82,469 results

  • In my hands, in my heart : change and transformation in product design to facilitate emotional attachment : thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Fine Arts endorsed with Design at Massey University, Wellington, New Zealand

    Song, Yueyun (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the design of objects that provide visceral enjoyment, good user experience and strong emotional attachment. This study considers attachment, emotions and transformation in the process of deciding how to introduce a stronger relationship between user and products, so people will want to keep them for the long term. Using change and transformation, I worked with everyday objects – tableware - to introduce design elements to stimulate emotions and promote emotional attachment. The objects designed for this thesis are either enhancements to existing products, designed to be transformed in an innovative way, or innovative designs that can transform to change the nature or function of the object. I wanted to explore whether I could incorporate the potential for change or transformation initiated by the user, into a product design in a way that elicited positive emotions, and therefore, attachment to the objects I designed. The thesis discusses four case studies: “Complete and Fragment”; “Construction through Destruction”; “Standing Liquid” and “Reset”. All designs featured objects that changed or transformed, in ways that ranged from passive, gradual or negligible, permanent and irreversible change to the appearance and function of an object, though to dramatic temporary, reversible, incomplete and complete repeatable transformation to the form and function of the object. Each of the objects had the potential for the user to be involved, to add or not, their input to the design, to change the form or function, or appearance of the product to suit their own aesthetic and needs, thus encouraging the user to develop a long term relationship with the object.

    View record details
  • Psychometric properties of the movement-specific reinvestment scale for Chinese children

    Ling, Fiona C.M.; Maxwell, Jon; Masters, Rich S.W.; McManus, Alison M.; Polman, Remco C.J. (2016)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    The propensity for movement-specific reinvestment (conscious attention to and control of body movements) is associated with disrupted movement in a variety of circumstances. Movement-specific reinvestment has been shown in adults but not in children, as a validated psychometric instrument for children does not exist. The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of a movement-specific reinvestment scale adapted specifically for Chinese children (MSRS-CC). Five hundred and thirty-two Chinese pre-adolescents aged 7–12 yrs completed the MSRS-CC and a sub-sample completed the questionnaire again three weeks later. Another sub-sample also completed the Coordination and Health subscales of the Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (short form; PSDQ-S). All questionnaires were completed during normal school days. A random half of sub-sample two completed the MSRS-CC before the PSDQ-S and the other half completed the questionnaires in reverse order. Confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated sound internal validity for the Scale's two-factor model. Acceptable internal reliability and satisfactory test–retest reliability were evident. Convergent and discriminant validity with the Coordination and Health subscales of the PSDQ-S was also tested, but the former was unexpectedly low. Future research using objective measures of motor proficiency was recommended. The MSRS-CC is potentially a valuable tool for understanding movement control by children in research as well as in clinical and educational settings.

    View record details
  • Leading different dimensions of organization performance through human resource management practices

    Mansouri, N.; Goher, Khaled

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    The primary purpose of this research work is to find out how human resource management practices including training, staffing, performance appraisal, participation, and reward system can affect the performance of Malaysian Information and Communication Technology (ICT) companies. Company’s performance is identified in this work in terms of innovation, learning and growth, and internal process. The results of analysis of 223 gathered data showed that human resource management practices have significant and positive impact on innovation, learning and growth, and internal process. In addition, this study showed that performance components can affect each other significantly and positively. In this research work, the data is collected through questionnaire and analyzed by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software. Moreover, the respondents of this research work are the employees of small and medium size ICT companies located in Cyberjaya, Malaysia.

    View record details
  • Reusing Past Replies to Respond to New Email: A Case-based Reasoning Approach

    Linggawa, I Wayan Sathya

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Email communication has been widely used in managing customer queries, such as complaints and inquiries. The user is expected to respond the query properly. However, with an increasing number of query emails received every day, it seems likely that the inbox appears to have more unreplied queries and leads to overwhelmed and cluttered email management called email overload. This thesis presents a development in the email overload issue on managing a reply task. The system, called a smart email client, helps in replying to an email by suggesting a list of replies gleaned from the emails replied to in the past. These suggested replies are ranked according to the level of similarity. The methodology follows the Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) approach to solve the problem by reusing previously written solutions from the past replies stored in the case base. Techniques from Natural Language Processing and Information Retrieval are utilised, particularly in lexical semantics, through using WordNet. Finally, an evaluation of the retrieval algorithm shows that the effectiveness and efficiency of the algorithm is influenced by the case feature selection and various text analysis techniques such as lexical analysis, stemming, stopwords removal, and synonym expansion.

    View record details
  • Evaluating the Economics of Construction and Demolition Waste Minimisation and Zero Waste in the New Zealand Construction Industry

    Tran, Van Dai

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Currently, up to 50% of construction and demolition (C&D) waste is disposed of in landfills contributing to significant environmental, social and economic costs to New Zealand. However, current understanding of C&D costs is poor both internationally and within New Zealand. This thesis addresses this deficit by developing a framework to evaluate the economics of C&D waste minimisation. An understanding gained from this research could help New Zealand develop appropriate strategies to address C&D waste issues. As the research problem is complex and wide-ranging, this study used a mixed-method approach. Semi-structured elite interviews with highly experienced construction personnel were used to identify factors affecting a C&D waste minimisation strategy. This also established the context of the economic evaluation framework. Economic modelling was subsequently employed to develop the economic evaluation framework. The framework was then applied on two case studies: 1) a development of a large education facility and 2) a refurbishment of a commercial office space. The study found that: 1. a C&D waste landfill/cleanfill charge of $150 per tonne can a) deter construction from disposing of waste; and b) force construction to rethink waste disposal 2. C&D waste minimisation can offer clients benefits including tangible returns (i.e. cost savings) and intangible potentials (i.e. increased reputation) 3. there are costs of implementing C&D waste minimisation - but benefits gained can outweigh such costs; and 4. the optimal rate of reduction for C&D waste in the non-residential projects studied was 71% - 78% Overall, this research has made a contribution to knowledge through the development of a robust economic evaluation framework. Moreover, the study has also provided an impetus for future work in C&D waste minimisation economics in New Zealand.

    View record details
  • Contradictory Heterosexuality: The Construction of Extra-relational Sexual Involvement

    Payam, Shahin

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The behaviour generally referred to as ‘infidelity’ seems to occupy a contradictory site within current Western culture – it is both widespread, yet seen as unacceptable. The un/acceptability of this act, and its social and cultural repercussions, are typically linked to dominant constructions of what constitutes appropriate relational practices and male and female heterosexuality. This behaviour has largely been argued to have adverse outcomes, such as embarrassment, emotional trauma, relationship dissolution, moral outrage, as well as jealousy related violence and homicide. Despite common acknowledgement that ‘infidelity’ can have a life changing impact, the experiences of those who have engaged in this behaviour have rarely been examined in great depth. Most research has approached the issue in reductionist and/or problematic ways that depict the repercussions as inevitable and ‘natural’. The current study is located within the critical sexualities and critical social psychology fields, and aimed to examine such extra-relational sexual involvements (ERSI) in much greater depth. This project reports on an in-depth, qualitative, exploratory, and discursive analysis of ERSI amongst heterosexuals in New Zealand. In the first study, heterosexual men’s (10 respondents) and women’s (24 respondents) experiences of engaging in ERSI was examined, via qualitative questionnaires online. The second study aimed to explore the wider social constructions of ERSI, as a broader and contextualised analysis of such practices is also greatly lacking. In order to do so, four focus group discussions were employed, consisting of two men’s (eight participants) and two women’s groups (nine participants). All of the data was analysed using a Foucauldian mode of discourse analysis, as outlined by Willig (2013) for the discipline of psychology. The discourses identified in Study One were categorised into acceptability and problematising discourses. The “acceptability” discourses included: irresistible attraction, sexual experimentation, and hierarchy of ERSI. The problematising discourses involved: moral transgression – the contradictory experience of ERSI, and ERSI as catastrophic. The social discourses outlined in Study Two included: fragility of contemporary relationships, the friend threat, norms of relationships, relationships as investments, and relationships as work. The analysis demonstrated how participants portrayed ERSI in contradictory, contested, gendered and highly moralising ways. The discourses of ERSI were heavily intertwined with heteronormative understandings of relationality and reinforced a mononormative structure as the ideal and most ‘normal’ way to engage in love/sex relationships. The men’s and women’s talk also drew on traditional gender identity norms while marginalising singlehood, as well as non-monogamies. These results have implications for constructions of masculinity, femininity, monogamy, sexuality and power relations within heterosexuality.

    View record details
  • Framework for Sentiment Classification for Morphologically Rich Languages: A Case Study for Sinhala

    Medagoda, Nishantha Priyanka Kumara

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This thesis presents a framework for sentiment analysis for morphologically rich languages. Sentiment analysis is the domain of analysing and extracting people’s emotions, feelings, expressions, attitudes and experiences expressed in texts especially, in the digital media, such as web blogs, customer reviews. The primary issue of applying the contemporary sentiment classification techniques for morphologically rich languages is the unavailability of lexical resources. That is these techniques are highly resourced intensive, and the required lexical resources are not freely available for such languages. In addition, the methods are weak in adapting to the linguistic complexities that are shown in morphologically rich languages. The thesis and the related publications represent the first ever attempt of sentiment analysis for the Sinhala language, which is said to be a highly morphologically rich language. The thesis proposed novel approaches for generating the lexical resources for sentiment classification using limited resources. The first approach examined the cross-linguistic sentiment lexicon generation by considering a sentiment lexicon for English and basic dictionary of the target morphological rich language. In the subsequent task, a sentiment lexicon was generated using the novel approach incorporating morphological features. These morphological features include affixes; prefixes and suffixes. Thirdly, a graph based method was proposed to compile a lexical resource for sentiment classification with polarity scores. The researcher investigated the classical text classification techniques for Sinhala. The thesis identified the best classification algorithm for Sinhala with dominant linguistic features. Finally, an extensive set of experiments that demonstrated the exploration of language-specific classification features for Sinhala. These language-specific features include part of speech, negation, intensifiers and shifters. We introduce and discuss rule-based approaches to incorporate negations and intensifiers. The research contributes to sentiment classification for morphologically rich languages by proposing the framework that uses limited resources to build the lexical resources and efficient algorithms to classify opinions. The achievements confirm, concerning classification accuracies, the feasibility of sentiment classification for morphologically rich languages such as Sinhala. In addition, the achieved accuracies would be benchmarks for sentiment classification for Sinhala as well as other morphologically rich languages. Based on the promising outcomes and the simplicity, the proposed framework can be applied to any morphologically rich language.

    View record details
  • An Investigation Into the Level of Fidelity Required to Model Heat Exchangers of a Heat Recovery Steam Generator

    Lim, Hanon

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Process modelling has traditionally been used in the design and development of Combined Cycle Gas Turbine power stations. In recent years it has been applied across the complete process lifecycle, from initial concept testing, through design, development, and operation. In the operation of these plants the process model may be used for offline or online applications. Offline refers to the model being solved in isolation from the plant. Such studies typically look at optimising the operation of the plant, or investigating the effect of plant modifications. Online operation means the process model is run in parallel with the actual plant, receiving measured data from the plant information system. In this role the model can be used to monitor plant performance, allowing degradation of equipment to be tracked, and maintenance scheduled accordingly. In addition, model estimations can be used to reconcile sensor data, improving knowledge about the plant and aiding troubleshooting. Combined Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT) power stations consist of a gas turbine and steam cycle, linked by a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG). The HRSG extracts heat from the gas turbines exhaust gases by boiling water for the steam cycle. This facilitated by a series of heat exchangers within the HRSG. Given the central role of heat exchangers within CCGT power stations, the performance and accuracy of heat exchanger models in the process model is of highest importance. A review of the current literature revealed two competing methods for modelling the variation in the overall heat transfer coefficient of a heat exchanger. The first utilises semi-empirical correlations developed specifically for a given heat transfer problem. The alternative method estimates the variation in the overall heat transfer coefficient with fluid conditions, by applying weights to a nominal value, usually chosen to be the design value for overall heat transfer coefficient. The weights are determined using the ratio of design condition fluid properties to those at the fluid conditions of interest, raised to some constant power. This constant is chosen based on the particular heat transfer problem. A final possibility is to assume the value of the overall heat transfer coefficient does not vary significantly from design conditions and maintain this value constant. These three methods for estimating the overall heat transfer coefficient represent three levels of modelling fidelity which can be used in heat exchanger models. To determine the level of fidelity required to for modelling HRSG operation, each method was implemented into a heat exchanger model designated the Correlation, Weighted, and Basic heat exchangers. These were then incorporated into a model of the HRSG in the Otahuhu B CCGT power station located in Auckland, New Zealand. The model was then used to simulate the operation of the HRSG at four different load points, spanning the operating range of the plant. Results from the model were then compared to measured plant data. Overall the Weighted heat exchanger model was found to be the most accurate in following the variation in heat exchanger behaviour in the actual plant, as the load was varied. The Correlation model accurately followed trends in the measure plant data, however, the results were often offset from the data due to an inaccurate estimate of the initial value for overall heat transfer coefficient. The Basic heat exchanger model was the least accurate, and was unable to follow trends in the measure plant data as the load varied. In addition the Correlation model, in general, took over ten times longer to solve than either of the other models.

    View record details
  • The Contribution of Occupation to Children’s Experience of Resilience

    Bowden, Linda

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This qualitative descriptive study explored what occupations children aged 10-13 years participate in and how participation in occupation contributes to resilience from their perspective. Little is known about what occupations contribute to resilience, and less is known from children’s perspectives. Exploring how participation in occupation contributes to resilience is important as children in Aotearoa continue to face adverse situations; resilience may help protect their development against uncertainty. The literature available on the definition of resilience was explored from a historical and contemporary perspective, as well the development of resilience in children. Occupation, and children’s participation in occupation literature was reviewed identifying a gap between participation in occupation and building resilience in children. The assumption underpinning this study is that there is a connection between engaging in occupation and building resilience in children. This study utilised a qualitative descriptive methodology to investigate the research questions “what occupations do children aged 10-13 years participate in? and how does their participation contribute to resilience?” Eight participants (four male and four female) were recruited through intermediate schools in Central and South Auckland. Individual semi structured interviews and one focus group was conducted to gather data. The interviews and focus group were audio recorded and later transcribed. A process of thematic analysis, developed by Braun and Clarke (2006) was utilised to analyse the data. Three main themes emerged from this data, they were: what resilience is, occupations children do and how those occupations contribute to resilience and thirdly; and building participation and resilience. The study revealed sophisticated descriptions of what resilience meant to the participants from their experience, which included the ideas of bouncing back and staying strong. The participants also described what occupations they participate in (using social media, listening to music, active occupations, talking with others, and creative occupations) and how these occupations connect to resilience. The participants in this study described their experience of how participation in those occupations helped them to build resilience by fostering support, letting go, experiencing distraction, and experiencing fun and happiness. Key messages from the findings in this study are that participants identify resilience as bouncing back and staying strong through challenging situations, and that participation in occupation helps to build resilience. The findings suggest that health professionals, policy makers and educators have much to learn from children. Specifically, the need for children to participate in occupations as a way to build resilience. This indicates that a more child-focussed approach is needed to incorporate the perspective of children in practice and policy development. Practitioners working with children could utilise the findings of this study by incorporating participation in occupation in social, health and education intervention plans with children, as well as using occupation based coping strategies when teaching children skills to manage challenges in life. The findings also suggest that the education of those who engage with children such as teachers and health professionals need to understand how important participation in occupation is to children, and gain insight into children’s perspectives about how resilience is developed in order to influence health and wellbeing of children.

    View record details
  • Agile Teams Roles and Responsibilities

    Kashari, Amar

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    View record details
  • Bread Winner

    Roach, Gillian

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The thesis Bread Winner is a collection of 50 poems that explores the question What do you do? Often the starting point in conversation when two people meet, this tricky question reflects the widely-held view that what we do defines us and indicates our value. The question comes pre-loaded with assumptions about the nature and definition of work as well as hierarchy, gender and status. Bread Winner explores the concept and language of work in New Zealand society, from a personal vantage point, unpicking definitions and what is valued. A major theme of the collection is the relationship between work and identity. Bread Winner has three sections: Black Ice, Napier – Taupo Rd; Breadwinners and Flax Way. The structure of the collection follows a movement from personal experience, through reflection on gender roles and societal norms, to more overtly political work. This movement reflects, and in some cases maps, both my personal journey and the development of my writing. The collection includes traditional lyric poems, alongside more open, mechanistic techniques, in a sense ‘showing its working’ as older poems rub up against more experimental forms. In the exegesis, The poet’s work, I look at how my personal journey relates to the subject matter of Bread Winner. I describe my desire to assert the value and contribution of my unpaid ‘work’ and how this contributed to my growing political awareness. I document how I experimented with the lyric form to open up my poetic practise and explore more democratic and inclusive forms. Several poems in the collection work with found texts, using deconstruction techniques that foreground the process of writing poetry and show the working. This reflects the subject matter; digging into and deconstructing the language of work, as used in the media and by bureaucracy, to look at its underpinnings. (The sources of found material for individual poems are referenced in the notes on p.70) In this context, the exegesis looks at the work of a poet and how it relates to the wider work environment. My creative work has played an important part in my personal development, helping me forge a sense of myself as an individual. However, writers and other creative workers face a precarious and changing work environment. As with my experience in traditional caring roles, the ongoing work of writers (and other creative workers) is largely invisible unless it attracts an income or other external measures of success. Artists must adapt to the demands of the market to earn an income, limiting their ability to challenge the status quo, innovate or experiment with new forms, and advantaging those with independent financial support/privilege. The collection Bread Winner explores the precarity and instability of the modern work environment; the tidal shifts between tradition and new ways of doing things, threats and opportunities, and the tension between the need to present a public, commodified self and the depth and darkness required for creative work. It aims to expand and open out the idea of work — leaving space for the reader to “come towards” meaning, bringing their own understanding of the question ‘what do you do?’

    View record details
  • Sustainable Management Strategies: Thailand’s Sustainable Plastic-management Leading the Thai Plastic Industry Towards Becoming a Bio-plastic Hub

    Sirirat, Puttida

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Plastic pollution is a major environmental problem in the world, and Thailand is one of many countries faced with increasing plastic and foam waste problems. Plastic pollution affects canals, rivers and beaches, and the health of sea creatures and wild animals who eat plastic bags. The popular solutions for this plastic problem are reducing, reusing and recycling; however, the Thai government focuses on a different solution: replacing the problematic product (plastic) with bio-plastic. This research analyses the project initiated by the Thai government which aims to facilitate relevant public and private sector agencies, working together to push the Thai plastic industry towards becoming a bio-plastic hub. The government has chosen replacing because the development of bio-plastic contributes not just to environmental objectives, but also to economic, technological and social goals. The research undertakes a thorough review of critical literature in order to assess the challenges and barriers likely to face this project. The research also aims to find out how the strategies of the project in all three phases can address the challenges and barriers encountered.

    View record details
  • Modelling Step Discontinuous Functions Using Bayesian Emulation

    Anderson, James Mark

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Bayesian emulation is used in modelling complex simulators and is seen as an efficient and powerful statistical tool. The simulations can be very time-consuming to run, resulting in only being able to run the simulator a limited number of times. From the literature, it is has been suggested that the emulator is best suited for continuous functions; however, it is very common to find physical problems containing discontinuities. These discontinuities' positions may also be unknown and therefore, for this research, information on where the discontinuities will be withheld from the emulator. This thesis focuses on emulating the Heaviside function as one simple function containing step-discontinuities and then progresses to slightly more complex functions with step-discontinuities. Specific goodness-of-fit measure have been designed to highlight and measure the emulator when applied to theses step-discontinuous, such as mean squared error and a simple design of Jaccard index. The numerical calculations of the goodness-of-fit techniques are carried out in the R statistical programming language, with the BACCO package for the emulator. It is found that the emulator is able to model discontinuous functions to some degree but, unless there is certainty about the discontinuities' locations, care should be taken when using Bayesian emulation to model discontinuous functions.

    View record details
  • Test of an insurance approach to the prevention of violence.

    Bridgman, Geoffrey; Dyer, E.; O'Hagan, A.; McCarthy., M (2017-05-10T05:36:56Z)

    Conference item
    Unitec

    The New Zealand Accident Compensation Corporation (ACC) pays compensation to everyone who is disabled temporarily or permanently by accidents. Accidents include intentional violence received from another person and the costs of such “accidents” run into billions of dollars. ACC is seeking to reduce its liability in this area by funding programmes that that prevent violence. One such programme is Jade Speaks Up a violence prevention programme targeted at 8 to 11 year olds and which over a 6-week period teaches children how to keep themselves safe. This paper describes the programme and the outcomes from the first school in which the programme has been delivered, and shows excerpts from the animated video that is centre-piece of the programme ACC is funding a trial of this programme which will be delivered to nine intermediate level schools involving 1250 children and over 40 teachers. The evaluation involves both experimental and control groups, pre- and post-tests, a six-month follow-up and a switch of the control group to the experimental condition at the beginning of the subsequent term. The evaluation includes two standardised tests of child well being (the Center for Epidemiologic Studies’ Depression Scale for Children, Weissman, Orvaschel, & Padian, 1980; and the Child Outcomes Rating Scale, Duncan, Miller & Sparks, 2003). and measures of learning, practice and programme engagement. Teachers as well as students are participants. Preliminary results show that children on the Jade Speaks Up programme make significant gains at post-test in the well being tests compared to pre-test and compared to the control group The children overwhelmingly felt the programme was interesting, useful and fun. Teachers were also positive about the programme. Still to come is the 6-month follow-up where we will be able to see whether the skills and knowledge taught have been used and the well-being gains sustained.

    View record details
  • Perceptions of community safety in West Auckland and white fragility.

    Bridgman, Geoffrey (2017-05-10T05:36:56Z)

    Conference item
    Unitec

    Unitec and Community Waitakere have recently completed a Lottery’s Foundation funded project looking at the contemporary issues affecting the perceptions of safety in West Auckland communities. A review of eight recent surveys or research reports between 2012 and 2016 into community safety in West Auckland show that the negative perceptions we have about the safety of our community and the people who are part of it, have more impact than the actual amount of crime that is reported in our community. Responses to questionnaires to 159 people covering the age-span, female and male gender, Pākehā/European, Māori, Pacific Island and Asian/other cultures showed that despite a clear fall in reported crime rates in West Auckland people generally believed that crime had increased and was worse than in the rest of Auckland. On a number of different measures, the Pākehā/European participants were significantly more concerned about personal safety and crime that the other communities who did the questionnaire. The Pākehā/European participants were significantly more likely than the other groups to want more police patrols and a get tough on crime approach and were significantly less interested in a collaborative neighbour to neighbour community development approach. The data suggests that perceptions of safety in the community are influenced by culture and that one or more cultures are likely to be seen as the problem by the dominant culture. This raises the issue of the role white privilege (McIntosh, 1988) and, particularly, white fragility (DiAngelo, 2010) in addressing community safety. White fragility explores the challenges of over-reactive white sensitivity to suggestions that their position of privilege might impact on the well-being of people of other cultures

    View record details
  • Sponge city : bring nature to the Chinese citiy

    Bradbury, Matthew; Wang, Xinxin; Zhu., K (2017-05-10T05:37:02Z)

    Conference item
    Unitec

    通过四个项目:二个位于新西兰奥克兰,两 个位于中国,探索了当代城市防洪的方法。 这四个项目的分析均采用业内常用的方法: 汇水区分析、GIS分析和建设模式分析。但这几种 方法的综合运用产生了独特的削减和处理雨洪的 效果。 城市导致洪水加剧已成为共识,减缓城市洪 水的方法亦广为人知。绿色屋顶、雨水花园、植 草沟、湿地等均为在城区内削减洪水的方法。 但是这些对城市本身的设计有什么影响?传 统的城市由密集的建筑和基础设施组成。新城的 规划通常延续传统城市模式,由格网状的道路和 不同性质的用地组成。而原本的景观:地形地貌、 水文格局、本土植被区,往往被新城规划所覆盖 或破坏。 其结果为传统的水文格局被打断,原有溪涧 和河流被管道或沟渠所取代。由于城市铺装取代 自然地貌,土地丧失了吸收雨水的能力,雨水被 污染并沿地表径流,导致洪涝灾害频发。 These five projects; three in Auckland New Zealand, and two in PR China, explore the ways in which we might to prevent flooding in the contemporary city. The four projects employ well-known strategies; catchment planning, GIS analysis and real estate modelling. They are however deployed in a unique combination to [...] The role that cities have in exacerbating flooding is well known, as are the methods for alleviating this problem. Green roofs, rain gardens, swales, wetlands, these are all measures that reduce flooding in highly urbanised areas. But what about the design of the city itself? Traditional cities are densely built with buildings and infrastructure. New city plans also follow traditional city plans, a road grid with different zoning areas. The underlying landscape; the topography hydrological patterns, areas of indigenous vegetation, are covered up or destroyed by the new city plan. The result is traditional hydrological patterns are disturbed, existing streams and rivers are piped or culvert. With the paving over of farms, the land losses the ability to absorb rainwater, polluted stormwater is created from the run off with an increase of flooding

    View record details
  • Measuring resident support and the use of referenda for hosting a Commonwealth Games in Auckland

    Johnston, Mel (2017-05-10T05:36:55Z)

    Conference item
    Unitec

    The use of public funds to host major sport events is a contentious issue that all major cities face. It is expensive to host a major sport event, and the benefits, or lack of, associated with hosting have been widely researched and reported (Kim, Jun, Walker & Drane, 2015; Kim & Petrick, 2005; Ochman, 2013). Therefore, the decision on whether a city should bid to host a major sport event is of critical importance for both the cities elected officials, event owners and organisers, as well as the local community. Community support is considered an essential part of planning an operating a successful event. The perceived social, economic and environmental impact of hosting a major sport event on the local community is commonly used as a method to understand community support for an event. In addition, it is becoming increasingly common for cities to hold a referendum as a method to gauge community support for a major sport event, and as a result decide if the city should submit a bid to host. Competition between major cities for hosting major sport events is becoming increasingly strong. However, Auckland is known as a desirable location to host such events, having recently hosted successfully the 2011 Rugby World Cup, and the FIFA U-20 World Cup and Cricket World Cup in 2015. The possibility of Auckland hosting a future Commonwealth Games provides an ideal context to investigate factors affecting community support for the event, and local resident interest in an eventrelated referendum. A mixed-method approach will be taken to achieve the study’s purpose. The quantitative phase of the research will be a cross-sectional study of local residents in Auckland. To make the results relevant to real world decisions, a representative sample of participants will be surveyed through the use of online market research panels. This phase would measure the perceived social, environmental and economic impact of a future Auckland Commonwealth Games. In addition, this phase would also ask local residents three key questions: 1) Should there be a referendum?, 2) Would you participate in the referendum?, 3) How would you vote in the referendum? Scales with established validity and reliability will underpin the survey. The survey will be designed so that it can be easily replicated in future years to determine if support is changing or applied to other events or stadium developments. The qualitative phase of the research will be semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders that would be involved in a bid to host the Commonwealth Games in Auckland. Interview questions will be formulated based on the results from the crosssectional study of local residents. Data from the interviews will be analysed using thematic analysis.

    View record details
  • Reducing codebook loss with reconfigurable receive antennas

    Afsheen, U.; Smith, P.J.; Martin, P.A. (2016)

    Journal article
    University of Canterbury Library

    In this study, a reconfigurable antenna codebook feedback (FB) scheme is investigated to reduce precoding codebook loss without increasing the number of FB bits. Analysis and simulations show that increasing the number of receive antenna states (S) has the same effect as codebook size expansion when the codeword and state selection is based on minimising the distance between channel and codeword. In addition, the authors propose an optimum selection approach. The signal to noise ratio (SNR) and rates achieved with perfect FB in a traditional nonreconfigurable antenna system, can be exceeded with only S = 2, using the proposed optimum selection. In fact doubling S gives an approximate SNR gain of 40% compared with S = 1. The authors also consider the effects of channel estimation errors and correlated antenna states. The authors show that the performance losses due to correlation can be quantified with a simple closed form result.

    View record details
  • Effects of sheep grazing exclusion on alpine tall tussock grassland

    Norton, D.A.; Young, L.M. (2016)

    Journal article
    University of Canterbury Library

    Substantial areas of alpine tall tussock grasslands are being retired from grazing as part of Crown pastoral lease tenure review because of the perceived negative impact of grazing livestock. However, relatively little is known about the effect of sheep exclusion on these grasslands. We analysed data from five grazing exclosure plots over a 6-year period to examine the effect merino sheep have relative to hares and rabbits in alpine tall tussock grasslands used for summer grazing. Unfortunately, because of snow damage to fences, we were unable to detect any significant hare and rabbit effects. Over the time of this study, there was no evidence for significant vegetation recovery after exclusion of sheep grazing. This may be because of other grazing animals in the system, or the low stocking rates and non-random grazing behaviour of merino ewes. There was, however, a significant increase in the cover of exotic herbs Pilosella officinarum and P. praealta and a significant decrease in the cover of native tussocks Festuca novae-zelandiae and Poa colensoi regardless of grazing exclusion. While this pattern has been previously documented in studies at lower elevations and usually with a history of burning, our results demonstrate that alpine grasslands with no burning history can also be invaded by Pilosella spp. over relatively short time frames. Replicated grazing exclosure trials such as the one described in this paper are important for providing objective information on both long-term trends in vegetation composition and the impacts of grazing animals in alpine grasslands as a basis for making informed decisions on their future management.

    View record details
  • Evolution and dynamics of a monogenetic volcanic complex in the southern Hopi Buttes Volcanic Field (AZ, US): magma diversion and fragmentation processes at the Jagged Rocks Complex

    Re, Giuseppe (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Many populated areas in the world (e.g., Flagstaff, AZ; Auckland, NZ; Mexico City, MEX) lie within active monogenetic volcanic fields that typically contain small volcanic cones and explosive maar craters formed over the course of a single eruptive cycle. Although much work has focused on the eruptive behaviour of monogenetic volcanoes, little geological information exists about their subsurface development and how the movement of magma through Earth’s shallow crust modulates the location and style of hazardous volcanic eruptions. Determination of the dynamics of magma intrusion and the transition from a coherent magma's ascent to its explosive fragmentation is crucial to our understanding of the controls on explosive versus effusive eruptive behaviour, thus to better evaluation of risks in a certain area. This study aims to determine the processes and relative timing of activity that took place below the ground surface of the deeply-eroded but well-preserved Jagged Rocks Complex, a cluster of monogenetic volcanoes within the Miocene Hopi Buttes Volcanic Field in northeastern Arizona, by combining detailed structural mapping, volcanological observation, paleomagnetic and geochemical analysis. The Jagged Rocks Complex, exposed at ~ 350 m below the pre-eruptive surface, comprises a well-preserved intrusive network, including dikes, sills and inclined sheets, associated with different type of fragmental bodies including buds, pyroclastic massifs and a diatreme, that represent different extents of shallow-depth fragmentation. These exposures at the Jagged Rocks Complex provide an excellent natural laboratory for examining the subsurface record of volcano initiation, and for constraining interpretations of processes controlling upward migration of magma from intrusion to eruption. This multidisciplinary approach allows an investigation at different levels from the source region to the surface, and aims to shed the light on the processes that regulate eruptions not only within monogenetic volcanic fields but also within small basaltic volcanoes in general.

    View record details