81,210 results

  • "Turn the lights down low" : women's experiences of intimacy after childbirth : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University, Manawatu, New Zealand

    Urquhart, Teresa Heidi (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Women navigate many social changes when they become mothers, often including considerable changes to intimate and sexual relationships. While maternal health care attends to various physical and emotional changes for women, it has emerged that many women experience dissatisfaction in their intimate relationships after birth. A literature review revealed that while many studies had investigated the sexual experiences of women postpartum, none had looked at the effect of dominant discourses within Western popular culture. This research aimed to explore how women make sense of changes to their intimate relationships following childbirth. Norms and assumptions about the effects of childbirth on women’s bodies and the implications of change to intimate relationships were examined. Six women between the ages of 25-45 who had given birth to a child in the last 10 years were interviewed in a conversational style about their experiences. A feminist post-structuralist discourse analysis was applied, attending to the dominant discourses and gendered power relations that enabled and limited positions for women. The analysis showed that normative discourse shaped not only how women experienced their bodies and intimate relationships, but every aspect of their lives including pregnancy, labour, mothering, unpaid and paid work. Furthermore, women were positioned through discourse and a gender binary as responsible for the household and childcare, as well as responsible for regulating and managing the intimate relationship. Ultimately the overriding experience of women in this research was that body changes and changes in the sexual relationship (overwhelmingly one of dissatisfaction) postpartum resulted in feelings of responsibility and guilt on the women’s behalf for failing the expectations of femininity and the obligations of neoliberalism. Instances of resistance and challenge to the dominant discourses were expressed, as were alternative discourses. This research provides an understanding of the effects of dominant discourses and the power relations implicit in them on women’s lived realities. This piece of research provides knowledge around contextual factors impacting on postpartum sexual health and postpartum body image. It may also provide the platform from which both professionals and women can discuss female bodies, including genitalia, and female sexuality in less 'troublesome' ways.

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  • Lactose hydrolysis by immobilized whole cells of K. lactis CBS 2357 : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Technology in Bioprocess Engineering at Massey University

    Marasabessy, Ahmad (1999)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The application of immobilized yeast for lactose hydrolysis was investigated. The enzyme stability was tested as a function of pretreatment. The stability of K. lactis CBS 2357 cells after treatment with glutaraldehyde (GA) and the β-galactosidase activity of whole cells after immobilization in alginate bead and corn particles were studied. Permeabilization using ethanol and chloroform (10% and 2%, respectively) at 37 °C and 120 rpm for 5 min, followed by stabilization with 10 mM glutaraldehyde at 30 °C for 1 hour with gently shaking deactivated 2.5% of the initial whole cells β-galactosidase activity, tested with the ONPG method. The glutaraldehyde treatment could significantly maintain β-galactosidase activity in phosphate buffer pH 6.5 containing 0.1 mM MnCl2. Manganese and potassium ions in the Mn-Buffer were found to be essential to enhance the activity. The biomass activity of GA stabilized cells in Mn-Buffer can be maintained above 70% during 72 hours of incubation at 30 °C. An increase of incubation temperature from 30 to 37 °C deactivated 10% of biomass activity after 72 hours. Direct stabilization of alginate biocatalyst with glutaraldehyde caused a significant reduction of β-galactosidase activity with the resulting deactivation depending on glutaraldehyde and alginate concentrations. When 40 g of biocatalyst containing 2x109 cells/g alginate was stabilized in 100 ml of 0 to 4 mM glutaraldehyde, the optimum range of glutaraldehyde concentration was between 0.5 to 1.0 mM. When this concentration range was applied to stabilize 2%- to 3%-alginate biocatalyst, the average biocatalyst activity remained within 56-74% of the initial activity. It was shown that the adsorption of K. lactis on corn particles through a "double liquid cultivation stage" followed by permeabilization of biocatalyst gave a higher activity. The activity obtained was 0.84 μmol lactose hydrolyzed /min/g biocatalyst under the conditions tested. This activity was about 5 times higher than the case without permeabilization and about 2 times higher than that of the permeabilized biocatalyst prepared with a "single liquid cultivation stage". When tested in the packed-bed reactor, during the initial stages the degree of hydrolysis (d.h.) was 45% within the operational conditions tested. Free enzyme was detected during the first 5 hours of operation, especially when non-stabilized corn biocatalyst was used. After 5 hours, free enzyme was no longer detected in the reactor outlet, suggesting that direct adsorption might have rendered good cell confinement inside the corn particles.

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  • Faecal steroid measurements for the assessment of reproductive function in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) and kakapo (Strigops habroptilus) : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Physiology at Massey University

    Hawke, Emma Jane (2002)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The kakapo (Strigops habroptilus) is an endangered parrot endemic to New Zealand and little is known of its reproductive physiology. Reproductive function is conventionally determined by the measurement of reproductive steroids in plasma samples. This is impractical and invasive in endangered, free-living species. However, the measurement of reproductive steroids in avian faecal samples is practiced. Few studies have documented strong relationships between faecal and plasma steroid concentrations. The objectives of this study were to develop and validate a faecal extraction method for the measurement of oestradiol, progesterone and testosterone in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica); determine the relationships between steroid concentrations and gonadal development in quail; and define annual faecal hormone cycles of kakapo in relation to their breeding status. Groups of male and female quail were held on different photoperiodic and temperature regimes to produce birds with a range of gonad sizes and steroid concentrations. Steroid concentrations were measured in faeces and plasma by radioimmunoassay. Positive relationships were demonstrated between plasma and faecal steroid concentrations. Faecal steroid concentrations had strong positive relationships with ovary and testis size in female and male quail respectively. The extraction method developed was then applied to faecal samples, which were collected from kakapo in their free-living environment on Whenua Hou (Codfish Island). The samples were collected from identified birds over three potential breeding seasons. There were annual cycles of hormone concentrations that corresponded with cycles of breeding activity in females and males. No significant differences were found between breeding and non-breeding years for faecal concentrations of all three hormones, suggesting that kakapo undergo a degree of gonadal development each year. Annual hormone profiles for individual birds supported this finding. This study quantifies the value of collecting multiple faecal samples in both captive and wild situations and demonstrates the power and value of faecal steroid analysis.

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  • Fashioning liminal space : the meaning of things and women's experience in the practice of domestic shrine making in Aotearoa/New Zealand : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Social Anthropology at Massey University

    Savage, Deirdre Anne (2003)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This paper aims to bring together two lines of analysis that converge upon the specific spaces that are women's domestic shrines. One line examines the material culture of the spaces and objects on the shrines of ten different women and seeks to reveal the "agency" of these things in themselves. The other line is a phenomenological one and responds to the shrine as a site in which issues of practice, embodiment and intentionality in the daily life of the subjects is explored. The material culture of the shrine is investigated as part of the intersubjective experience of its creator and scrutinized as a fruitful place in which to develop an ethnographic understanding of the truth of life-as-lived. This study strives to give voice to ordinary New Zealand women and their precious things within their own homes. Key Words: Domestic Shrines/Altars, Feminist Ethnography, Material Culture, Objects, Spaccs, Phenomenology, Practice, Intersubjectivity, Embodiment, Agency, Women's Experience, Liminality.

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  • The oxidation stability of extra virgin avocado oil : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Technology in Food Science at Massey University

    Sherpa, Nimma (2002)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Extra virgin avocado oil (EVAO) is extracted from avocado fruit with minimal processing. It contains a wide range of non-lipid compounds that have a profound affect on oil stability. The deterioration of oil quality is due to autoxidation and photooxidation reactions that occur during oil storage. The objectives of this research were to determine the effect of prooxidant factors (light, temperature, oxygen level) on oil oxidation and quality; make recommendations for oil processing and packaging procedures to minimise oxidation; predict the shelf life of the oil and to determine the effect of commercial antioxidants on oil oxidation. An accelerated oxidation reactor was developed to test the effects of fluorescent light, elevated temperature and varying oxygen levels on the peroxide value (PV) (initially 0.96 ± 0.03 meq/kg oil) and chlorophyll content (initially 16.2 ± 0.1 ppm) of EVAO. The production and packaging processes of Olivado NZ. were analysed for exposure to oxidation promoting factors. EVAO was exposed to dark storage at 50°C and 60°C in order to determine Q10 values for oil oxidation. Several commercial antioxidants were evaluated by examining their affect on EVAO using the Rancimat oil stability index analysis and hot air oven testing. It was found that fluorescent light at 4500 lux and aeration with dry air strongly accelerated the oxidation (determined by PV) and reduced the chlorophyll content of EVAO. The average effect of 4500 lux fluorescent light compared to 0 lux over seven hours was a PV increase of 4.5 ± 1.4 meq/kg oil and decrease in chlorophyll content by 0.9 ± 0.3 ppm. The average effect of aerated EVAO compared to EVAO stored at ambient oxygen levels over seven hours was a PV increase of 3.5 ± 1.7 meq/kg oil and a chlorophyll content decrease of 0.3 ± 0.2 ppm. Exposure to an elevated temperature of 60°C for seven hours did not cause a significant increase in PV. Recommendations were made to minimise the exposure of the oil to light, aeration, water and fruit sediment during production and packaging in order to minimise oxidation of the oil. Due to the breakdown of natural antioxidants and alternative side reactions that occurred at elevated test temperatures but not at ambient temperatures, the shelf life of the oil could not be defined. EVAO containing ascorbyl palmitate at a level of 100 ppm had a peroxide value 80 % less than control EVAO with no antioxidants after 500 hours storage at 60°C. Ascorbyl palmitate has GRAS status and was concluded to be the most effective antioxidant of those tested in EVAO.

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  • The learning process of access trainees : an investigation of study motives and strategies : a research report presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Business Studies at Massey University

    Mbanga, Basil Adam (1989)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The study applied Biggs' Study Process Questionnaire to the context of transition education in an investigation of the approaches, motivations to learn and strategies trainees in Access Training Scheme used in their learning. Respondents were also asked information about their age. sex, educational qualification, ethnic origin and how long they had been without a job. Three training centres in Palmerston North city were chosen.The first centre conducted a course in drama, the second, a course in Maori language and culture, and the third, a course in basic computer skills. The Study Process Questionnaire was administered to 33 subjects, 16 males and 17 females. The Study Process Questionnaire is concerned with three main approaches to studying and their three associated motivations and strategies. Surface Appproach is dominated by extrinsic motivations where a learner concern is with obtaining a qualification. The study strategy involves memorising and reproducing when required in a test. Deep Approach is linked to intrinsic motivation dominated by intrinsic interest in the subject or task. Students under this motivation tend to search for meaningful learning and read widely. Achievement Approach is governed by achievement motivation and is associated with a desire to compete and obtain higher grades. Learners predisposed to this approach tend to schedule their time and do homeworks. Trainees studied to express the use of Deep Approach more than Surface or Achievement Approaches. Accordingly they were inclined to be deep motivated and predisposed to adopt deep strategy to surface or achievement strategy in their study. A follow-up interview with 11 trainees tended to confirm the findings of the Study Process Questionnaire. It was concluded that the Access trainees in the sample were likely to adopt deep approach in their study. This suggests that they are inclined to be intrinsically motivated in their learning and may be predisposed to engage in meaningful learning.

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  • The effect of army support services on satisfaction with army life experienced by partners of service personnel and their subsequent willingness to remain within the military enclave : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    Renaud, Marguerite (2000)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The present short-term study is a survey of the effect of Army support services on satisfaction with Army life as experienced by partners of service personnel and their subsequent willingness to remain within the military enclave. It aimed to elicit the personal perspective of partners on deployment issues, the efficacy of current Army support services, and attitudes to continuing an association with the Army. Participants were recruited from the families of those soldiers who had returned from peacekeeping deployments between January to July 2000. New Zealand Army Administration staff supplied a list of 317 addresses. Of these, 291 partners could be contacted by mail and subsequently 184 individuals returned a completed 16-page New Zealand Partner Support Survey (2000) questionnaire. This questionnaire elicited data about: socio-demographic characteristics; perceived support; Army support services; general issues; potential deployment problems; general health (GHQ-30); parenting issues and anecdotal narratives. Using quantitative methods the data was analyzed with an additional aim to collect data for a future longitudinal study on the retention of Army personnel. The participants' anecdotal narratives showed that deployments do impact the family and that family factors such as attitudes to Army lifestyle and support services do influence the soldiers' decision to remain in service. The study revealed that partners tend to mainly expect support from the Army with what they perceive is an Army related problem. These issues primarily concerned communication links with deployed partners and dissemination of information regarding soldiers. Based on this evidence it is suggested that the Army consolidate current support services to establish positions of full-time, dedicated Information Officers. The main responsibility of this position would be to liase between the soldiers' families and the Army. From this short-term study it is apparent that the decision to remain in service can be influenced by the Army's demonstration that the soldiers' families are valued members of the Military community. The provision of a quality support service specifically tailored to meet the needs of those it purports to serve is tangible evidence of this regard.

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  • Gulliver and other monkeys : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in English Literature at Massey University

    Henman, Jim (1993)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The distinctions between tragedy, satire and comedy, as with the lines severing madness from genius, are blurred and uncertain. The purpose of this essay is to further smudge, and where possible to erase, the artificial divisions within these two sets of notions, and thereby create more confusion. Throughout I shall refer to the life and work of Swift, and in particular Gulliver's Travels, as neat examples of the chaos intrinsic in these diverse, yet related, concepts. As Aristotle exemplified the principle of the tragic, using Sophocles' Oedipus Tyrannos, saving why it is sad or tragic in his opinion, so I hope to say why I feel Gulliver's Travels to be predominantly funny or comic, and attempt to explain the principle of the comic in a like manner, with digression upon other works as has seemed appropriate to the illustration of the subject. Throughout I shall use the term 'comedy' in its broader sense, as referring to the comic, rather than in its technical sense of comic drama.

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  • In defence of behaviourism : a Skinnerian reinterpretation of Stenhouse's ethological theory of intelligence, supported by a Galilean philosophy of science : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Education at Massey University

    Southon, Lawrence David (1977)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis attempts to justify a Skinnerian interpretation of intelligence. The justification has three major themes. Firstly it is argued that Skinnerian behaviourism has the status of scientific knowledge comparable to Newtonian mechanics. Secondly it is argued that Stenhouse's ethological theory of intelligence has a number of defects, so that a behaviourist theory which retains the strengths of the ethological theory while avoiding those defects is to be preferred. Thirdly it is argued that certain widely received accounts of scientific knowledge are mistaken; an alternative account is presented. This venture into philosophy of science underlies the other two themes and is presented first. The supposition that science may be represented in terms of general laws of the form 'All swans are white' is critically examined, following Toulmin's analysis which is illustrated with three exemplars of scientific knowledge. A Galilean ideal of science is then elaborated. The ideal is formulated in terms of scientific knowledge following Toulmin, and illustrated with three exemplars of scientific knowledge. The processes of revolutionary science, normal science, technology, and justification of theories, are interpreted in terms of the ideal alluded to above with further illustrations. Convergences with de Bono's 'lateral thinking' are suggested. Criticisms of statistical 'social science' are noted. The conventional contrast between physical and social science is critically examined. A formulation of Skinnerian behaviourism is presented, to demonstrate that behaviourism conforms to the Galilean ideal of science. Various criticisms of behaviourism are responded to. The proposed criteria for justification of theories are applied to behaviourism. Stenhouse's ethological theory of the nature and evolution of intelligence is criticially examined. The divergent development of ethology and behaviourism from reflexology is outlined. Skinner's critique of Pavlov's concept 'inhibition' is applied to Stenhouse's 'P-factor'. The use of metaphors in science is discussed. De Bono's 'special memory surface' is noted as an alternative to the usual mechanical or electronic storage systems as a metaphor for memory. Skinner's analysis of the nature and evolution of intelligence is elaborated. Stenhouse's factors and especially the P-factor are reinterpreted in behaviourist terms. It is argued that a behaviourist theory of intelligence is preferable to Stenhouse's ethological theory in terms of the Galilean ideal of science. Educational and political implications of various philosophical and theoretical positions are also noted.

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  • In search of self : the hospitalisation experiences of children with cancer : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    Rochecouste, Véronique (2001)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Cancer is the second most common cause of death in children in the Western world. The diagnosis and treatment process is painful and distressing, and is carried out in the hospital environment. This environment is foreign to most children, and influences children's coping with the experience of having cancer. Research in this area has focussed on assessing coping responses, and designing interventions for the pain, distress and anxiety associated with the medical procedures. There have also been studies which have measured the prevalence of emotional and behavioural difficulties in children with cancer. No studies have been conducted into children's experiences of hospital expressed in their own terms. The aim of the present study was to elicit the hospital experiences of children with cancer. Interviews were conducted with seven children, aged 5 - 15 years, who had completed treatment for cancer within the previous two years. An interpretive phenomenological design was utilised in order to gain and analyse accounts of the participants' perceptions and experiences. Findings suggest that the experiences can be interpreted in terms of two themes underlying the experiences of children with cancer, and their coping responses. The first theme is 'Retaining a sense of self-as-normal', which describes efforts to 'Maintain links with familiar people' and 'Becoming 'at home' in hospital'. The second theme is 'Incorporating multiple selves', which are 'Self-as-body-in-pain', 'Self-as-confined', 'Self-as-patient' and 'Self-as-survivor-living-with-cancer'. Success in retaining a sense of self-as-normal both affects, and is influenced by, the incorporation of multiple selves. Implications of these themes for practice in terms of the assessment of coping responses, design of interventions, and the measurement of outcomes, are suggested.

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  • He Matapihi Mā Mua, Mō Muri: The Ethics, Processes, and Procedures Associated with the Digitization of Indigenous Knowledge—The Pei Jones Collection

    Whaanga, Hēmi; Bainbridge, David; Anderson, Michela; Scrivener, Korii; Cader, Papitha; Roa, Tom; Keegan, Te Taka Adrian Gregory (2015)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    The digital era has transformed how people live their lives and interact with the world and knowledge systems around them. In Aotearoa/New Zealand a range of initiatives incorporating Indigenous knowledge have been implemented to collect, catalog, maintain, and organize digital objects. In this article, we report on the ethics, processes, and procedures associated with the digitization of the manuscripts, works, and collected taonga (treasures) of the late Dr. Pei Te Hurinui Jones—and describe how it was transformed into a digital library. It discusses the decision-making processes and the various roles and responsibilities of the researchers, family members, and institute in this process.

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  • UVisP: User-centric visualization of data provenance with gestalt principles

    Garae, Jeffery; Ko, Ryan K.L.; Chaisiri, Sivadon (2016)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    The need to understand and track files (and inherently, data) in cloud computing systems is in high demand. Over the past years, the use of logs and data representation using graphs have become the main method for tracking and relating information to the cloud users. While being used, tracking related information with 'data provenance' (i.e. series of chronicles and the derivation history of data on metadata) is the new trend for cloud users. However, there is still much room for improving data activity representation in cloud systems for end-users. We propose 'User-centric Visualization of data provenance with Gestalt (UVisP)', a novel user-centric visualization technique for data provenance. This technique aims to facilitate the missing link between data movements in cloud computing environments and the end-users uncertain queries over their files security and life cycle within cloud systems. The proof of concept for the UVisP technique integrates an open-source visualization API with Gestalt's theory of perception to provide a range of user-centric provenance visualizations. UVisP allows users to transform and visualize provenance (logs) with implicit prior knowledge of 'Gestalt's theory of perception.' We presented the initial development of the UVisP technique and our results show that the integration of Gestalt and 'perceptual key(s)' in provenance visualization allows end-users to enhance their visualizing capabilities, to extract useful knowledge and understand the visualizations better.

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  • From reactionary to proactive security: context-aware security policy management and optimization under uncertainty

    Chaisiri, Sivadon; Ko, Ryan K.L. (2016)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    At the core of its nature, security is a highly contextual and dynamic challenge. However, current security policy approaches are usually static, and slow to adapt to ever-changing requirements, let alone catching up with reality. In a 2012 Sophos survey, it was stated that a unique malware is created every half a second. This gives a glimpse of the unsustainable nature of a global problem, any improvement in terms of closing the 'time window to adapt' would be a significant step forward. To exacerbate the situation, a simple change in threat and attack vector or even an implementation of the so-called 'bring-your-own-device' paradigm will greatly change the frequency of changed security requirements and necessary solutions required for each new context. Current security policies also typically overlook the direct and indirect costs of implementation of policies. As a result, technical teams often fail to have the ability to justify the budget to the management, from a business risk viewpoint. This paper considers both the adaptive and cost-benefit aspects of security, and introduces a novel context-aware technique for designing and implementing adaptive, optimized security policies. Our approach leverages the capabilities of stochastic programming models to optimize security policy planning, and our preliminary results demonstrate a promising step towards proactive, context-aware security policies.

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  • Taxonomy of man-in-the-middle attacks on HTTPS

    Stricot-Tarboton, Shaun; Chaisiri, Sivadon; Ko, Ryan K.L. (2016)

    Conference item
    University of Waikato

    With the increase in Man-in-the-Middle (MITM) attacks capable of breaking Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS) over the past five years, researchers tasked with the improvement of HTTPS must understand each attacks characteristics. However with the large amount of attacks it is difficult to discern attack differences, with out any existing classification system capable of classifying these attacks. In this paper we provide a framework for classifying and mitigating MITM attacks on HTTPS communications. The identification and classification of these attacks can be used to provide useful insight into what can be done to improve the security of HTTPS communications. The classification framework was used to create a taxonomy of MITM attacks providing a visual representation of attack relationships, and was designed to flexibly allow other areas of attack analysis to be added. The classification framework was tested against a testbed of MITM attacks, then further validated and evaluated at the INTERPOL Global Complex for Innovation (IGCI) with a forensic taxonomy extension, and forensic analysis tool.

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  • Toward Large-Scale Continuous EDA: A Random Matrix Theory Perspective

    Kabán, Ata; Bootkrajang, Jakramate; Durrant, Robert J. (2016)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Estimations of distribution algorithms (EDAs) are a major branch of evolutionary algorithms (EA) with some unique advantages in principle. They are able to take advantage of correlation structure to drive the search more efficiently, and they are able to provide insights about the structure of the search space. However, model building in high dimensions is extremely challenging, and as a result existing EDAs may become less attractive in large-scale problems because of the associated large computational requirements. Large-scale continuous global optimisation is key to many modern-day real-world problems. Scaling up EAs to large-scale problems has become one of the biggest challenges of the field. This paper pins down some fundamental roots of the problem and makes a start at developing a new and generic framework to yield effective and efficient EDA-type algorithms for large-scale continuous global optimisation problems. Our concept is to introduce an ensemble of random projections to low dimensions of the set of fittest search points as a basis for developing a new and generic divide-and-conquer methodology. Our ideas are rooted in the theory of random projections developed in theoretical computer science, and in developing and analysing our framework we exploit some recent results in nonasymptotic random matrix theory. MATLAB code is available from http://www.cs.bham.ac.uk/∼axk/rpm.zip

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  • Searching for the Digital Fāgogo: A Study of Indigenous Samoan Storytelling in Contemporary Aotearoa Digital Media

    Tielu, Amy Jane

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This research analyses the manifestation of fāgogo – an indigenous form of Samoan storytelling – in the digital media of Aotearoa. It argues that digital media and their associated frameworks have the potential to supplement historical fāgogo practices, nurturing cultural identity through connection in the diaspora. This is pursued through the analysis of storytelling designed to interweave the strengths and historical principles of fāgogo practice with principles of digital storytelling designed for participation. This research builds upon the available literature of fāgogo with a contextual review conducted by Talanoa with eight scholars and practitioners of fāgogo across Samoa and Aotearoa. This enabled the development of working classifications to analyse digital media by Samoans in Aotearoa. Case studies of digital media found a distinct taxonomy: fāgogo told in a non-digital framework, and later digitised; and contemporary fāgogo natively designed for the online digital environment. Both categories illustrated the cultural negotiation underway at the intersection of indigenous stories with the unique challenges of a distributed, digital framework. Significantly, these case studies also demonstrated how Samoans are indigenising foreign narratives and digital social spaces to tell their stories. This research addresses the relationship between a ‘digital’ and ‘historical’ concept of fāgogo (or as I will henceforth call it, ‘formational’) before connecting best practices found from case studies (those most in resonance with formational fāgogo principles), with relevant principles of participatory production and transmedia storytelling. Considerations of linguistic and technical accessibility, ethics and multicultural negotiation are also highlighted. This research concludes with the proposal of five principles for a digital fāgogo – fāgogo designed natively within the digital, networked environment to fulfil formational fāgogo principles. These principles are described as 1) Su’i fefiloi (Interweave of different media), 2) Education, 3) Collaboration, 4) Conversation, and 5) Fa’afailelega (Nourishment). Future recommendations and potential research directions are provided in closing.

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  • Effects of constant incubation regimes on eggs and hatchlings of the egg-laying skink, Oligosoma suteri

    Hare, Kelly Maree (2001)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The conditions under which reptilian eggs are incubated affect survival probability and physiological attributes of the progeny. The egg-laying skink, Oligosoma suteri, is the only endemic oviparous lizard in New Zealand. No controlled laboratory incubation had previously been undertaken, and thus no information was available on the requirements for successful captive incubation. I studied the effects of incubation regime on the eggs and hatchlings of O. suteri to four months of age. Oligosoma suteri eggs (n = 174) were randomly distributed among three constant incubation temperatures (18°C, 22°C and 26°C) and two water potentials (-120 kPa and -270 kPa). Hatching success and hatchling survival were greatest at 22°C and 26°C, with hatchlings from 18°C incubation suffering from physical abnormalities. Incubation regime and maternal influence did not affect sex of individuals, with equal sex ratios occurring from each incubation treatment. Hatchlings from the 22°C and -120 kPa incubation treatments were larger, for most measurements, and warmer incubation temperatures resulted in increased growth rates. Juveniles from 22°C and 26°C and individuals with greater mass per unit length (condition index) sprinted faster over 0.25 m. Sprint speed was positively correlated with ambient temperature. At four months of age sprint speed decreased in 18°C individuals and individuals incubated at 26°C and -270 kPa compared to their performance at one month. The results suggest that the most successful captive incubation regime for O. suteri is 22°C and -120 kPa. This study also shows that temperature-dependent sex determination does not occur in O. suteri, but that fitness traits are influenced by incubation temperature.

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  • A method of sound wave diffusion in motor vehicle exhaust systems

    Singh, Niranjan (2017-04-04)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    It is common practice among young vehicle owners to modify the exhaust system of their vehicle to reduce exhaust backpressure with the perception that the output power increases. In the process of backpressure reduction, the output noise (Whakapau) of the vehicle also increases correspondingly. The conflict of interest that arises from modified vehicle exhaust systems and the general public is well publicised. This prototype was designed to meet the demands of exhaust back pressure reduction while at the same time mitigate the sound output of the vehicle. The design involves lining a cylindrical pipe with common glass marbles which is normally used for playing. The marbles are made of a sustainable material as it does not erode when exposed to exhaust gases and it is easily recycled. The prototype muffler is much smaller in size when compared to conventional mufflers. All tests were done in a simulated controlled environment and data collated using approved New Zealand Transport Agency testing regime. It has to be noted that the test focus was noise mitigation and not comprehensive engine performance testing. The results of the test prove a reduction of sound levels, however more testing needs to be undertaken with varying annulus depth, marble sizes and arrangements and engine loads

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  • Applied practice : theoretical and pedagogical foundations

    Hays, Jay; Helmling, Lisa (2017-04-04)

    Unclassified
    Unitec

    Applied Practice is an overarching term embracing a wide range of pedagogies that employ one or more forms of work experience for learning, including cooperative education (or co-op), professional practice, internships and apprenticeships, service learning, and many versions of Work-Integrated Learning (WIL). As used here, Applied Practice encompasses the theories, principles, approaches and programs that govern and inform the development of professional practices and practitioners across disciplines, and, in so doing, build individual, organisational, and community capacity to sustainably transform. As this monograph reveals, Applied Practice is a defensible means for building capabilities and dispositions demanded by the complex, global world of the twenty-first century. It achieves this by narrowing the theory–practice divide for which higher education has long been criticised. Narrowing of this gap is made possible by more fully integrating theory and practice, attained through pedagogies that mutually exploit the learning and experiences in academic study and practical work experience. Applied Practice and the various affiliated work experience for learning and Work-Integrated Learning programs are under-theorised and remain under-researched. Herein, the authors draw on a wide range of studies and scholarly literature, and attempt to bring together what can be ascertained with respect to applicable theory and pedagogy. The result of this synthesis is a four-pillar model, each of the four pillars representing a substantial theory stream and important foundation of Applied Practice: Adult Learning Theory (ALT), Experiential Learning Theory (ELT), Transformational Learning Theory (TLT), and Workplace Learning Theory (WLT).

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  • An evaluation of the New Zealand Advance Pricing Agreement process

    Abu-Hijleh, Mohammed (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Transfer pricing (the pricing of cross border transactions between controlled or related parties) is an important tax issue faced by multinational enterprises (MNEs). The Inland Revenue Department (IRD) initiated the Advance Pricing Agreement (APA) program in 1999/2000 as a more co-operative approach for MNEs to addressing transfer pricing compliance. An APA is an agreement negotiated in advance between a taxpayer and a tax authority that sets the price of cross border intra-firm transactions between related parties over a fixed period of time. This study evaluates the New Zealand APA process with a main focus of gaining an insight of how the program operates. Eight interviews comprising three participants from the IRD and five tax practitioners from the ‘Big 4’ accounting firms were conducted, in order to gain an insight into the New Zealand APA process. This was supplemented beforehand by documentary analysis of the New Zealand APA process and other sources of data. Further, the study reviews the APA processes of other tax jurisdictions, namely Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States. A comparative case study analysis approach is utilised to see how these tax jurisdictions’ APA processes compare to New Zealand’s APA process. The findings of this research reveal that New Zealand has maintained an informal APA process, where all MNE applicants are welcome to apply regardless of complexity, size or degree of risk involved in any of their transactions proposed to be covered under the APA. This was also seen as a key difference in the approach the IRD maintains towards APAs compared to the APA processes of other comparative tax jurisdictions’ considered in this study. All interviewees perceived the New Zealand APA process well in terms of how it works and what it achieves. It was believed to be an attractive solution for all MNEs operating in New Zealand wanting to gain certainty around their transfer pricing tax affairs. An opportunity for New Zealand Customs to incorporate APAs as an acceptable valuation method for MNEs to price their imports is also identified in this study. However, many obstacles are identified as to why this may prove to be a challenge for New Zealand Customs to implement. All information mentioned in this thesis is up-to-date as at August 2016.

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