81,203 results

  • Proximate and chemical composition of New Zealand avocado by-products (Persea americana Mill. c.v. Hass)

    ZHANG, MENGYING

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    After extraction of oil from the pulp of avocado (Persea americana), a significant quantity of waste that includes pomace, seeds, peels, and avocado water are generated. These wastes can be ideal raw materials for food use as they may still have high nutritional value and antioxidant activity. Although there are some reported studies on the physicochemical characteristics of avocado peels and seeds, little has been reported on avocado pomace and water by-products of oil processing. The conversion of these wastes into utilizable food ingredients would help in reducing environmental problems associated with processing waste disposal. In order to determine the potential use of avocado by-products (peel, seed, pomace and avocado water), this study evaluated the proximate composition and antioxidant activity of New Zealand ‘Hass’ avocado by-products. In terms of nutritional values, moisture, ash, protein, fat, and fatty acids content were evaluated. Avocado pomace was found to be high in ash (3.07%) and protein content (10.22%). The fat content of avocado water (59.81%) was significantly the highest, followed by peels (32.88%), pomace (16.26%) and seed (2.42%). In our study, oleic acid was reported as the major fatty acid in the pomace, seed, and peel oils, followed by palmitic, linolenic, and palmitoleic acids. Most saturated and unsaturated fatty acids were significantly higher in peel and pomace. Saturated fatty acids are relatively lower in avocado by-products in our study than unsaturated fatty acids. Monounsaturated fatty acids were the principal fatty acids in all avocado by-products. In comparison with ascorbic acid, the avocado seed, pomace and peel had significant high antioxidant activities, while avocado water had the least. Avocado seed in fact had the highest antioxidant activity. This study demonstrated that avocado by-products have high nutritional value and good antioxidant activities that can be potentially incorporated in food as ingredients to enhance functionality and confer health benefits.  

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  • Nutrition and Reproductive Condition of Wild and Cultured New Zealand Scallops (Pecten novaezelandiae)

    Wong, Ka Lai Clara

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The New Zealand native scallop, Pecten novaezelandiae, is a species with a high economic value as a wild catch and has good potential for cultivation. As a mean to enhance the future of this growing shellfish industry, this thesis set out to investigate the nutritional requirements of P. novaezelandiae in relation to reproductive conditions, and determined the physical and biological factors that affect the condition of this scallop species in the wild and cultivated environments. Adult scallops (Pecten novaezelandiae) were sampled from six populations in the Hauraki Gulf (Auckland, New Zealand) in the spawning season (October 2014), in order to evaluate the scallop reproductive condition and nutritional state across the populations. Results showed a spatial variation in reproduction condition (VGI and gonad index), with a higher number of mature scallops in populations closer to the shoreline, where higher food availability may be found. Conversely, nutrient content in scallop somatic tissues (adductor muscle carbohydrates and digestive gland lipids) did not vary across the populations, but was strongly associated with reproductive status of individual scallops (VGI). Nutrient (carbohydrates, proteins and lipids) storage and utilization were investigated within scallops from two sites in the Hauraki Gulf, bi-monthly over a year (2012−2013). In addition, sediment samples were also taken to evaluate the potential for re-suspended nutrients as a food source for scallops. Water samples were collected for seston and chlorophyll a analyses. Isotope analyses (carbon and nitrogen) and proximate analyses were conducted for the gonad, adductor muscle and digestive gland of wild P. novaezelandiae, sediment samples and the seston (1.2−5μm, >5μm). Isotope analyses revealed distinctly different signatures in suspended sediment and scallop tissues, indicating that re-suspended nutrients were unlikely to contribute to the diet of scallops. Nevertheless, seston (particularly the small fractions) signatures were closely related to scallop tissue samples, suggesting that it is likely to be the main food source for the wild P. novaezelandiae. Scallops from the two sampling sites exhibited similar reproductive cycles and utilization of nutrients. Gametogenesis started in winter, and took place at the expense of carbohydrates stored in adductor muscles. Spawning events were recorded in spring (October−November) and summer (January−March), and the energy demand required during spawning events was supported by digestive gland protein. Gonad re-maturation between spring and summer spawnings were supported by the utilization of digestive gland lipids. The reproductive condition and nutrient content of scallops were then studied during the spawning season (October 2013) in wild populations and within experimental conditions (fed with a commercial microalgal diet; Shellfish Diet 1800®) in an aquaculture laboratory, in order to identify condition and nutrient requirements for scallop cultivation in New Zealand. Field scallops (feeding on natural food sources) spawned just before the end of the experiment, while experimental animals reached gonad maturity at the end of the experiment, but did not spawn. The trend in gonad maturation for field and experimental animals indicates that there was a lag time of about 2 weeks, and that this lag is likely due to nutritional stress associated with the shift from natural food sources to the mixed microalgal formulated diet provided in the laboratory. Results indicate that experimental scallops had lower nutrient (carbohydrates, protein, lipids and total energy) reserves stored in adductor muscle tissues compared to wild animals, but both field and experimental animals utilized muscular reserves (especially carbohydrates and protein) to support reproductive activity. The fatty acid profiles revealed that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were found in significantly lower quantities in gonad tissues of scallops from the laboratory compared to those in the field. This thesis shows that P. novaezelandiae utilizes energy reserves from both adductor muscle and digestive gland to cover the full cost of gametogenesis. In addition, cultivation environments using microalgal diets are conducive to condition P. novaezelandiae, but the optimal nutrient requirements for an efficient aquaculture production of this species needs further investigation. It is recommended by this thesis that future investigation on the conditioning requirements for P. novaezelandiae will be the next step for New Zealand scallop fisheries.

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  • How did I as a student music therapist, use songwriting techniques to facilitate self-expression with adolescents in a mental health school setting?

    Johnson, Emma (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The purpose of this research was to understand how a student music therapist was able to facilitate self-expression using specific songwriting techniques, during long term and short term, group and individual music therapy sessions. Long term is considered a four-month period of weekly sessions, and short term is considered a single session. This research took place at an educational facility where I was working with adolescents with various mental health issues. In this exegesis, I discuss the various definitions of self-expressions as defined in literature, and consider the ways this relates to songwriting methods chosen and applied during therapy. A qualitative method of research was used, using secondary analysis of data collected from five months of Music Therapy practice. Thematic analysis was applied to clinical notes from sessions, student review statements and personal reflective practitioner journal. I was guided by music therapy literature discussing songwriting that I had been drawing on for the benefit of my practice. My analysis revealed that I developed specifically tailored methods and techniques for individuals and groups, which would begin with how they would like to approach their songwriting. I also found, that alongside more well documented techniques such as lyric writing and composition, improvisation and song planning were of high value to my practice and therefore were included as therapeutic songwriting techniques in my findings.

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  • You are not worth the risk: The ethics of statistical discrimination in organisational selection of applicants

    Scholes, Vanessa (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Your job application is rejected unseen because you ticked a box admitting you smoke. The employer screened out applicants who ticked the 'smoker' box, because she had read empirical studies that suggest smokers, as a group, are a higher productivity risk than non-smokers. What distinctive ethical concerns inhere in the organisational practice of discriminating against applicants on the basis of group risk statistics? I argue that risk-focussed statistical discrimination is morally undesirable due to the lack of respect for applicants as unique autonomous agents. However, I argue further that the decision-making context affects the morality of this discrimination. Other things being equal, the morality of statistical discrimination varies depending on the purpose of the organisation, the level of detail in the discrimination, and whether the discrimination is transparent to applicants and includes some benefit for applicants. Because organisations may have good reason to use risk-focussed statistical discrimination when assessing applicants, I present some recommendations for decision-makers to mitigate the lack of respect for applicants as individual agents. Organisational decision-makers can focus on the extent to which the statistical data they use comprise i) factors that feature efforts and achievements of the applicant; ii) dynamic rather than static factors; and iii) data drawn from the applicant’s own history and actions over time.

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  • Negotiating multiple identities in educational contexts: Stories of Tamil Heritage Language Users as Multilingual Malaysians

    Sithraputhran, Thilegawathy (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Malaysia is a multilingual and multicultural society comprising of ethnic Malays (dominant group) followed by ethnic Chinese, Indians and other indigenous groups. The national language is Malay and English is the second language. Heritage languages such as Mandarin and Tamil are used as the language of instruction in some primary schools. This study explores how a group of Tamil Heritage Language Users from Tamil primary schools (THLU-Ts) at a private university recounted maneuvering through their multilingual world during their early lives at Tamil primary school, at state secondary school (Malay) and then at a private university (English). Nine first year undergraduate participants were selected from a private university in Malaysia where English is the medium of instruction. They were selected as THLU-Ts based on two criteria. Firstly, they were ethnic Tamils and secondly, they had completed six years of primary education at Tamil primary school. I used photovoice interviews to construct their narratives. The participants, prompted by photographs they brought as artefacts, described their language experiences in a multilingual setting. The participants’ voices were storied into narratives based on three narrative inquiry strategies of broadening, burrowing and restorying. Two in-depth interviews were conducted over a six month period and these were video-taped and transcribed. The interview transcript from each first interview contributed to a narrative summary or story. This was a general description of the participant and events (broadening stage). The second interview was held towards the end of the semester. During the second interview, participants were asked to reflect on their narrative summaries (which had been distributed earlier) and comment on them. I sought data to reexamine the existing data (burrowing stage) before rewriting a complete and coherent story (restorying) for each participant. This story was also individually reviewed by each participant. Data analysis was an iterative process that included storying and coding. I identified three broad themes and then examined them in the light of relevant literature. This analysis allowed me to understand how the THLU-Ts shaped their identities during social interactions with different linguistic communities in Malaysia, including THLU-Ms (ethnic Tamils from national primary schools) and non-Tamils (Malays and Chinese). Initially, THLU-Ts faced challenges as they transitioned to secondary school coming from a Tamil- medium primary school. At secondary school, they had to adjust to a Malay linguistic environment for the first time. As their proficiency in Malay grew, they felt they were accepted as authentic members of the academic community. When they entered the English-medium university, there was pressure to develop proficiency in English. They repositioned themselves once again and made deliberate language choices during social interaction with other linguistic communities. When the findings were viewed through Blommaert’s sociolinguistic scales, it was apparent that participants scaled languages depending on the value assigned to each one (Malay, English and Tamil). This reflected the way language was used in society. As powerful multilinguals who invested in a multilingual repertoire, participants displayed linguistic accommodation. These findings suggest a need for educators and policy makers to reassess the role and importance of HL education. Currently, the Malaysian education policy is silent on its commitment to HL education in Malaysia. Yet, this research supports the One Malaysia concept which stresses unity in diversity and encourages educational policies to take a pro-multilingual stance.

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  • Can a gut helminth parasite influence Th2 inflammatory responses in the skin?

    Meijlink, Kimberley Jayne (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Helminth parasites are one of the most common infectious agents of humans and cause significant health and economic burdens in the countries they are endemic in, making elimination an important goal. However, epidemiological studies have suggested an inverse correlation between the incidences of infections by helminth parasites in humans and autoimmune and allergic disease prevalence worldwide; it is thought the eradication of parasites in more affluent countries through improved hygiene is an important factor for the increasing incidence of autoimmune and allergic diseases encountered in the Western world. A Th2 immune response is central in providing immunity against helminth parasites, while suppressing T helper (Th) 1/Th17-mediated inflammation and inducing wound repair mechanisms. Helminths have developed strategies to directly regulate the immune response against them to ensure their own survival. Experimental evidence has demonstrated helminths are also able to dampen inflammatory bystander immune responses in their host, via induction of regulatory mechanisms such as regulatory T cells. These studies have focused primarily on the suppression of food and airway allergies in mouse models and there is limited data on the effect of helminth parasites on skin allergy e.g. atopic dermatitis. Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic/chronically relapsing Th2 inflammatory skin condition, characterized by skin lesions, dry itchy skin and impaired skin barrier function. This is believed to allow the entrance of other allergens into the body more easily, leading to sensitization and initiation of other allergies later in life, a process termed the ‘Allergic March’. With the increased incidence of allergy in the Western world, it is desirable to find new therapies to suppress AD and the onset of the allergic march. During my Masters, I have investigated whether the gut-dwelling mouse parasite Heligmosomoides polygyrus was able to suppress Th2 responses induced in skin tissue using two different allergy models: 1) intradermal injection (ID) of whole mashed-up house dust mite (HDM), which induces Th2 inflammatory responses, and 2) topical application of the chemical hapten dibutyl phthalate-fluorescein isothiocyanate (DBP-FITC), mimicking allergic responses seen in AD. The results show that H. polygyrus induces interleukin (IL)-4 production in tissues distal to the gut, including the ear skin tissue, mainly from cluster of differentiation (CD) 4⁺ T cells. Furthermore, helminth infection was able to suppress Th2-mediated inflammation in the skin in both house dust mite and DBP-FITC models, coinciding with an increase in the proportions of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in skin-associated lymph nodes (LNs). This research further demonstrates the potential use of helminth parasites, or their products, as a therapy for allergic diseases, including those of the skin.

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  • The Environmental Regulation of Marine Carbon Capture and Storage in New Zealand: Principles, Barriers and Gaps

    Severinsen, Gregory (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis concerns the regulation of a technology called carbon capture and storage (CCS). The technology is one way to mitigate anthropogenic climate change, by capturing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions at point sources (such as power or industrial plants) and injecting them into deep underground geological formations. Specifically, the thesis looks at the framework of public environmental law that is needed for CCS in New Zealand where injection occurs offshore in its coastal marine area and exclusive economic zone. The thesis concludes that, when tested against existing principles in New Zealand's environmental law and the requirements of international law, current provisions in domestic law contain both significant barriers and gaps. These barriers must be removed and gaps must be filled. The thesis identifies three broad features of New Zealand's law that give rise to a range of barriers and that need to be addressed. First, there is substantial uncertainty as to how existing provisions would apply to CCS. Greater certainty is needed. Secondly, the classification of CCS as a form of marine dumping presents a significant barrier. The technology needs to be classified differently, and more positively. Thirdly, the law contains a general prohibition on considering the effects of activities on climate change. This may prevent CCS being deployed in practice, and needs to be reconsidered. New Zealand's existing law also contains three potential gaps, which must be filled. First, there is a dearth of CCS-specific regulatory and policy provisions within existing regimes such as the Resource Management Act 1991. This means operators and regulators would be operating in a regulatory and policy vacuum. Decisions may be inconsistent, fail to impose appropriate environmental standards, or fail to give appropriate weight to relevant considerations. Secondly, there are limitations in the ability of existing regimes to regulate the positive effects of activities – such as climate change mitigation - to ensure that they are actually achieved. Thirdly, existing law does not facilitate the kind of targeted and comparative decision-making process needed for CCS. This means that it does not provide an effective process for resolving tensions between competing resource interests in the sub-seabed.

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  • A Quarter Acre Pavlova Paradise Lost? The Role of Preferences and Planning in Achieving Urban Sustainability in Wellington, New Zealand

    Dodge, Nadine (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis investigates the scope for compact development to accommodate population growth in Wellington, New Zealand. The topic is particularly significant for New Zealand as the great majority of the population lives in urban areas, historical development has been dominated by low density urban form, and transport and urban form are two of the main domains in which the country can reduce its carbon emissions. The influence of urban planning and residents’ preferences on achieving sustainable outcomes is investigated. Historical and current planning rules and transport policies in the City are analysed to determine their influence on the provision of compact development. Wellington’s transport policy shows a pattern of path dependency: historical decisions to favour car oriented investment have driven subsequent transport investments and influenced the ease of using different transport modes. Planning policies show a similar pattern of path dependency: planning rules enacted in the 1960s endure in present planning despite being packaged with different justifications and regulatory regime. Current planning rules severely restrict infill development in most existing neighbourhoods, which reduces the availability of housing in accessible medium density neighbourhoods and likely increases the cost of this type of housing. A stated choice survey was conducted of 454 residents of Wellington City to investigate the extent to which there is an unmet demand for compact development and alternatives to car travel. The survey held presentation mode constant across two completion modes (internet and door to door with tablet completion), allowing the impacts of recruitment and completion mode to be examined. Survey recruitment mode appeared to influence both response rates and the representativeness of the survey, while completion mode appeared to have little or no impact on survey responses. Using the stated choice survey results, a latent class model was developed to examine the preferences of residents and the trade-offs they are willing to make when choosing where to live. This type of model allows for the identification of preference groups as a means of understanding the diversity of preferences across the population. The study found that there is an unmet demand for medium density, accessible housing, but that affordability is a barrier for households to choose this type of housing. There was also an unmet demand for walking and cycling, with more residents currently driving than would prefer to use this mode, and more residents preferring to walk and cycle to work than currently use these modes. The ability to use a desired travel mode appears to be related to the neighbourhood in which a person lives, with residents of medium and high density neighbourhoods being more likely to use their preferred travel mode. This study also modelled future development trajectories for Wellington based on demand for housing, neighbourhood and transport attributes. This preference based growth model was contrasted with the City’s plan for development over the next 30 years. Comparing the two scenarios, the planning based trajectory performed better than the demand based scenario in terms of both carbon emissions and achieving compact development.

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  • Towards an integrated multi-scale zero energy building framework for residential buildings

    Nsaliwa, Dekhani (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    In most developed economies, buildings are directly and indirectly accountable for at least 40% of the final energy use. Consequently, most world cities are increasingly surpassing sensitive environmental boundaries and continue to reach critical biophysical thresholds. Climate change is one of the biggest threats humanity faces today and there is an urgent need to reduce energy use and CO₂ emissions globally to zero or to less than zero, to address climate change. This often leads to the assumption that buildings must reduce energy demand and emit radically less CO₂ during construction and occupation periods. Certainly, this is often implemented through delivering ‘zero energy buildings’. The deployment of residential buildings which meet the zero energy criteria thereby allowing neighborhoods and cities to convert to semi-autonomous energy systems is seen to have a promising potential for reducing and even eliminating energy demand and the associated greenhouse gas emissions. However, most current zero energy building approaches focus solely on operational energy overlooking other energy uses such as embodied energy and user transport energy. Embodied energy constitutes all energy requirements for manufacturing building materials, construction and replacement. Transport energy comprises the amount of energy required to provide mobility services to building users. Zero energy building design decisions based on partial evaluation and quantification approaches might result in an increased energy demand at different or multiple scales of the built environment. Indeed, recent studies have demonstrated that embodied and transport energy demands account for more than half of the total annual energy demand of residential buildings built based on zero energy criteria. Current zero energy building frameworks, tools and policies therefore may overlook more than ~80% of the total net energy balance annually. The original contribution of this thesis is an integrated multi-scale zero energy building framework which has the capacity to gauge the relative effectiveness towards the deployment of zero energy residential buildings and neighborhoods. This framework takes into account energy requirements and CO₂ emissions at the building scale, i.e. the embodied energy and operation energy demands, and at the city scale, i.e. the embodied energy of related transport modes including infrastructure and the transport operational energy demand of its users. This framework is implemented through the development of a quantification methodology which allows the analysis and evaluation of energy demand and CO₂ emissions pertaining to the deployment of zero energy residential buildings and districts. A case study, located in Auckland, New Zealand is used to verify, validate and investigate the potential of the developed framework. Results confirm that each of the building (embodied and operational) and transport (embodied and operational) energy requirements represent a very significant share of the annual overall energy demand and associated CO₂ emissions of zero energy buildings. Consequently, rather than the respect of achieving a net zero energy building balance at the building scale, the research has revealed that it is more important, above all, to minimize building user-related and transportation energy demand at the city scale and maximize renewable energy production coupled with efficiency improvements at grid level. The application of the developed evaluation framework will enable building designers, urban planners, researchers and policy makers to deliver effective multi-scale zero energy building strategies which will ultimately contribute to reducing the overall environmental impact of the built environment today.

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  • Cosmic structure, averaging and dark energy

    Wiltshire, D.L. (2012)

    Conference Contributions - Other
    University of Canterbury Library

    5 invited lectures

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  • From quantum to statistical cosmology

    Wiltshire, D.L. (2016)

    Conference Contributions - Other
    University of Canterbury Library

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  • Unequal effects of anterior thalamic nuclei and mammillothalamic tract lesions

    Perry, B.A.L.; Mercer, S.A.; Barnett, S.C.; Hamilton, J.J.; Dalrymple-Alford, J.C. (2015)

    Conference Contributions - Other
    University of Canterbury Library

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  • Differential expansion of space and the Hubble flow anisotropy

    Wiltshire, D.L. (2016)

    Conference Contributions - Other
    University of Canterbury Library

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  • Mammillothalamic tract lesions and spatial memory in rats

    Perry, B.A.L.; Mercer, S.A.; Harland, B.C.; Canales, J.J.; Dalrymple-Alford, J.C.; D (2014)

    Conference Contributions - Other
    University of Canterbury Library

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  • Does explicit teacher instruction of resilience increase a child's resilience?

    Sanders, Byron Travis (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Resilience is the ability to achieve favourable outcomes in the face of adversity (Condly, 2006). The increased presence of resilience in education has been noted of particular interest recently as schools move towards a more holistic curriculum, where they are not only teaching academic skills, but also social skills that rely on values, competencies, and principles (Hymel, Schonert-Reichl, & Miller, 2006). The present study aimed to measure the impact of teaching resilience on students as it correlated to their performance on tasks that assessed resilience. This study recruited 120 student participants from year one to year eight from an inner-city full primary school in Dunedin, New Zealand. This study used a repeated measure experimental design with a control group to assess the effectiveness of explicitly teaching students about resilience. Students’ resilience was assessed based off their performance on four tasks across three different phases of the study. Students in the experimental condition group were exposed to three linked lessons about resilience, while students in the control condition were not exposed to these lessons until after the assessments had concluded. The results showed no significant difference in resilience between control participants and the experimental group across all measured tasks. The performance of the experimental condition participants on the four resilience tasks was not significantly better than the control condition participants. In some instances there was actually poorer performance by the experimental condition participants on certain tasks. Results from this study suggest that the intervention of teaching children about resilience was not strong enough. Alternatively the measures of resilience were not sensitive enough to the intervention or were not valid. Further research could explore these implications through a more intensive and long-term intervention.

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  • The Dollar-Wall Street Regime and New Zealand: The Political Implications of Financial Market Liberalisation for Macroeconomic Management in New Zealand, 1994 to 2011

    Richards, Byron Anthony James (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    This is a study of New Zealand’s retention and entrenchment of a neoliberal policy regime, focusing on the role played by international finance. The study examines the influence that international private financial markets and institutions exerted over the macroeconomic policy formulation of New Zealand governments during the period from 1994 to 2011. It is argued that the emergence of international private financial markets and New Zealand’s subsequent integration into these markets was instrumental in successive governments retaining and entrenching all of the core features of a neoliberal macroeconomic policy nexus. This includes, most prominently: a monetary policy regime focused on maintaining low, stable inflation; an independently floating foreign exchange regime; and a conservative fiscal policy oriented towards surplus-generation and public debt reduction. The study utilises a sophisticated neopluralist theoretical framework that also draws on neo-Marxist analyses developed in the field of international political economy. Within this theoretical framework, neopluralism identifies the key sources of business power within contemporary liberal democracies. Respectively, neo-Marxist international political economy identifies the major sources of the power of private financial capital within an increasingly inter-connected global economic system. This theoretical approach provides a coherent and empirically-grounded explanation of the crucial role played by international private financial markets in successive New Zealand governments’ retention and entrenchment of all of the key features of the neoliberal macroeconomic policy nexus. A critical realist methodology is used to apply the theoretical framework deployed in this thesis. This entails the use of primarily, but not exclusively, qualitative data -such as historical company reports, official government policy statements, official statistics, and interviews with key actors involved in the process -to develop a robust analysis of the influence that international private financial markets exercised over macroeconomic policy formulation in New Zealand during the period from 1994 to 2011. This analysis highlights the causal significance of the political activities of individual human agents, while also identifying the broader underlying causal mechanisms that were at play. The central finding of this study is that the comprehensive programme of financial market liberalisation and financial sector deregulation implemented by the Fourth Labour Government between 1984 and 1990 effectively served to integrate New Zealand into the Dollar-Wall Street Regime. Comprising the current system governing contemporary international financial relations, the Dollar-Wall Street Regime accords a central role in public macroeconomic management to international private financial markets. The major political effects of New Zealand’s integration into the Dollar-Wall Street Regime during the period from 1994 to 2011 derived from a transformation of the underlying structural relationship between the state and internationally-mobile financial capital. This resulted in a curtailment of the operational autonomy of the state, the ability of citizen voters to exert democratic political influence, and, ultimately, the retention of a neoliberal macroeconomic policy agenda.

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  • Effects of land use on pelagic food webs in a range of Otago Wetlands

    Galbraith, Lisa (2004)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Inputs of nutrients and organic matter to wetlands from catchments influence water quality, which, in turn, determines the potential productivity of a wetland. While there are many studies of the effects of catchment development on water quality and aquatic communities in lakes, few studies include other wetlands. As these other wetlands are likely to be more affected by allochthonous inputs, littoral vegetation and autochthonous generation of organic matter, my aim was to determine the major influences on pelagic communities in a range of wetland systems. Influences of catchment land use on water quality and the pelagic food web were examined in 45 wetlands representative of a range of wetland environments in Otago, including swamps and ponds, shallow lakes, riverine wetlands, estuaries, reservoirs and deep lakes. The pelagic zones of 40 wetland sites were sampled once in February-March 1999 (autumn), 15 were re-sampled in October 1999 (spring), when five additional sites were also sampled. Catchment variables included size and slope, wetland size and the percentage of land in the catchment in bare ground, indigenous forest, inland water, inland wetlands, planted forest, pasture, scrub, tussock, urban or urban open space. Water quality variables, or physicochemical measurements, included total phosphorus, total nitrogen, total dissolved phosphorus, total inorganic nitrogen, dissolved organic carbon, turbidity, Secchi depth, total suspended solids, water colour, chlorophyll a, pH, temperature and conductivity. The pelagic food web was sampled, including biomass, abundance, and identification to genus of phytoplankton, biomasses of picophytoplankton, heterotrophic bacteria and nanoflagellates, biomass and identification to genus or dominant group of ciliates, and abundance and identification to species of crustacean zooplankton. Relationships among catchment variables, water quality variables and the pelagic food web were determined using multivariate analysis and correlation analysis. Increased development of pasture, exotic forestry and urbanisation in a catchment had negative effects on water quality, in comparison to unmodified catchments containing native vegetation communities. In turn, the biomass and composition of the pelagic community related closely to catchment modification, via physicochemical attributes of the wetland. Deep lakes were the most oligotrophic wetlands and swamps and ponds were the most eutrophic. Picophytoplankton and the cladoceran, Bosmina meridionalis were related positively to unmodified catchments, low trophic status of a wetland and deep lakes. Other components of the microbial food web, phytoplankton, copepods and Daphnia carinata were linked hierarchically to more intensive land use in the catchment, higher wetland trophy, swamps and ponds. A ciliate genus, Urocentrum, appeared to be detrimentally affected, and phytoplankton diversity reduced, by wetland catchment development and increases in wetland trophy. Components of the pelagic food web were tightly correlated across adjacent trophic levels. Heterotrophic bacteria appeared to be a resource for heterotrophic nanoflagellates. Picophytoplankton populations might either be suppressed by ciliate grazing, or detrimentally affected by eutrophication. Small ciliates appear to consume other microbial food web components, while larger ciliates may depend more on phytoplankton. Copepods may be relying on consumption of ciliates. Cladocerans did not appear to depend on this resource to the same extent as copepods. Populations of B. meridionalis and Ceriodaphnia dubia were negatively related to the larger cladoceran, D. carinata. Seasonal effects were apparent only at the level of zooplankton, the highest trophic level studied. B. meridionalis and C. dubia were more abundant in autumn than spring, while the reverse was true of D. carinata. This study revealed relationships within pelagic food webs in a range of wetland systems. While resource supply appeared to be the foundation of relationships between aquatic organisms, top-down effects of predation in the food web could not be dismissed. The potential of organisms such as picophytoplankton, ciliates and phytoplankton to be indicators of aquatic ecosystem health has been revealed or strengthened by this study. This research provides evidence of the influence of land use and geographical features on water quality and pelagic communities of wetlands in Otago.

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  • Gone with the Wind: International Migration

    Aburn, Amelia; Wesselbaum, Dennis (2017-04)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    This paper adds to the literature on the determinants of international migration. First, we offer a joint analysis of the driving forces of migration capturing year-to-year variations and long-run effects. Second, we analyze the dynamic response of migration to shocks to its determinants. We start by presenting a theoretical model that allows us to model migration as an augmented gravity equation. We then construct a rich panel data set with 16 destination and 198 origin countries between 1980 and 2014. Most importantly, we find that climate change is a more important driver than income and political freedom together. Our results imply that a large time dimension is key to understand the effects of climate change. We then estimate a panel vectorautoregressive model showing that the dynamic response of migration is very different across shocks to different driving forces. Our findings carry implications for national and international immigration policies.

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  • Knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs towards the therapeutic use of mindfulness amongst psychotherapists in New Zealand : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Psychology at Massey University, Manawatū, New Zealand

    Urgert, Samantha Jane (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Mindfulness has infiltrated psychology in the last two decades, and clinical efficacy in utilising mindfulness is increasing worldwide. Very little research has explored what mental health professionals know about mindfulness, and their attitudes towards its therapeutic use. Understanding practitioners’ knowledge and attitudes towards clinical tools is essential in future integration within therapy. The current study explored knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs surrounding various aspects of mindfulness among New Zealand psychotherapists, to identify whether knowledge of mindfulness was related to attitudes towards its use. A total of 53 psychotherapists completed a questionnaire that elicited quantitative responses about personal mindfulness, attitudes towards alternative therapies, and beliefs surrounding perceived competencies with use of mindfulness clinically. Psychotherapists are in agreement with proposed competencies, have positive attitudes towards its use, and are personally highly mindful. ANOVA revealed attitudes and competencies towards the use of mindfulness are related to religious affiliation and professional specialisation. Most had previous mindfulness education and believed it benefits their daily life, but suggested they would consider clinical use if their knowledge was greater. Psychotherapists’ personal mindfulness was not associated with attitudes towards, or competencies with its use. Despite a number of limitations, possible implications of the findings suggest future clinical utilisation of mindfulness within New Zealand, is reliant on understanding its current location within the minds of mental health professionals. A lack of education about mindfulness may be the reason for low utilisation, and this research may provide insight into areas of deficiencies. Knowledge in therapeutic mindfulness is pertinent in the improvement of future utilisation and infiltration within mental health professions, in turn accomplishing its clinical potential.

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  • Study of the interactions between milk proteins and hydroxyapatite particles : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Food Technology at Massey University, Riddet Institute, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Tercinier, Lucile (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) and other insoluble calcium salts added to calcium-fortified milks are often described as inert, as they do not cause any protein aggregation and heat instability during heat treatment of the milk. However, it is well-known that proteins can interact with HA. The adsorption of milk proteins on HA has been demonstrated in many systems, for example in chromatography, bioceramic and dentistry applications, and has been shown to have consequence on the colloidal stability of HA, but has never been studied in food systems. The main objective of the present study was therefore to explore the adsorption of milk proteins onto HA particles under a range of physico-chemical conditions. The consequences of these interactions on the colloidal properties of the HA particles and on the stability of the milk proteins were investigated. It was shown that the five individual milk proteins aS-casein, ß -casein, ?-casein, ß- lactoglobulin and a-lactalbumin adsorbed onto the HA particles. A Langmuir model was used to fit the adsorption data and determine the affinity constant and maximum surface loads of the different proteins. The adsorption of the different milk proteins onto HA particles was found to be of competive nature. ß-casein and aS-casein were always preferred for adsorption over ?-casein, ß-lactoglobulin and a-lactalbumin. This was attributed to the presence of phosphoserine clusters in ß-casein and aS-casein, forming many anchor points capable of binding to the calcium sites of HA. ß-casein and aS-casein also adsorbed to higher maximum levels compared to ?-casein, ß-lactoglobulin and a-lactalbumin. Both ß-Casein and aS-casein were considered to self-associate or associate together in the adsorbed layer, therefore forming a thick layer onto the HA surface. Conversely, ?-casein, ß-lactoglobulin and a-lactalbumin adsorbed to lower maximum amounts and had lower affinities for HA, which was attributed to adsorption in a monolayer through their carboxyl groups binding to the calcium sites of HA. The amount of protein adsorbing to the HA surface was affected by the physico-chemical properties of the solution such as pH and ionic strength, for all proteins. Decreasing pH and increasing ionic strength decreased the electrostatic repulsive forces between HA and the proteins and the electrostatic repulsive forces within the protein molecules, which allowed more protein to adsorb onto the HA surface. Milk serum ions such as calcium, phosphate and citrate bound specifically onto HA particles, therefore competing with the milk proteins for adsorption. In milk, it was shown the addition of HA in milk disrupted the mineral equilibrium and the milk protein phase. When HA particles were added to milk, the milk serum ions bound to the HA surface. This caused the colloidal calcium phosphate to be released from the casein micelles and the casein micelles to dissociate. Therefore the casein micelles did not bind as intact micelles but as individual molecules or small aggregates onto the HA particles. The adsorption of milk proteins onto HA particles affected the colloidal properties of the HA particles in suspension. The adsorption of both caseins and whey proteins onto HA particles resulted in the particles becoming negatively charged, thus improving their suspension stability. Whey protein adsorption probably provided only electrostatic stabilisation, whereas casein adsorption also provided steric stabilisation. Overall, this work has provided a detailed understanding of the interactions between milk proteins and HA particles. Calcium fortification of milk using insoluble calcium salts such as HA should be approached using an awareness of these interactions, as they may have consequences on the stability of calcium fortified milks.

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