Trichostrongylus colubriformis in one instance. In Chapter 3 (first experiment), the hypothesis that milk per se may have a direct effect on nematode development, rather than an indirect effect through enhancement of host immunity by superior nutrient supply was tested. Sixty, twinborn lambs were used, allocated to one of eight groups formed by either dosing lambs from 42 days of age or not with the equivalent of 1000 or 250 L₃ T. circumcincta larvae d⁻¹ until five days before necropsy, while a twin was either weaned at 39 days of age, suckled as single or twin until necropsy on day 84. The possibility that weaning one of a twin set onto pasture in close proximity to the ewe would cause abnormal ewe and lamb behaviour was tested by replicating the work in twins maintained as twins but in which one twin received equivalent of 250 and the other 1000 L₃ T. circumcincta larvae d⁻¹. This showed no abnormal ewe nursing or lamb suckling behaviour as a result of weaning a twin in a set. Relatively low faecal egg counts (FEC) and a two to three fold lower worm burdens suggest suckling could reduce larval establishment. Inability to detect peripheral titres of immunoglobulins supports this conclusion. An intra worm-population regulation of T. circumcincta, indicated by a pattern of greater egg-laying by a numerically smaller but physiologically better developed nematode population in suckled lambs measured in eggs 'in utero' and worm length made interpretation of FEC difficult. Suckling significantly improved weight gain and carcass weights, but early weaning did not reduce resilience to infection. In Chapter 4 (second experiment), 40 pairs of twin lambs, average age of 39 days, were either infected with the equivalent of 1000 L₃ T. circumcincta larvae d⁻¹ or not, while one twin was weaned and the other allowed to continue suckling. Necropsy was carried out on groups of five and six lambs from each of the uninfected and infected treatments, respectively, at mean age of 84, 112, and on six lambs from each group at 140 days of age. This serial slaughter allowed further confirmation of the hypothesis in Chapter 3 but also investigated the long-term effect of suckling on resistance or resilience of lambs at the trial when immune responses were anticipated to be developing. An in vitro direct larval challenge (IVDC) study, to monitor larval establishment, was carried out on tissue explants from necropsied lambs. Suckled lambs consistently showed lower FEC (P < 0.05) and worm burdens (P < 0.05) at every phase of the trial. Within the infected groups, % in vitro larval rejection suggested earlier immune responses in the weaned lambs by day 84, which was not consistent with lower worm burdens in suckled lambs but appeared similar in the subsequent necropsies. Lambs continued to show better growth due to suckling while weaning did not reduce the resilience of lambs confirming observations in Chapter 3. The immunoglobulin profile suggested the commencement of immune responses in lambs from the period after the 84th day necropsy, with significantly greater (P < 0.01) IgA titre in the infected groups, and the suckled lambs towards the end of the trial on day 140. A vaccinating effect of early exposure to parasites was coincidentally revealed as a result of unintentional pasture larval contamination, seen in suckled non-infected lambs shedding fewer eggs and harbouring fewer worms during the later necropsies compared with their weaned non-infected counterparts. In Chapter 5 (third trial), 93 pairs of twin lambs, 47 pairs of which received a vaccinating mixed infection of T. circumcincta and T. colubriformis larvae (60 L₃ / kg W / d) at ratio 40:60, respectively during the period 36 – 103 days of age, were either weaned early on day 51 or later on day 108. All lambs were drenched on day 108 and groups received challenge infections from day 116, at same rate with the vaccinating infection, or not, which ceased five days before respective necropsies. Necropsies were carried out on selected lambs on days 108, 184 and 218. The direct effect of milk on larval establishment appeared to feature only in the T. circumcincta populations on slaughter day 108. The long-term benefit of late weaning for development of resistance was conditional on lambs receiving the vaccinating infection, and appeared to be more pronounced in the small intestine, reflected by a greater reduction of T. colubriformis populations in that organ than of T. circumcincta populations in the abomasum. A negative consequence of enhanced immune response was the suggestion of an increased metabolic cost in reduced performance of lambs. In conclusion, the work provides support to the hypotheses that: (a.) suckling may reduce the establishment of nematode larvae through the direct effect of milk, (b.) may enhance rapid development of host immunity to infection, and (c.) it further suggests that lack of larval experience during suckling may have long term negative implications for host resistance. Finally, it suggests that milk may play little role in the enhancement of host resilience to infection and, on the contrary, that additional metabolic cost may be associated with a more rapid development of immunity resulting from larval challenge while suckling.

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  • New Zealanders and biotechnology : reactions to novel developments in medicine, farming and food

    Cook, A. J.; Fairweather, J. R.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The aim of this research was to predict and understand public reactions to biotechnology, and in particular to estimate recent change over time in acceptability of examples of biotechnology. A further objective was to assess public reactions to realisable future developments in biotechnology. These developments were: using nanoparticles in gene replacement therapy, bio-pharming and using nanoparticles in the production of lamb or beef.

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  • Forecast of skills demand in the high tech sector in Canterbury : phase two

    Dalziel, P.; Saunders, C.; Zellman, E.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    This report presents the results of a second survey carried out by the AERU research unit to map skills demand in the Canterbury ICT sector. This research was commissioned the Electrotechnology Industry Training Organisation (ETITO) Growth Pilot, funded by the Tertiary Education Commission, to develop mechanisms to ensure the timely delivery of an appropriate number of suitably qualified individuals required by enterprises in the Canterbury ICT sector. It builds on a similar survey in 2004.

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  • Preliminary economic evaluation of biopharming in New Zealand

    Kaye-Blake, W.; Saunders, C.; Ferguson, L.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    From the academic literature, this report derives an economic model or framework for considering biopharming. This model is based on a cost-benefit approach to valuing changes in products and production methods. The model indicates the product dimensions that are likely to be affected by biopharming methods and how these dimensions may affect the costs and benefits of production. It also identifies the uncertainties in existing analyses. Finally, it demonstrates a method by which careful analysis of the economic costs and benefits of biopharming could proceed. Two potential products are discussed using this model: recombinant human lactoferrin (rhLF) produced in cow’s milk and low-GI potatoes.

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  • The demand for milk : an econometric analysis of the New Zealand market

    Brodie, R. J.; Moffitt, R. G.; Gough, Janet D.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    This report presents the results of a preliminary econometric analysis of the factors affecting town milk consumption in New Zealand. The study objectives are: (1) to review overseas studies which have examined the demand for fluid milk; (2) to specify and estimate quarterly and annual econometric models in order to quantify the factors which determine demand; and (3) to investigate the models' suitability for short-term and medium term forecasting and policy analysis. The study demonstrates that econometric analysis provides an effective tool for quantifying the factors which determine the per capita consumption of milk. The estimated models show consumption is largely determined by four factors. These are: (1) the previous period's consumption level, (2) the real price of milk, (3) the proportion of young people in the population, and (4) seasonal factors. The New Zealand market is very price inelastic or unresponsive to price changes and is even more unresponsive than the Australian market. Other factors such as disposable income and advertising do not appear to have an important influence on milk consumption but further investigation is necessary to determine their exact effect. The estimated models appear to be highly suitable for accurate shortand medium-term forecasts.

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  • Nanotechnology : ethical and social issues : results from a New Zealand survey

    Cook, A. J.; Fairweather, J. R.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The general aim of this research was to determine and understand New Zealand public reactions to nanotechnology. An objective was to assess the generalisability of focus group research in a national survey. A further objective was to investigate the role of values, beliefs and emotion in shaping attitudes towards nanotechnology.

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  • Development of the South Canterbury / Otago southern bluefin tuna fishery

    O'Donnell, D. K.; Sandrey, R. A.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    There is concern that many of New Zealand's inshore fish species are being overfished to the extent that fishing effort will have to be reduced to ensure the continued existence of some species as commercial stocks. A dual solution of both reducing the total level of fishing effort and transferring fishing effort to alternative fisheries to alleviate the problem is possible. This report examines the economics of transferring fishing effort to southern bluefin tuna capture off the South Canterbury / Otago coast, and is therefore an example of the problems and potential in transferring fishing effort. The study pays particular attention to the extension needs in developing fisheries using the results of a census of skippers in the region. Two chapters have been included to give the reader some background to the southern bluefin tuna fishery and the South Canterbury/Otago fishery. From this information the potential benefits of development, the direct cost of catching bluefin and the opportunity cost of foregoing catching traditional species have been estimated. The indirect costs of providing the necessary infrastructure for development were estimated from the survey. The survey also provided information on the readiness of fishermen and their vessels to undertake southern bluefin tuna fishing. This paper does not consider the effect on the traditional fish stocks of transferring catching effort to alternative fisheries. However, consideration is given to the economics of transferring catching effort to alternative fisheries regardless of the reasons for having an effort reduction scheme. The cost benefit analysis has seven scenarios based on the extent to which developing the bluefin fishing is able to alleviate the present inshore fisheries management problems.

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  • The influence of perceptions of New Zealand identity on attitudes to biotechnology

    Hunt, L.; Fairweather, J.

    Report
    Lincoln University

    Attitudes to specific biotechnologies may be linked to certain beliefs or perceptions individuals have about their identity as New Zealanders. Ten statements about New Zealand identity were included in a nationwide survey on public attitudes to biotechnology, carried out in 2003. This report considers the links that were found in this survey between New Zealand identity characteristics and biotechnology attitudes.

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  • Why do some of the public reject novel scientific technologies? A synthesis of results from the Fate of Biotechnology research programme

    Fairweather, J. R.; Campbell, H.; Hunt, L. M.; Cook, A. J.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    This report synthesises outputs from a five year programme of research on public perceptions of biotechnology. In interpreting the overall results, a pressure-response-assessment-outcome model is introduced to explain reactions to biotechnology. Biotechnology pressures or challenges peoples' attitudes and values. It invokes deep-seated reactions from people in New Zealand and there are a number of dimensions to these reactions. One is the ethical or moral question about whether the biotechnology is right and proper to use. Closely related are the spiritual issues that biotechnology raises, and while these were not strong with pakeha they were important to South Island Maori who linked these to core cultural concepts of whakapapa and mauri. Also invoked are ideas about nature, which for pakeha were linked directly to concerns about the impact on New Zealand's clean green image. Finally, biotechnology challenges the boundaries between plants and animals and between humans and non humans. These ideas derived from reactions to biotechnology play a vital role in the perceptions and assessments of biotechnology, that is, how people make sense of biotechnology. In making these assessments people believe that they lack information and in its absence they mistrust science. People draw a distinction between themselves and scientists, and they consider the scale of the biotechnology, that is, the breadth of impact it might have. They draw on their own experience, and they have concern for animals. Regulations are not seen as addressing their concerns. One of the most important factors in assessing biotechnology is national and personal identity or sense of place. People use all these factors to make sense of biotechnology. Each biotechnology is then assessed to judge its acceptability, to consider risks and to assess who benefits from it. In making sense of biotechnology, people are sceptical of the benefits, and they couch assessments in provisos. Typically, they do not see any personal benefits to them, and they see that it is mainly as a consumer that they can influence biotechnology development. In making their assessments of biotechnology, New Zealanders, on balance, have concerns about GM and give more support to the beliefs that GM is wrong than they do to the beliefs that biotechnology can fix problems or that it can benefit society. Nature is seen potentially as biting back and catching us out for making mistakes. They see risks from using biotechnology, and many cleave to post materialist values (e.g., society where people count more than money) which were not compatible with biotechnology. The outcome of this assessment was, in general, a low acceptance of new biotechnology. They were negative about GM technology and GM food in particular. Surveying over time showed little change in assessment. Some biotechnologies were preferred over others and some groups of people were more accepting of biotechnology than others.

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  • Understanding visitors' experiences in Kaikoura using photographs of landscapes and Q method

    Fairweather, J. R.; Swaffield, S. R.; Simmons, D. G.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    The primary objective of this study was to develop an understanding of visitors' experiences of the Kaikoura landscape using photographs of landscape and Q method. The literature on landscape perception shows that there is a range of paradigms extending from the expert to the experiential, and that there is a need to focus on the latter. Therefore, this study examines: the way individuals represent their subjective experience of landscape through the selection of a particular array of photographs; verbal explanations of their choice; and the social and cultural significance of those representations. The results concur with other research on landscape perception showing that 'naturalness' is an important component of preferred experiences. However, they also show that this preference is expressed in different ways, largely reflecting the cultural context of the visitor. The particularity of the responses highlights the need for locally grounded contextual understanding in order to interpret variations around and within generic themes. The results also show that Q method has significant potential for landscape research, especially for research that seeks to combine the experiential and socio-cultural paradigms.

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  • Growing organically? : human networks and the quest to expand organic agriculture in New Zealand

    Reider, Rebecca

    Book
    Lincoln University

    This study looks at how human networks – specifically information networks, and market networks – are shaping organic production across New Zealand. Through case studies of three large-scale commercial organic sectors, this report examines how organic production has grown in the past, in order to make recommendations for future programs and policies. The case studies are: mixed arable cropping in Canterbury, apple orcharding in Hawke's Bay, and dairy farming in the Waikato.

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  • Potatoes: a consumer survey of Auckland, Wellington and Christchurch households

    Sheppard, R. L.; Hughes, S. A.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    This report presents the results and conclusions from a consumer survey which was carried out in Auckland, Wellington and Christchurch during late October and early November 1982. The survey involved interviews with the person in the household responsible for the purchase of potatoes.

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  • Accounting for the utilization of a N₂O mitigation tool in the IPCC inventory methodology for agricultural soils

    Clough, T.; Di, H.; Cameron, K.; Sherlock, R.; Metherell, A.; Clark, H.; Rys, G.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    In this study we review recent studies where dicyandiamide was used as a nitrification inhibitor to reduce both N₂O emissions from urine patches and nitrate leaching from pasture systems, and which led to the development of a commercial product for use on farmland. On average, emissions of N₂O and nitrate leaching were reduced by 72% and 61%, respectively. This study then demonstrates how a mitigation tool can be accounted for in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's inventory methodology when constructing an inventory of New Zealand's agricultural soil N₂O emissions. The current New Zealand specific emission factors for EF1 (0.01), EF3PRP (0.01) and FracLEACH (0.07) are amended to values of 0.0058, 0.0058 and 0.0455. Examples are also given, based on OVERSEER TM models, of the implications of farm management scenarios on N₂O inventories and total greenhouse gas production when using a N₂O mitigation tool; CO₂ equivalents kg⁻¹ milk solid decreased from 14.2 to as little as 11.7, depending on the management scenario modelled.

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  • Urban ecology, tangata whenua and the colonial city

    Matunga, H.

    Conference Contribution - Published
    Lincoln University

    Any discussion about urban ecology, tangata whenua and urban environments needs to be situated critically within the wider context of colonialism and the ongoing colonial project. New Zealand cities still display, cherish, nurture and even reproduce unmistakable signs of their colonial past. The stories about our cities and even their identities are constructed in such a way as to reinforce their colonial past while at the same time negating their pre-colonial Maori origins. A re-imagining, representing and retrofitting of the city needs to be processed so as to relocate our cities in Aotearoa, away from the imperial centre. Ecological restoration in the city can only be sustained if it is linked to restoration of indigenous communities and the social, cultural and environmental values of these communities.

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  • Urban ecology and new urbanism: today the world, tomorrow Lincoln?

    Montgomery, R. L.

    Conference Contribution - Published
    Lincoln University

    This discussion focuses upon the recent architect-led movement known as "new urbanism" or "neo-traditionalist" planning. Its proponents claim that it "addresses many of the ills of our current sprawl development patterns, while returning to a cherished (American) icon: that of a compact, close knit community." This paper outlines the main principles of new urbanism, illustrating recent urban/suburban concepts such as the "Neotraditional Neighbourhood" (NTD) and the "Pedestrian Pocket" (PP), and their much touted antithetical relationship to Planned Unit Development (PUDs), one-way entry escapist enclaves, gated communities, and other hallmarks of postwar urban and suburban growth, in other words, the blight of "cul-de-sacs, strip centres, and developer 'pods' of the post-World-War II suburb." This will show that New urbanism indeed clearly seems more "people-friendly", neighbourly and anti-private automobile. However, the question remains as to whether social sustainability is being promoted over and above a broader ecological sustainability, as some suspect. Therefore, the paper attempts to address possible tensions between this apparent advance in urban design and biodiversity needs. Furthermore, in order to ground attempts to answer this question, it discusses residential land development projects currently proposed in, or around, the township of Lincoln, the degree to which they already reflect new urbanist ideas, and how much these new developments appear to resonate with principles of ecological design.

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  • Comparison of measured and EF5-r derived N₂O fluxes from a spring-fed river

    Clough, T.; Bertram, J.; Sherlock, R.; Leonard, R.; Nowicki, B.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    There is considerable uncertainty in the estimates of indirect N₂O emissions as defined by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's (IPCC) methodology. Direct measurements of N₂O yields and fluxes in aquatic river environments are sparse and more data are required to determine the role that rivers play in the global N₂O budget. The objectives of this research were to measure the N₂O fluxes from a spring-fed river, relate these fluxes to the dissolved N₂O concentrations and NO₃–N loading of the river, and to try and define the indirect emission factor (EF5-r) for the river. Gas bubble ebullition was observed at the river source with bubbles containing 7.9 µL N₂O L⁻¹. River NO₃–N and dissolved N₂O concentrations ranged from 2.5 to 5.3 mg L⁻¹ and 0.4 to 1.9 µg N₂O-N L⁻¹ respectively with N₂O saturation reaching 404%. Floating headspace chambers were used to sample N₂O fluxes. N₂O–N fluxes were significantly related to dissolved N₂O–N concentrations (r² = 30.6) but not to NO₃–N concentrations. The N₂O–N fluxes ranged from 38-501 µg m⁻² h⁻¹, averaging 171 µg m⁻² h⁻¹ (± Std. Dev. 85) overall. The measured N₂O–N fluxes equated to an EF5-r of only 6.6% of that calculated using the IPCC methodology, and this itself was considered to be an over-estimate due to the degassing of antecedent dissolved N₂O present in the groundwater that fed the river.

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  • Dairy farmers as employers in Canterbury

    Verwoerd, N.; Tipples, R.

    Book
    Lincoln University

    This study establishes base data and determines the actual staff management practices followed by a sample of dairy farmers in Canterbury. A person-centred approach was followed in which respondents were simply asked what they were doing and why, so as to find out what is actually happening on farms in terms of managing staff and the management tools used. At the same time, an effort was made to understand the farmer as a person: a unique individual who makes choices based on his personality, values and circumstances.

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