82,496 results

  • On the mechanisms of effort encoding in the rodent hippocampus and anterior cingulate cortex

    Porter, Blake (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Spatial cognition plays a vital role in helping an organism respond to its environment, and thus survive. An often overlooked element of spatial cognition is the energetic costs of different routes. Most studies to date have investigated spatial cognition by using small, flat mazes which are not necessarily reflective of natural environments. Natural environments can have difficult, uneven terrain where an organism must consider the energy demands of different routes. Currently, how the brain represents difficult terrain is not well understood. The principal aim of this thesis was to build upon the field of spatial cognition and investigate how effort affects the neural underpinnings of spatial cognition in energetically demanding environments. To this end, neural activity was recorded from rat brain regions previously found to be important to spatial cognition (hippocampus) and the encoding of physical effort (anterior cingulate). As rats travelled in energetically demanding scenarios, single cell and population activity was recorded. Communication between regions was investigated through their interactions in the theta rhythm, a neural oscillation known to facilitate long distance communication in the brain. The hippocampus has been shown to play a vital role in spatial cognition and navigation. It is theorised that the hippocampus contributes to the formation of cognitive maps of environments which aid in navigation. However, little is known about how the hippocampus encodes energetically demanding environments. By having rats run on different terrain slopes, here it was found that effort can have an organising effect on hippocampal cell ensembles. Situations which are similar in their energetic demands are represented by similar ensemble activity. In contrast, experiences which differ in effort are represented by disparate ensembles. These findings help elucidate how neural systems store and organise memories of effortful experiences. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is capable of encoding the effort associated with behaviours. Specifically, the ACC evaluates the benefits and energetic costs of a route and biases an organism’s behaviour in favour of routes which have the highest value. However, it is not well understood how the ACC encodes effort and value when only one route is available. Here it was found that ACC neurons will encode the net value of rewards when a rat is foraging in a non-choice paradigm. These results demonstrate that the ACC may be continually assessing behaviours in order to learn their values, which would help an organism maximise the value of its environment. The hippocampus and ACC have been previously found to work together in spatial cognition tasks. Here it was hypothesised that the hippocampus and ACC would alter their communication when an environment became energetically demanding. However, it was found that effort did not alter the communication patterns between the hippocampus and ACC. Thus, there may be other means of communication that these two regions use to represent and evaluate energetically demanding scenarios. Lastly, the roles of the hippocampus and ACC are considered here in the context of ecological psychology. The importance of the environment when investigating neural systems is discussed.

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  • Regulation of MET Alternative Splicing

    Goodin, Elizabeth Anne (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    The way in which a gene transcript is processed has a wide impact on protein translation. Alternative splicing, in particular, is under tight regulation and deviations from this can result in disease. The thesis presented here illustrates this concept in the tyrosine kinase receptor MET of which the gene’s 14th exon is alternatively spliced. In recent years, disruption of alternative splice modulation has been highlighted as an important causative factor in disease. Aberrant MET exon 14 splicing has been indicated as a driver in particular forms of lung cancer as well as in osteofibrous dysplasia (OFD), a disease of the bone. I sought to reveal and better understand the regulatory mechanisms underlying this differential splicing event. In order to gain a better understanding of MET exon 14’s splice patterns in normal physiology, I characterised patterns of skipped and unskipped MET transcripts in a range of undiseased model organisms and samples, revealing finely-tuned spatio-temporal splicing patterns. MET exon 14 comprises very weak splice site sequences, which would usually result in high skipping rates. Despite this, exon 14 has a remarkably high inclusion in normal adult tissues. This indicates that there are auxiliary regulatory elements, other than the splice site sequencess, which support exon 14 inclusion. Based on this premise, I carried out a number of experiments in an attempt to identify different cis and trans factors which may have a role in regulation. Firstly, a comprehensive search of the literature for reported variants associated with exon 14 skipping resulted in the identification of a putative cis regulatory region. This 36 base pair area was subsequently confirmed as a crucial enhancer element for MET exon 14 splice inclusion by using hybridising antisense oligonucleotides which competively bound the mRNA reigon and thus inhibited cis-mediated regulation at this specific area. Secondly, I searched for factors which bind at the mRNA as trans-acting splicing enhancers or suppressor and identified a primary candidate: TRA2β. In vitro knockdown experiments to assess effects on exon 14 skipping gave no conclusive evidence, however further tests should be carried out to fully assess its effect. Thirdly, analyses were carried out to assess effect of local and global methylation on exon 14 splicing. Publicly available data revealed differential local methylation profiles at specific CpG methylation sites within and adjacent to MET exon 14 and I was able to correlate these to observed skipping patterns. No correlation was identified between global hypomethylation and skipping in this study, however further investigation is warranted. Overall, results from this research show that the alternative splicing at MET exon 14 is regulated according to a complex spatio-temporal pattern and disruption of this results in disease. Importantly, the previous discovery of germ line mutations that result in constitutive MET exon 14 skipping in OFD has highlighted an important role for splice event in bone development, maintenance and repair. Better understanding of this will develop as further research in this alternative splice regulation continues.

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  • The damage zone of New Zealand's Alpine Fault

    Williams, Jack Nicholas (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    The dynamic propagation of an earthquake rupture will generate inelastic deformation within its surrounding medium, culminating in the development of a fault damage zone. These are heavily fractured volumes of rock that flank the fault core, where the majority of displacement has been accommodated. Using the example of the Alpine Fault, I assess the mechanical and chemical processes associated with fault damage, which strongly condition the short and long term evolution of a fault. Approximately 70% of the oblique-dextral motion between the Australian and Pacific plates on the South Island of New Zealand is localised onto the Alpine Fault. A continuous record of its damage zone extending <25 m of the PSZs. A combination of fluid over-pressures and unhealed damage elsewhere permit a Low Velocity Zone around the Alpine Fault.

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  • The key components of cancer nurse coordination: An integrative review

    Kerr, Christine (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    With one in three New Zealanders experiencing a diagnosis of cancer during their lifetime, the New Zealand (NZ) national health care system plays a pivotal role in providing services to ensure optimal health outcomes for people diagnosed with this disease. In 2003 the NZ Cancer Control Strategy (NZCCS) set overall aims and objectives for improving care and reducing inequalities, and as one of many programmes driven by the strategy, the Cancer Nurse Coordinator Initiative (CNCI) was launched in 2013. The aim of this initiative is to practically support individuals and targeted populations who may otherwise experience barriers to accessing timely cancer care, and to provide this support the Cancer Nurse Coordinator (CNC) role was created. The CNC role is an advanced practice nursing specialty that is new to NZ, which resulted in a level of confusion and uncertainty regarding the concept and components of the role. The objectives of this dissertation were to identify common key components associated with care coordination services for cancer patients provided by nurses, and compare these with the NZ CNCI. An integrative review of international literature was performed to examine the topic. In order to best compare international practice to the NZ situation, inclusion and exclusion criteria were created that were in line with the current parameters of service for the CNCI; that is newly diagnosed adults with cancer, who were not receiving palliative care. Three synthesised findings were found, these focused on: the care given to the patient, interactions with health professionals and the system surrounding the patient, and the characteristics surrounding the role of the nurse. The findings from the integrative review were examined further and compared to the 2015 evaluation of the NZ CNCI programme. It was found that the key components of cancer care coordination as demonstrated by the CNC of NZ correlate with those articulated in the international literature for similar nursing roles.

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  • Pilot : navigating personhood within science fiction : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Design in Illustration at Massey University, Wellington, New Zealand

    Moore, Bo (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Representations of the 'other' in media often exist only to further the narratives of the 'dominant' for the benefit of an assumedly-dominant audience, and are otherwise unseen or misrepresented. This results in the other being denied genuine reflections of themselves at a social and cultural level (Diaz as cited in Donahue, 2009). Through visual analysis and design, this research explores the nature of the term personhood - defined as character and qualities regarding who can be a ‘person’ - through media representations of both the human other and the fictional alien other. The alien within science fiction is visible as a reaction to our very human history of colonialism (Diaz, 2014) and in particular to the categorization of the human and non-human other. The resulting characterisation, relationships and narratives of the alien become limited by its adherence or lack thereof to the features of the dominant human. This manifests in how personhood is ascribed in media (according to gender performance, sexuality, race, physicality and other categories) to both aliens and their real-life reflection, the human other. Pilot culminates in an interactive intervention blending film, game and literature within a two-player character-driven narrative that discusses settler-colonialism, relationships and personhood through the lens of both the alien and the human other.

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  • Response of kiwi to a range of baits and lures used for pest control in New Zealand : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Ecology at Massey University

    Ward-Smith, Tamsin Elizabeth (1998)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The primary aim of this thesis was to assess the palatability to North Island brown kiwi (Apteryx australis mantelli) of a range of non-toxic baits and flavours used to lure baits. During the wild bait trials incubation patterns of nesting male kiwi, chick behaviour and the presence of predators at the nesting burrow were recorded. A new 'improved' ground laid 1080 paste was also tested on a range of non-target bird species. All ten captive kiwi fed at least once on at least one bait type (i.e. carrot, No.7, RS5, apple pulp, and paste) but did not prefer any to their usual artificial diet. Wild kiwi did not feed on any bait type placed outside the nest entrance, but may have ingested apple pulp, or paste when they probed these baits. Results indicate that cereal-based baits are the safest bait type to sow aerially in kiwi habitat, while apple pulp baits are highly acceptable to kiwi. Cinnamon, aniseed, orange and clove flavours did not significantly attract or deter captive kiwi from feeding on portions of their usual diet. Insufficient flavoured cereal No.7 baits were eaten to determine whether any bait and flavour combination affected kiwi response to these baits. No wild kiwi fed on any cinnamon or orange flavoured No.7 cereal baits placed outside the nesting burrow, but kiwi did probe these baits. Incubating male kiwi left the nest once each night, except for two kiwi which sometimes left the nest twice in a night. One of these sometimes made three trips from the nest in a night. The active period of kiwi did not appear to be influenced by the number of times they emerged in a night. Male kiwi tended to spend less time away from the nest when chicks were due to hatch, following which they increased the time spent away. Possums, rats and mice regularly visited kiwi nests, but did not deter males from incubating, or harm kiwi eggs or chicks. Five species - robin, saddleback, blackbird, pukeko and weka, fed on a non-toxic cinnamon-lured form of 1080 paste. Species other than those mentioned rarely landed on the ground and therefore encountered paste infrequently. Captive weka found the paste highly palatable, while 24% of robins and possibly half of a pukeko family fed on the paste. All bird visits to the paste baits declined after the first day of exposure. Recommendations are made on the safe laying of paste baits in areas where robin, saddleback, weka or pukeko are present.

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  • Response of cow's milk composition to changes in environmental temperature : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Agricultural Science at Massey University

    Bandaranayaka, Dennister Dias (1971)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The need for greater production of animal proteins in the developing countries stems from two factors. Protein deficiency among growing populations due to a wide gap between production and consumption and the continuing demand for the conventional proteins despite the availability of synthetic substitutes French 1970. Studies with regard to the nutritional properties of dairy products Henry 1957; McGillivray and Porter 1960. McGillivray and Gregory 1962 showed that the (protein) fraction of milk was well balanced in the essential amino acids enchancing their nutritive value. Milk production at the desired levels has not been possible in humid and arid regions of the world due to a variety of technical problems chief of which have been the choice of dairy breeds and the availability of good quality pasture, Payne 1957. Cattle breeds indigenous to these regions are poor milk producers. They are slow developing, late maturing animals with short lactatious, long dry periods and poor milk let down; factors which probably contribute to their higher heat tolerance, a character incompatible with high milk yields Mahadevan and Marples 1961. In the United States of America Red Sindhi and Brahman breeds were used in cross breeding programmes aimed at evolving a heat tolerant high producing dairy breed for the gulf coast areas. The first generation Jersey Sindhi and Jersey Brahman crosses not only produced less milk than their contemporary pure Jerseys, but also lacked persistency and a suitable dairy temperament; which were in fact heritable. Brandon McDowell and Brown 1966. These observations do not preclude however the advantages of cross breeding for higher milk production in the tropics Legates 1966; Salazar 1968. Although early ventures using temperate breeds of cattle for milk production in the tropics have shown results of a disappointing nature Payne 1957, given near temperate conditions found in tropical uplands these breeds could respond well. Trail 1968; Yung Chen Chia 1966.

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  • Exploring parents' perceptions of support for children with special learning needs in three regular primary classrooms : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Educational Psychology at Massey University, Manawatu, New Zealand

    Reilly, Jessica L (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The Ongoing Resourcing Scheme (ORS) is a funding provision with access to specialists, additional teachers and teacher aides to support inclusion for children with high or very high learning and adaptive needs. This study used a qualitative methodology to explore the perceptions of five parents about the supports received through the ORS funding scheme including its strengths and limitations. The study was conducted in three different regular primary schools in the Central North region of New Zealand. The main themes identified were related to the nature and extent of support by the professional teams and the process of obtaining ORS funding with a clear message for more transparency. The study suggests that the efficacy of the teacher aide role, how the ORS funding is managed and the importance of transparency are all areas for further research.

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  • Into the arms of my coloniser : re-imagining myself and the other : an exegesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Fine Arts at Massey University, Wellington, New Zealand

    Ulutupu, Christopher (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Postcolonialism is not a subject I have chosen to explore, rather, it is a reality that I have been born into. As a Samoan New Zealander I find myself automatically designated the position of ‘other’, and my image perpetually projected through the lens of the dominant culture. This exegesis seeks to explore various points of view (including my own) as a way of challenging those projections. My approach is autobiographical, examining Edouard Glissant’s ‘multiples’ as they exist within me, and locating a video art space for those different voices to materialise. Into The Arms Of My Coloniser: Re-­‐imagining Myself and The Other is a study into disestablishing the binary that defines myself as in opposition to the dominant culture. Through video and performance I occupy the space described by Alison Jenkins and Kuni Jones as the “indigene-­‐coloniser hyphen” (2008), a space that allows for cultural distinctions but also acknowledges the interwoven nature of the relationship between indigenous cultures and their colonisers.

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  • Effects of carbon dioxide addition on algae and treatment performance of high rate algal ponds : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements of the degree of Master of Engineering in Environmental Engineering at Massey University

    Heubeck, Stephan (2006)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Waste stabilisation ponds have been used for treating a great variety of wastewaters around the world for many decades. More advanced systems combine anaerobic or advanced facultative ponds with high rate algal ponds (HRAP) followed by a number of algae settling ponds and maturation ponds to achieve enhanced and more reliable removal of wastewater pollutants, while yielding possibly valuable by-products such as biogas and algal biomass. In recent years a growing number of scientists and engineers have proposed the use of HRAP treating domestic wastewater for carbon dioxide (CO2) scrubbing from biogas and CO2 sequestration. The experiments presented in this thesis sought to determine if the treatment performance of HRAP is affected by the addition of CO2 and subsequent reduction of pond pH. Experiments with algae cultures grown on domestic wastewater in laboratory microcosms, outside mesocosms and outside pilot-scale HRAP were conducted. Carbon dioxide addition to algae wastewater cultures restricted the maximum pH level to ~8. Key wastewater quality parameters of CO2 added cultures, were compared to control cultures without CO2 addition. The wastewater quality parameters monitored include temperature, pH, and concentrations of total suspended solids (TSS), ammoniacal-nitrogen (NH4-N), dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP), filtered biochemical oxygen demand (fBOD5) and the faecal indicator Escherichia coli (E. coli). Carbon dioxide addition to algae wastewater cultures was found to promote algal growth and increased the TSS concentrations. Over 8 day culture length CO2 addition in laboratory and outside batch experiments increased algal growth (indicated by TSS) by up to 76% and 53%, respectively. During semi-continuous outside experiments CO2 addition increased algal growth by ~20% in comparison to the control cultures. Despite enhancing algal growth (TSS), CO2 addition appeared to have little effect on algae cell morphology, species composition and zooplankton activity in the algae wastewater cultures. Monitoring of the key nutrients NH4-N and DRP in cultures with and without CO2 addition indicated that CO2 addition can lead to an increase or a decrease in nutrient removal. Under culture conditions which allowed the control cultures to achieve high day-time pH levels CO2 addition, and subsequent pH restriction, appeared to reduce overall nutrient removal. Only slight changes or an increase in nutrient removal as a result of CO2 addition were observed under culture conditions which allowed only for a moderate or small elevation of the control culture pH. However, the increases in algal biomass, observed in all CO2 added cultures indicate a greater potential for the reclamation of potentially valuable wastewater nutrients in the form of algal biomass. Monitoring of fBOD5 levels during several outside experiments showed that CO2 addition had no effect on the fBOD5 removal by the algae wastewater cultures under those conditions. During several outside batch experiments (of up to 8 day culture length) the removal of the faecal indicator bacteria E. coli was monitored. It was shown that CO2 addition reduced E. coli removal by 1.4 to 4.9 log units compared to control cultures. Basic modelling of carbon flows indicated that under New Zealand conditions the CO2 volumes required for the changes described above would be available from the biogas produced in a wastewater pond system treating wastewater with a volatile solids (VS) concentration of ~ 500 mg/L. In systems treating weaker wastewaters additional CO2 could be made available through the onsite combustion of biogas. In summary, the obtained results suggest that CO2 addition to a field-scale HRAP could increase algal biomass growth year-round and slightly enhance nutrient removal during winter, but might reduce nutrient removal during summer, and reduce E. coli removal year-round, while having no effect on fBOD5 removal. The reduction in nutrient treatment performance during summer, and especially the losses in E. coli removal resulting form CO2 addition may require more sophisticated downstream processing of the HRAP effluent, like increase retention times in maturation ponds. Such remedial measures have to be evaluated on a case by case basis, and are dependent on the given regulations and discharge regimes of the system. This study indicates that in general HRAP can be employed for biogas purification and provide a useful sink for CO2 rich waste streams. The beneficial effects of CO2 addition to HRAP do not appear to allow for any design or management changes within the system, while it was indicated that most detrimental effects of CO2 addition could be accommodated without major alternations, although in some cases significant remedial measures may be required for correcting the losses in disinfection and nutrient removal performance.

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  • Loading the image : a critical and creative thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Creative Writing, Massey University, Manawatū, New Zealand

    Moores, Margaret Ruth (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This Master of Creative Writing research project consists of a collection of lyric and prose poems, Sea Glass, and an accompanying exegesis, “Loading the Image.” These works were written to explore the creative and critical opportunities inherent in a photograph album. Both exegesis and poetry collection reflect my research into the ways in which the contents, form and meaning of a personal, family photograph album could be represented in a series of auto/biographical and ekphrastic poems. Specifically, I asked how an emotional response to certain kinds of photographs could be reflected in poetry and how a sequence of such poems could be ordered in a collection so that the experience of reading the poems resembles the experience of viewing an album. The poetry collection accounts for 70% of the thesis and the exegesis for 30%. The exegesis investigates photographs and albums within two contexts which are in turn reflected in the collection in individual poems and in the sequencing of the whole. The first context is concerned with the concepts of punctum, studium and that-has-been described by Roland Barthes in Camera Lucida. These concepts, and my reading of other theorists interested in the relationship of the photograph to its subject and how this relationship is perceived by a viewer, suggested analogies between photographs and lyric poetry. Parallels between the experience of looking at a photograph and reading or writing a poem about a photograph are explored in the exegesis most specifically through an analysis of Ted Hughes’ poem “Six Young Men” and, in the creative component, through the lyric and ekphrastic poems I wrote for inclusion in Sea Glass. The second context is concerned with photographs and photograph albums as instruments of social history. Here, critical writing from authors Annette Kuhn and Martha Langford on how albums and their contents provide connections with the past through memory-making offers insights into the use of photographs for life writing. These insights are explored in the exegesis in reference to selected poems from Lyn Hejinian and Kerry Hines and in Sea Glass though auto/biographical poetry and in the sequencing of the collection. My research into theoretical responses to photographs and albums inspired me to develop a creative project for which I wrote a series of poems to represent individual photographs and the experience of viewing them in the context of my family album. These poems include ekphrasis of the photographs as well as prose and found poems which are meditations or commentary by a speaker who represents a present-day viewer of the photographs. My reading of Barthes, and in particular his insights into how a photograph might evoke an emotional response from a viewer, encouraged me to consider how ekphrasis of a photograph could itself evoke such a response. The collection is structured so that it reflects the way in which the implied author of the poems comes to understand the contents of the album. Here, Langford’s discussion of the role of a domestic photograph album in the recitation of family stories suggested how Sea Glass could be sequenced to tell the family story contained within the poems. By drawing on these contexts I aimed to replicate the visual story-telling capabilities of an album in a poetry collection where poems represent the photographs.

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  • Performance improvements to the 802.11 wireless network medium access control sub-layer : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Engineering in Computer Systems Engineering at Massey University

    Morrison, Michael Philip (2005)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis presents the outcome into the research and development of improvements to the 802.11 wireless networking medium access control (MAC) sublayer. The main products of the research are three types of improvement that increase the efficiency and throughput of the 802.11 protocol. Beginning with an overview of the original 802.11 physical layer and MAC sub-layer standard, the introductory chapters then cover the many supplements to the original standard (including a brief on the future 802.11n supplement). The current state of the 802.11 MAC sub-layer is presented along with an assessment of the realistic performance available from 802.11. Lastly, the motivations for improving the MAC sub-layer are explained along with a summary of existing research into this area. The main improvement presented within the thesis is that of packet aggregation. The operation of aggregation is explained in detail, along with the reasons for the significant available throughput increase to 802.11 from aggregation. Aggregation is then developed to produce even higher throughput, and to be a more robust mechanism. Additionally, aggregation is formally described in the form of an update to the existing 802.11 standard. Following this, two more improvements are shown that can be used either with or without the aggregation mechanism. Stored frame headers are designed to reduce repetition of control data, and combined acknowledgements are an expansion of the block acknowledgement system introduced in the 802.11e supplement. This is followed by a description of the simulation environment used to test the three improvements presented, such as the settings used and metrics created. The results of the simulations of the improvements are presented along with the discussion. The developments to the basic improvements are also simulated and discussed in the same way. Finally, conclusions about the improvements detailed and the results shown in the simulations are drawn. Also at the end of the thesis, the possible future direction of research into the improvements is given, as well as the aspects and issues of implementing aggregation on a personal computer based platform.

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  • EHRs at King Fahad Specialist Hospital : an overview of professionals' perspectives on the use of biometric patient identification for privacy and confidentiality, taking into consideration culture and religion : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements of the degree of Master in Information Science, Massey University, Albany, Auckland, New Zealand

    Khwaji, Adel Abdulrahman (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is focused on expanding use of biometric technologies and it is a matter of time before this expansion includes medical institutions. However there is a lack of research on Electronic Health Records (EHRs) in Saudi Arabian hospitals, especially on the staff views and attitudes in relation to confidentiality, privacy, and security policies in the context of Saudi society, which is governed largely by culture and Islam. This research utilised an online survey tool to ask doctors, managers, and IT professionals, at the King Fahad Specialist Hospital (KFSH) about these aspects and explored if they recommend the classic non-biometric access method over the rather intrusive, yet more advanced, biometric patient identification (BPI) technology. Encouragingly, all the participants recommended BPI methods with the least favoured method being the facial recognition method for Saudi female patients. This study also focused on whether staff believed that religious and cultural issues influence EHR privacy and confidentiality, as the literature showed that in certain cases unauthorised revelation of an EHR could lead to honorary killing of the patient. Implications of this research include the need for comprehensive staff training on being culturally aware, as well as training on EHR security policy, privacy, and confidentiality.

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  • Henri Lefebvre on education: Critique and pedagogy

    Middleton, Sue (2016)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    The ‘spatial turn’ in education policy studies fuelled interest in Lefebvre’s work: initially, in his work Production of Space and, more recently, Rhythmanalysis and Right to the City. Yet, although in these texts Lefebvre critiques universities and schools and introduces original pedagogical concepts, their educational strands have attracted little attention. Lefebvre’s other works available in English have been largely overlooked in education literature. As France’s first Professor of Sociology, Lefebvre was passionately engaged with education: in particular, teaching, competing for government grants and leading student activism. Critiques of education are threaded through Lefebvre’s three-volume Critique of Everyday Life, his writings on architecture and anthologies. Lefebvre’s work, The Explosion, is surprisingly neglected. A critique of French universities, it analyses student protests across Paris in 1968 – events in which Lefebvre was a leading activist. In geography and philosophy there are burgeoning secondary literatures on Lefebvre. Laying groundwork for such a literature in education, I survey Lefebvre’s references to education in all the works available in English. Arguing that Lefebvre was an educational thinker in his own right, this paper sketches a ‘roadmap’ for educational readings of Lefebvre’s prolific and largely sociological writing. This paper falls into three parts. The first uncovers core Marxist and phenomenological foundations of Lefebvre’s critiques of universities and schools. Building on these, it introduces Lefebvre’s pedagogical concepts. The second part contextualises these in relation to ‘New’ (or ‘Progressive’) education movements at ‘critical moments’ of 20th-century history. It includes a case study of one such moment – the 1968 Parisian student uprising – then outlines Lefebvre’s summation of education in the late 20th century. The third part draws together four ‘Lefebvrian’ pedagogical principles and considers their relevance today. Educational readings of Lefebvre, I suggest, can help educationists identify ‘cracks or interstices’ in ‘technocratic rationality’, suggesting strategies for resisting contemporary neo-liberal regimes.

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  • River Mouth Processes and Morphodynamics on a Mixed Sand-Gravel Beach

    Paterson, Adam Karl (2000)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Where the Ashburton river meets the sea it is impounded by a mixed sand-gravel barrier, formed through littoral transport of sediment, causing a lagoon to form, locally referred to as hapua. From the hapua, discharge to the sea is maintained through small, ephemeral channels, which are unstable and are subject to morphological change in response to fluctuations in longshore transport of gravel and variations in river flow rate. There are few descriptions of the morphodynamics of these highly changeable features, particularly changes that occur over short time scales of hours to weeks. To investigate the patterns and processes involved in the migration of drainage channels, several new instruments were trialed. A methodology of was developed to provide estimates of longshore transport on a gravel beach using a Gravel Transport Sensor. Video camera technology was the primary tool used to study river mouth morphodynamics. The camera provided hourly images of the environment, enabling qualitative assessment using movies of the images to observe morphologic changes, and quantitative measurement of the migration of the channel. Measurements of river flow, wave climate and lagoon water levels were also gathered to investigate the relationships between the morphological response and the forcing factors. Results of the study showed that the ends of the channel behave differently, with the lagoon end remaining more stable than the seaward end. The seaward end is more exposed to the high wave energy prevalent along this coast. The wave climate, especially wave period and direction, were found to be predictors for the migration rate. The location of the seaward end is more variable due to the fluctuations in wave climate, differing from the lagoon end which is influenced predominantly by river flow rates. It has been found that the migration of the lagoon end occurs in 'steps', which are separated by raised gravel banks, the single persistent feature throughout the study. This stepping migration is driven primarily through episodic events such as high river flow or large wave events.

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  • 'Assessment in ECE is overwhelming at times': Uncovering the challenges of assessing four-year-old children’s learning

    Cameron, Monica; McLachlan, Claire; Rawlins, Peter (2016)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    This article presents some of the preliminary findings from a national survey which explored early childhood teachers’ understandings, beliefs and practices in relation to assessing four year old children’s learning. While a range of perspectives in relation to assessment were evident in the survey responses, this article focuses on the issues and challenges identified by teachers. Some suggestions regarding possible next steps are also made. The findings presented here are a small, but important, element of a larger study. Further analysis of the data collected during both phases is currently being undertaken and additional discussion and dissemination will follow.

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  • An Exploration of the Sustainability and Value of New Professions Created By Mcommerce and Scommerce

    DATTA, SAGORIKA

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The growing popularity of social commerce (sCommerce) and the recent advances in mobile technology have led to the emergence of the new professions of vlogging, blogging and virtual pop-up store owning, which initially started out as hobbies. The services provided by these new professions have become ubiquitous and are being leveraged by customers from all vocations. Little has been investigated of these professions, how they operate, how they generate revenue for themselves and what they contribute to society. Moreover, the prevalence of vlogs, blogs and virtual pop-up stores and the customer/audience interest they generate have been extensively reported on in the popular media as well as the news. It was thus considered a topic of interest to investigate how the new professionals create and provide value to society as well as the new professionals’ intended audience/customers’ perceptions about their services’ value and sustainability. The study was undertaken in two parts, the first of which included interviews with new professionals from each field in order to gain their perspective regarding establishing their respective professions and creating value. The outcomes of the qualitative data analysis indicated that not only did the new professionals create value on their own, but that they also co-created value with their customers, peers and some existing, traditionally established professions. The second part of the study involved gaining the perspective of the new professionals’ intended audience/customers. A survey questionnaire was published online. The questionnaire was based on the UTAUT2 (the extended unified theory of acceptance of uniform technology) and was informed by the findings of the first part of the study. The survey data results were quantitatively analysed. The findings indicated that customers had a positive perception of the future sustainability of the new professions. It was also found that that customers’ intention to use blogging, vlogging and pop-up store owning services in the future may have been predicted by the behavioural characteristics of hedonic motivation and habit. Additionally, the continual intention to buy products from pop-up stores in future was also affected by price value. The research contributes to the body of knowledge by investigating empirically the value creation and co-creation processes in a context that is yet to attract academic interest. The study also proposes a novel value creation and co-creation framework that draws on the main players’ roles and their interactions.

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  • Molecular Analysis of Vanilla Mosaic Virus From the Cook Islands

    Puli'uvea, Christopher

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Vanilla was first introduced to French Polynesia in 1848 and from 1899-1966 was a major export for French Polynesia who then produced an average of 158 tonnes of cured Vanilla tahitensis beans annually. In 1967, vanilla production declined rapidly to a low of 0.6 tonnes by 1981, which prompted a nation-wide investigation with the aim of restoring vanilla production to its former levels. As a result, a mosaic-inducing virus was discovered infecting V. tahitensis that was distinct from Cymbidium mosaic virus (CyMV) and Odontoglossum ringspot virus (ORSV) but serologically related to dasheen mosaic virus (DsMV). The potyvirus was subsequently named vanilla mosaic virus (VanMV) and was later reported to infect V. tahitensis in the Cook Islands and V. planifolia in Fiji and Vanuatu. Attempts were made to mechanically inoculate VanMV to a number of plants that are susceptible to DsMV, but with no success. Based on a partial sequence analysis, VanMV-FP (French Polynesian isolate) and VanMV-CI (Cook Islands isolate) were later characterised as strains of DsMV exclusively infecting vanilla. Since its discovery, little information is known about how VanMV-CI acquired the ability to exclusively infect vanilla and lose its ability to infect natural hosts of DsMV or vice versa. The aims of this research were to characterise the VanMV genome and attempt to determine the molecular basis for host range specificity of VanMV-CI. VanMV-CI has a typical potyvirus genome structure encoding a single polyprotein which can potentially be cleaved into ten proteins, flanked by 5’ and 3’ untranslated regions (UTR). Sequence comparisons of individual genes and complete genomes from members of the bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) group to which DsMV belongs revealed VanMV-CI is most closely related to DsMV. Sequence analyses revealed VanMV-CI is 75.1-77.5% and 81.8-84.1% identical to DsMV at the nucleotide (nt) and amino acid (aa) levels, respectively in the coat protein (CP) and 75.8-77.1% and 81.9-86.7% identical to DsMV at the nt and aa levels, respectively over the entire genome. These data are consistent with the findings of Farreyrol et al. (2005) who first suggested that VanMV-CI is a strain of DsMV. The origin of VanMV-CI is unclear. Did it evolve from DsMV or was it the progenitor of DsMV? To try answer this, a recombination and phylogenetic analysis was carried out. A recombination analysis between DsMV and VanMV-CI genome sequences was carried out against all available potyvirus genomes to determine whether VanMV-CI emerged as a result of a recombination event between DsMV and another virus. This analysis was also to determine whether the N-terminal P1 gene of VanMV-CI arose as a result of a recombination event giving VanMV the ability to exclusively infect vanilla spp. The reasoning for focussing on this genome region is outlined below. This analysis found two recombination events in the P1 gene of DsMV, one in its N-terminal region and another in its C-terminus. Sequence identities between DsMV and its major parent however, were lower than 75% and the recombination event was only detected by one detection method producing insufficient evidence for VanMV arising as a result of one or more recombination events. A phylogenetic analysis based on the complete genome showed that the emergence of VanMV-CI preceded the publicly available DsMV genomes. However, a maximum likelihood analysis of the entire CP of VanMV-CI and all available DsMV CP sequences showed that VanMV-CI was most closely related to DsMV in the South Pacific and the origin of DsMV in this region preceded VanMV-CI. In addition, this analysis showed that DsMV likely originated in the Asia region (China, Japan and India) where its natural host (Colocasia esculenta and Xanthosoma species) originated- it is possible that DsMV spread to the Pacific with human migration. Thus, it is most likely that VanMV arose from DsMV, by an as yet unknown mechanism- possibly by random mutation and natural selection or by a recombination event between DsMV and an as yet to be discovered virus. Upon sequence comparison with DsMV, the P1-HC-Pro region of VanMV-CI became a region of interest for determining a molecular basis for the difference in host range, as this was the most divergent area between the two genomes. This difference was largely due to an insertion/deletion (indel) found in the N-terminal region of the VanMV-CI P1. According to a number of studies, the N-terminal region of the potyviral P1 gene must be compatible with a still unknown host factor before its C-terminus can effectively cleave between itself and HC-Pro. Without successful separation from P1, HC-Pro is unable to counterattack RNA silencing by plants and the virus ceases to infect its host. This suggests that the VanMV-CI P1 may be the region responsible for its ability to infect vanilla but not aroids. An agroinfiltration experiment was designed to test the functionality of the P1 region as a viral suppressor of RNA interference (VSR) to provide support for its role as a host range determinant. A series of gene constructs were designed to test the function of the VanMV-CI and DsMV P1 genes in combination with the HC-Pro region to determine if the HC-Pro activity of each virus is affected by the origin of the P1. The HC-Pro and P1-HC-Pro regions of VanMV-CI and a New Zealand isolate of DsMV were amplified to generate a series of wild type and hybrid constructs for future use in determining their ability to counterattack RNA silencing by plants (silencing suppressor activity). The wild type constructs (PKP2 and PKP4) and a hybrid PKP6 construct containing DsMV P1/VanMV-CI HC-Pro were generated. Generating the alternative hybrid PKP5 construct (VanMV-CI P1/ DsMV HC-Pro) was unsuccessful, most probably due to a lack of sequence complementarity between the fusion templates (VanMV-CI P1 and DsMV HC-Pro fusions). Attempts were made to transform the constructs PKP1-PKP4 (VanMV HC-Pro, VanMV P1/VanMV HC-Pro, DsMV HC-Pro and DsMV P1/DsMV HC-Pro respectively) into a pHEX2 expression vector for agroinfiltration into Nicotiana benthamiana to examine the difference in silencing suppressor activity in light of the difference in P1. Cloning of the PKP6 construct into the entry vector (pCR8) was unsuccessful and transformation of expression vectors containing PKP constructs with Agrobacterium tumefaciens GV3101 also encountered a number of problems. This was most likely due to the use of the inefficient freeze-thaw method. Although the agroinfiltration experiment could not be completed, PKP constructs including HC-Pro and P1/HC-Pro of VanMV and DsMV were amplified and incorporated into the destination expression vector pHEX2 and their sequences confirmed.

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  • Classroom Teachers' Perceptions on the Role of Non-verbal Communication When Teaching Mathematics to Pasifika Children

    Mauheni, Gaylene

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This study critically examines classroom teachers' perceptions of the use of non-verbal communication (NVC) by their Pasifika students during the teaching and learning of mathematics. Seven Year 5/6 classroom teachers from the primary school sector participated in this study. They were asked to discuss and reflect on what NVC meant to them when teaching mathematics to Pasifika children, while considering a raft of questions. How classroom teachers incorporated NVC into their teaching and the benefits for Pasifika children will be discussed. The shared insights of the participants will form the substance of this research and the data obtained through: one-on-one interviews; observations and discussions by the participants of video clips after observing a teacher and his students during the teaching and learning of mathematics; and their reflective diaries. This research contributes to increasing the effectiveness of teaching and learning experiences and outcomes for Pasifika children in the learning of mathematics in New Zealand primary schools. By working with teachers in a New Zealand context who teach in a school with a high percentage of Pasifika children in mainstream education settings, this research provides, through this collective research effort, some key benefits for Pasifika children and teachers engaged in the teaching and learning of mathematics.

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  • Improving Adolescent Girls' Argument Writing: A Tier 1 Self-Regulated Strategy Development Intervention in a New Zealand Secondary School Social Studies Classroom

    Hutchinson, Kathryn (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Self-Regulated Strategy Development (SRSD) is a model of writing instruction with a convincing evidence base (Santangelo, Harris & Graham, 2016). The present study examines why SRSD is more effective for some students than for others. A mixed methods one-group pre-post design was used to compare writing performance, writing self-efficacy, self-regulation for writing, and knowledge of argument writing. The whole-class (n=27) wrote argument essays using an SRSD writing instruction method, in an urban multicultural New Zealand secondary school. Students completed the following digital scales and questionnaires: a writing self-efficacy scale, a self-regulation aptitude for writing scale, and writing knowledge questionnaires pre- and post-intervention. Following the quantitative phase, where students showed gains in argument writing, interviews were conducted with a sample of students who showed low, moderate and high gains in argument writing. Results indicate that while SRSD instruction in argument writing improves writing performance generally, transcription issues can be barriers to writing progress, as can issues with ideation and self-regulation. This Tier 1 SRSD intervention contributes to the SRSD writing research in that it supports the global generalisability of the SRSD method in teaching argument writing, and evaluates reasons for its relative effectiveness.

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