81,210 results

  • Comparing syntactic persistence in written and spoken monologue

    Middendorf, Jennifer (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Syntactic persistence, the tendency for speakers to repeat recently-used syntactic structures, has been well demonstrated in dialogue and in single-sentence monologue primed by reading aloud pre-prepared material. Models advanced to explain syntactic persistence assume that priming will also occur in extended monologue, but there is no clear evidence that this is so. This thesis examines within-speaker syntactic persistence of the genitive alternation in spoken and written monologue from the QuakeBox corpus and the Press database, two New Zealand corpora selected for their close match of time period, geographic location, and topic. Two research questions are considered: is priming present in extended monologue, and does priming differ between speech and writing? In order to address these questions, I use binomial mixed-effect models to find the relative contribution of factors predicted to affect genitive choice and priming, and compare the relative impact of these factors, and the overall effect of priming, on the two corpora. The findings of my research indicate that syntactic priming is present in extended monologue, and that this priming occurs more frequently in speech than in writing. My results also support observations in the existing literature that genitive choice is affected by animacy, the presence of a sibilant sound, and the semantic relationship between possessor and possessum. While this study was not able to offer conclusive insights into the differences between α- and β-priming, and the issue of priming in nested structures, my findings indicate that these would be promising areas for further research.

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  • Hydrothermal alteration and rare earth element mineralisation in the French Creek Granite, Westland, New Zealand

    Morgenstern, Regine (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Alkaline igneous complexes are one of two primary sources of rare earth elements (REEs), which are unique metals crucial for the economic growth of a country. Understanding REE metallogenesis in these systems is often complicated, with evidence of both magmatic and hydrothermal processes present. The A-type French Creek Granite (FCG), located on the West Coast of New Zealand, is a poorly-studied example of such a complex system in which anomalous REEs have previously been reported. The purpose of this thesis was to undertake a comprehensive field, petrological and geochemical study of the FCG, its hydrothermal alteration and, to a lesser extent, the cogenetic Hohonu Dyke Swarm (HDS), in order to better understand the type, style and location of REE mineralisation. Whole rock geochemical analyses of 54 samples using XRF and ICP-MS/AES established that the ca. 82 Ma FCG is a composite granitoid dominated by a ferroan, peraluminous biotite granite that was emplaced into a high-level (ca. 3 km) syn-tectonic setting. A syenite shell and genetically related basaltic–rhyolitic dykes are present, and trace element content, and disequilibrium textures in phenocrysts in dykes, are evidence of magma mixing. Maximum ƩREE+Y content are higher in the felsic FCG (847 ppm) relative to the mafic HDS (431 ppm). Primary REE-Zr-Y enrichment in the FCG is a function of partial melting of an enriched mantle source and subsequent extensive differentiation. Primary REE mineralisation was identified via SEM-EDS and is defined by modal allanite, zircon, apatite, fergusonite, monazite, perrierite and loparite, which typically occur with interstitial biotite. This association, and LA-ICP-MS analyses of REE-bearing giant (500 μm) zircon, indicate REE enrichment in the residual melt was likely due to high magmatic fluorine and late-stage water saturation, in addition to differentiation. Extensive sericitisation, chloritisation, hematisation, carbonate alteration and kaolinisation were identified in the altered FCG using field observations, microscopy and XRD. A zone of propylitic alteration in the Little Hohonu River and a smaller, phyllic alteration assemblage in the Eastern Hohonu River are defined, both of which generally correlate with higher REE anomalies than fresh FCG. Quartz protuberances, microscopic fractures and dyke emplacement indicate the phyllic alteration is structurally controlled, and REEs are hosted in bastnäsite group minerals, zircon, monazite and xenotime. This zone is consistently enriched (607 ppm average ƩREE+Y), indicating remobilisation and secondary REE-Zr-Y enrichment by hydrothermal fluids. Stable 13C and 18O isotopes from secondary carbonates indicate low temperature (~250°C) magmatic-hydrothermal fluids sourced from the cooling FCG, which were likely part of a late-stage porphyry-type system operating during the same mantle degassing and extension episode that was associated with initial Tasman Sea spreading.

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  • Regional cortical thinning is associated with cognitive status in Parkinson's disease

    Almuqbel, M.M.; Melzer, T.R.; Myall, D.J.; MacAskill, M.R.; Livingston, L.; Horne, K-L.; Dalrymple-Alford, J.C.; Anderson, T.J.; Pitcher, T.L.; Keenan, R.J. (2016)

    Conference Contributions - Other
    University of Canterbury Library

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  • The Influence of Ozone Forcing on Blocking in the Southern Hemisphere

    Dennison, F.; McDonald, A.J.; Morgenstern, O. (2016)

    Conference Contributions - Other
    University of Canterbury Library

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  • Longitudinal magnetic resonance spectroscopy and cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease

    Almuqbel, M.; Melzer, T.R.; Myall, D.J.; MacAskill, M.R.; Livingston, L.; Wood, K-L.; Pitcher, T.L.; Keenan, R.J.; Dalrymple-Alford, J.C.; Anderson, T.J. (2015)

    Conference Contributions - Other
    University of Canterbury Library

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  • Proposed collaboration : Genetic risk and progression to dementia in Parkinson's disease

    Dalrymple-Alford, J.; Anderson, T.; Farrer, M. (2016)

    Conference Contributions - Other
    University of Canterbury Library

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  • War, Identity, and Inherited Responsibility in Sino-Japanese Relations

    Shibata, Ria (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Groups in conflict develop different and often contesting interpretations of the past, particularly if that history involves a violent injustice. How both perpetrator and victimised groups deal with their past history is critical to the successful resolution of protracted conflicts. When the harm is left unacknowledged and unaddressed, feelings of victimisation, humiliation, and shame emerge and frequently prolong the conflict between the transgressor and transgressed. The perpetrator's acknowledgment of responsibility for immoral acts is therefore an essential pre-requisite in promoting reconciliation. Debates about historical injustices, however, focus on whether guilt and responsibility for past wrongs should be passed on from the original perpetrators to the generational descendants. Seventy years have passed since the end of the Second World War, and yet the memories of the war continue to negatively affect the relations between China and Japan. While Chinese victims and their descendants continue to seek apology and closure, the Japanese public are experiencing 'apology fatigue'—a feeling of frustration that no matter what they do, the victims will never be satisfied. This thesis seeks to examine the extent to which present-day Japanese are willing to accept some degree of inherited responsibility for the acts of aggression committed by their ancestors. Drawing on social identity, basic human needs and reconciliation theories, this research aims to identify the social psychological factors impeding Japanese acceptance of collective responsibility for its past. Using a mixed methods approach, this problem is examined and explored with a sample of 162 Japanese university students representing a generation who were never directly involved in the nation's misdeeds.

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  • Soil water regimes of the Glendhu experimental catchments

    Miller, Blair J. (1994)

    Honours Dissertation thesis
    University of Otago

    The Otago block mountains are important water supply areas with their abundant water yield attributed to conservative water use by narrow-leaved snow tussock (Chionochloa rigida), the dominant vegetation cover of the region. This study looks at three aspects of the soil hydrology of the Glendhu experimental catchments, east Otago, New Zealand: soil water regime changes following afforestation of the tussock grasslands; a comparison of soil water regimes with topographic position in order to identify possible saturated overland flow generation sites; and some characteristics of a peat wetland that is typical of those that occupy gullies in the region. Several sites were set up in the forested and the tussock catchments, and depending on position, contained tensiometer nests, neutron probe access tubes and water table observation wells. Data were collected betw.een 29/3/93 and 19/5/94 and revealed much drier conditions under forest cover, with saturation not occurring in the A horizon throughout the study period. Using tussock catchment sites for topographic comparison, a downslope increase in water content was found on the interfluve, while saturation persisted for longer periods of time at headwall sites where subsurface convergence resulting from the concave planar morphology occurs. Wetland water tables only fluctuated 27.5 cm during the study period, and do not appear to be sustaining the high baseflow that occurs from the catchment.

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  • Building brands and fan relationships through social media : the case of the Grand Slam tennis events : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Sport and Exercise at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Thompson, Ashleigh-Jane (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Social media have become pervasive parts of society and modern consumer culture. However, sports scholars have noted a distinct lack of knowledge and understanding related to their use among sports properties. This thesis, through the novel use of a modified circuit of culture framework (du Gay, Hall, Jones, McKay & Negus, 1997) explores how Facebook and Twitter were utilised by the four Grand Slam tennis events (Australian Open, Roland Garros, Wimbledon and U.S. Open) to build their brands and relationships with fans. A unique multi-perspectival, multi-method approach involving semi-structured interviews, a content analysis of Facebook and Twitter posts, and online surveys provided rich sources of data. The findings reveal that these events are deliberately and proactively using social media. It is apparent that social media aid in two key functions: (1) a facilitator of socialisation and emotional connections, and (2) a cultivator of brand image and brand experience. Furthermore, two unique challenges were identified: (1) providing value and meeting fan expectations, and (2) organisational adaptability. Importantly, this research has significant practical and scholarly implications, providing one of the first empirical examinations into how social media assist sports event brands in brand management efforts. Social media are shown to be sites that provide opportunities for practitioners to create a quasi-virtual brand experience, representing an online substitute for the live event. This particular aspect represents a unique finding and an aspect that is of particular relevance for sports event brands. In addition, this study was one of the first to employ a multi-method approach, framed within the circuit of culture, in sports-related social media research. The use of this approach revealed the need to modify the circuit of culture with a centralised moment of “prosumption” for future social media related studies. It is proposed that this approach would be transferable to other sports contexts, advancing the research agenda of sport management scholars.

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  • "Gone by lunchtime" : social policy, breakfast radio and the 2005 New Zealand election campaign : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Public Policy at Massey University

    Belgrave, David (2006)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    New Zealand's 2005 election was fought largely on ideological and social policy differences between the country's two largest political parties. The campaign was closely fought with opinion polls putting either the New Zealand Labour Party or the New Zealand National Party ahead at various times. Election campaigns are an important opportunity for policy debate as public interest in politics and the direction of policy is usually much higher than at other times. Parties attempt to convince voters that their policy programmes are sound and that their leaders are both capable and responsible. The media play an important role in allowing politicians to communicate their policies and personalities to the voter. In addition to direct political communication the media play an important role in debating politics and policy which becomes all the more important during an election campaign. Auckland has a saturated radio market with a large number of heterogeneous stations attempting to service niche demographics. Almost all of these have some news content. Using data collected from four Auckland breakfast radio shows this thesis attempts to explain the policy detail, ideology and personality-based appeals made by politicians on social policy in their attempt to sell their policy programme to the voter, while also exploring how this debate was covered by the breakfast radio shows. Both Labour and National Party politicians concentrated on policy detail and ideologically-based appeals when debating social policies. For both major parties those ideological appeals were, to some extent, contradictory to the targeting of their policies to middle-income voters. Meanwhile the analysis of this debate differed greatly from station to station, but on all stations examining social policies came second to reporting on the contest between to two parties to gain the Treasury Benches.

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  • Imperial preferences : a study of New Zealand's great power relationships from 1949 to 1963 : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in History at Massey University

    Lewis, Wynford (2004)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This year is the fiftieth anniversary of the signing of the treaty that led to the formation of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organisation or SEATO. As such, it is an opportune time to review aspects of New Zealand's membership of this organisation. This task is all the more timely, because this year has also seen the Prime Minister of New Zealand sign a Non-Aggression Pact with ASEAN in the capital of Laos. Helen Clark is following in the footsteps of her Labour predecessor Walter Nash, who defied SEATO and the US over the matter of armed intervention in Laos. This thesis examines the changing defence relationships of New Zealand with the UK and the US during the 1950s, and seeks to explain the circumstances of Nash's disagreement with our largest ally. I wish to thank the staff of the Auckland University Library and the Massey University Library and the staff of the National Archives. Thanks to John Mills of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade for his assistance and to Bruce Brown and Tom Larkin for their interviews. I also wish to convey my thanks to Adam Claasen for his guidance and to Marilyn Lewis for her proofreading. My major thanks and appreciation goes to Ester Lewis.

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  • Gender, power and practices in tension : mixed-sex rooming in hospital : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment for the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Women's Studies at Massey University

    Burrell, Beverley Ann (2000)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Using a feminist poststructural framework this study analyses interview reports and the complex contextual elements existing in the uncommon event of sharing one's bedroom space with a stranger of the opposite sex whilst in hospital. Dilemmas of gender sensibility, patients' rights and privacy are evident for the eight women interviewed for this study who experienced mixed-sex rooming (MSR) in New Zealand hospitals. Sex differentiation and gender difference significantly influence the conditions upon which social relationships evolve. This research examines the significance of the category 'woman' and the impact of gender and patient norms, including the foundations on which any objection to MSR might rest. Deconstruction revealed tensions around spatial confines and the operation of institutional power and authority at macro and micro levels. Conflicts between, the rhetoric of health reform, and the practices affecting patients' right to choose, and privacy, are discussed in the wake of the New Zealand health services restructuring of the 1990s and the re-organisation of patient accommodation, marked by mixing the sexes, thereby raising the question of whether gender is rendered somehow irrelevant. It is concluded that particular interests are served by MSR and that patient concerns risk being neglected where choice is withheld. The exertion of institutional power was found to override some patients' choice. Patient acceptance of the practice is conditional in respect to preservation of their privacy, especially in regard to toileting and washing. Assumptions about gender persist even though mixing the sexes would appear to relegate gender to a neutral state. Recourse to blanket policies is found to be inappropriate when it is individual patients' rights that health professionals are bound to respect.

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  • An evaluation of in-service training : women in management 1978-1980 : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Education at Massey University

    Steele, Jill (1981)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This report is an evaluation of the National In-Service training courses for Women in Education Management, run by the Department of Education from 1978 to 1980. Five courses were held during this time, but the first course had a follow up with the same membership, so for evaluation purposes these first two courses are considered as one. The study used the Stake model for evaluation. This model provides a systematic framework for collecting data about a programme and further suggests how the various sections of data should be matched against the others. Interviews, discussions, a mailed questionnaire, attendance at a Course and observations were methods used to obtain this data. 1975 was International Womens' Year and during this year the Department of Education co-sponsored with the Committee on Women at Victoria University, a conference entitled, "Education and the Equality of the Sexes". Following this Conference interest and awareness of the anomalies and unequal distribution of women in positions of education administration became more widely recognised. An Interim Committee on Women and Education was set up. This body made representation for special courses for women in education management training. In 1979 this committee was recognised as a National body and became inaugurated as the National Committee on Women and Education (NACWE). One way to redress the imbalance of women in education management positions was thought to be to have special women - only management courses to train women in education management skills. Women needed to learn these skills in a supportive atmosphere and because of this, it was felt that an all-women course would be more useful and supportive than one where women had to 'compete' with the men as well as learn their new management skills. The courses had three specific objectives: (1) To train women in specific management skills (2) To study issues particular to women as managers (3) To prepare a group of women to become resource personnel in education management programmes in their own regions and districts. This study examines the rationale for the Women in Management courses, looks at the three course objectives and examines the outcomes of the courses. Discussion of these outcomes follows and recommendations for future development are given.

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  • Gastrointestinal infection in a New Zealand community : a one year study : a thesis presented in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Microbiology at Massey University

    Wright, Jacqueline Margaret (1996)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Diagnostic medical microbiology laboratories detect and identify pathogens in submitted specimens. The techniques used should maximise the detection of pathogens (sensitivity) while minimising the number of tests for their detection (efficiency). To achieve the best compromise between sensitivity and efficiency, it is necessary to have information on both the relative prevalence and clinical importance of various pathogens within the relevant community, and the relative efficiency of various detection techniques. This investigation had three primary objectives: to establish what pathogens were associated with community-acquired gastrointestinal symptoms in the Eastern Bay of Plenty, and the incidence and relative importance of each; to compare the merits of various methods for detecting these pathogens (in those cases where more than one method was available); and to collect data from patients so as to identify potential sources and/or risk factors for infection. 997 faecal specimens from 716 episodes of illness were tested over a one year period. Patients completed a questionnaire on symptoms, and food and environmental exposures. Using one or more standard techniques, the specimens were tested for bacteria and parasites which may cause gastroenteritis. Specimens from young children were also tested for the presence of rotavirus. The incidence rates of the various pathogens, expressed as a rate per 100 000 persons per year, were as follows: Blastocystis hominis, 358; Campylobacter species, 208; Giardia lamblia, 158; Yersinia species, 87; Cryptosporidium parvum, 67; Salmonella species, 62; Aeromonas species, 62; Dientamoeba fragilis, 29; Plesiomonas shigelloides, 21; Escherichia coli (E coli) O157, 4; Vibrio cholerae non-O1, non-O139, 4; and Shigella species < 4. Faecal specimen macroscopic form, microscopic findings, season, and patient age showed little correlation with the presence of specific pathogens. Consequently the tests selected for the detection of pathogens in faeces should not be based on any of the above parameters. Furthermore, the symptoms associated with parasitic and bacterial infections were similar, so it is not possible to select the appropriate tests on this basis. The presence of rotavirus in patients older than five years was not investigated so incidence in the general population can not be calculated. A study of all age groups for the presence of this organism would be appropriate. From the above findings, and an evaluation of the literature, it is recommended that all specimens should be examined for the following organisms and, on the basis of our observations, the most cost-effective method is shown in brackets: Salmonella (selenite enrichment subcultured to xylose lysine desoxycholate agar); Shigella (none were detected, so a cost-effective medium could not be determined), Campylobacter (5% sheep blood agar supplemented with 32 mg/1 cefoperazone); Yersinia (Yersinia selective agar (YSA), plus selenite enrichment subcultured to YSA); Giardia lamblia (detection of antigen); Cryptosporidium parvum (detection of antigen). While routine testing for E coli O157 is not recommended, laboratories should have the capability to test for this pathogen if a patient presents with haemolytic uraemic syndrome, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura or unexplained bloody diarrhoea. Likewise, routine culture for Vibrio species is not recommended; however, laboratories should test specimens using thiosulphate citrate bilesalt sucrose agar if the requesting clinician suspects cholera, or the patient has a recent history of shellfish consumption. A trichome stain for Dientamoeba fragilis is recommended for patients with chronic gastrointestinal symptoms who are to be investigated for neoplastic and other non-infectious conditions. Pathogenic parasites other than those noted above were not detected. However, since such organisms are isolated in New Zealand, usually in association with overseas travel or institutionalisation, it is recommended that a trichrome stain and a faecal concentration technique should be performed on specimens from all cases of gastroenteritis who have recently travelled overseas or who are institutionalised. Close liaison between the laboratory and the clinician is essential to ensure appropriate selective testing for these less common pathogens. The presence of Blastocystis hominis and Aeromonads should be reported, but the report should note that their pathogenicity is uncertain. Dientamoeba fragilis and Plesiomonas shigelloides are probably pathogenic, but further work is needed to clarify this point. Correlation of data from the questionnaires and the laboratory findings identified the following risk factors: (the relative risk, 95% confidence interval and p-value are shown in the brackets). Campylobacter species: consumption of unpasteurised milk (4.67,2.39 - 9.11, p = <0.001); Salmonella species: overseas travel (7.20, 1.67 - 20.9, p = 0.040), eating a barbecued meal (4.55, 1.37 - 15.12, p = 0.026), eating shellfish (3.80, 1.18 - 12.21, p = 0.032); Yersinia species: consumption of water from a home supply (3.46, 1.32 - 9.10, p = 0.016), handling cattle (4.88, 1.73 - 13.76, p = 0.008), handling sheep (14.80. 4.93 - 44.46, p = 0.001); Giardia lamblia: consumption of unpasteurised milk (3.93, 1.63 - 9.46, p = 0.011), attendance at a day care centre (2.70, 1.17 - 6.27, p = 0.033), handling cattle (3.39, 1.59 - 7.22, p = 0.005), handling horses (5.27, 1.85 - 14.97, p = 0.002); Cryptosporidium parvum: consumption of water from a home supply (5.08, 1.88 - 13.71, p = 0.002), consumption of unboiled water from a natural waterway (3.97, 1.29 - 12.24, p = 0.031), attendance at a day care centre (3.30, 1.06 - 10.22, p = 0.054), handling cattle (5.41, 1.88 - 15.58, p = 0.006), owning a cat (4.50,1.02 - 19.91, p = 0.029); Plesiomonas shigelloides: eating shellfish (13.67, 1.44 - 130.13, p = 0.020); and Dientamoeba fragilis: consumption of unboiled water from a natural waterway (7.46, 1.71 - 32.48, p = 0.019). The risk factors suggest the value of the following precautions to prevent gastrointestinal infection: maintaining a high standard of both personal hygiene (particularly in the rural environment) and environmental hygiene in areas that food is prepared; avoiding consumption of untreated water or unpasteurised milk; cooking animal-derived food thoroughly - especially barbecued food and shellfish; and washing hands thoroughly after animal contact. Persons with diarrhoeal symptoms should take particular care with personal hygiene. Those travelling overseas should be conscious of the risk associated with the consumption of food and water which is not properly cooked or treated. These findings should assist New Zealand laboratories to optimise their approach to the detection of faecal pathogens and should also assist in formulating policy for prevention of infection by enteric pathogens.

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  • Freedom of the hills : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Education in Adult Education, Massey University

    Straker, Jo (2004)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis has two main parts; the first addresses the nature of freedom as it is experienced in outdoor environments. The second part explores some of the ways in which these experiences can inform learning and outdoor education. Recollections of freedom were gathered from people who have a professional involvement in the outdoors as writers, photographers, professional adventurers, instructors and teachers. They were chosen because of their deep commitment to sharing their ideas about the outdoors in a variety of ways. Further to that, stories of mountaineering from the New Zealand Alpine Club Journals were read to gather background material on the culture of mountaineering and how the meaning of 'freedom of the hills' has been constructed. The research is based on Peile's (1994) ecological paradigm which has five main themes; holism, complexity, participatory, being and creativity. These themes underpin the ontological and epistemological foundations of the research and also provide the framework for synthesising the experiences of freedom. The research explores the ways that freedom and learning are intertwined and concludes that there are structural difficulties in current outdoor education practices which limit freedom. The research suggests a more ecologically inclusive metaphor for learning based on the Nor 'west storm, as one small step to resolving this dilemma.

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  • Evaluation of dry blending for infant formula manufacture : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Technology at Massey University

    Zhao, Zheng (1989)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Blending experiments and storage trials were carried out to assess the feasibility of manufacturing infant formula through dry blending of high fat whey powder (HFWP) with whole milk powder (WMP) or a base powder (BP) made from skim milk, sucrose and corn oil. An indication of cohesiveness of the components of the blends was obtained by measuring compressibility using an Instron testing machine. Compressibility decreased in the following order: BP, wmp, HFWP, lactose and ascorbic acid. Particle size determination using a laser sizer indicated that the particle size increased in the above sequence. Scanning electron microscopy revealed no evidence of an ordered mixture for either whey powder with milk powder or the powders mixed with ascorbic acid. The mixtures did not exhibit complete randomness and segregation. They are thus termed 'pseudorandom mixtures'. HFWP was blended with WMP or BP to achieve a target ratio 50:50 in both an experimental ribbon blender and a pilot ribbon blender. Using Response Surface Methodology, load ratio and mixing time but not rotation speed were found to have significant effects on the homogeneity with the experimental ribbon blender. At load ratio 0.4, the time for reaching a certain homogeneity was shorter than that at load ratio 0.8. The cohesiveness of BP impaired its mixing. A mixing index based on a satisfactory sample standard deviation has an acceptable value of 1. Both powder ratio scores and ascorbic acid level could be mixed below a MI of 1.5 but above 1. As to protein, fat, carbohydrate, the mixtures reached the acceptable MI. The secondary nutritional requirements such as the ratio of whey protein to casein and the ratio of unsaturated fatty acid to saturated fatty acid were above 1 when the powder ratio MIs were higher than 1. After mixing WMP and HFWP for 10 minutes differences of sensory quality could not be detected by the taste panelists even though the MI was still above 1. Unblended and blended samples of WMP and HFWP were tested through a 180 day storage trial at 20°C, 30°C and 40°C. There was no significant difference between unblended and blended samples on the criteria of TBA, PV, HMF, oxidised flavour and caramel flavour at the 5% probability level. Using the Arrhenius approach, at 20°C, the shelf lives of unblended and blended samples were estimated as 1628 days and 1090 days respectively, with an oxidised flavour limit of 3.5 out of 7 points. The shelf lives were 480 days and 466 days based on a PV limit of 2 milliequivalents O2 per kg fat. Dry blending is a feasible technique for manufacturing infant formula, with acceptable homogeneity of the main components of the blended samples and with normal storage stability. The cohesiveness of the components and the design of blender are important factors in improving homogeneity. Further trials are recommended in both experimental and commercial plants.

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  • Frequency of occurrence of novel milk protein variants in a New Zealand dairy cattle study population : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Biochemistry, Massey University

    Burr, Richard Gordon (1996)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Since the discovery of genetic polymorphism within milk protein genes, a considerable volume of research has been published relating milk protein genetic variants and milk production properties. Polymorphism of milk proteins can result in two effects: (a) changes in the biological and physico-chemical properties of systems containing the variant protein, (b) changes in the synthesis level of variant proteins. As a result several studies of milk protein variants have identified phenotypes which may be commercially advantageous for specific products. Currently employed methods to determine milk protein phenotypes are generally limited to electrophoretic techniques. The gel electrophoretic techniques commonly used are able to detect most milk protein variants that differ by their net electrical charge. However single amino acid substitutions that result in a change in net charge account for only 25% of the possible substitutions that could occur. The remaining 75% of potential variants are the result of a neutral residue substituted by another neutral residue - a 'silent' variant. Thus it is likely that some substitutions, and hence genetic variants have gone undetected in the past. The purpose of this study was to develop new methods for determining the phenotype of milk proteins, and to determine the frequency of occurrence of silent or other novel variants in a New Zealand dairy cattle study population. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), free zone capillary electrophoresis (CE), peptide mapping by reverse-phase HPLC and electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) were used in the characterisation of milk proteins purified from 109 individual dairy cows. Three different PAGE systems were used. Alkaline-urea PAGE enabled the detection of α si-casin variants B and C, β-casein variants group A (variants A1, A2 and A3) and B, and K-casein variants A and B in the study population. Beta-casein variants A1, A2 and A3 were subsequently resolved in an acid-urea PAGE system. The whey proteins were very poorly resolved in PAGE systems containing urea. Alpha-lactalbumin A, and β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) variants A and B were resolved in a non-denaturing 'native' PAGE system. The frequencies of the various milk protein variants corresponded closely to figures previously published. A free zone CE method that is able to resolve β-LG variants A, B and C was used to check the phenotype of purified β-LG samples. Three samples previously typed as β-LG BB were subsequently determined to be β-LG CC; one sample typed as β-LG BB was re-assigned as β-LG BC. This highlighted the limitations of PAGE systems for the detection of known variants. Tryptic hydrolysis of purified casein proteins and β-LG, followed by reverse-phase HPLC separation of the resultant peptides was used to create peptide 'maps' of the hydrolysis products. Differences in peptide maps were noted between protein variants. The differences corresponded to peptides containing a substitution site. All samples analysed in this way contained more peptide peaks than expected. Analysis revealed that some were the result of incomplete digestion; others the result of chymotryptic-like cleavages. No aberrant peptide maps, indicative of a silent mutation, were detected. Purified casein proteins and β-LG were subjected to ESI-MS for mass analysis. The mass of each protein species was determined as follows: Protein Average mass Std. dev. as1-CN B-8P 23614.9 Da 1.2 Da as2-CN A-11P 25228.9 Da 1.5 Da β-CN A1-5P 24023.9 Da 3.1 Da β-CN A2-5P 23983.5 Da 1.8 Da β-CN B-5P 24092.6 Da n.d. k-CN A-1P 19038.8 Da 1.5 Da k-CN B-1P 19003.8 Da n.d. β-LG A 18362.6 Da 1.0 Da β-LG B 18277.0 Da 0.9 Da β-LG C 18287.2 Da 0.6 Da In all cases the experimentally determined mass corresponded to the mass calculated from published primary sequences of milk protein variants. In addition to the expected β-LG variant in each mass spectrum, additional species were detected differing from the mass of the β-LG species by increments of approximately 324 Da. Although less pronounced, the +324 Da molecular weight species were also detected in a sample of β-LG purchased from the Sigma Chemical Company. The additional species were also detected in whey prepared by ultra-centrifugation, although at a much lower level. The 324 Da molecular weight adducts observed in ESI-MS spectra of purified β-LG are consistent with an addition of a lactosyl residue to the protein. The observation that these species remain after heat denaturation, reduction and RP-HPLC treatment suggest that the linkage is covalent. Lactulosyl-lysine is known to form in milk products during some processing conditions, particularly during heating. The observation of these glycated species in gently treated, unheated milk suggests that glycation may occur to some extent in the udder of the cow. The association of the 324 Da molecule with β-LG does not alter the charge, molecular weight or hydrophobicity sufficiently to be detected by PAGE. CE or RP-HPLC.

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  • Financial analysis of MAFTech bull beef investment opportunity : a research report presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Business Studies at Massey University

    Cowley, Anna Margaret (1989)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    MAFTech has established an investment opportunity whereby a nonfarming investor can provide the capital required to farm bull beef. The farmer and the investor share the returns from the investment, with the investor having a first charge over the proceeds received from the sale of the beef up to the amount of the initial capital injection. This type of investment scheme differs from more conventional form of investment. However, in order to compare this scheme with the more common forms of investment it is necessary to evaluate it to enable an optimal investment decision to be made. Hence the market for the production of bull beef is appraised. The risk involved in this investment is outlined and a sensitivity analysis to changes in price and weight conducted. Using this risk and return information a comparison with other investments is then made.

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  • Effects of a medication reminder calendar on medication compliance in older adults : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    Greyvenstein, June Barbara (2001)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The present study aimed to investigate whether the provision of an individualised medication reminder calendar would improve medication compliance, by acting as a cognitive aid for older adults, who may be suffering the mild memory deficits which tend to be the usual concomitants of normal ageing. The present study also examined medication compliance and error rates and their relationship with the amount of daily medication taken by participants, as well as with selected demographic and socio-economic factors. A convenience sample of community dwelling participants (N = 50), aged between 55 and 84 years (M = 71) who were prescribed an average of five daily medications, was randomly assigned to either calendar or control groups. Medication compliance was assessed via two pill counts conducted, on average, seven and a half weeks apart. The results showed that participants using the calendar and those in the control group did not differ in terms of compliance measures. The average rate of compliance with medication for the sample was 97%. The mean number of errors made by participants during the interval between pill counts was 19 (79% errors of omission and 21% errors of commission). Multivariate analysis indicated that the number of daily tablets taken was positively associated with the number and types of errors made. Women were less compliant than men, while participants of lower socioeconomic status made more errors of commission. Discussion of these results focused on the non-representativeness of the sample and the difficulties associated with obtaining volunteers. Possible directions for future medication compliance research were discussed.

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  • Forms and transformations of soil manganese as affected by lime additions to a central yellow-brown earth in the Wairarapa District, New Zealand : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Agricultural Science in Soil Science at Massey University

    Rathakette, Pagarat (1973)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The application of liming materials to New Zealand agricultural soils for the purpose of increasing the productivity of pastures is an important soil ameliorative treatment. Specific benefits accruing from lime additions are thought to include the improvement of soil structure and moisture retention characteristics, increased supply of essential plant nutrients, and increased activity of desirable soil microorganisms. Much attention in New Zealand has focussed on the relationship between lime addition and the resultant increased plant availability of soil Mo. The lime and/or Mo requirement of New Zealand soils have been reviewed by During (1972). Recently, however, it has been suggested (N.D. Grace, pers. comm.) that pastures on certain Wairarapa hill country soils can contain a sufficiently high content of the trace element Mn to impair the health and performance of grazing animals, particularly sheep. Such observations have been reinforced as a result of preliminary field trials indicating improved ewe fertility and growth rates of lambs following the application of lime to these soils. Further, the controlled feeding of supplemental dietary Mn to young sheep has been shown to depress their growth rate. It is well known that the addition of lime to acid soil generally results in decreased availability of soil Mn for plant uptake. However, there is very little information for New Zealand soils on the amounts and forms of native soil Mn and the types of transformations resulting from lime application. The present field experiment was initiated to investigate the chemical forms of soil Mn in a typical unlimed Wairarapa hill country soil ( Purimu silt loam ) and to follow any changes in these forms, for a period of one year, following broadcast application of several rates of lime addition. When possible, bulk herbage samples were collected and analysed in order to assess changes in Mn content resulting from lime application.

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