81,210 results

  • Managing new employee safety risks: Integrating safety and human resource management practices

    Burt, C.D.B. (2016)

    Conference Contributions - Other
    University of Canterbury Library

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  • Recovering from a natural disaster

    Kingham, S. (2016)

    Conference item
    University of Canterbury Library

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  • Women's attitudes toward menstruation : a quantitative survey and qualitative interview investigation : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    Fitzgerald, Bridget, M.A. (1990)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Menstruation plays an important role in the psychology of women. There is, however, little information about the nature of women's attitudes toward menstruation. The present study used a quantitative survey followed by a series of qualitative interviews to explore these attitudes in a sample of University women in New Zealand. The Menstrual Attitude Questionnaire (MAO) was used to assess the attitudes and beliefs of 343 women. The psychometric properties of the MAO and its underlying factor structure were examined using a range of factor analytic models. Responses were then used to select a sample of 1O women for interview. Interviews were conducted in order to elaborate upon the attitudes identified by the MAO and to examine in more depth the nature of women's attitudes toward menstruation. Factor analysis of the MAO yielded five orthogonal factors. Results suggested that these university women perceived menstruation as: Marginally causing physical, emotional and intellectual changes, a natural event, an inconvenience and slightly disrupting their usual performance and activities. Subjects accepted the existence of premenstrual tension. Similarly, interviews revealed that attitudes were multidimensional with each subject having an individual configuration of positive, negative and neutral beliefs about menstruation. No consistent pattern among the different beliefs was established. Furthermore, it would appear that attitudes towards menstruation may not be acquired from direct experience but may be learned through social expectations. Directions for future research are indicated, particularly the importance of qualitative research.

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  • Walter Klasz : Inbetween

    Klasz, Walter; Mitterer, Wittfrida; Michl, Thomas; Kern, Christian; McPherson, Peter (2017-03-03)

    Unclassified
    Unitec

    In 2016, Austrian architect and designer Walter Klasz visited Auckland as a Researcher in Residence, hosted by Unitec. Walter’s work focuses on the potential of ‘self-forming-structures’ – constructions that emerge from the tensile and compressive forces that can be manipulated by the designer and the builder. While in New Zealand he was inspired by Polynesian construction and design, by forms found in nature and the landscape, and by his contemporaries working and studying at Unitec. The culmination of his residency was an exhibition at Snowwhite gallery in Auckland, for which Klasz created an accompanying book describing his process, including iterative designs, self-reflection and discussion with friends and colleagues; an autoethnographic account of his time in Auckland. Instead of conducting a blind peer review of Klasz’s book, ePress invited four of his peers to submit an open review, presented here as a discursive foreword to the work. This introductory consideration provides a critical framework to support the manuscript while also acknowledging its place as a reflective account of Klasz’s residency. Open review by: Ass. Prof.Dr. Wittfrida Mitterer, Editor, Bio-Architettura magazine, Italy Dr. Thomas Michl, Lecturer in Art Didactics, Academy of Fine Arts, Nuremberg, Germany Univ. Prof. Arch. Christian Kern, Institute of Three-Dimensional Design, Technical University of Vienna, Austria Peter McPherson, Head of Architecture, Unitec Institute of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand This work is a scholarly open review of ‘How far can design be reduced to let form emerge on its own? A review on the research of Architect Walter Klasz in Auckland’ – a booklet from the exhibition at Snowwhite Gallery: Inbetween art and research. Inbetween physical experiments and parametric digital control. (Copyright: Walter Klasz, proofreading: Joe Streibl, Austria) With contributions from Paul Woodruffe, MLA. Artist and Landscape Architect, Department of Design & Contemporary Art, Unitec; Renata Jadresin-Milic, Senior Lecturer, Department of Architecture, Unitec; Sandra Arnet, Academic Leader, Undergraduate, Interior Design/Architecture/Landscape Architecture, Unitec; Marcus Williams, Associate Professor, Dean of Research and Enterprise, Tūāpapa Rangahau, partnering Research and Enterprise, Unitec; Hazel Redpath, Curriculum Developer and Academic Advisor, Unitec.

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  • Psychological factors in investment choice between shares, bank deposits, and residential real estate in New Zealand, Hong Kong, and Germany

    Kemp, S.; Chan, M.; Chen, Z.; Fetchenhauer, D.; Helton, W.S.; Steiniger, T. (2016)

    Conference Contributions - Other
    University of Canterbury Library

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  • Associations between language, false belief understanding and children's social competence

    Buehler, Daniela (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The current longitudinal study explores associations between language and social competence. Specifically, I examine whether language variables, such as using and hearing mental state words and specific aspects of communication, are linked to social competence through the social skill of perspective-taking and the ability to understand that other people might hold a false belief. A cohort of 67 children were assessed at three time points. The initial assessment took place at ages of 24–30 months; and the first follow-up assessment occurred at ages of 41–49 months, and the outcome assessment took place when the children were aged 52–60 months. Data were collected through standardised tests of language and cognition, coded spontaneous play-based language samples, a nonverbal false-belief task and parental questionnaires that represent aspects of Cavell's (1990) social competence model. The findings indicated that mothers' connected communication played a role in their children's social development. Mothers who more often referred to their 2-year-old child's utterances, reformulated, elaborated or answered to them in an appropriate manner described their children as socially more advanced later in development compared to mothers who were less connected in communication with their child. However, mothers' connectedness in communication with their children was no longer a significant predictor once the children's expressive and receptive language abilities were added to the regression model. Children's expressive vocabulary including words to refer to mental states at the age of two years was a predictor of their social competence at five years. Children who produced more words in general and more often used words to refer to their own and others’ mental states such as emotions, desires or cognition at two years had fewer social difficulties at five years than children who produced fewer words and made fewer references to mental states. No relationship was found among mental-state talk, communication connectedness and false-belief understanding and between false-belief understanding and social competence. These findings indicate that being able to express oneself and to refer to mental states helps young children to interact more effectively in the social world. Therefore, considering the impact that early language competency has on social development identification of children with language difficulties becomes even more important.

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  • Urban Maori art : the third generation of contemporary Maori artists : identity and identification

    Rennie, Kirsten (2001)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Kia u ki tou kawai tupuna, kia matauria ai, i ahu mai !we i hea anga ana koe ko hea Trace out your ancestral stem, so that it may be known where you come from and in which direction you are going. The intention of this thesis is to examine and interpret the artistic careers and practice of University of Auckland Bachelor of Fine Arts graduates Lisa Reihana (1987), Brett Graham (1989), and Michael Parekowhai (1990), and University of Canterbury Bachelor of Fine Arts graduates Shane Cotton (1989) and Peter Robinson (1989). These urban artists are from a third generation of contemporary Maori artists, and they have been selected for this study because they represent a phenomenon within the New Zealand arts establishment. Graduating within three years of one another, they have instantly and successfully mapped out their artistic careers, rapidly rising in status nationally, and internationally, over the past decade. An examination of how contemporary Maori art has been defined by Maori and Pakeha critics and artists, and who is legitimised as Maori artists, presented as the debate between an essentialist and a post-modern, post-colonial argument, frames the context for this survey of identity and identification. The thesis investigates a contemporary Maori art movement: presenting a whanau of artists who form an artistic and educational support network of contemporaries, that whakapapa back to the Tovey generation - the kaumatua artists, influential in the work of Shane Cotton (Ngati Hine, Nga Puhi), Brett Graham (Ngati Koroki Kahukura), Michael Parekowhai (Nga-Ariki/Te Aitanga, Rongowhakaata) Lisa Reihana (Ngati Hine, Nga Puhi, Ngai Tu), and Peter Robinson (Kai Tahu). The artistic whanau now includes Cotton, Graham, Parekowhai, Reihana and Robinson who in turn influence and support their third generation peers, subsequently informing the artistic practice of the fourth generation of contemporary Maori artists, and forming a vital link in the continuation and development of the contemporary Maori art movement. The sesquicentenary of the Treaty of Waitangi in 1990 raised the question, once again, of how we identify as a nation, specifically, is there a New Zealand bicultural identity? The historically familiar focus on forming a partnership between the tangata whenua and Pakeha continued to be of importance for the nation as it approached the end of the millenium. The issue for New Zealand, as a country populated by a diverse range of migrant and locally born peoples, more recently, has become less concerned with 'creating' a bicultural identity and more interested in visually representing a multicultural nation. The last decade of the second millenium (1990 - 2000), is the main focus of this study because each one of the five artists profiled is conscious of speaking between two cultures, and they utilise their artistic works as the vehicle through which to investigate their Maoritanga and their bicultural reality. In a global climate of an increased awareness involving the rights of indigenous peoples, the third generation of contemporary urban Maori artists, the thesis will argue, became cultural ambassadors both nationally and internationally, their work an institutionally acceptable bicultural fusion of Pakeha and Maori concerns. The easy facility with which they negotiate between these two worlds makes them a pivotal generation in any study of contemporary Maori art. This thesis aims to reveal the changing and sometimes controversial face of contemporary Maori art, establishing the necessity for this change, revealing where the artists position themselves as a result of their geographical location within New Zealand, and in terms of their own connection to their Maori heritage and knowledge of their whakapapa, investigating issues of identity and identification.

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  • Deformation, Strength, and Failure Mode of Deep Geothermal Reservoir Rocks

    Siratovich, P.A.; Villeneuve, M.C.; Heap, M.J.; Kennedy, B.M. (2016)

    Conference Contributions - Other
    University of Canterbury Library

    Rocks sourced from active geothermal systems can have unique responses to deformation, due to unique alteration mineralogy and complex microstructure. The current state of understanding of mechanical behaviour of rocks under varying stress conditions is well established on suites of rocks with simple mineralogy and microstructure. Brittle failure can increase porosity and permeability and generate seismicity, whereas inelastic deformation in the ductile regime will decrease porosity and will likely decrease permeability, and generate no or distinct low frequency seismicity. Many studies have focused on the behaviour of siliclastic and carbonate rocks to establish the transition form brittle to ductile behaviour. The geothermal systems in New Zealand, and many other areas, are hosted in mainly volcanic rocks, limiting the applicability of current data and knowledge to these systems. We present results from laboratory triaxial deformation and strength testing of drill core sampled from a deep geothermal reservoir. We have used our findings to construct failure criteria based on our investigations and compared them to the in-situ and induced stress conditions that may lead to macroscopically brittle or ductile deformation of the host rock. Our results show that under the current stress conditions at the Rotokawa geothermal field the host rock behaves in a brittle, rather than compactive, fashion. Under these in-situ stress conditions brittle fracture generation dominates over cataclastic pore collapse, resulting in a rock mass with suitable macroscale permeability for fluid extraction. Our results also show that the rock strength is typically too high for the induced stresses during drilling to initiate borehole breakout. This is supported by borehole observations revealing very little borehole damage in the host rock.

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  • Investigating a role for Fezf2 in the mature brain

    Clare, Alison Jane (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    The excitatory projection neurons (PNs) of the cortex encode the messages that are critical for mediating higher cognitive function. In the primary motor cortex (M1) PNs integrate signals, which regulate sensory driven and volitional motor behaviours. These PNs are hugely diverse in their function and phenotype and each unit contributes a unique role to the M1 circuitry. Maintaining these distinct identities is essential for the healthy brain. Ascertaining the molecular underpinnings that define unique PNs is essential for understanding how their identity is maintained in the adult brain. Forebrain embryonic zinc finger 2 (FEZF2) is a transcription factor essential to the development of PNs in the cortex. Recent work identified expression of Fezf2 in a diverse group of PN types in the mature M1. In particular, the expression of Fezf2 defines a distinct intratelencephalic (IT)-PN type. When compared to Fezf2-negative IT-PNs these neurons display complex morphology of their apical dendrites and a unique electrophysiological phenotype. These findings allude to a broad role for Fezf2 in maintaining the mature PNs of M1. However, a functional role for Fezf2 in the mature brain is yet to be investigated. The aim of this work was to identify the molecular mechanisms that contribute to maintaining Fezf2-expressing neurons of the mature M1. In order to do this a dual approach was applied; first the molecular profiles of Fezf2-positive and Fezf2-negative IT-PNs of M1 were investigated. Here, a transgenic reporter mouse, expressing GFP under the control of Fezf2 regulatory regions (Fezf2-Gfp) and retrograde labelling of PNs were combined with fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) to identify and isolate the Fezf2-positive and Fezf2-negative IT-PNs. Applying low-input RNA-sequencing methods, transcriptome profiles were generated for both IT-PN types. Analysis revealed 199 differentially expressed genes with further bioinformatics analysis identifying functionally intriguing targets with putative roles for the maintenance of these phenotypically distinct neurons. In particular, an enrichment of protein-encoding mRNAs containing a calcium-binding EF hand domain was found amongst the genes increased in Fezf2-positive IT-PNs, suggesting a need for enhanced calcium handling specifically in these neurons. The second approach aimed to investigate a molecular and functional role for Fezf2 in the mature brain. Lentiviral-mediated delivery of a Fezf2 shRNA was utilised to reduce Fezf2 expression in the mature M1, and this led to the differential expression of 756 genes. Further term enrichment analysis of these Fezf2 regulated genes revealed several putative functional roles for Fezf2 in the mature M1. Intriguingly, the regulation of calcium flux was amongst these functional roles, which overlapped with findings from the molecular profiling of Fezf2-positive IT-PNs. Fezf2 regulated genes also associated with directing locomotory behaviour, implicating Fezf2 in the regulation of adult motor output. This role was explored using Drosophila melanogaster; the conditional knockdown of dfezl (Fezf2 homologue) in adult Drosophila causing significant disruption to their startle-induced climbing behaviour. Together the data presented here demonstrated a clear molecular role for Fezf2 in maintenance of the mature brain. Furthermore, the functional effects of knockdown highlight the importance for such regulatory networks in the mature brain.

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  • The internationalisation of Chinese privately owned SMEs: From network and institutional perspectives

    Xiao He, Cici (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    This thesis examines Chinese SMEs and focuses on their internationalisation. It explains how and why these SMEs internationalise with the influence of both networks and institutions. It contributes to the internationalisation theory by providing an integrated network and institutional approach. It also contextualises this theory, which was mainly developed by studies on developed economies, to the emerging economy of China. Thus, this study investigates the integrative influence of both networks and institutions on Chinese SMEs’ internationalisation. It focuses on the specific patterns of foreign market selection, entry mode, and the pace of these SMEs during internationalisation. It also concentrates on the influence of three types of networks (business, social and mixed) and three dimensions of institutions (regulative, normative and cognitive). This thesis adopts a multiple case study approach based on qualitative data, as this thesis is a theory-building study. The data collection process has been conducted in eight SMEs in China through twenty-five interviews and observation. The research author has interviewed and visited these firms twice during a two-year period. Also, this research takes an ‘abduction’ process in which empirical observations and findings are continuously connected to existing literature to generate explanations. This study found that networks and institutions both influence Chinese SMEs’ internationalisation; specifically, networks are influenced by institutions. In addition, the internationalisation of Chinese SMEs can be explained by the paradoxes that co-exist when networks and institutions are integrated. While networks and institutions can support Chinese SME internationalisation they can also hinder the process. For future research, this study provides an integrative approach to incorporating networks and institutions to explain SMEs’ internationalisation. In addition, adopting the paradoxical view is a promising start to explain international business especially in the context of China. The practical implications are that SMEs can learn how to use different types of networks for success in turbulent transitional institutions. Policymakers could enhance their knowledge of how to facilitate SMEs to internationalise successfully by providing a supportive institutional environment.

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  • Housing, the ‘Great Income Tax Experiment’, and the intergenerational consequences of the lease

    Coleman, Andrew (2017-04)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    This paper provides an analysis of how the New Zealand tax system may be affecting residential property markets. Like most OECD countries, New Zealand does not tax the imputed rent or capital gains from owner-occupied housing. Unlike most OECD countries, since 1989 New Zealand has taxed income placed in retirement savings funds on an income basis, rather than an expenditure basis. The result is likely to be the most distortionary tax policy towards housing in the OECD. Since 1989, these tax distortions have provided incentives that should have lead to significant increases in house prices and the average size of new dwellings, should have reduced owner-occupier rates, and should have led to a worsening of the overseas net asset position. The tax settings are likely to be regressive, and are not intergenerationally neutral, as they impose significant costs on current and future generations of young New Zealanders (and new migrants). Since it does not appear to be politically palatable to tax capital gains or imputed rent, to reduce the distortionary consequences of the tax system on housing markets New Zealand may wish to reconsider how it taxes retirement savings accounts by adopting the standard OECD approach.

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  • Comparing the effectiveness of dietitian delivered nutrition education either as a single intensive session or five short sessions for people with prediabetes

    Aitken, Suzanne (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Prediabetes is a worldwide growing epidemic and a key risk factor for progression onto type 2 diabetes. Interventions targeting prediabetes are required to delay or prevent the onset of diabetes. A pilot study was undertaken involving 11 participants with prediabetes. The participants were randomly assigned to either a single session or multi session (five sessions) dietary education intervention conducted by a single dietitian with an overall contact time of 60 minutes. Outcome measurements were collected in the form of HbA1c, weight, blood lipids and nutrition knowledge score. No significant differences were found between the intervention groups in either metabolic outcomes or nutrition knowledge. The analysis of the small sample size should be interpreted with caution and is for interest purposes only. The small sample size may have contributed to the lack of statistically significant results and a larger sample size would be recommended. Few studies have compared similar methodology of consistent contact time over single or multiple sessions. Further programmes could incorporate a longer contact time which could be used to integrate more behaviour change techniques and individual goal setting which may result in greater improvement in measurements.

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  • 'Place' Matters to Rural Nurses: A Study Located in the Rural Otago Region of New Zealand

    Ross, Jean (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Rural nursing is recognised internationally as a speciality area of nursing practice, situated within the general field of nursing. This specialist area of practice is an underrepresented aspect of nursing in New Zealand, and its professional identity is challenged, misunderstood and does not fit easily within the national imaginings, wider nursing profession and policies governing nursing practice. This thesis explores the social construction of the evolving professional identity, of rural nurses’ between the 1990 and early 2000s. This period of time was associated with two significant national directives impacting on the professional practice of rural nurses and their contribution for the delivery of health care, from the rural Otago region, of the South Island of New Zealand. The first of these national directives in the 1990s was the restructuring of the health care system, driven by the National government, to improve the social determinants of health that shifted the governance of health care from the state to local community control. Parallel to these changes was the motivation from the profession to reposition nursing, with the aim of advancing nurses’ practice so that their full potential could be harnessed, to improve the delivery of health care and reduce health inequalities. Situating this research within the interpretive paradigm embeds this retrospective study within the discipline of nursing and social geography, and engages with the concepts of place and governmentality. Place is considered a concept, in which meaning is made throughout, with the associated concepts of ‘location’, ‘locale’ and ‘sense of place’ revealing how the professional identity of the rural nurse was constructed. Further, engaging with governmentality creates a deeper understanding of rural nurses and their practice and exposes the different levels of governance, including state, discipline and the self, which govern the nurses’ conduct. National key informant and regional rural nurse interviews generated data and were analysed using thematic analysis. Stemming from the analyses, an analytical diagrammatic matrix has been developed which demonstrates rural nursing as a place–based practice governed both from within and beyond location. This analysis further demonstrates how the nurse aligns the self in the rural community as a meaningful provider of health care. In contrast, understanding the rural nurses’ professional identity is acknowledged from beyond the rural community, as a critical component of engaging within the wider nursing profession and is recognised as different to urban nursing. Difference in this context is considered a valuable and positive concept in which to recognise the unique features aligned with rural nursing, meaning that the rural identity is associated with the rural nurses’ relationship with the physical context, community members and specialist scope of practice. The significance of place in relation to rural nurses’ practice is an imperative and noteworthy factor which cannot be an underestimated aspect driving the evolution of this study.

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  • Is there a relationship between substance use disorders and violent offending? : a case study of Rimutaka and Wellington male prisoners : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Rehabilitation at Massey University

    Jones, Amanda (2007)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    New Zealand imprisonment per capita rates are second only to the USA with continued growth expected in the next decade. Previous research and extensive personal work experience within the prison system suggests that there is a connection between Substance Use Disorders (SUDs) and crime. The main object of this study was to investigate and ascertain if there is a relationship between occurrences of SUDs and violent offending. This is a complex question, as it is unlikely that SUDs are the only determinants of violent offending. Demographics, ethnicity, education and other environmental and psychological factors will also be contributing factors. The current study tests SUDs and 'other factors' to see if a relationship exists. Two hundred prisoners from Rimutaka and Wellington Prisons were randomly selected from a possible sample size of 850. The 102 respondents who chose to take part in the study were administered the Substance Use Disorders Diagnostic Schedule (SUDDS-IV). Seventy of these 102 prisoners were in prison for having committed a violent offence. A demographic questionnaire followed the psychometric test. Surprisingly, SUDs (both substance abuse and substance dependence), were not found to be statistically more significant in prisoners that had offended violently. Overall, SUDs were found in 99% of the entire population. Eighty-four percent diagnosed with substance dependence and a further 8.8% with substance abuse. Only 6.9% did not have a SUD at all. Fifty-eight percent of the sample investigated identified themselves as Maori, 26.5 European and 13.7% Pacific Islanders. This study found that those imprisoned for a violent conviction were more likely to be Maori. In addition, it illustrated that the prisoners convicted for violence were more likely to have only two years secondary school education or less. Evidence also shows that Maori studied were less likely to be educated. However, such findings require more validation for use as evidence in prisoner research. Further research could include a qualitative approach with emphasis on Maori with limited education and a propensity to be violent. This research would be beneficial if directed towards the unique lives of New Zealand prisoners, their families and specifically the children of the established offenders. The main objective would be to provide information about the next generation of violent offenders. The data and intelligence gathered could be then utilised to better manage and treat violent offenders.

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  • In the mood to innovate : a multilevel study on the interaction of entrepreneurs' innovative work behaviour and affect : a dissertation presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Business Studies in Management, Massey University, Wellington, New Zealand

    Williamson, Amanda J (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Affect is a hot topic in entrepreneurial research. However, extant literature is lagging behind in its use of affective theory and methodology, and furthermore, attention resides in isolated topics of inquiry, rendering the field stunted and disjointed. The purpose of this research is to adopt burgeoning affective theoretical perspectives to anticipate daily fluctuation in entrepreneurs’ innovative behaviour. The circumplex model of affect is utilised in this research to challenge the rhetoric that all spectrum of pleasant moods lead to beneficial work behaviour. Though multilevel modelling based on 3360 data points nested within 160 entrepreneurs (21 surveys per participant, completed over two weeks), support is found for the proposition that pleasant moods do not necessarily result in productive behaviour. Specifically, activation (the energising dimension of affect) has greater influence on propelling entrepreneurs’ innovative behaviour than valence (affect’s pleasant or unpleasant nature), such that high activation unpleasant and pleasant affect (worried, anxious, inspired, enthusiastic) predicts innovative work behaviour, while low activation pleasant affect (calm, relaxed) does not. The affect-behaviour relationship is examined from several perspectives resulting in a feedback model between high activation moods and innovative work behaviour engagement. Engagement in innovative work behaviour positively correlated to entrepreneurs’ experience of high activation unpleasant affect, and negatively related to high and low activation pleasant affect. Thus although innovative work behaviour benefits from high activation pleasant moods, engagement essentially decreases them. Affective dispositions correlated with daily affective experiences also, as such entrepreneurs with low levels of trait negative affect experienced more pleasant moods during the day and visa versa. Findings confirmed the hypothesis that the quality of previous night’s sleep both moderates the link between affect and innovative work behaviour, plus predisposes entrepreneurs to pleasant or conversely unpleasant affective daily experiences – illustrating the importance of sleep in affective research. Additionally innovative work behaviour was predicted via “the affective shift model”, which was adapted to include the influence of activation. The results further attest to the relevance of temporal dynamics of affect perspectives in entrepreneurial research. Specifically, the model demonstrated that innovative work behaviour ensued when high activation unpleasant affect was followed by high activation pleasant affect, or simply with an increase in the level of high activation affect, of either valence between morning and afternoon. Empirical, theoretical, and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

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  • The effectiveness and results of the New Zealand official development assistance education and training programme to the Philippines : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Development Studies at Massey University

    Inoncillo, Ninia P (1997)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The role of education in the development of any given society is, beyond doubt, central, and crucial. When developing countries began their drive for social and economic development more than three decades ago, education was perceived as a means not only of raising political and social consciousness, but also of increasing the number of skilled workers and raising the level of trained humanpower. There is nothing new in a developing country seeking help from the developed countries who fund scholarships, trainings and programmes. The effects of these scholarships, trainings and programmes on the developing countries is much an open issue for study. This thesis examines the outcomes and effectiveness of an educational aid programme in the Philippines. Its central purpose is to determine and evaluate the New Zealand Official Development Assistance (NZODA) Education and Training Programme for the Philippines. This entails an examination of the social and private benefits, as well as the costs accrued to the recipients and donor country were also looked at. The NZODA educational aid for the Philippines was further analysed in relation to the general aid objectives of gender bias, rural and urban development, and equal development of private and government institutions. The study found that there are many social, economic and technological benefits that are derived from the programme and that accrue to the recipients and the donor. Further, the programme has brought about many substantial changes both in the social and economic development of the Philippines. The programme has not only increased the number of highly skilled employees but has increased as well the social and private rates of returns. Moreover, it was found that expansion of educational aid in the Philippines would be profitable for both the Philippines and New Zealand. In general, the programme is effective, but, because the results of the programme are faced by many constraints, there are a big number of things that need to be improved.

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  • Financial incentive schemes in a TQM environment : a case study in a world class organisation : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Technology in Industrial and Manufacturing Technology at Massey University

    Soliman, Wassim (2000)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Whether or not financial incentive schemes help organisations to reach their objectives is an old debate. During the last few decades, the modern management schools -Total Quality Management (TQM) and new manufacturing techniques-added extra pressure on financial incentive schemes by claiming that such schemes don't fit in a modern management environment and that they can have a destructive influence on organisations. Although the advocates of TQM and modern manufacturing management techniques have different views concerning financial incentive schemes, generally speaking, they don't believe that these schemes help modern organisations to reach their objectives. Some of these advocates see that financial incentive schemes motivate employees to focus on quantity and ignore quality. Others see that although those schemes can help to achieve progress, that progress is at the expense of the intrinsic rewards that organisations should promote. Other TQM advocates believe that these schemes do not help because effective and efficient systems rather than individuals are the main factor that determines the progress of organisations. This category believes that it makes more sense to improve the systems and procedures rather than to use financial incentive schemes to motivate employees to reach the organisations' targets. The purpose of this research project was to answer the question as to whether a compromise between TQM and financial incentive schemes could be achieved to make the best use of both approaches. To answer this question an organisation with a strong TQM environment was identified and a financial incentive scheme was designed and implemented in that organisation with the help of a design team from the same organisation. The scheme covered five main areas of interest to the organisation namely: product and process quality, manufacturing management, environmental compliance, safety compliance and cost effectiveness. From several key performance indicators (KPIs) used by the organisation in these five areas only those under the direct control of employees were used in this research project. Samples of employees from the departments covered by the incentive scheme were consulted all through the different stages of the development of the incentive scheme. A comprehensive communication plan was undertaken to ensure that the structure and principles of the incentive scheme were clearly communicated to all employees. The results of installing the financial incentive scheme were then analysed to study the effect of implementing that scheme on the organisational performance and on the TQM environment and particularly on some specific TQM attributes. The analysis of those results showed that the incentive scheme achieved a considerable improvement in almost all of the areas covered by the scheme. The analysis showed no evidence of any adverse effect on the TQM environment as a result of installing the incentive scheme. In fact it was concluded that the TQM environment assisted the implementation of the financial incentive scheme.

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  • Lactose hydrolysis by immobilized whole cells of K. lactis CBS 2357 : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Technology in Bioprocess Engineering at Massey University

    Marasabessy, Ahmad (1999)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The application of immobilized yeast for lactose hydrolysis was investigated. The enzyme stability was tested as a function of pretreatment. The stability of K. lactis CBS 2357 cells after treatment with glutaraldehyde (GA) and the β-galactosidase activity of whole cells after immobilization in alginate bead and corn particles were studied. Permeabilization using ethanol and chloroform (10% and 2%, respectively) at 37 °C and 120 rpm for 5 min, followed by stabilization with 10 mM glutaraldehyde at 30 °C for 1 hour with gently shaking deactivated 2.5% of the initial whole cells β-galactosidase activity, tested with the ONPG method. The glutaraldehyde treatment could significantly maintain β-galactosidase activity in phosphate buffer pH 6.5 containing 0.1 mM MnCl2. Manganese and potassium ions in the Mn-Buffer were found to be essential to enhance the activity. The biomass activity of GA stabilized cells in Mn-Buffer can be maintained above 70% during 72 hours of incubation at 30 °C. An increase of incubation temperature from 30 to 37 °C deactivated 10% of biomass activity after 72 hours. Direct stabilization of alginate biocatalyst with glutaraldehyde caused a significant reduction of β-galactosidase activity with the resulting deactivation depending on glutaraldehyde and alginate concentrations. When 40 g of biocatalyst containing 2x109 cells/g alginate was stabilized in 100 ml of 0 to 4 mM glutaraldehyde, the optimum range of glutaraldehyde concentration was between 0.5 to 1.0 mM. When this concentration range was applied to stabilize 2%- to 3%-alginate biocatalyst, the average biocatalyst activity remained within 56-74% of the initial activity. It was shown that the adsorption of K. lactis on corn particles through a "double liquid cultivation stage" followed by permeabilization of biocatalyst gave a higher activity. The activity obtained was 0.84 μmol lactose hydrolyzed /min/g biocatalyst under the conditions tested. This activity was about 5 times higher than the case without permeabilization and about 2 times higher than that of the permeabilized biocatalyst prepared with a "single liquid cultivation stage". When tested in the packed-bed reactor, during the initial stages the degree of hydrolysis (d.h.) was 45% within the operational conditions tested. Free enzyme was detected during the first 5 hours of operation, especially when non-stabilized corn biocatalyst was used. After 5 hours, free enzyme was no longer detected in the reactor outlet, suggesting that direct adsorption might have rendered good cell confinement inside the corn particles.

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  • An exploration of how life events and the social environment affect food behaviours among New Zealand women : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Public Health at Massey University, Wellington, New Zealand

    Crosbie, Jordan (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Background. Food plays a major role in our health. A poor diet is a contributing factor to many diseases, including obesity and its co-morbidities. The literature suggests that the social environment including social relationships, the media and other features of the social context in which one is born, drive food choices and behaviours. However, there is limited research available explicitly investigating how significant life events and factors within the social environment affect food behaviours among New Zealand women. Given the high prevalence of obesity in New Zealand, there is a concerning gap in the literature attending to the development of food behaviours that may help understand the high obesity prevalence. Aim. The aim of this study is to explore how life events and social environments impact the food behaviours of New Zealand women. Methods. This study is informed by phenomenology and used semistructured interviews for data collection. Nineteen interviews with older women, who resided in Wellington, were carried out. The interviews asked questions regarding the experiences of these women and the development of their food behaviours overtime. Results. Four main themes were identified, the effect of social relationships; the changing role of the media; gender roles; and social osmosis. The results revealed that the participants were highly influenced by social relationships, with the most influential relationships being between the participants and their mothers’. The media was found to play a role in influencing the participants to change their food behaviours. However, the media also caused widespread confusion about the nutrition guidelines. Gender norms appeared to guide the participants in the type of food related skills they learnt over their lifetime. The final theme, social osmosis describes how participants accumulated foodrelated information from their social environment over their lifetime that contributed to their food and total nutrition knowledge. Discussion. As mothers increasingly join the workforce, children may need additional guidance on food related skills from social environments outside of the home to make up for the reduced time mothers spend in the home carrying out roles dedicated to being a homemaker. In addition, there may need to be restrictions on the type of information published in mainstream media to avoid confusion about how to maintain a healthy diet. Overall, the social environment plays a crucial role in the development of food behaviours and the present study gives an indication of how it is influential for New Zealand women.

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  • Faecal steroid measurements for the assessment of reproductive function in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) and kakapo (Strigops habroptilus) : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Physiology at Massey University

    Hawke, Emma Jane (2002)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The kakapo (Strigops habroptilus) is an endangered parrot endemic to New Zealand and little is known of its reproductive physiology. Reproductive function is conventionally determined by the measurement of reproductive steroids in plasma samples. This is impractical and invasive in endangered, free-living species. However, the measurement of reproductive steroids in avian faecal samples is practiced. Few studies have documented strong relationships between faecal and plasma steroid concentrations. The objectives of this study were to develop and validate a faecal extraction method for the measurement of oestradiol, progesterone and testosterone in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica); determine the relationships between steroid concentrations and gonadal development in quail; and define annual faecal hormone cycles of kakapo in relation to their breeding status. Groups of male and female quail were held on different photoperiodic and temperature regimes to produce birds with a range of gonad sizes and steroid concentrations. Steroid concentrations were measured in faeces and plasma by radioimmunoassay. Positive relationships were demonstrated between plasma and faecal steroid concentrations. Faecal steroid concentrations had strong positive relationships with ovary and testis size in female and male quail respectively. The extraction method developed was then applied to faecal samples, which were collected from kakapo in their free-living environment on Whenua Hou (Codfish Island). The samples were collected from identified birds over three potential breeding seasons. There were annual cycles of hormone concentrations that corresponded with cycles of breeding activity in females and males. No significant differences were found between breeding and non-breeding years for faecal concentrations of all three hormones, suggesting that kakapo undergo a degree of gonadal development each year. Annual hormone profiles for individual birds supported this finding. This study quantifies the value of collecting multiple faecal samples in both captive and wild situations and demonstrates the power and value of faecal steroid analysis.

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