80,747 results

  • Bounds on causal parameters of prospective ground motions and their effect on characteristics of selected ground motions

    Tarbali, K.; Bradley, B.A. (2015)

    Reports
    University of Canterbury Library

    In this study, the effect of considering bounds on causal parameters of prospective ground motions (e.g., magnitude, source-to-site distance, and site condition) for the purpose of ground-motion selection is investigated. Although using bounds on causal parameters is common practice in conventional approaches for ground motion selection, there is presently no consistent approach for setting these bounds as a function of the seismic hazard at the site. A rigorous basis is developed and sensitivity analyses performed for the consideration of bounds on magnitude, source-to-site distance, and site condition for use in ground motion selection. In order to empirically illustrate the effects of various causal parameter bounds on the characteristics of selected ground motions, 78 and 36 cases of scenario seismic hazard analysis (scenario SHA) and probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) are considered, which cover a wide range of causal parameters and site conditions. Ground motions are selected based on the generalized conditional intensity measure (GCIM) approach, which considers multiple ground motion intensity measures (IMs) and their variability in order to appropriately represent characteristics of the seismic hazard at the site. It is demonstrated that the application of relatively ‘wide’ bounds on causal parameters effectively removes ground motions with drastically different characteristics with respect to the target seismic hazard (improving computational efficiency in the selection process by reducing the subset of prospective records), and results in an improved representation of the target causal parameters. In contrast, the use of excessively ‘narrow’ bounds can lead to ground motion ensembles with a poor representation of the target IM distributions, especially for ground motions selected to represent PSHA results. As a result, the causal parameter bound criteria advocated in this study provide a good ‘default’ that is expected to be sufficient in the majority of problems encountered in seismic hazard and demand analyses.

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  • A Kitchen-Based Validation of the Food Skills Component of a Food Literacy Questionnaire in New Zealand Children

    Govan, Alexandra Mary (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Background: Food literacy is a recently developed concept which has emerged as a means to combat the rise in obesity and diet-related disease. Its purpose is to arm the public with a wide range of skills, knowledge and behaviours which are crucial to safely navigate today’s food environment. In 2015, a questionnaire was developed to measure the food literacy of New Zealand children, consisting of three components: food origins, food and nutrition knowledge and food skills. Of these three components, food skills are a practical skill which can be empirically validated, making it possible to ascertain whether the food literacy questionnaire accurately measures children’s food skills. Aim: To validate the food skills section of an online food literacy questionnaire, by comparing results from the food skills section of the food literacy questionnaire to practical food skills measured in a kitchen environment. Methods: A sample of 30 Year 6 children from two Dunedin schools were recruited. The participants initially completed the online food literacy questionnaire during school time, which was followed by participating in an hour-long food skills session one week later. The food skills sessions involved participants completing six ‘stations’ which assessed a range of food skills. These stations included: making a mini pizza, peeling and chopping a carrot, choosing the three main ingredients used in spaghetti bolognese, identifying foods that require cooking before consumption, boiling pasta until it is cooked, adjusting and following a pikelet recipe, and making porridge from an individual sachet by following the packet instructions. The results from the food skills sessions were then compared to the children’s results from the food skills section of the food literacy questionnaire. Results: The mean score from the food skills section of the food literacy questionnaire was 77%, and the mean score from the food skills session was 78%. The overall correlation between the food skills section of the food literacy questionnaire and the food skills session was 0.82 (p-value <0.001), indicating a high correlation. When participant scores were split into tertiles, 70% of participants were correctly classified in the lower tertile, and 60% in the higher tertile; only 10% of participants were grossly misclassified. Conclusion: The food skills section of the food literacy questionnaire is a valid measure of food literacy in Year 6 New Zealand children. It can correctly measure children’s food skills, as shown by an overall correlation of 0.82. The methodology of this research could be a useful tool for measuring children’s food skills in possible future food skills interventions and adopted to evaluate the effectiveness of these interventions.

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  • Food Literacy in New Zealand School Children: Nutrition Knowledge

    Russell, Kristina Louise (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Background: Obesity rates in both children and adults have increased in recent decades in New Zealand. Changes in lifestyle and environment have meant that the frequency of convenience food consumption has increased and food skills and knowledge are often not passed down to younger generations. Food literacy is a new term encompassing the knowledge, skills, and behaviours needed to prepare and consume healthy foods. Developing food literacy in children is critical to slowing the rates of childhood obesity.To date, there is no data measuring how food literate children are in New Zealand. Objective: To measure the food literacy of a sample of Year 6 children in New Zealand Design: Cross-sectional observational study in three urban centres Method: A previously validated online 37-item questionnaire comprised of 7 food origin, 15 nutrition knowledge, and 15 food skill questions, plus 7 demographic questions was used to measure food literacy. Schools in Christchurch, Auckland and Wellington were randomly selected and Year 6 children invited to participate. During school hours, children completed the questionnaire either on iPads or personal devices and had their height and weight measured. A marking schedule was developed and used for scoring the questionnaire; each question had a total score of 1. Mean scores for each question and section were determined and analysed to identify the food literacy strengths and weaknesses of the children. Results: Children from 44 schools in Christchurch (n=198), Auckland (n=331) and Wellington (n=329) participated for a final sample size of 858 children. Children scored an average of 66% percent overall and 56% in the 1 nutrition knowledge section. Children displayed good knowledge with regard to interpreting food labelling (0.83/1.00) and common nutrition messages (0.75/1.00), as well as the knowledge of food groups (0.74/1.00). Lowest scoring areas were the awareness of dietary guidelines (0.25/1.00) and the knowledge of sugar content in diet cola (0.16/1.00). Conclusion: This is the first study to measure the food literacy of New Zealand children. These results can be used to guide future education programmes, however, they need to be interpreted with caution, as the sample contained a high proportion of children of “New Zealand European and Other” ethnicity from high decile schools. The focus of future interventions should be to increase children’s ability to identify healthy options and build on the demonstrated strength of label reading to aid this.

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  • Effect of long-term exercise training on zinc status: A systematic review

    Varma, Trishala (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Background: Zinc is an essential trace element with many functions in the body, including energy metabolism, immunity and antioxidant activity. Regular exercise is a common recommendation for the prevention of chronic diseases, with irrefutable benefits. Zinc has a central role in exercise, however some groups of active individuals have suboptimal zinc status. Effects of short-term exercise on zinc status have been well documented, however effects of long-term exercise training on zinc status in the literature have been conflicting. Objective: To evaluate the effects of long-term exercise on zinc status, in trained compared to untrained groups. Design: We conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed articles up to January 28, 2016 to identify studies that investigated effects of long-term exercise training on zinc status. Results: Six studies were included in the systematic review. Serum zinc did not display consistent results in the included studies in response to exercise training. There was a greater increase in urinary zinc excretion, erythrocyte zinc, dietary zinc intake and the activity of copper-zinc-superoxide dismutase in some groups undergoing exercise training, compared to the control group. Conclusion: The present review indicates that some zinc markers exemplify that there is a change in zinc homeostasis that occurs with exercise training. Further research is required to determine if these fluctuations warrant a change in dietary requirements for active individuals, and to allow dietitians to create best possible intervention plans for optimal health and/or physical performance.

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  • Prevalence of New Zealand High School Athletes at Risk of Low Energy Availability using the LEANZ Questionnaire: A Feasibility Study

    Ireland, Stacey (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Background: When energy intake is insufficient to cover the energy cost of exercise and physiological functioning, a state of Low Energy Availability (LEA) is entered. This has negative effects on an athlete’s health and performance, including bone health, menstrual function, immunity, and cardiovascular disease. High school athletes have been found to be at risk of LEA, however, the prevalence of adolescents at risk in New Zealand is unknown. Objective: The aims of this study are to determine if male and female New Zealand high school athletes are at risk of LEA, and provide information on the recruitment logistics and ease of collecting data from high school athletes. Design: Eligible participants aged 16 to 18 years (20 male, nine female) were recruited from high schools around New Zealand who engaged in at least 75 minutes of physical activity per week. Participants attended two clinic visits to provide blood, urine and saliva samples, and completed an anonymous online questionnaire containing 98 questions, including the Low Energy Availability in Females Questionnaire (LEAF-Q) and sections from the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI-3). Between the clinic visits, participants completed a three-day weighed food record and wore an accelerometer. This study used participant’s LEAF-Q answers to classify them as at risk or not at risk of LEA. Results: For the high school athletes who completed the questionnaire, 43.5% were found to be at risk of LEA. Analysis of the food records and calculated energy expenditure resulted in 52.6% of those who completed the study estimated to be in a state of LEA. Conclusion: This study highlights that adolescent athletes in New Zealand are at risk of LEA. It also highlighted difficulties in accessing and obtaining data from high school athletes. Despite this, the results from this study support the notion that further research into LEA in this population is required, however, all data should be collected in the presence of researchers where possible, and timing of research around school activities needs to be carefully considered.

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  • Swaggers and society : a New Zealand experience

    Steven, Graeme D. (1979)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    The aims of this study are two-fold. First, to reach an understanding of the swagger, his lifestyle, and his outlook on life. And second, to investigate the relationships between the swagger and various groups in New Zealand society, in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The North Otago region was chosen as a base for the study because it has traditionally been regarded as one of the main swagger areas in New Zealand. The main town of Oamaru had a population of 4000 to 6000 in the 1890's, and was neither wholly urban or rural. As the service centre for the North Otago hinterland and a road, rail and sea centre, Oamaru had large numbers of itinerants, passing through the town. In the rural hinterland mixed cropping predominated, and this required large numbers of seasonal workers, which were drawn from outside the region. In Chapter One it is argued that rural itinerant workers were integrated into a rural structure that was both labour intensive and seasonal. Chapter Two discusses the characteristics which separate the swagger from other rural itinerants, which I have called, the "swag-carriers". In Chapter Three the conflict between the swagger and a developing bureaucracy, and middle class ideology in the late nineteenth century, is analysed. In Chapters Four and Five, the attitudes of rural and towns people towards the swagger are investigated. A model based on the value system of "reputation" and "respectability is used in Chapter Six to explain the ambivalence of attitudes towards the swagger, and to investigate an important aspect of the swagger psychology - his self esteem and his individuality.

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  • Memory HQ: the possible central role of the epigenome in maintaining LTP.

    Kyrke-Smith, Madeleine (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Plasticity mechanisms such as long-term potentiation (LTP) are believed to underlie the formation and maintenance of memories. LTP induction stimulates downstream signalling pathways that lead to changes in gene expression which are critical to the maintenance of LTP. However, how these changes allow LTP to persist is not currently understood. The epigenetic mechanism, histone acetylation, has been shown to be regulated over the first few hours after LTP induction in vitro. Indeed, inhibition of enzymes that negatively regulate histone acetylation, histone deacetylase 1 and 2 (HDAC1 and HDAC2), enhances LTP induced in vitro, suggesting that HDAC inhibition supports LTP persistence. However, HDAC1 and HDAC2 have themselves been shown to be upregulated 5 – 24 h post-LTP induction in vivo and the effect of inhibiting HDACs over these later time-points has not been investigated. We aimed to identify if changes in HDAC activity played a role in LTP persistence over weeks, a timeframe which can not be studied when LTP is induced in vitro. We found that the activity of both HDAC1 and HDAC2 was upregulated 20 min post-LTP induction, returning to near baseline by 5 h and that HDAC1 activity was subsequently upregulated 12 h post-LTP induction. Interestingly, inhibition of the initial increase in HDAC activity, using the HDAC inhibitor Trichostatin A (TSA), had no effect on the induction of LTP, nor on the overall persistence of LTP. However, TSA did enhance the magnitude of LTP expressed between 12 h and 7 days post-induction. This time period has previously been associated with an intermediate form of LTP, LTP2. However, inhibition of the increased HDAC activity 12 h post-LTP by TSA had no effect on the persistence of LTP, nor did it make the LTP more susceptible to disruption by LTP induction at a competing input onto the same set of cells. An additional important finding from this work was that HDAC activity and protein expression was regulated in the contralateral non-tetanised hemisphere. This led to the hypothesis that increased HDAC activity may create an environment in which persistent LTP could not be induced. We found, however, that despite heightened HDAC activity, LTP was able to be induced and persisted as normal. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that LTP persistence is supported by HDAC1 and HDAC2 activity. However, we have identified an intermediate enhancement of plasticity over the first week after induction. This leads to the suggestion that HDAC1 and HDAC2 may regulate genes involved in the early stages of learning and memory formation but not the very long-term consolidation process. Further, interhemispheric communication may occur after LTP induction, though the mechanisms of action remain unclear. We can conclude that temporally and spatially widespread mechanisms underlie the induction and maintenance of LTP and though we are yet to elucidate the maintenance mechanisms for LTP, we are beginning to tease apart the intricate mechanisms involved over 24 h post-LTP induction.

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  • Estimating added sugars intake in New Zealand

    Nettleton, Alice (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Background: Added sugars intake in New Zealand (NZ) cannot be accurately estimated, as the NZ Food Composition Database (NZFCD) does not distinguish between total sugar and added sugars in foods. Added sugars can be defined as sugars that are not intrinsic to fruits, vegetables and milk products and usually refers to sugars added during the processing of foods. High intakes of added sugars, such as those in sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs), have been associated with numerous adverse health outcomes including dental caries, cardiovascular disease (CVD), type two diabetes mellitus (T2DM), weight gain and obesity. Consequently, recent dietary guidelines from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and World Health Organization (WHO) have recommended that added and free sugars provide less than ten percent (%) of total daily energy intake. Objective: Firstly to develop an added sugars estimate for all food items and recipes in the NZFCD, and secondly to determine added sugars intake of NZ adults using dietary intake data from the NZ Adult Nutrition Survey 2008/09 (ANS 08/09). Design: A ten-step systematic methodology developed by Louie et al was adapted and applied to FOODfiles, an electronic subset of the NZFCD, to estimate the added sugars content of all food items. Data obtained from the NZ ANS 08/09, a nationwide nutrition survey involving 4,271 participants was then used to estimate added sugars intake of NZ adults. These intakes were used to determine the proportion of the population that was meeting the USDA added sugars and WHO free sugars intake guidelines. Results: An added sugars estimate was developed for 2,779 unique food items and recipes contained in the FOODfiles database. In total 2,463 (89%) foods had added sugars estimated using objective steps 1-6, and 316 (11%) using subjective steps 7-10. Median usual daily intake of added sugars for NZ ANS 08/09 participants was 49 grams (g), which contributed 9.5% of total energy (TE) intake. The median total sugar intake of the population was 107g, and added sugars comprised almost half (46%) of total sugar intake. Younger people generally had higher intakes of added sugars than older people, and absolute added sugars intake was greater among men compared with women. By ethnicity, Māori people tended to have higher absolute added sugars intake, (median intake for Māori males 62g and for Māori females 48g) which contributed a greater proportion of total energy intake (10% TE intake for Māori males and 10.6% TE intake for Māori females) compared to NZEO and Pacific people. In comparison with the USDA recommendation for added sugars intake, almost half (46.2%) of the total population had intakes of added sugars that were greater than 10% of TE intake. Conclusion: The ten-step systematic methodology is currently the best available approach for estimating the added sugars content of foods in NZ, as approximately 90% of foods were estimated using objective measures. When applied to dietary intake data from the NZ ANS 08/09, almost half of the population was not meeting the USDA recommendations for less than 10% TE intake from added sugars. Given that high intakes of added sugars are associated with several negative health outcomes, these findings suggest there may be potential to reduce intakes of added sugars in NZ, particularly amongst young adults who reported the highest intakes.

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  • Myth and misunderstanding : The enigma of the Scottish Highland migrant to Otago/Southland, 1870-79

    Wilson, Megan Jane (1999)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    The major concern of this thesis is with the migration and settlement of assisted Scottish Highland migrants to the colony of Otago/Southland during the 1870's, particularly those that arrived under the auspices of the so-called 'Vogel Scheme'. Although the gold rushes of the 1860s had induced a number of immigrants to the region government judged that these individuals were not always of a 'suitable' type, hence Julius Vogel's 'Public Works and Immigration Act, 1870'. This Act, consisting of passenger assisted fares and nomination was instituted in the hope of attracting potential settlers away from the traditional destinations such as America as well as providing a workforce to complete desperately required Public Works. Following the identification of these migrants an attempt is made to trace their movements over subsequent years, thereby providing the reader with at least some sense of how the colony's settler population has been made. Although always a minority group Scottish Highlanders were generally looked upon with disfavour and they carried with them a centuries' old reputation for barbaric and uncouth behaviour. By providing brief biographies on several of those immigrants that were positively identified the thesis aims to provide an understanding of their lives and contributions to the development of the colony. In order to identify these immigrants the Otago/Southland (NZ.) Assisted Passengers 1872-1888 lists were consulted. The Otago Provincial Government Gazettes: Passenger Lists, 1986-1875 proved invaluable as well and fron1 there it was simply a matter of attempting to trace these individuals over the following years. The Postal and Street Directories, marriage registers and electoral rolls of the period provided further information necessary in tracking their subsequent movements. The major obstacle to identifying their whereabouts following arrival in the colony was the fact that many simply disappeared into the larger towns and cities, changed the spelling of their names, or spoke only Gaelic and could not write English; often original settlers were only identified through their children. Obscure local histories for towns such as Waitahuna or Fortrose were of particular interest as they provided insights into the characters of their settlers in the form of amusing stories and local feeling rather than just names and dates. Although there are numerous studies relating to the immigrant experience throughout the world, the plight of the Highlander and the even settlement of Otago, it is hoped that the following will provide some additional insight into one minority group that settled in the area. In a local context John Morris and Rosalind McClean have both tackled Scottish immigration. Both are general overviews of the Scottish phenomenon, however, rather than in depth analyses of a regional migration. It is hoped that although this thesis does not provide any earth-shattering discoveries it at least supports the more general assumptions made regarding the immigration of Scots to New Zealand and perhaps qualifies a number of mistaken beliefs about Scottish Highlanders. These assumptions include a tendency toward dishonesty, a well developed attraction to alcohol and a general disposition toward uncivilised behaviour.

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  • Agreement Between self-reported weight and height with measured values in Otago adolescents, and associated factors.

    Kerr, Rachael Jade (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Background: New Zealand has the third highest rate of obesity in the world. Monitoring health trends from a young age can help health promotors get a better idea of what is happening as our population ages and can provide insight into challenges that different age group faces in terms of health. Adolescents are a key part of our population to monitor as they are old enough to start making their own decisions, but are still young enough to be positively influences about lifestyle habits. Self-reports have always been a controversial area of data collection due to the human error in reporting. Previous studies have assessed the agreement between self-reported and measured height, weight and calculated from these values, body mass index (BMI), in adolescents however, no studies have investigated ability of New Zealand adolescents to self-report. Objective: The aim of the current study is to investigate if Otago adolescents could accurately self-report weight and height, if these self-reported values could be used to calculate and accurately place individuals into the correct BMI categories, and if not, what factors influenced adolescent’s ability to self-report. Design: The Otago Secondary Schools Lifestyle Survey Two (OSSLS2) provided the cross-sectional data for this thesis. Participants completed an online survey which consisted of a set of seven questionnaires which collected data on several aspects of nutrition and health. Weights and heights were measured by trained researchers after completion of the relevant self-report questions. Bland Altman plots were used to assess the agreement of the data between self-reported and measured values. Results: 681 Otago secondary students participated from 11 schools across the area, and on average, adolescents significantly underestimated height and weight by 2cm and 0.8kg respectively (both p<0.05). Conclusion: Despite some misclassification, the Bland-Altman plots showed that self-reports for this population were accurate considering the extreme body changes adolescents go through during this time. Some groups within this population did tend to underestimate weight to a greater extent than others, however the 81.7% of the population could be correctly placed into the correct BMI category by the self-reported values the adolescents provided. This shows the usefulness that self-reported data can bring to large population based studies with limited time, budget or resources and could be useful in epidemiological studies.

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  • Personality Associations with Mood, Hoarding, Health and Well-being

    Spittlehouse, Janet Katherine (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Background: Personality has been of interest since ancient times. Hippocrates, also known as ‘The father of Western Medicine’ was possibly the first to document the association between personality and mental and physical health by describing the ancient medical theory of Humourism. Over the last 100 years the study of personality has been evolving and there are many different perspectives. Trait perspectives have become popular but they lack any underlying theory about how personality develops. Psychobiological models offer descriptions of personality and provide testable theories on how biology influences their development. A robust psychobiological model is Cloninger’s psychobiological theory and it provided the basis for this project. Objectives: This project explored the associations of personality in different mental health settings using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI; Cloninger, Przybeck, Svrakic, & Wetzel, 1994), the personality inventory developed by Cloninger and colleagues, that is suitable for measuring both normal and abnormal personality. The TCI was used to examine the impact of depression on personality measurement and personality associations to self-reported physical and mental health, mood disorders, hoarding behaviours and well-being. Methods: Participants for this project were from three studies. Two randomised clinical trials designed to examine predictors of treatment response for depressed outpatients using either antidepressant medication (N=195) or psychotherapy (N=177) were used to examine the impact of depression on measures of personality. Data from the Canterbury Health, Ageing and Lifecourse (CHALICE) study (N=404), a random community sample of 50 year olds taking part in an observational study of ageing, were used to examine personality in relation to self-reported health, lifetime mood disorders, hoarding behaviours and well-being. Results: Harm avoidance and self-directedness were strongly associated with physical and mental health, mood disorders, hoarding behaviours and well-being. Both harm avoidance and self-directedness change with mood state. After adjusting for mood state, self-directedness but not harm avoidance was associated with risk of a lifetime mood disorder. High harm avoidance and low self-directedness were strongly associated with poorer self-reported mental and physical health and increased hoarding behaviours. Hoarding disorder was strongly associated with economic hardship and impairment of mental and physical functioning. For well-being, low harm avoidance and high self-directedness were associated with better well-being and these two variables explain more of the variance in well-being than other measures such as socio-demographics. The TCI personality variables of novelty seeking and self-transcendence were associated with specific psychopathology while reward dependence, persistence and cooperativeness had no or weak associations with different aspects of health and well-being. Conclusions: TCI variables of harm avoidance and self-directedness were fundamental to health and well-being, consistent with the wider literature. The finding that self-directedness, but not harm avoidance, was a risk factor for mood disorder, could possibly be explained by self-directedness becoming increasingly important with age. Despite the overwhelming effect of harm avoidance and self-directedness, there were significant if subtle personality differences in the other TCI variables that contributed to health and well-being and personality assessment of the individual may be helpful in determining cognitive and emotional style. If the Cloninger model of personality, which separates the neurobiology of temperament and character, is correct then self-directedness should be more amenable to change and so is a potential target for interventions to reduce psychopathology.

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  • Social capital and the budgeting process

    Frost, Denise Margaret (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    This thesis arose out of a previous study of budgeting practices carried out at a not-for-profit church. This initial study had found that relationships played an important role in budgeting practices. Interviewees carried out their budgetary tasks in a cooperative, sometimes sacrificial manner. This relationship-based approach to budgeting was inconsistent with conventional approaches to budgeting. It became apparent that budgeting practices in this church could be explained by social capital theory, and that budgeting could be viewed as a social phenomenon. I began to question whether considering budgeting as a social process might also apply to profit-orientated organisations. As part of this thesis, I approached two different for-profit organisations: an entertainment centre; and, a science testing laboratory. Along with the church examined previously, both of these organisations agreed to participate in this investigation into the social aspects of their budgeting processes. An interpretive methodology was adopted to study budgeting practices from the viewpoint of managers. Social capital was a sensitising theoretical perspective, and was viewed as a ‘skeletal theory’; in particular, I was drawn to a model of social capital proposed by Nahapiet and Ghoshal (1998). Nahapiet and Ghoshal’s (1998) social capital framework was chosen as it was pertinent to examining the influence of social capital on the budgeting process. It came as a surprise to find that elements of Nahapiet and Ghoshal’s framework were in evidence in all three organisations. In the three case study organisations, budgeting was found to be a social process which can be explained by social capital theory. In contrast to the beyond budgeting proponents, who claim budgeting is redundant, this thesis has found that the budgeting process constitutes an investment of managers’ time and energy, because it encourages and promotes social capital. The budgeting process brought managers together to work cooperatively towards a commonly understood goal. Budgeting encouraged social interaction and fostered relationship building. Organisational norms and values were reinforced. Despite the differences between the three organisations, the common feature was that the budgeting process encouraged and reinforced social capital. This thesis has implications for other researchers. It provides a new insight into budgeting. It contributes to the qualitative budgeting literature by providing a contemporary view of the way social forces influence the budgeting process. It advances the literature on church budgeting. It adds to the social capital literature by adapting Nahapiet and Ghoshal’s (1998) framework of social capital to a context not previously studied – the budgeting process. There are implications for policymakers involved in setting budget-related policy in organisations, and for practitioners, as this thesis highlights the importance of the social side of the budgeting process.

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  • Ecopolitical philosophy, education and grassroots democracy: The "return" of Murray Bookchin (and John Dewey?)

    Peters, Michael A. (2016)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    This article traces the “return” of Murray Bookchin whose work has been championed by Abdullah Öcalan, one of the founding members and leaders of the Kurdistan Workers’ Party (Partiya Karkerên Kurdistanê, PKK). Bookchin’s “Democratic Confederalism” serves as a vehicle for taking seriously the notion of the local assembly within a broad non-state framework with an emphasis on inclusiveness and especially women’s rights. Öcalan and the PKK have adopted Bookchin’s social ecology as the basis for the new society. This article examines Bookchin’s “return” in the light of these developments and examines grassroots or participatory democracy as the basis of ecopolitical philosophy and comments on some strong parallels with John Dewey’s “creative democracy.”

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  • Noosphere rising: Internet-based collective intelligence, creative labour, and social production

    Peters, Michael A.; Reveley, James (2015)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Our article relocates the debate about creative labour to the terrain of peer-to-peer interneting as the paradigmatic form of nonmarket - social - production. From Yann Moulier Boutang we take the point that creative labour is immaterial; it is expressed through people connected by the internet. Drawing on two social systems thinkers, Francis Heylighen and Wolfgang Hofkirchner, we transpose this connectedness up to a conception of creative labour as a supra-individual collective intelligence. This intelligence, we argue, is one of the internets emergent properties. We then present a model of internet development that flags the potential of digitally-evoked collective intelligence to facilitate what the Marxist philosopher George Caffentzis calls postcapitalist commoning. Yoking together systems theorizing about the internet and socialist envisioning of social transformation, we identify two sets of internet tools for coordination that can assist with the convivial reconstruction of society along the lines of peer-based production.

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  • Disciplinary technologies and the school in the epcoh of digital reason: Revisiting discipline and punish after 40 years

    Peters, Michael A. (2017)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Foucault’s masterpiece Discipline and Punish (1975) provided a gene- alogical analysis of the prison as a model for the disciplinary society that displaces the liberal juridico-political theory of sovereignty with a new kind of disciplinary power exemplified by Bentham’s panopticum. This article revisits Foucault’s classic as a basis for examining it significance for school in the epoch of digital reason.

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  • The Video Journal and visual pedagogies: in the age of visual cultures [Editorial]

    White, Elizabeth Jayne; Peters, Michael A. (2016)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    Michael Peters and Jayne White introduce their thinking behind the development of the journal at the inaugural conference of the Association for Visual Pedagogies in Zagreb, June, 2016. They set the scene and pohilosophical parameters for a broad and forward-looking interpretation of visuality and the rise of visual studies by establishing an expanded route for the location of video Pedagogies in educational spaces. The video journal is introduced as a third generation form of scientific communication after the print-based journal and the digital online journal. The concept of the journal as the cornerstone of the scientific enterprise has evolved as new media technologies have become available. Industrial media known for its broadcast functionality of one to the many now is being replaced and remediated with video and mixed media increasingly with an accent on responsiveness and interactivity. In the second part of the presentation forms of visuality are explored and new visualization methodologies are discussed. An agenda is established for the potential and possibilities for Video Journal for Education and Pedagogy as a theoretical, philosophical, sociological, methodological and pedagogical site for future scholarship.

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  • Coastal modelling of sea level rise for the Christchurch coastal environment

    Eaves, A.; Doscher, C.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Predictive modelling provides an efficient means to analyse the coastal environment and generate knowledge for long term urban planning. In this study, the numerical models SWAN and XBeach were incorporated into the ESRI ArcGIS interface by means of the BeachMMtool. This was applied to the Greater Christchurch coastal environment to simulate geomorphological evolution through hydrodynamic forcing. Simulations were performed using the recent sea level rise predictions by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2013) to determine whether the statutory requirements outlined in the New Zealand Coastal Policy Statement 2010 are consistent with central, regional and district designations. Our results indicate that current land use zoning in Greater Christchurch is not consistent with these predictions. This is because coastal hazard risk has not been thoroughly quantified during the process of installing the Canterbury Earthquake Recovery Authority residential red zone. However, the Christchurch City Council’s flood management area does provide an extent to which managed coastal retreat is a real option. The results of this research suggest that progradation will continue to occur along the Christchurch foreshore due to the net sediment flux retaining an onshore direction and the current hydrodynamic activity not being strong enough to move sediment offshore. However, inundation during periods of storm surge poses a risk to human habitation on low lying areas around the Avon-Heathcote Estuary and the Brooklands lagoon.

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  • Organic amendments for reducing the plant uptake of cadmium from New Zealand soils

    Hucker, Cameron

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Cadmium (Cd) is a naturally occurring element in soils. It is a non-essential trace element that can have toxic effects on fauna at relatively low concentrations. Several studies have reported above background levels of the metal in New Zealand (NZ) agricultural soils . This is thought to be due to the repeated applications of phosphate fertiliser where Cd is a commonly found impurity. Cd is taken up by plants relatively easily and can accumulate there to potentially dangerous concentrations without any effects on the plant itself. This has resulted in the NZ government imposing a 1.8 mg/kg limit on Cd in soil after which P fertiliser applications have to cease. The addition of organic amendments into the soil has been shown to reduce the plant uptake of Cd. This study has been carried out to gain better understanding of which specific organic amendment has the greatest potential for reducing plant uptake of Cd. The amendments used in the experiments were two types of peat, bio-solids from Kaikoura and Christchurch, coffee grounds, and municipal compost from Parkhouse Garden Supplies, Living Earth and Oderings. The study involved analyses of pH, conductivity, total organic carbon, water-soluble carbon (hot and cold water), elemental composition, cation exchange capacity (CEC) and the sorption potential for Cd of each amendment. Results indicated that the two bio-solid samples had Cd concentrations that were too high for potential application to the soil as this would risk accumulation at rates of up to 10 times higher than the other amendments. The findings from the Cd sorption experiment indicate that Parkhouse (PH) compost had the greatest capacity to adsorb Cd, the Kd value was 11317. This result was significantly larger than all other amendments, with Living Earth (LE) showing the second highest value of 578. This suggests the potential ability of Living Earth compost to be used as an amendment for soils contaminated with Cd. The significant sorption of Cd by PH compost could be attributed to the sulphur concentration of PH, as this was twice as high as any amendment (excluding bio solids). Parkhouse White (PHW) had the lowest S concentration but a similar CEC to PH, however the corresponding Kd was significantly lower (27). This suggests the potential addition of gypsum (CaSO4) to municipal composts can cause the associated S groups to form complexes with Cd, immobilising it and reducing plant uptake. Although, the sulphides or thiol groups are more likely to form complexes with Cd, rather than the sulphate groups. Overall, this study has indicated that the organic amendment with the greatest capacity to adsorb Cd is PH compost, with LE showing a reasonable capacity also. The next step would involve incorporating these composts into contaminated soils and to analyse the effect this has the plant uptake of Cd.

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  • Phenotypic assessment of commercial wheat (Triticum aestivum) crosses with a synthetic hexaploid incorporating wild germplasm from Aegilops tauschii

    Macalister, Jamie

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    The wheat crop in the United States, and indeed globally, has shown high levels of genetic uniformity. A lack in genetic variation is causing dramatic fluctuations in total wheat crop yields in response to environmental conditions and has created serious production risks. This study was undertaken as a step to address this issue with an aim of develop a new high-performing line incorporating wild wheat germplasm for the Colorado State University breeding program. The purpose of using wild germplasm is to provide a source of genetic variation not currently present in the US wheat crop. This study grew 72 different crosses with eight controls and included two reps each for both an irrigated and unirrigated treatment. Traits that were assessed included grain yield, harvest index (HI), heading date, plant height, lodging and other physical features that were assessed visually. The results showed that one first generation cross (HRS2015-378) clearly stood out above all other lines, including the commercial cultivar controls. HRS2015-378 was ranked first in both treatments for HI along with third and fifth for grain yield in the dry and wet treatments respectively. The values for HI of this line were 0.34 and 0.52 with grain weights from 1m biomass strips of 118 and 150g for the dry and wet treatments, respectively. This cross along with three others, two of which were also first generation crosses and one a second generation cross, were selected for the Colorado State University breeding program for their consistently high performance compared to the commercial controls in all traits measured across both treatments. In the coming years these crosses will undergo more selective and intense breeding across multiple locations with the expectation that at least one will eventually be released as a new commercial variety.

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  • A Clinical and Sonographic Investigation of the First Metatarsophalangeal Joint in Gout and Asymptomatic Hyperuricaemia: A Comparison With Normouricaemic Individuals

    Stewart, Sarah

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Background: Although hyperuricaemia is required for the development of symptomatic gout, many individuals with hyperuricaemia remain asymptomatic. However, ultrasonography has identified urate deposition in people with asymptomatic hyperuricaemia. Urate crystal deposition and gout-related features have a certain propensity for the first metatarsophalangeal joint (1MTP). Despite the importance of normal structure and function of the 1MTP, it is unclear how this joint is impaired in people with gout and asymptomatic hyperuricaemia and whether this relates to underlying sonographic pathology. This thesis aimed to (i) identify clinical characteristics and (ii) sonographic features of the 1MTP in participants with gout and participants with asymptomatic hyperuricaemia; and (iii) determine the association between clinical and sonographic characteristics of the 1MTP while accounting for the diagnostic group. Methods: This two-arm cross-sectional study involved participants with gout (n = 23), asymptomatic hyperuricaemia (n = 29), and age- and sex-matched normouricaemic controls (n = 34) without acute arthritis at the time of assessment. Clinically assessed characteristics included patient-reported outcomes related to foot and lower limb pain, disability and impairment; 1MTP structural and functional characteristics including joint range of motion (ROM), muscle force, hallux valgus severity and foot posture; neurovascular characteristics including temperature, vibration perception and protective sensation; and dynamic outcomes including spatiotemporal gait characteristics and barefoot plantar pressure measurements. Ultrasonography was used to assess 1MTPs for the double contour sign, tophus, erosion, effusion, synovial hypertrophy, snowstorm, synovitis and cartilage thickness. Results: All participants were middle-aged men. Compared to controls, participants with gout reported greater 1MTP pain (P = 0.014), greater foot pain and disability (MFPDI) (P < 0.001), decreased lower limb function for daily living (P = 0.002) and recreational (P< 0.001), reduced plantarflexion force (P = 0.012), increased 1MTP temperature (P < 0.05), more loss of protective sensation (OR 15.6, P = 0.21) and more severe hallux valgus (OR 0.3 P = 0.041). Compared to controls, participants with asymptomatic hyperuricaemia had more disabling foot pain (OR 4.2, P = 0.013), increased activity limitation (P = 0.033), decreased lower limb function for daily living (P = 0.026) and recreational (P = 0.010) activities, increased 1MTP plantarflexion force (P = 0.004) and a more pronated foot posture (P = 0.036). Compared to controls, participants with gout demonstrated increased step time (P = 0.022) and stance time (P = 0.022), and reduced velocity (P = 0.050). Participants with gout also walked with decreased peak pressure at the heel (P = 0.012) and hallux (P = 0.036) and increased peak pressure (P < 0.001) and pressure time integrals (P = 0.005) at the midfoot. Compared to controls, participants with asymptomatic hyperuricaemia demonstrated increased support base (P = 0.002), double support time (P < 0.001) and cadence (P = 0.028), and reduced swing time (P = 0.019) and single support time (P = 0.020), as well as increased pressure at the midfoot (P = 0.013), first metatarsal (P = 0.015) and second metatarsal (P = 0.007). Compared to controls, participants with gout and asymptomatic hyperuricaemia had more double contour sign (odds ratio [OR] 3.91, P = 0.011 and OR 3.81, P = 0.009, respectively). Participants with gout also had more erosion (OR 10.13, P = 0.001) and synovitis (OR 9.00, P < 0.001) and had greater tophus and erosion diameters (P = 0.035 and P < 0.001, respectively). The double contour sign was associated with higher MFPDI scores (P < 0.001). Tophus was associated with higher MFPDI scores (P < 0.001), increased temperature (P = 0.005) and reduced walking velocity (P = 0.001). Conclusions: This study has shown that urate deposition, synovitis and bone erosion are common at the 1MTP in participants with gout, even in the absence of acute arthritis. Participants with gout also demonstrated 1MTP-specific changes indicative of subclinical inflammation. Although individuals with asymptomatic hyperuricaemia lack ultrasound features of inflammation or bone changes, they demonstrate a similar frequency of urate deposition. They also report high levels of foot- and lower limb-related pain and disability. Sonographic features of urate deposition, rather than soft tissue inflammation or erosion, are associated with patient-reported foot pain and disability, while the presence of tophus is associated with impaired functional characteristics.

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