80,754 results

  • Mycorrhizal co-invasion and novel interactions depend on neighborhood context

    Moeller, H. V.; Dickie, I. A.; Peltzer, D. A.; Fukami, T.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    © 2015 by the Ecological Society of America. Biological invasions are a rapidly increasing driver of global change, yet fundamental gaps remain in our understanding of the factors determining the success or extent of invasions. For example, although most woody plant species depend on belowground mutualists such as mycorrhizal fungi and nitrogen-fixing bacteria, the relative importance of these mutualisms in conferring invasion success is unresolved. Here, we describe how neighborhood context (identity of nearby tree species) affects the formation of belowground ectomycorrhizal partnerships between fungi and seedlings of a widespread invasive tree species, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas-fir), in New Zealand.We found that the formation of mycorrhizal partnerships, the composition of the fungal species involved in these partnerships, and the origin of the fungi (co-invading or native to New Zealand) all depend on neighborhood context. Our data suggest that nearby ectomycorrhizal host trees act as both a reservoir of fungal inoculum and a carbon source for late-successional and native fungi. By facilitating mycorrhization of P. menziesii seedlings, adult trees may alleviate mycorrhizal limitation at the P. menziesii invasion front. These results highlight the importance of studying biological invasions across multiple ecological settings to understand establishment success and invasion speed.

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  • The effects of dietary nitrogen to water-soluble carbohydrate ratio on isotopic fractionation and partitioning of nitrogen in non-lactating sheep

    Cheng, L.; Nicol, A. M.; Dewhurst, R. J.; Edwards, G. R.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between partitioning and isotopic fractionation of nitrogen (N) in sheep consuming diets with varying ratios of N to water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC). Six non-lactating sheep were offered a constant dry matter (DM) allowance with one of three ratios of dietary N/WSC, achieved by adding sucrose and urea to lucerne pellets. A replicated 3 dietary treatments (Low, Medium and High N/WSC) × 3 (collection periods) and a Latin square design was used, with two sheep assigned to each treatment in each period. Feed, faeces, urine, plasma, wool, muscle and liver samples were collected and analysed for ¹⁵N concentration. Nitrogen intake and outputs in faeces and urine were measured for each sheep using 6-day total collections. Blood urea N (BUN) and urinary excretion of purine derivative were also measured. Treatment effects were tested using general ANOVA; the relationships between measured variables were analysed by linear regression. BUN and N intake increased by 46% and 35%, respectively, when N/WSC increased 2.5-fold. However, no indication of change in microbial protein synthesis was detected. Results indicated effects of dietary treatments on urinary N/faecal N, faecal N/N intake and retained N/N intake. In addition, the linear relationships between plasma δ¹⁵N and urinary N/N intake and muscle δ¹⁵N and retained N/N intake based on individual measurements showed the potential of using N isotopic fractionation as an easy-to-use indicator of N partitioning when N supply exceeds that required to match energy supply in the diet.

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  • Faeces of generalist predators as 'biodiversity capsules': A new tool for biodiversity assessment in remote and inaccessible habitats

    Boyer, S.; Cruickshank, R. H.; Wratten, S. D.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Molecular methods are increasingly used to identify prey DNA in predators' faeces to describe diet composition. However, such analysis can reveal much more ecological information. If faeces are regarded as 'biodiversity capsules', they can help describe and quantify ecological communities by containing a representative sample of the prey species occurring in the foraging area of a given predator. Here we propose to analyse these 'capsules' and infer the occurrence, distribution and minimum abundance estimate of prey communities. This novel approach goes beyond the detection of 'targeted' prey groups to inform dietary studies of predators. It is particularly suited to the study of prey communities that are difficult to sample with traditional methods because they are very small, rare and/or live in remote or inaccessible habitats. Such communities include invertebrates inhabiting the soil, deep-sea species, and small, rare flying insects. The proposed approach has the potential to inform the topical issue of biodiversity assessment and provide a new framework for the discovery of species with minimum interference to ecosystems and without the need for extensive trapping, which can be labour intensive and could kill many individuals of non-target species. Rigorous testing of this approach, and in particular direct comparison with traditional sampling methods is required to fully demonstrate its efficacy.

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  • Ammonia emissions from cattle urine and dung excreted on pasture

    Laubach, J.; Taghizadeh-Toosi, A.; Gibbs, S. J.; Sherlock, R. R.; Kelliher, F. M.; Grover, S. P. P.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Twelve cattle were kept for three days in a circular area of 16 m radius on short pasture and fed with freshly-cut pasture. Ammonia (NH₃) emissions from the urine and dung excreted by the cattle were measured with a micrometeorological mass-balance method, during the cattle presence and for 10 subsequent days. Daily-integrated emission rates peaked on Day 3 of the experiment (last day of cattle presence) and declined steadily for five days thereafter. Urine patches were the dominant sources for these emissions. On Day 9, a secondary emissions peak occurred, with dung pats likely to be the main sources. This interpretation is based on simultaneous observations of the pH evolution in urine patches and dung pats created next to the circular plot. Feed and dung samples were analysed to estimate the amounts of nitrogen (N) ingested and excreted. Total N volatilised as NH₃ was 19.8 (± 0.9)% of N intake and 22.4 (± 1.3)% of N excreted. The bimodal shape of the emissions time series allowed to infer separate estimates for volatilisation from urine and dung, respectively, with the result that urine accounted for 88.6 (± 2.6)% of the total NH₃ emissions. The emissions from urine represented 25.5 (± 2.0)% of the excreted urine-N, while the emissions from dung amounted to 11.6 (± 2.7)% of the deposited dung-N. Emissions from dung may have continued after Day 13 but were not resolved by the measurement technique. A simple resistance model shows that the magnitude of the emissions from dung is controlled by the resistance of the dung crust. © Author(s) 2013.

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  • Partial proteome map of Campylobacter Jejuni strain Nctc11168 by gel-free proteomics analysis

    Shi, Z.; Dawson, C. O.; On, S. L. W.; Hussain, M. A.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    A proteome map of the foodborne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni NCTC11168 was analyzed using a state-of-the-art gel-free proteomic approach for the first time. A whole cell protein extract was prepared from the C. jejuni strain NCTC11168 grown in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth at 42°C under microaerobic conditions. A gel-free technique using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) was employed to create a protein expression profile of the strain. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used to identify the proteins. Protein functionalities were searched to classify them. A total of 235 proteins were identified in the whole cell protein fraction of C. jejuni NCTC11168 cells using iTRAQ analysis. Functional grouping of the identified proteins showed that forty percent of these proteins were associated with energy metabolism, protein synthesis and genetic information processing. iTRAQ was faster, easier and proved more sensitive than two-dimensional gel-based proteomics approaches previously applied to C. jejuni, making it an attractive tool for further studies of cellular physiological response.

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  • Effect of reduced irrigation on grapevine physiology, grape characteristics and wine composition in three Pinot noir vineyards with contrasting soils

    Mejias-Barrera, Patricio

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    The effect of water stress on grapevine performance has been extensively studied in different wine producing regions around the world, but little has ocurred in New Zealand. Pinot noir is the second most planted variety in the country and the most planted in Waipara. An improved understanding of the physiological responses of Pinot noir vines growing in different soils under a water restricted scenario is crucial for winegrowers, because vineyard irrigation is commonly practiced in Waipara and water is expected to become scarcer in future seasons. Three Pinot noir vineyards having similar characteristics, but planted in three of the most representative types of soil of the Waipara region were selected to investigate the effect of reducing irrigation by about 50% under commercial conditions. Control (CON) vines corresponded to those receiving the irrigation applied according to the viticulture manager’s criteria, and a reduced irrigation (RI) treatment was implemented by modifying the drippers spacing and flow rate. The experiment was carried out during the 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 seasons. Edapho-climatic characteristics were compared within the region and among the three sites. “Terroir” provides the link between wine composition and place of origin. Thus, soil and climatic conditions, were characterised to understand the uniqueness of Pinot noir wines produced in Waipara. Differences in soil profile available water were found between the three types of soil. Also, variations in temperatures, wind speed and evapotranspiration, among other parameters were found within the region as well as between sites. A range of analyses was used to identify differences in grapevine physiology between vines under RI and those normally irrigated. Primary leaf area abscission and stomatal closure were short-term responses to water stress, which together with the lack of differences in stem water potential suggested the isohydric behaviour of Pinot noir under the conditions of this study. Other parameters like carbon isotope ratio, leaf proline content and root carbohydrates were little affected by RI. Berry weight was reduced by the treatment, but this varied depending on the site and season. Seed water content, seed fresh and dry weight were unaffected by RI which may suggest that seeds remain “isolated” from the rest of the berry from veraison onwards, even under moderate water stress. Taurine was found in berry juice, the first time that this nitrogen compound is described in Vitis vinifera L. Wines produced during the first season showed differences in wine titratable acidity (TA), colour and aroma profile by GCMS only at the site having the lowest profile available water, while wines from those sites with high and very high profile available water did not report differences between CON and RI for most of the parameters evaluated. This study demonstrated the edapho-climatic variability within the Waipara region, as well as the adaptive responses to water stress site by site, confirming irrigation as one of the main factors modifying “terroir” expression. From a practical perspective, the findings suggest merit for the use of reduced irrigation in vineyard management, as a means to save cost whilst maintaining grape quality.

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  • Breathe

    de Castro-Robinson, Eve; Lodge, M; Williams, M (2010)

    Creative work
    The University of Auckland Library

    My electroacoustic work Breathe, commissioned by, and featuring William Dowdall on sliding headjoint-flute was recorded for this Atoll CD collection of new works by NZ and Irish composers

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  • Late Holocene Biogeography of Sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria) in the Salish Sea

    Nims, Reno; Butler, V (2016-03-26)

    Conference item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • What should be stored in Biobanks? Using computational modelling to unravel genotype to phenotype linkage

    Cooling, Michael; Atalag, Koray (2016-10-31)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Where's the Sablefish?: Exploring causes of variable sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria) representation in Northwest Coast sites

    Nims, Reno; Butler, V (2015-03)

    Conference poster
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Effects of Foot and Ankle Devices on Balance, Gait and Falls in Adults with Sensory Perception Loss: A Systematic Review

    Paton, J; Hatton, AL; Rome, K; Kent, B

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    BACKGROUND: Foot and ankle devices are being developed as a method of preventing people with sensory perception loss sustaining a fall. Such devices are believed to work by reducing the likelihood of a fall by improving the balance and gait of the user. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the review was to evaluate the effectiveness of foot and ankle devices for the prevention of falls and the improvement of balance and gait in adults with sensory perception loss. INCLUSION CRITERIA TYPES OF PARTICIPANTS: Participants were community-dwelling adults with bilateral pathological sensory perception loss. TYPES OF INTERVENTION(S)/PHENOMENA OF INTEREST: The current review evaluated any foot or ankle device, including but not restricted to, all types of footwear (therapeutic and retail), insoles (customized and prefabricated) and ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs). TYPES OF STUDIES: In the absence of randomized controlled trials (RCT), the review considered experimental and epidemiological study designs, except case series, individual case reports and descriptive cross-sectional studies. OUTCOMES: The primary outcome was number of falls. Secondary outcome measures were clinical or laboratory measures of balance or gait. SEARCH STRATEGY: A search for published and unpublished literature from inception to March 2015 written in the English language was conducted across a number of major electronic databases. A three-step search strategy was developed using MeSH terminology and keywords to ensure all that relevant materials are captured. METHODOLOGICAL QUALITY: Methodological quality of included studies was assessed by two reviewers, who appraised each study independently, using standardized Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) critical appraisal tools. DATA EXTRACTION: Quantitative data were extracted from the studies that were identified as meeting the criteria for methodological quality using the standardized JBI data extraction tools. DATA SYNTHESIS: Due to the heterogeneity of populations, interventions and outcome measures, meta-analyses were not possible and results are presented in narrative form. RESULTS: Nine trials (from 10 papers) involving 238 participants, (14 with multiple sclerosis and 16 with idiopathic peripheral neuropathy, 150 with diabetic neuropathy) and 58 controls were included in the review. No study reported falls as an outcome measure. The results of the included studies found that in people with sensory perception loss, postural sway improved with vibrating insoles and AFO, altering the softness and texture of the top cover had no effect on postural sway, wearing footwear over long distances or AFOs improved step-to-step consistency, and no foot and ankle device was reported to have a negative effect on the balance or gait of people with sensory perception loss. The methodological quality of the included studies was poor. No study used a randomized controlled trial (RCT) methodology. No study incorporated a follow-up period or tested the intervention within the context of the intended clinical environment. CONCLUSION: There is limited evidence to suggest that footwear and insole devices can artificially alter postural stability and may reduce the step-to-step variability in adults with sensory perception loss. Varying the material properties of an insole does not notably affect static balance or gait.

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  • Racial Inequities in Cardiovascular Disease in New Zealand

    Miner-Williams, W

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    The literature is replete with studies pertaining to ethnic inequities in healthcare. A thorny subject that has been described for decades and yet has few remedial solutions. The pattern of ethnic inequities in healthcare is a global phenomenon that is not confined to any specific race or culture. Worldwide, cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the topmost cause of death and a substantial burden on healthcare resources. In New Zealand CVD is the leading cause of death, accounting for 40% of all deaths annually. Diminished life expectancy is one example of racial inequity in healthcare between Māori and Pākehā (the non-indigenous population). This review attempts to clarify the muddy waters of 175 years of post-colonial healthcare inequity in New Zealand and in particular the causes of inequity in the incidence of CVD and mortality in Māori . Such dialogue will hopefully stimulate discussion among policy makers and clinicians to redress the ethnic inequities in healthcare.

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  • The Northwick Park Therapy Dependency Assessment Scale: A Psychometric Analysis From a Large Multicentre Neurorehabilitation Dataset

    Alexandrescu, R; Siegert, R; Turner-Stokes, L

    Journal article
    Auckland University of Technology

    Purpose: To assess the internal reliability, construct and concurrent validity and responsiveness of the Northwick Park Therapy Dependency Assessment (NPTDA) scale. Method: A cohort of 2505 neurorehabilitation patients submitted to the UK Rehabilitation Outcomes Collaborative database. Cronbach’s coefficient-α was used to assess internal reliability and factor analysis (FA) to assess construct validity. We compared NPTDA scores at admission and discharge to determine responsiveness. Results: Coefficient-α for the whole scale was 0.74. The exploratory FA resulted in a four-factor model (Physical, Psychosocial, Discharge planning and Activities) that accounted for 43% of variance. This model was further supported by the confirmatory FA. The final model had a good fit: root-mean-square error of approximation of 0.069, comparative fit index/Tucker–Lewis index of 0.739/0.701 and the goodness of fit index of 0.909. The NPTDA scores at admission and discharge were significantly different for each of the factors. Expected correlations were seen between the admission scores for the NPTDA, the Rehabilitation Complexity Scale (r = 0.30, p < 0.01). Conclusions: The scale demonstrated acceptable internal reliability and good construct and concurrent validity. NPTDA may be used to describe and quantify changes in therapy inputs in the course of a rehabilitation programme. Implications for Rehabilitation The Northwick Park Therapy Dependency Assessment (NPTDA) is designed as a measure therapy intervention, which reflects both quantitative and qualitative aspects of the inputs provided (including staff time and the different types of intervention) during inpatient rehabilitation. The scale demonstrated acceptable internal reliability and good construct and concurrent validity. NPTDA is responsive to change in the therapy inputs provided during neurorehabilitation between admission and discharge.

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  • Colonisation and Aboriginal Land Tenure: Taiwan during the Qing Period (1684-1895) and the Japanese Period (1895-1945)

    Ye, Ruiping (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis is concerned with the land rights of the aboriginal peoples of Taiwan. It explores how under the Qing (1684-1895) and Japanese (1895-1945) regimes, laws and policies regarding aboriginal land in Taiwan resulted in aboriginal land tenure changes and loss of land. The thesis also explores how the respective legal systems and legal cultures of the Qing and Japanese states influenced policy-making concerning aboriginal land. The thesis examines the different effects of the Qing and Japanese administrations on aboriginal land tenure in Taiwan. It analyses Qing policies towards land settlement in Taiwan, the extent of the government’s recognition and protection of aboriginal land rights, the changes that the distinctive Qing property law regime, including the Chinese customary land practice, brought to aboriginal land tenure, and the aborigines’ interaction with the government and settlers regarding their land. To a lesser extent and as a comparison, the thesis then discusses the Japanese government’s attitudes towards the aborigines and aboriginal land tenure, and Japan’s reforms of land tenure in Taiwan. The thesis puts the study of Taiwan aboriginal land policies into the wider framework of the administration of Taiwan by two governments whose legal systems were quite different: the Qing government, which in many respects was a traditional Chinese imperial regime, and Japan, which by the time it colonised Taiwan had reformed its law along European lines and which was considered to be a modern and European-style state. Ultimately, this thesis attempts to find out what role the Qing legal system played in shaping the policies and in the transformation of aboriginal land tenure, and how the Japanese legal system, largely westernised after the Meiji Restoration in 1868, influenced Japanese policies regarding aboriginal land in Taiwan. Thus a central concern of the thesis is the connection between law and colonial policy. This thesis concludes that the Qing colonisation of Taiwan was different from the later Japanese colonisation of Taiwan and from Western styles of colonisation. Shaped by its legal culture, constitutional framework, administrative system and property law regime, the Qing government had very little or no intention and took little action to transform aboriginal land tenure. Rather the Qing legal tradition allowed for or enabled Chinese settlers to manipulate aboriginal land tenure and impose Chinese culture on the aborigines, an effect often unintended by the government. In contrast, Japan colonised Taiwan with a specific intention to exploit the resources of the island and thus the government played a strong role in changing aboriginal land tenure in Taiwan.

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  • To what extent is critical thinking affected by language demands in a level seven technical degree course?

    Marsden, Nick; Singh, Niranjan; Clarke, David (2016-04)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    Critical thinking can be said to be among the louder ‘buzz phrases’ in education in the 21st century. Both critical thinking and communication are key employability skills. Whilst there is a body of research on critical thinking, and its role in pedagogy, there seems to be a dearth of research linking second language ability and critical thinking. This area probably needs further examination given that it relates to subject specific discourse. Moreover the debate about domain-specific and generalist critical thinking skills is arguably impacted by language in ways that could disadvantage non-native English speakers in their assessed work. This research, carried out with Automotive students in New Zealand, suggests the language support currently given on a Bachelor level course in Automotive may not be adequate, and might need to be made available in different ways because perceptions of language ability may impact on success. The findings from this project suggest that automotive students might in fact prefer more language support. This information would be useful for course designers and facilitators at institutions elsewhere, particularly where courses might attract large numbers of non-native speakers either as international or domestic students. In either case, their perceived needs and expectations on the level of language support required to succeed are a focal point of this project.

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  • Bring your own device to secondary school : the perceptions of teachers, students and parents

    Parsons, David; Adhikari, Janak (2016)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    This paper reports on the first two years of a Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) initiative in a New Zealand secondary school, using data derived from a series of surveys of teachers, parents and students, who are the main stakeholders in the transformation to a BYOD school. In this paper we analyse data gathered from these surveys, which consists primarily of qualitative data from free text questions, but also includes some quantitative data from structured questions, giving insights into the challenges faced by teachers, students and parents in moving to a BYOD classroom, and the potential benefits for teaching and learning, and preparing students for a digital world. We frame our analysis from a sociocultural perspective that takes account of structures, agency and cultural practices and the interactions between these domains. Thematic analysis was performed by considering these domains from the responses of the three stakeholder groups. We found that there were some tensions in these domain relationships, with contexts and practices having to be renegotiated as the BYOD classroom and the structures within which it operates have evolved. On the surface, it appears that many of the changes to cultural practice are substitution or augmentation of previous activities, for example using one-to-one devices for researching and presenting material. However, when we look deeper, it is evident that apparently straightforward adoption of digital media is having a more profound impact on structure and agency within the classroom. While the structural impact of digital infrastructures does raise some concerns from all stakeholders, it is clear that it is the curricular structure that is the most contentious area of debate, given its impact on both agency and cultural practice. While the majority of respondents reported positive changes in classroom management and learning, there were nevertheless some concerns about the radical nature of the change to BYOD, though very rarely from teachers. If there is an area where agency may be most problematic, it is in the responses of parents, who may feel increasingly alienated from their children’s learning activities if their own digital skills are lacking. These findings will be of interest to anyone who is engaged in BYOD projects, particularly those who are planning such initiatives or in the early stages of implementation.

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  • Lounging with robots – social spaces of residents in care : a comparison trial

    Peri, Kathryn; Kerse, Ngaire; Broadbent, Elizabeth; Jayawardena, Chandimal; Kuo, Tony; Datta, Chandan; Stafford, Rebecca; MacDonald, Bruce (2016)

    Journal article
    Unitec

    Aims: To investigate whether robots could reduce resident sleeping and stimulate activity in the lounges of an older persons’ care facility. Methods: Non-randomised controlled trial over a 12-week period. The intervention involved situating robots in low-level and high-dependency ward lounges and a comparison with similar lounges without robots. A time sampling observation method was utilised to observe resident behaviour, including sleep and activities over periods of time, to compare interactions in robot and no robot lounges. Results: The use of robots was modest; overall 13% of residents in robot lounges used the robot. Utilisation was higher in the low-level care lounges; on average, 23% used the robot, whereas in high-level care lounges, the television being on was the strongest predictor of sleep. Conclusion: This study found that having robots in lounges was mostly a positive experience. The amount of time residents slept during the day was significantly less in low-level care lounges that had a robot.

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  • Taxonomic delimitation and the evolutionary history of the Australasian Lautusoid group of Senecio (Asteraceae)

    Liew, Chia-Sin (Jasmine) (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Taxonomic delimitation can be a challenging task for systematists, because of the dynamic and complex evolutionary processes that shape patterns of biodiversity. Yet, it is an essential aspect of biology, because it defines units of evolutionary significance, which form the basis for studying all aspects of biodiversity. In this thesis, I studied the taxonomic delimitation and evolutionary history of the Australasian Lautusoid group of Senecio at the infrageneric, species, and infraspecific level. Members of the Lautusoid group are morphologically very diverse and occupy a wide array of habitats. Moreover, the Lautusoid group has a large diversity of chromosome profiles compared to other Australasian Senecio, which indicates the possible occurrence of hybridization in its evolutionary history. These patterns of diversity make it an attractive system for various evolutionary and ecological studies. Despite these interesting characteristics and the inclusion of members of the Lautusoid group in a number of taxonomic treatments, it is not known how many and which species form the Lautusoid group. To determine the delimitation of the Lautusoid group and to investigate the origin of Lautusoid species with higher chromosome numbers, a molecular phylogenetic study was carried out. The results of this study indicate that the group is a morphologically and phylogenetically distinct Senecio lineage with an Australasian distribution. These results also highlight the important role of hybrid speciation in the evolutionary history of the Lautusoid group by identifying allopolyploid hybrids between members of the Lautusoid group and members of other Australasian lineages. An allopolyploid species complex that was found to be affiliated with the Lautusoid group, S. glaucophyllus, was the focus of subsequent studies. Senecio glaucophyllus and a morphologically similar informally named taxon, S. aff. glaucophyllus, were examined to determine if they are distinct species. The results confirm that the two taxa are indeed morphologically and genetically distinct. However, against expectation, this study revealed that S. aff. glaucophyllus is the true S. glaucophyllus and that the plants that were called S. glaucophyllus belong to a species that is presently unnamed. This taxon, tentatively called S. “pseudoglaucophyllus”, aligns with S. glaucophyllus sensu Ornduff excluding S. glaucophyllus Cheeseman. In order to revisit the current classification of recognizing four infraspecific groups for S. “pseudoglaucophyllus” and to propose taxonomic recommendations, studies that look into its morphological and genetic diversity were performed. The results of these studies show that patterns of morphological variation in S. “pseudoglaucophyllus” are not congruent with patterns of genetic variation and that neither supports the current classification in which four infraspecific groups are recognized. Because infraspecific taxon boundaries cannot be unambiguously determined for S. “pseudoglaucophyllus”, this species is therefore best regarded as a single variable New Zealand species for which infraspecific groups should not be formally recognized.

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  • Acoustic analysis of slow click function and foraging in sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) off Kaikoura, New Zealand

    Fernandes, Manuel Goulartt de Medeiros de Carvalho (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Sexually immature male sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) disperse from their natal areas and move to higher latitude male-only foraging grounds, such as those off New Zealand and Norway. In these areas they are found in aggregations, in which a relatively high concentration of animals congregate in a specific area. Males within aggregations continuously forage, yet seemingly dive in a solitary manner. The Kaikoura submarine canyon off New Zealand is an area where male sperm whales aggregate. This canyon is among the most productive deep sea regions in the world, and has been used for foraging both by individual male sperm whales over years, as well by transient animals which have only been seen once. Slow clicks are vocalisations only used by males. Typically displayed in bouts with inter-click intervals of 3-9 s, they consist of low frequency (2-4 kHz) sharp clicks with a strong reverberation and apparent source levels around 201 dB peak re 1 μPa at 1 m. Slow clicks have much lower directionality than regular echolocating clicks, resulting in their characteristic strong and lasting seafloor echo. At breeding grounds, slow clicks seem to be displayed in long sequences while males are close to, or at the surface, and these have been suggested to function as vocal display used in competition and/or to attract females. In contrast, at male-only foraging grounds, slow clicks are heard in shorter sequences at the end of foraging dives (and also, at times, during surfacing), with these being heard in almost half of all foraging dives recorded in this study. The diving-phase pattern associated with slow clicks appears consistent across male aggregations recorded here, off Kaikoura, and those found off Norway1. While the function of slow clicks is still unclear, the different social and slow-clicking patterns observed suggests a context-dependent function in communication. I used a towed hydrophone array and photo-identification data from individually-tracked whales during complete foraging dives to further understand the function of slow clicks in the Kaikoura foraging ground. I investigated the presence and number of slow clicks as a function of other acoustically-detected whales in the area, which indicated an increased rate of slow clicking with increasing number of ‘neighbours’. I examined slow click structure, including centre frequency, waveform, and, as body size-related information is encoded in regular echolocating clicks, the occurrence of multiple pulses within clicks, to examine the relationship between this vocalisation and body length. The centre frequency of slow clicks differed between individuals and their waveform revealed a multi-pulsed structure in seventy percent of clicks analysed. However, neither the inter-pulse interval (time between pulses within a click) of slow clicks, nor their centre frequency, correlated with body size. Additionally, the analysis of the pulse structure and amplitude of slow clicks within bouts suggests that slow clicks display a broad but somewhat defined directionality, which may allow slow clicking whales to target goals by adjusting their body posture. Additionally, I explored the use of slow clicks and codas, which are stereotyped patterns of clicks used for communication, produced by a pair of males synchronising their surfacing time and dives. Over a complete dive cycle and surfacing time I examined the spectral characteristics and waveform of codas (click sequences) and slow clicks, as well as coda duration. Codas made using clicks with spectral and waveform characteristics of slow clicks were termed “slow click codas”. These were longer, and showed lower centre frequency and higher relative amplitude than traditional codas and may suggest some form of communication between whales in synchrony. Finally, I looked at the feeding vocalisation (creak) rate, duration, and the relationship between creak presence, bathymetry and the commercial fisheries within the underwater canyon off Kaikoura as a proxy for areas with an abundance for potential prey. Results suggest that males in this area may be targeting fewer but larger and/or more nutritious prey (i.e. fewer but longer creaks) compared to other studied areas. In conclusion, the diving phase-related use of slow clicks, their acoustic properties, including the centre frequency and waveform related information, coupled with the field observations analysed and the history of male bachelor group composition, suggests that slow clicks may function as a contact call, which could be used for individual and/or group recognition.

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  • Girl in Progress: Navigating the Mortal Coils of Growing Up in the Fiction of Jacqueline Wilson

    Clark, Cherilyn Nicole (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The following presents a discussion of the work of children’s and young adult novelist, Jacqueline Wilson. My focus is on Wilson’s treatment of issues that are quite pertinent to growing up and growing up as a girl in particular. Each chapter looks at a specific novel, considering Wilson’s representations of such issues as self-harm, eating disorders, and parental mental illness. In doing so, I will approach my subjects from various perspectives, drawing on theory from strands of psychoanalysis, post-structuralism, and feminism among others. In doing so I hope to prove the worth of Wilson’s work for future critical study (at this stage there has been little written specifically on this author). An interest of mine is the presence of ideology in children’s and young adult literature (a certain pedagogy that primarily serves the interests of adults). In discussing the ways in which Wilson presents the above issues, I consider ways in which her work may be seen to subvert such ideologies while still maintaining a sense of responsibility regarding the ability of narratives to influence young audiences. As such, part of my discussion will consist of an analysis of what has been termed by such writers as Melissa Wilson and Kathy Short, and David Elkind as a “postmodern childhood.” One in which children must navigate a problematic and less than ideal adult world and in which a developmental endpoint is never certain.

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