82,469 results

  • From Autumn to Summer

    Kim, Hyong Eun

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

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  • Personal Values and Motivational Complexities in Mobile Shopping

    Park, Ha Eun

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    With the expansion of mobile shopping (m-shopping) consumption, there is an increased need to understand the variety of consumer motives for consumer engagement in such behaviour. While the m-shopping industry is growing at a rapid pace, the paradoxes of consumer behaviour include the fact that consumers are enthusiastic about conducting searches through m-shopping but when making purchases, they go back to online shopping. This study sought to address this paradox by exploring the motivational complexity of m-shopping. Accordingly, the research objectives were twofold: to explore personal values that drive m-shopping consumption, and to investigate the possible value conflicts of m-shoppers. Based on data collected (n=251) through the hard-laddering approach, this study found 10 types of personal values that motivate m-shopping: Self-respect, Recognition, Exciting Life, Family Well-being, A Sense of Accomplishment, Centre of Attention, Self-direction, Financial Independence, Sense of Belongingness, and Financial Security. Based on two personality characteristics, that is, social character and openness to change, a typology of the personal values of m-shoppers was developed to explain personal values that drive m-shopping consumption. This study also found several value conflicts that are likely to occur in m-shopping consumption. Identified conflicts were: Exciting Life vs. Financial Security, Centre of Attention vs. Financial Independence, and Family Well-being vs. Self-direction. The analysis showed that consumers have to compromise and prioritize between their conflicting personal values. The study augments previous literature in personal values research and m-shopping research, as it provides researchers with a better understanding of how m-shopping consumption satisfies the personal values of consumers. This study provides a springboard for further m-shopping research and personal value oriented investigations in relation to segmentation development as well as m-shopping dissemination. Managerially, this study provides insight into creating a more favourable service design and marketing strategies for m-shopping consumption.

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  • Dolls, Diagrams and Drawings: Interviewers’ Perspectives on Visual Aids in Child Witness Interviews

    Hill, Alexandra (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    In cases of child maltreatment child witnesses are often the sole sources of information about the suspected events, meaning their contribution to an investigation is critical. However, children may find recounting their experiences in sufficient detail challenging (Poole & Bruck, 2012). Visual aids are the tools (e.g. diagrams, drawings, and dolls) forensic interviewers often use in interviews to help children remember or describe their experiences and overcome children’s social and cognitive limitations. Research evaluating these aids indicates that any gains in information, reported by children, are typically accompanied by significant increases in false details, thus compromising the accuracy of accounts (Brown, 2011). The purpose of this study was to establish the extent to which interviewers in New Zealand use visual aids with children, and their knowledge of relevant research and the national interviewing protocol. Thirty-one New Zealand Specialist Child Witness Interviewers completed a questionnaire that assessed how and why they use aids, and their knowledge of, and adherence to, the literature and protocols guiding interviewer practice with visual aids. Interviewers’ responses indicated they used a range of aids, with both younger and older children, for a range of reasons, many of which have not been extensively researched. Generally, interviewers had poor knowledge of the existing research and protocol guidelines, and knowledge did not predict adherence to the recommendations. The findings identify the need to educate interviewers about the evidence-base surrounding various aids, as well as conducting research that more closely reflects how aids are used with children.

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  • Relative Brauer groups of torsors of period two

    Creutz, B. (2016)

    Journal article
    University of Canterbury Library

    We consider the problem of computing the relative Brauer group of a torsor of period two under an elliptic curve. We show how this problem can be reduced to finding a set of generators for the group of rational points on the elliptic curve. This extends work of Haile and Han to the case of torsors with unequal period and index. Our results also apply to torsors under higher dimensional abelian varieties. Several numerical examples are given.

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  • Numerical Modelling of the Micromechanical Behaviour of Catastrophic Long Run-Out Rock Avalanches

    de Graaf, Kim L. (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Long runout rock avalanches occur in steep mountainous areas, typically due to the effects of heavy rain, freeze-thaw cycles or seismic shaking among others. The runout is renowned for travelling a large horizontal distance in comparison to the vertical fall height and the extent is largely determined by the volume of source rock. The material dynamically disintegrates during runout depositing angular fragments surrounded by rock flour and preserving the original stratigraphy. The propagation mechanism of long runout rock avalanches has been debated for over a century. The majority of the mechanical theories suggested to explain the long runout behaviour may focus on a particular aspect noted from one or several events, however, do not properly explain the angularity of the grains within the deposit or the possible internal behaviour of the avalanche. This thesis aims to investigate the fragmentation theory of rock avalanche propagation from a soil mechanics perspective. The rapid application of load and high speed shearing is postulated to cause the dynamic fragmentation of debris, where the rapid movement of fragments and fines reduces effective stress and therefore friction, increasing mobility. Material then moves rapidly until all available kinetic energy has been dissipated or no further dynamic fragmentation can occur. The potential influence of multiple dynamic fragmentation events occurring at once provides useful information for the prediction and extent of rock avalanches, along with micro scale behaviour of rock under rapid loading and high speed shearing for mining purposes. Discrete Element Modelling (DEM) via the use of PFC3D has been utilised to undertake oedometer and shear box testing of idealised samples. These tests are used to represent dominant mechanisms that occur in the two key periods of a long runout rock avalanche — the fall (modelled by high strain rate oedometer testing) and the runout (modelled by high speed shear box testing). Synthetic and fully calibrated bonded particle models are used to investigate the response of rock boulders under these conditions. The calibrated materials of sandstone, weak chalk and extremely weak chalk were chosen to represent typical large and small scale long runout events. Numerical oedometer testing reveals that the application of high strain rates normal to the ground surface produces fast and significant breakage along with a noticeable response in kinetic energy and a reduction in mobilised friction. The additional kinetic energy remains available in the system for a longer period of time than that produced by semi-static strain rates. The high strain rate oedometric tests suggest that dynamic fragmentation occurs under fast loading rates. It is plausible that dynamic fragmentation in a sturzstrom due to rapid loading at the transition point from fall to runout can enhance mobility. High speed shear box testing indicates a significant rise in normal and shear stresses resulting in intense crushing and dilation rather than dynamic fragmentation. Kinetic energy produced from breakages is quickly dissipated through dilation and does not remain in the system long enough to influence mobility. The majority of the shearing is likely to occur in a small zone at the base of the debris. The minimal mixing of layers during the shear testing and substantial dilation supports the observed preservation of stratigraphy and increase in debris volume seen at the majority of sturzstrom sites.

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  • Transport infrastructure performance and management in the South Island of New Zealand, during the first 100 days following the 2016 mw 7.8 “Kaikōura” earthquake.

    Davies AJ; Sadashiva V; Aghababaei M; Barnhill D; Costello SB; Fanslow B; Headifen D; Hughes M; Kotze R; Mackie J; Ranjitkar P; Thompson J; Troitino DR; Wilson TM; Woods S; Wotherspoon L (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Canterbury Library

    At 00:02 on 14th November 2016, a Mw 7.8 earthquake occurred in and offshore of the northeast of the South Island of New Zealand. Fault rupture, ground shaking, liquefaction, and co-seismic landslides caused severe damage to distributed infrastructure, and particularly transportation networks; large segments of the country’s main highway, State Highway 1 (SH1), and the Main North Line (MNL) railway line, were damaged between Picton and Christchurch. The damage caused direct local impacts, including isolation of communities, and wider regional impacts, including disruption of supply chains. Adaptive measures have ensured immediate continued regional transport of goods and people. Air and sea transport increased quickly, both for emergency response and to ensure routine transport of goods. Road diversions have also allowed critical connections to remain operable. This effective response to regional transport challenges allowed Civil Defence Emergency Management to quickly prioritise access to isolated settlements, all of which had road access 23 days after the earthquake. However, 100 days after the earthquake, critical segments of SH1 and the MNL remain closed and their ongoing repairs are a serious national strategic, as well as local, concern. This paper presents the impacts on South Island transport infrastructure, and subsequent management through the emergency response and early recovery phases, during the first 100 days following the initial earthquake, and highlights lessons for transportation system resilience.

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  • Locating Ourselves: An analysis and theoretical account of strategic practices of identity and connection in Aotearoa/New Zealand’s Pacific news media

    Ross, Tara (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis sets out to explore the under-researched field of New Zealand’s Pacific media to yield insights into Pacific media and audiences, and what makes media ‘ethnic’. It draws on theories about identity, practice and the audience, and a qualitative multi-method approach grounded in Pacific people’s actual voices and practices. It breaks new ground on Pacific media, which have not been studied in such depth or from a broad audience perspective, and reveals that Pacific media are highly diverse and face considerable challenges, including a significant demographic shift among their intended audiences. It adds to the scholarship on ethnic media, first, by revealing tensions within Pacific media practice (including a tension between Pacific and journalistic fields), which helps to problematise scholarly assumptions about ethnic media, and, second, by suggesting a model of Pacific media as a media of identity negotiation. It finds that Pacific media are powerful symbolic referents of Pacific identity and key sites where producers and audiences negotiate community and belonging through various locative practices, often in ways that establish tighter connections than in mainstream media. This is notwithstanding that the range of ‘Pacific’ identities represented in Pacific media can be narrow and risk excluding New Zealand-born Pacific youth. This study further suggests that societal-wide ideas of journalism and publicness are more central to Pacific audiences’ assessments of Pacific media than may have been accounted for to date. Pacific groups are positioned narrowly in New Zealand publicness, including by funders’ whose focus on Pacific media in terms of ethnicity and culture tends to overlook audiences’ demand for in-depth news, innovation and diverse content. This study concludes that viewing ethnic media within categories of ethnicity or culture (as do funders, scholars and, often, media producers) risks exaggerating the ‘otherness’ of ethnic minority groups. Instead, we need to reorient our efforts to categorise ethnic media away from a fixation on difference and towards people’s actual media practices to better reflect people’s multiple and complex realities.

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  • Listening to disordered speech results in early modulations of auditory event-related potentials

    Theys C; McAuliffe MJ (2017)

    Conference Contributions - Published
    University of Canterbury Library

    In the last decade, research on motor speech disorders has increasingly taken into account the bidirectionality between speaker and listener. Listening to disordered speech (e.g., dysarthria) may result in substantial phonemic uncertainty. In turn, a larger set of potential word target candidates may be activated—contributing to intelligibility deficits. To resolve this uncertainty, a combination of both bottom-up and top-down processes are thought to play a role (Liss, 2007). The goal of the present study was to investigate the contribution of these processes by analysing listeners’ neurophysiological processing when listening to dysarthric speech. Thirty healthy native English speakers (12 males, 18-44 years) participated in a speech perception experiment while undergoing 32-channel EEG recording. Similarly to Obleser and Kotz (2011), we focused on the auditory N100 as a marker for earlier sensory processing and the N400- like peak representing information on later cognitive-linguistic processes. Participants listened to 55 moderate hypokinetic dysarthric sentences and 55 control sentences. The experiment was repeated one week later to investigate the effects of repeated exposure to disordered speech. The amplitudes and latencies of the event-related potentials over Cz were analysed. Repeated measures GLM statistics of the N100 with speech type (dysarthria vs. control) and test session as independent variables showed a main effect of speech type, with increased amplitude (Fampl(28)=12.18, p<.01) and decreased latency (Flat(28)=6.77, p=.02) when listening to dysarthric versus control speech. There was no significant main effect of test session or interaction effect. In contrast, no significant effects of speech type and test session were observed on the amplitude of the N400-like peak. For latency, only a significant interaction effect was present (Flat(28)=4.16, p=.05), evidenced by decreased latency for dysarthric sentences during the first test session, and the reverse during the second session. The N100 results show that the quality of the auditory signal in naturally degraded dysarthric speech influences early sensory auditory processing, indicating an increase in the initial allocation of neurophysiological resources (Obleser & Kotz, 2011). The N400 latency results show that later, more cognitive-linguistic processes are not only influenced by the degradation of the signal itself but also by the amount of exposure to that signal, a finding consistent with previous behavioural research on dysarthric speech (Borrie et al., 2012).

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  • Perceptions on business strategy of small and medium-sized enterprises

    Du Plessis, Andries (2017-06-02T14:30:09Z)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    The purpose of this article is to examine how the perceptions of employees could have an influence in business strategy. The problem statement and main research question is: How can employees’ perceptions influence the outcome of business strategy of SMEs in Lao PDR? This article critically reviews the literature pertaining to perceptions and attitudes. Perception involves a sophisticated thinking process, from obtaining data from the external environment, analysing, and converting it through the cognitive process. People’s perceptions of reality have great influence on their behaviour. The significance of this article is: SMEs in Lao PDR can develop better understanding about the influence of employees’ perceptions on the outcome of business strategy. The findings show strong evidence that supports the relationship between employees’ perceptions about strategy and business performance ; employees who had some interest in business strategy accounted for 37%, those with a moderate interest in strategy, 42%, and those very interested in strategy at 16%. Some recommendations are given at the end of the article before the conclusions section.

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  • Challenging positional authority : navigating leadership as collaboration

    Turton, Lee-Anne; Wrightson, Helen (2017-05-30T14:30:01Z)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    This article reflects a recent symposium presentation that explored ways positional leadership limits opportunities for members of the community of practice to contribute leading practices. As many early childhood environments in Aotearoa/New Zealand become increasingly market driven, a focus on outcomes and accountability have influenced the leadership and management hierarchy. This focus places leadership as situated in a designated position afforded to one or two individuals (Rodd, 2013). The approach advocated in this article provides opportunities to develop mutually supporting and complimentary shared practices of leading, between all members of the community of practice (Wilkinson & Kemmis, 2016). This aligns with leadership founded on collaboration and empowerment of teachers, as well as student teachers, to contribute expertise and abilities, equating to leading practices. Transformation from individualistic leadership to a more collectivist style, promoting skills and attributes individuals could contribute underpins this approach. A kaupapa Māori model of leadership that aligns with a collectivist perspective, is used to challenge understandings of responsibility within the community of practice. This approach invites communities of practice to draw on people’s capabilities, promote self-efficacy and provide space to grow leaders. Waiho i te toipoto, kaua i te toiroa Let us keep close together, not wide apart

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  • Modelling land water composition scene for maritime traffic surveillance

    Pang, Shaoning; Zhao, Jing.; Hartill, B.; Sarrafzadeh, Hossein (2017-05-23T14:30:05Z)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    Background modelling, used in many vision systems, must be robust to environmental change, yet sensitive enough to identify all moving objects of interest. Existing background modelling approaches have been developed to interpret images in terrestrial situations, such as car parks and stretches of road, where objects move in a smooth manner and the background is relatively consistent. In the context of maritime boat ramps surveillance, this paper proposes a cognitive background modelling method for land and water composition scenes (CBM-lw) to interpret the traffic of boats passing across boat ramps. We compute an adaptive learning rate to account for changes on land and water composition scenes, in which a geometrical model is integrated with pixel classification to determine the portion of water changes caused by tidal dynamics and other environmental influences. Experimental comparative tests and quantitative performance evaluations of real-world boat-flow monitoring traffic sequences demonstrate the benefits of the proposed algorithm.

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  • Evaluation of a stroke navigation service over a six month period : a mixed method approach

    Wood, Siné (2017)

    Thesis
    Unitec

    AIM: To assess the impact on outcomes of a stroke navigation service for stroke survivors and their families, over a six month period, in comparison to usual care. BACKGROUND: Stroke is a serious health concern and affects both stroke survivors and their caregivers. Caregivers often report feeling inadequately prepared for the caregiving role, lacking information and support, and sometimes experiencing difficulty in communication with health professionals. A stroke navigation service may potentially help stroke survivors and their families through the stroke continuum. Evaluating this service could provide a rationale for implementing the intervention in the New Zealand healthcare system. DESIGN: A controlled mixed-methods intervention study was implemented using a comparison group to evaluate a stroke navigation service from acute rehabilitation services and into the community. METHODS: Convenience sampling recruited six stroke families. Data were collected at baseline, three and six months post-stroke navigation service implementation. Quantitative data were collected using the Modified Caregiver Strain Index, Health Service Use and Short Form-36 questionnaires. Qualitative data were collected using semi-structured interviews and questionnaires. FINDINGS: An over-arching theme of ‘Easing the Journey’ was identified with three themes: 1) Walking alongside, 2) Informing and pursuing avenues and 3) Connecting pathways and bridging gaps. Overall no statistically significant differences were found between groups. CONCLUSIONS: Families using the stroke navigation service felt more supported, informed and found their interaction with health professionals improved with the intervention in comparison to usual care.

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  • Feasibility of using zein to create edible film

    Hu, Zhihao (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Plastics have been widely used as food packaging due to their excellent properties and low price. Unfortunately, plastics are not biodegradable which leads to the accumulation of plastic waste in landfills. To prevent this problem in New Zealand, the development of biodegradable food packaging using cheap material as an alternative to plastic packaging is being explored. Zein, the co-product of corn oil production, can form edible film however its mechanical properties are quite poor. To improve these properties, chitosan also another bio-product of marine source, could be used as a co-polymer for zein film. Therefore, the main purpose of this project was to study the effect of blending formulation and crosslinking on the properties of zein/chitosan film. Poly(ethylene glycol)-400 (PEG-400) and tripolyphosphate (TPP) were respectively used as a plasticiser and a crosslinker. The effect of PEG-400 and TPP on the film properties and performance was assessed. Different blending formulas using various zein/chitosan ratio ranging from 80:20 to 50:50 and PEG-400 addition ranging from 10% to 50% of the total solid (1% w/v of the total blending solution) were used. The measured properties of film forming solution and resulting film included pH, viscosity, colour, thickness, swelling index, water vapour permeability, mechanical properties, water content, water solubility and thermal stability. The film was prepared using wet casting method. Based on these results, regression modelling was used for the optimization of blending formula via desirability test to assess fitness of film on the targeted application. Afterwards, crosslinking post-processing using different doses of TPP in the soaking solution and different processing times were performed to the previously optimized film blending formula. Both swelling properties and thermal properties of crosslinked films were evaluated. It was found that the film properties of PEG-400 plasticized zein/chitosan blended film were more affected by PEG-400 content than zein-chitosan ratio while the film forming solution properties presented the reversed finding. Based on the optimisation of the blending formula using mathematical modelling, this study showed that one of the potential applications of this film is packaging protection for fruit products. The use of tripolyphosphate (TPP) as cross-linker presents effective crosslinking performance towards this optimum blending formula for fruit protection, i.e. zein and chitosan ratio of 50:50 with 30% addition of PEG-400 of the total polymer content (1% w/v). Overall, the results in this study provide an evidence that plastic-like mechanical properties of zein/chitosan blended films with high water barrier property and higher thermal stability than low or high density polyethylene can be obtained and demonstrate high potential to use in replacing plastic film in food packaging.

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  • The Role of Mathematics in Francis Bacon's Natural Philosophy

    Çimen, Ünsal (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    In this study, I discuss the role of mathematics in Francis Bacon’s natural philosophy. Bacon was one of the important figures of early modern philosophy and has been accepted as one of the frontier philosophers of modern science. The increasing role of mathematics in natural philosophy was an important development of this period of time, which raises the question of whether Bacon approved of the new role of mathematics in natural philosophy. The new role of mathematics in natural philosophy was mainly developed by astronomers such as Copernicus, Galileo, and Kepler, and can be defined as ‘making natural philosophical claims through mathematics’. I will examine the role of mathematics in Baconian natural philosophy by considering the following questions: Can Bacon’s attitude towards the role of mathematics be accepted as Aristotelian? Were there similarities between Bacon and al–Bitruji in their ideas of how an astronomical model should be established? Is there any difference in Bacon’s attitude towards mathematics between his earlier and later works? Can we use Bacon’s approach to arithmetical quantification to refute the claim that he was against the new role of mathematics? Was there any similarity between the attitude of Bacon and neo-Platonist chemical philosophers towards mathematics? Is there any relation between the non–mechanical character of Bacon’s philosophy and his attitude towards mathematics? Is there any relation between his matter theory and his attitude towards mathematics? Throughout this thesis, I emphasise that Bacon attached importance to applying mathematics to natural philosophy, however, was against the idea of making natural philosophical claims through mathematics. I argue that he had two fundamental commitments for being distrustful towards mathematics’ ability in making natural philosophical claims; his first being the consistency between the human mind and the course of logic and mathematics, and the second being the inconsistency between the course of nature (matter) and the course of logic and mathematics.

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  • The inter-country diffusion of pharmaceutical products

    Cullen, Ross (1981)

    Post-doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    A major debate has raged over the existence and causes of a phenomenon known as "drug lag". Protagonists in the debate have argued that the U.S.A. is typically late to receive new pharmaceutical products because of the very lengthy delays imposed by F.D.A. regulations before new products can be launched on the U.S. market. Supporters of the. F.D.A. have denied the U.S.A. suffers from a drug lag while proposing alternative explanations for its existence. In this thesis attempt is made to resolve the debate by investigating the pattern of inter-country diffusion of pharmaceutical products. Hypotheses are postulated and tested in an attempt to provide answers to four fundamental questions posed about inter-country diffusion. These questions are: 1. What factors determine the speed of diffusion of pharmaceutical products? 2. What factors determine the extent of diffusion of pharmaceutical products? 3. What factors determine when pharmaceutical products are launched in each country? 4. What factors determine how many pharmaceutical products are launched in each country? A survey of the relevant literature on diffusion of innovations reveals that profit-related variables are consistently useful explanators of diffusion patterns. The tenor of the hypotheses postulated for testing in this thesis is that firms in this industry strive to launch products in a manner designed to maximize their contributions to profits. The diffusion patterns between 18 countries, of 190 products first launched on to the world's markets between 1956 and 1976 are examined to test the hypotheses and thus provide answers to the four questions listed above. Statistical analysis is undertaken to test the hypotheses. There appears to be relatively little evidence to support many of the hypotheses tested about speed and extent of diffusion. However there is considerable evidence that the speed of diffusion of products, after their first launch, has increased steadily throughout the period studied. Deeper investigation suggests the typical time between discovery of products useful properties, and their typical times of availability on the worlds markets may have remained almost constant throughout the twenty one year period studied. Pharmaceutical companies may have acted to compensate for increasingly lengthy delays before products are first launched, by more rapid subsequent launch of products. The number of products which are launched in a country and the magnitude of the delay before they are launched in each country appear to be relatively predictable. Both of these parameters appear to be strongly influenced by countries levels of development. Countries with high health expenditures per capita, appear to receive more produces, more rapidly, than do lower expenditure countries. Interest ultimately focuses on the question of drug lags and the affects of regulations. Drug lags are shown to exist for the U.S.A., Japan and some other countries. When the period studied is divided into two sub-periods relatively strong correlations are shown to exist between ratings of regulatory tightness in markets; and changes in the numbers of products diffusing to markets and changes in mean times before products are launched in markets. Regulations do appear to exert considerable influence on the patterns of inter-country diffusion of pharmaceuticals in the latter part of the period studied.

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  • 'Black Diamond City' a history of Kaitangata mines, miners and community 1860-1913

    Bamford, Tony (1982)

    Honours Dissertation thesis
    University of Otago

    Coal mining is an industry about which people have held and still hold a number of misconceptions. Much of this fact lies purely in lack of understanding for it seems coal mines have always been shunned by the wider community. Isolation however is perhaps an aid to historical analysis for curiosity often prompted investigation even if many of the views expressed were still prejudiced. Similarly, miners, as a group, tended to operate outside the normal social realms of neighbouring societies. But although similarities existed between coal mining communities in a number of areas such as occupational patterns and basic institutions associated with the industry, these settlements cannot be lumped into one basket. Coal mining towns were as different from one another as any non-mining settlements were different from others. This thesis is concerned with such differences. It is concerned also with the pattern of development of such a town. The community, industry and group of people under observation is that of a small town of Kaitangata.[…] Kaitangata was one of the earliest mining settlements in New Zealand, and developed into Otago and Southlands largest coal mine. It had become firmly established by 1880 as a major industry, so that by the turn of the century Kaitangata had become a very permanent settlement, exhibiting quite ‘normal’ demographic characteristics.[…] [Extract from Introduction]

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  • Transformative Processes: Reimagining a Sustainable Dunedin Food System

    Mackay, Philippa Ellen (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Food issues are part of a highly complex, variable and interconnected food system that can affect local and global communities. An awareness of the multifaceted problems and a growing dissatisfaction with the conventional food system has been generated through its failure to address mounting social, economic and environmental damage around the world. These include a shift to more people that are obese in the world now than are malnourished, the loss of up to 75 percent of the genetic makeup of all agricultural crops, and increased control by a handful of multinational corporations over most sectors of the food system such as the growing, producing, packaging, and distribution of food. This has led to the mobilisation by some individuals and groups to seek societal change. The important position that food holds in each person’s life provides an opportunity to bring diverse groups together to socially mobilise in the pursuit of creating an alternative food system. Under principles such as a just and democratic food system, the potential for sustainable food system transformation is seen as a process through which to facilitate the promotion of social change. This research will investigate at the local level, a case study which aims to understand the transformative processes that occur by those people who have socially mobilised around the creation of an alternative and more sustainable food system in the Dunedin context. The study will determine the type of engagements that Dunedin food actors have established and the degree to which the relationships between different forms of social mobilisation are enabling the practice of food system transformation. An analysis of this data hopes to provide greater awareness of the barriers, tensions and contradictions which exist within the food system. This will support stakeholders’ ability to overcome difficulties and work more collaboratively towards common and diverse goals for social emancipation. The research argues that food system transformation will require attention from multiple entry points, at various levels, and a commitment by individuals and communities in order to address the variety of food issues that now impact society and the environment. Although sustainable food system transformation will involve the use of different mechanisms - both formal and informal approaches, stakeholders must realise that they are ‘on the same side’ of promoting social change. Only then, will social mobilisation be able to effectively challenge the dominant structures that maintain the neoliberal constructs of the conventional food system and engage with radically reimagining what an alternative food system in the future could look like.

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  • Comparative analysis of the productivity levels achieved through the use of panelised prefabrication technology with those of traditional building system : a thesis submitted in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) in Construction, School of Engineering & Advanced Technology, Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

    Shahzad, Wajiha Mohsin (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Several studies have documented benefits of prefabricated building system compared to the traditional approach. Despite the acknowledged benefits of prefabrication, its application is generally low in the New Zealand construction industry. This low uptake is largely attributed to the fact that the documented benefits of prefabrication technology are anecdotal, or based on investigations of isolated case studies. This study aims to contribute to filling this knowledge gap by analysing cost savings, time savings, and productivity improvement achievable by the use of panelised prefabrication in place of the traditional building system. A two-phased mixed method of research was adopted for the study. The first phase involved the use of case study-based archival research to obtain qualitative data from records of 151 completed building projects in three cities of New Zealand – Auckland, Christchurch and Wellington. The second phase involved the use of questionnaire survey to obtain feedback from industry stakeholders. Results showed that the use of panelised prefabrication in place of traditional building system contributed to 21 percent cost saving, 47 percent time saving and 10 percent average improvement in the productivity outcomes in the building projects. Results further showed that 17 factors could significantly influence the levels of benefits achievable with the use of prefabrication technology. ‘Building type’ and ‘location’ were the factors having the most significant influence on the benefits achievable by the use of panelised prefabrication in place of the traditional building systems. Other factors that influence the benefits of prefabrication included (in diminishing order of influence): logistics, type of prefabrication, scale/repeatability, standardisation, contractor’s level of innovation, environmental impact, project leadership, type of procurement, whole of life quality, site conditions, site layout and client’s nature.

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  • The different shapes of love : a thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Communication in Expressive Arts at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand. EMBARGOED until 17 November 2018

    Wheelock, Tiffany (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The work is an extract or part of a creative non-fiction book in the autobiographical genre. The book is based on the author’s romantic relationships throughout her life to this point. The book follows a developmental journey as the author discovers who she is, what qualities are most important to her and what type of person she wants to end up with. The book describes different stages of relationships and the emotions one experiences, such as being very in love or very heartbroken, and touches on the author’s experience in dealing with these emotions.

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  • Preparation, characterisation and application of naturally derived polar lipids through lipolysis : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Food Technology at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Sofian-Seng, Noor-Soffalina (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Monoglycerides are lipid based emulsifiers extensively used for their broad technical function in the food industry. Commercial monoglycerides are generally manufactured through chemical synthesis; however, lipolysis of triglycerides by lipase enzyme provides a biochemical pathway by which monoglycerides may be produced. This is particularly appealing for consumers for whom all natural and clean labelled food products are a particular driver. Accordingly, rather than replacing monoglycerides from formulations with other types of emulsifiers (and that may lack the requisite functionality), an alternative approach may be to develop a non-chemical and more natural pathway to produce the emulsifier, thereby allowing the particular monoglyceride functionality to be retained within products. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the feasibility of using lipase enzyme as a processing tool to synthesise polar lipids, namely monoglycerides, in situ of the manufacture of whippable food emulsions, such as cream and ice cream. This concept idea was initially proven viable through interfacial tension (IFT) measurements obtained using a straight-forward surface characterisation technique. R. miehei lipase was found to competitively bind at the interface of vegetable oils-water and that the adsorbed protein (sodium caseinate and whey protein isolate) or surfactant layer (lecithin and Tween 80) did not act as a barrier to lipase adsorption at the oil-water interface. IFT measurements were also able to demonstrate the progressive accumulation of polar lipids at the oil-water interface arising from lipolysis, and were additionally used to indicate how thermal treatment of the enzyme could be used to terminate activity. In considering how the requisite functionality could be achieved for whippable emulsion formulations, emulsion droplet size, type of emulsifiers used as well as lipase concentration were shown to be key variables by which the extent and rate of lipolysis could be manipulated and controlled. The results showed that formulation (emulsifier types and oil content) and processing conditions (Microfluidizer® pressure and number of passes) had significant effects on the emulsion droplet size. As part of controlling the extent of lipolysis, the conditions by which the reaction could be terminated were investigated by measuring the viability of R. miehei lipase against thermal treatment. Results showed that the R. miehei lipase was thermostable up to temperatures of 70 °C. Above this temperature, substantial reduction of the residual activity occurred. However, even elevated temperature of between 90 and 100 oC did not immediately inactivate the lipase, with heating for ~ 2 min required before activity was no longer detected. In terms of emulsion stability, the palm oil emulsion tested in this study was found to be thermostable up to 100 oC, thus allowing development of a thermalisation step that was able to inactivate the enzyme without compromising the stability of the emulsion. The shear stability analyses on lipolysed O/W emulsion showed the lipolysed emulsions were susceptible to shear-induced aggregation, and that the degree of aggregation could be manipulated as a consequence of controlling the extent of lipolysis through either enzyme concentration or holding time. The drastic increase in the viscosity curve between the nonlipolysed and lipolysed emulsion suggested that the shear–induced partial coalescence was primarily due to the lipolysis reaction and was not as a result of the high fat content (30 %). The findings elucidate the ability of the generated polar lipids in the emulsion to displace the existing sodium caseinate adsorbed layer, thus compromising emulsion stability upon shearing. The quantification of synthesised polar lipids from the triglyceride component of fat droplets by the lipolysis reaction showed a mixture of fatty acids, di- and mono-glycerides being produced. Palmitic acid was observed to be the main liberated fatty acids. While, monoolein and monopalmitin were the most prominent monoglycerides, with measured concentrations of 3.755 ± 0.895 and 1.660 ± 0.657 mg / g fat respectively after 15 min with lipase concentration of 50 mg /g fat. The relative concentration of polar lipids produced was found to be dependent on the lipase concentration as well as time of lipolysis. Furthermore, up to 30 min of lipolysis (concentration 50 mg /g fat) were seen to have no observable effect on the droplet size distribution of the emulsion suggesting that quiescently stable emulsions could be produced. The results show the importance of controlling reaction conditions (both enzyme concentration and reaction time) in order to provide requisite functionality without excessively destabilising emulsions such that droplet structuring can occur under quiescent conditions. The generation of monoglycerides at quantum satis levels able to impart critical functionality was demonstrated in whipped cream and ice cream. The addition of R. miehei lipase at very low concentration of 5 mg /g fat was able to produce a rigid and stable whipped cream with overrun exceeding 100 %. However, good stability of the whipped cream over time was achievable with concentration above 10 mg /g fat. Similarly, ice cream made with the addition of 5 mg /g fat exhibited good melt stability and firmness. The findings proved the feasibility of in situ production of polar lipids, namely monoglycerides and fatty acids, in replicating the functionality imparted by commercial monoglycerides in whippable emulsions. Thus, the findings in this thesis offer an alternative biochemical pathway for the generation of polar lipids to that of commercially available monoglycerides, which are currently produced synthetically. The potential for using this approach as part of the processing step for food emulsion manufacture has also been demonstrated. The concept can be tailored for various emulsion based food products.

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