81,210 results

  • A general survey of education on Niue : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Education at Massey University

    Tauevihi, Niuaviu (1977)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The primary purpose of the thesis is to survey the provisions for education which began with the London Missionary Society Schools and eventually in 1952 the Government Administration assumed responsibilities towards developing a full quota of primary education. Secondary education at Niue High School followed in 1956, with a Teachers Training Centre in 1958, both of which constituted provisions for post-primary education, supplemented by higher education made available in New Zealand and other overseas institutions. Niue's educational provisions will continue to become dependent on New Zealand in opportunities for higher education, in educational policies, for financial aid and to a less extent for the vocational courses designed to furnish Niue's manpower requirements. Part II deals with the relationships between education, manpower needs and economic development in which ideas are explored within the Niuean context. This scrutiny indicates that the education provisions are not well related to the manpower needs of Niue as a politically self-governed state. The Government Administration and in general the Niue Public Service are adequately catered for, but not so in economic development and manpower needs. Irrelevancy in education provisions resulted in social disorganisation which is a direct effect of Nuieans emigrating to New Zealand to seek employment, and to a greater extent utilise the skills that were learnt in the classroom. The key ideas in the series of education planning are examined and recommended for the future are proposed with particular respect to Agriculture, School Curriculum, and Adult Education.

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  • An exploratory value chain analysis for Burmese pickled tea (LAPHET) : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of AgriCommerce in Agribusiness, Institute of Agriculture and Environment, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Thar, So Pyay (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Laphet (pickled tea) is a well-known traditional cuisine of Myanmar consisting of tea leaves fermented into a pickle. It has a unique taste different from tea used for drinking and has health benefits. Despite the fact that pickled tea is a popular food in Myanmar, no research has been done to analyse its value chain and evaluate its potential in the global market. This study is an exploratory research and aims to examine the value chain of pickled tea from production to the final consumer and to evaluate how to improve the quality in the value chain. In addition, the improvements to the integrity to the pickled tea value chain are addressed. The value chain analysis revealed the major actors in the pickled tea value chain and described the process as tea leaves pass through several intermediaries with value being added at each stage before reaching the end consumer. The chain is governed by wholesalers and manufacturers who have capital advantage over the other chain actors. Therefore, farmers get the lower share of the price margin. This study shows the domestic pickled tea value chain and it describes the upgrades to the chain if it is to be upgraded. Pickled tea is a profitable industry and has high potential in the global market. However, there are considerable weaknesses and challenges to developing a sustainable pickled tea industry from both farm and market perspective. Supply issues such as availability of tea leaves, quality and consistency of the pickled tea, and effective grading along the value chain were addressed. Food safety and traceability is also a key area of concern. The study recommends that value chain upgrading can help improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the chain. Generally, the findings suggest that strategies aiming to strengthen the linkages within the value chain, collective marketing, and improved processing technologies can enhance the development of the pickled tea value chain in Myanmar. Therefore, policy aiming at increasing farmers’ access to modern technology and inputs, developing infrastructure, cooperative development, and improving extension systems are recommended to accelerate the chain’s development.

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  • The influence of social support on the psychological effects of unemployment : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Economics at Massey University

    Marshall, Andrew (2000)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Over the past two decades the proportion of people suffering long-term unemployment has risen in the developed countries. It is agreed that transitory shocks to aggregate demand initially contributed to the high rates of unemployment but there are divergent views as to why these high rates have persisted. Some suggest that these shocks may influence structural factors on the supply-side of the economy. Darity and Goldsmith (1993; 1996) propose a labour market model in which the deleterious psychological effects of unemployment cause contractions in labour demand and supply to persist thus exacerbating unemployment. The model is outlined and the psychology literature concerning its tenets is reviewed. The literature is reviewed as to whether and how social relationships and support ameliorate the psychological distress associated with unemployment. To determine whether unemployment is psychologically deleterious and whether this may be offset by certain types and sources of social support, an exploratory survey examined a small cross-section of people registered with Work and Income New Zealand (WINZ) as unemployed a year before the study. The respondents included people who remained unemployed throughout the entire period, people who had experienced recurrent spells of unemployment and people who had re-entered paid employment and were employed when surveyed. No difference in psychological wellbeing was found on the basis of employment status but differences were found in perceptions of the availability of different types of support from different sources. Those who were re-employed when they were surveyed gained psychological benefits from support derived from the immediate family and associative relationships (e.g. neighbours, workplace and leisure associates). Emotional and socialising support derived from the immediate family appeared to be particularly psychologically beneficial. The analysis further indicates that psychologically healthy and distressed individuals differ in their perceptions of the availability of support from the immediate family and in the availability of financial support from the overall network.

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  • Austerity Measures: Presenting Food in British Writing, 1939-1954

    Taylor, David Andrew (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Rationing measures in force in the United Kingdom from the beginning of the Second World War in December of 1939 until July of 1954 ostensibly ensured an egalitarian access to food and resulted in a general levelling-up of standards of nutrition in the general populace. The restrictions and shortages that plagued larders and plates, however, meant that variety and stability became preoccupations for the British public on the home front. Against the backdrop of socially levelling austerity measures, popular writers used the public’s food consciousness to explore anxieties surrounding the demarcation and performance of identities challenged by the threats to Britain’s physical and ideological borders. Food is an invaluable lens through which to examine the shaping of identity during a period that challenged food and ideological security in Britain, particularly with respect to the performance of socioeconomic class differences, national identity and gender binaries. Largely structured by Pierre Bourdieu’s examination of consumption habits as an articulation of class and gender in Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste (1979), this thesis will examine the ways in which food representation serves as a fulcrum on which social and economic class identities pivot in Evelyn Waugh’s Brideshead Revisited (1948) and George Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty-Four (1949), and the acute awareness of the post-war custodianship of a damaged Britain. Secondly, it will demonstrate the ways in which austerity cookery literature not only upsets and recodifies national identity as constructed by quotidian consumption habits, but also the problematic configuration of duty to ahedonistic rationing as the housewife’s moral obligation to the nation. Expanding on this, it will consider the reconfiguration of Britain’s post-Empire relationship to the world and the enduring legacy of culinary creolisation as demonstrated in Constance Spry and Rosemary Hume’s recipe for Poulet Reign Elizabeth as served at the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II in 1953, and the claim to the sensual rewards of gastronomy in Elizabeth David’s A Book of Mediterranean Food (1950). Finally, it will examine the ways in which Virginia Woolf’s Between the Acts (1941) and Barbara Pym’s Jane and Prudence (1953) critique and subvert ways in which a mind-body duality structures the notions of gendered appetites, and the authors’ appetites for a transcendence of the fascism of the patriarchy undergirding the twentieth century. While the austerity years are often perceived as representing a dearth of culinary culture in Britain, it is better appreciated as a period of rich innovation and adaptation, where the yearning for security and identity forged complex texts ambivalent about Britain’s past, present and future.

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  • Puer tea: Ancient caravans and urban chic [Book Review]

    Galikowski, Maria (2015)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    This article reviews the book “ Puer Tea: Ancient Caravans and Urban Chic" by Jinghong Zhang.

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  • Tea in china: A religious and cultural history [Book Review]

    Galikowski, Maria (2015)

    Journal article
    University of Waikato

    This article reviews the book “Tea in china: A religious and cultural history" by James A Benn.

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  • Openness and the Intellectual Commons

    Peters, Michael A. (2016)

    Book item
    University of Waikato

    ‘Openness’ is one of the central contested values of modern liberal society and falls under different political descriptions. In this chapter I employ ‘openness’ to signal and introduce a new spatialization, interconnectivity, mobility, personalization and globalization of learning and education.

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  • Advances in agronomic management of phytoremediation: methods and results from a 10-year study of metal-polluted soils

    Vamerali, T.; Marchiol, L.; Bandiera, M.; Fellet, G.; Dickinson, N. M.; Lucchini, P.; Mosca, G.; Zerbi, G.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Among green technologies addressed to metal pollution, phytoextraction has received increasing attention in recent years as an alternative to physical and chemical methods of decontamination. Since 1998, as part of an Italian multidisciplinary research team on phytoremediation, we have been carrying out several agronomic investigations with field crops in agricultural soil and pyrite waste, both markedly contaminated by heavy metals. Phytoextraction was rarely an efficient process, requiring a long time even to remove merely the bioavailable metal fraction, but the great metal stock in roots suggests exploring the effectiveness of long-term in planta stabilisation. Poor above-ground productivity was the main factor constraining metal removals, especially in wastes. Without assisting the process, only zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn) and copper (Cu) were harvested by the canopy in substantial amounts, with an estimated maximum of ~8 kg of metals from an hectare base with rapeseed in the agricultural soil and only 0.33 kg with fodder radish in pyrite waste. Root growth was a key trait in species and genotype selection, in view of the close relationship between root length and metal uptake. The auxins, humic acids and chelators tested on the model plant fodder radish generally increased metal concentrations in plant tissues, but reduced growth and removals. It is currently concluded that phytoremediation efficiency with crop species may be improved through increased productivity by suitable soil management, involving mineral and organic fertilisation, contaminant dilution, soil capping, and metal immobilisation with inorganics and biochar. © T. Vamerali et al., 2012.

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  • High-resolution denitrification kinetics in pasture soils link N₂O emissions to pH, and denitrification to C mineralization

    Samad, M. S.; Bakken, L. R.; Nadeem, S.; Clough, T. J.; de Klein, C. A. M.; Richards, K. G.; Lanigan, G. J.; Morales, S. E.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Denitrification in pasture soils is mediated by microbial and physicochemical processes leading to nitrogen loss through the emission of N₂O and N₂. It is known that N₂O reduction to N₂ is impaired by low soil pH yet controversy remains as inconsistent use of soil pH measurement methods by researchers, and differences in analytical methods between studies, undermine direct comparison of results. In addition, the link between denitrification and N₂O emissions in response to carbon (C) mineralization and pH in different pasture soils is still not well described. We hypothesized that potential denitrification rate and aerobic respiration rate would be positively associated with soils. This relationship was predicted to be more robust when a high resolution analysis is performed as opposed to a single time point comparison. We tested this by characterizing 13 different temperate pasture soils from northern and southern hemispheres sites (Ireland and New Zealand) using a fully automated- high-resolution GC detection system that allowed us to detect a wide range of gas emissions simultaneously. We also compared the impact of using different extractants for determining pH on our conclusions. In all pH measurements, soil pH was strongly and negatively associated with both N₂O production index (IN₂O) and N₂O/(N₂O+N₂) product ratio. Furthermore, emission kinetics across all soils revealed that the denitrification rates under anoxic conditions (NO+N₂O+N₂ μmol N/h/vial) were significantly associated with C mineralization (CO₂ μmol/h/vial) measured both under oxic (r² = 0.62, p = 0.0015) and anoxic (r² = 0.89, p<0.0001) conditions.

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  • An empirical analysis of house price bubble: a case study of Beijing housing market

    Chen, R. D.; Gan, C.; Hu, B.; Cohen, D. A.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Increases in house prices can lead to higher house price volatility, a significant determinant of default and the prepayment of housing loans (Miles, 2008). Many researchers believe that significant growth in house price has the potential to generate a house price bubble. The bursting of a house price bubble is likely to endanger the stability of the country’s real economy. China experienced substantial increases in house prices at the end of 1990s. In Beijing, house prices increased dramatically following the liberalization of China’s housing market in 1998, and especially so after reforms in 2004. The significant growth of Beijing house prices could have generated a house price bubble, thus endangering the stability of the Beijing housing market and thereby the overall Chinese economy. This paper investigates whether a bubble existed in the Beijing housing market from 1998 to 2010, using economic fundamental variables such as interest rates, inflation, and cost of supply. Results of the analysis revealed that the Beijing house price index was significantly larger than the equilibrium value, based on the relative economic fundamental variables (income, inflation, interest rate and construction cost) during 2004 to 2007. This result is similar to the findings of Hou (2009), where nearly 75 percent of the changes in Beijing house price were thought to be explained by the economic variables used in the models.

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  • Illuminativa - The Resonance of the Unseen

    Ventling, Friedrich Derek

    Doctoral thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This practice-led creative arts thesis investigates the metaphysical notion of light as an activating principle and how this is subjectively experienced. Light is phenomenologically explored as a catalytic agent that is interactive yet ephemeral, influencing perception and consciousness. Light is also the research tool used to capture, develop and articulate personal discoveries through designed environments. Philosophically, the research is founded upon the medieval spiritual concept that illumination is a key transformational aspect of our cognitive journey (Bonaventure, 1996; Hayes, 1996; McAdams, 1991; Miccoli, 2001; Schumacher, 2009). This process begins with a sensory experience from making, and leads through philosophical thought to wisdom. In metaphysical terms, light may be understood as a connective agent and a force that provides stimulus and developmental capability. Of particular interest within this context is lumen, described as a state where archetypal light activates beings and radiates through them. This threshold between metaphorical and visible light is explored from the personal perspective of the contemporary artistic researcher. By conceiving material arrangements as sedulous yet unstable conjunctions of texture and light, I seek to creatively apprehend the vestiges of the unseen. As the observer and the observed, I am physically immersed in these experimental arrangements, actively probing and apprehending the deliquescent relationship between making, an embodiment in light and the conscious self. As resonant moments surface, these are captured as photographic documents. Selected images are then reorchestrated as a filmic narrative of sensory expression. Light then carries this projection within a designed installation, engaging viewers through an embodied experience of their own. The aim of this research is to invite a discourse on the potential of light, its generative manifestation and its tangible influence on our creative consciousness within contemporary artistic practice.

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  • Identifying pedagogical innovation in cultural minority classrooms: A cultural historical activity theory and appreciative inquiry perspective in the Philippines and New Zealand

    Abella, Ivy Samala (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This is a multiple case study which investigates teachers’ pedagogical innovations in cultural minority classrooms using Cultural Historical Activity Theory and Appreciative Inquiry as theoretical lens. Pedagogical innovation refers to a new idea or the development of an existing product, process, strategy, or method in teaching and learning that is applied in a specific context with the intention to create added value or the potential to improve student learning. The purpose of the study was to investigate teachers’ pedagogical innovations in cultural minority classrooms; the ways in which teachers mediate the learning of their students through pedagogical innovations in cultural minority classrooms; and how individual teachers’ school environments promote or inhibit the implementation of pedagogical innovations in cultural minority classrooms. A total of nine teachers and their classes from five public or state secondary schools in the Philippines and Aotearoa New Zealand participated in the study. Data were collected using observations, talanoa, audio-visual recordings, and documents, which consisted of lesson plans, school newsletters, and publications. Data were analysed within and across cases using a thematic approach and a comparative approach in relation to the five standards of effective pedagogy. The data suggest that there are two aspects to understanding pedagogical innovation in cultural minority classrooms: the tangible aspects or artefacts for learning, and the intangible aspects or appreciative mediation for learning. Artefacts for learning pertain to any human-made objects available in the learning environment such as classrooms, which are essential in engaging student learning. These are concrete manifestations of teachers’ creativity utilised in teaching and learning. Common examples of artefacts for learning used by teachers across all case studies were student modules or kits and teaching instruments such as visual aids, photos, and information and communications technology. Appreciative mediation for learning pertains to the positive and strength-based operations and/or actions, attitudes, behaviours, and outlooks of teachers, which result in student learning. These include genuine appreciation and collaboration with students, teaching initiatives, positive disposition, and self reflection. Factors that affect the implementation of teachers’ pedagogical innovations are grouped into two: the social support system and the structural regulation of the school system. The social support system identified in the study that promoted teachers’ pedagogical innovation, and are common across all case studies, were family, community, school staff, and students. The structural regulation of the school system was found to hinder teachers’ pedagogical innovation. Examples common across all case studies are lack of and/or limited artefacts for learning, inadequate professional development for teachers, impassive curriculum, and poor student attendance.

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  • Accounting for productivity growth in a small open economy: Sector-specific technological change and relative prices of trade

    Cao, Shutao (2017)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Many economies experienced a slowdown of measured productivity in the 2000s, coinciding with the commodity price boom. We use a multisector growth model for a small open economy to quantify the contribution of sector-specific technology and relative prices of trade to productivity slowdown. We show that the effective aggregate total factor productivity consists of two components: the weighted average of sector-specific technology, and the weighted averaged of domestic-export price ratios which reflect export costs. This extends the Domar aggregation result of Hulten (1978). When calibrated to the Canadian data, the model suggests that productivity slowdown was mainly attributed to two sectors: commodity; machinery and equipment. Cross-country data show that, in two thirds of countries that experienced productivity slowdown, slower productivity growth in sectors serving domestic market was a dominant factor, while in the other one third, reduced domestic-export price ratio played a major role.

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  • How does corruption distance affect MNCs' entry ownership strategies and entry performance? A combined lens of transaction cost economics and institutional theory

    Ning, Bo (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Purpose — Government determines the rules of the game that influence the strategies and actions of a firm. Government corruption increases the transaction costs and generates institutional pressures for MNCs. Corrupt countries are often economically attractive emerging markets, which are strategically important for foreign entrants. However, little research has been carried out as to discussing the role of market entry strategies in MNCs entering corrupt host markets. In this thesis, we focus on how firms strategically respond to corrupt environments, as well as how they succeed in the corrupt foreign markets. Theory/Framework — We first scrutinized two fundamental theoretical underpinnings that are pertinent to this research, namely, transaction cost economics (TCE) and the institutional view. Specifically, not only does corruption pervasiveness affect MNCs’ entry decisions, corruption arbitrariness and institutional forces also has important implications. Through a TCE lens, we decomposed the “arbitrary corruption” and focus on country-level arbitrariness, i.e., a “lack of political constraint” and “political instability” in a host country. From an institutional view, we analysed the influence of both external and internal institutional forces, that is, the legitimacy pressure from a host government, as well as the internal pressure driven by the ethical identity of a parent firm (based on the organizational identity theory) in the context of corruption. Drawing on the blended perspectives, we filled in the research gaps by constructing a conceptual model that connects corruption distance with entry ownership strategies, and the subsequent entry performance. Methodology — We manually extracted data regarding foreign market entry behaviours of US listed MNCs from periodical databases using the Event History Analysis (EHA). We ran empirical analysis to demonstrate how corruption and related factors affect MNCs’ entry strategies, and how these strategies produce different entry performance. By using logistic models, the first study examined the impact of corruption distance on MNCs’ strategic ownership choices between joint ventures (JVs) and wholly owned subsidiaries (WOSs), and how corruption arbitrariness and institutional forces respectively moderate the corruption-strategy relationship. The second study employed Heckman two-stage models to examine how corruption distance, selected moderators and entry strategy fit enhance entry performance. Key findings — Empirical findings in Study 1 suggest that as corruption distance increases, MNCs are more likely to choose the JV mode. They tend to choose strategic alliances when entering a host country with fewer political constraints. The results also indicate that both “lack of political constraint” and “political instability” negatively moderate the positive relationship between corruption distance and MNCs’ strategic preference for a JV entry. From an institutional view, the findings indicate that regulatory pressure driven by political intervention, as well as internal constraints in the form of corporate identity, affect firms’ entry decisions. As corruption distance becomes greater, international firms with less salient ethical identities show a greater inclination for local adaptation, whereas their ethically conscious counterparts show little conformity in their strategic response to host-country corruption. Study 2 advances the understanding of how corruption distance and entry strategies affect a foreign subsidiary’s entry performance and answers the subsequent “so-what” question. Employing an EHA-based measure of entry performance, we have found that 1) As corruption distance increases, foreign subunits are less likely to be successful. 2) In relation to the WOS entry, local partnership overcomes competitive disadvantages induced by corruption distance and generates more successful host-market entries. 3) As opposed to wholly controlled investment, local partnering would be more successful where a host country is more politically unconstrained. 4) We confirmed a positive effect of corporate ethical identity on entry success. Contributions/Originalities — Both studies contribute to the marketing strategy research in international markets by linking government corruption and relevant factors with firm strategy and firm performance through dual lenses from TCEs and the institutional theory. The research does not only have theoretical value in demonstrating the implications of corruption distance, but also sheds light on strategic decisions and foreign entry outcomes for international practitioners entering host countries under various transactional costs and institutional conditions.

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  • Brain Gain in Fiji? How do past emigrants’ experiences shape the education decisions and emigration plans of tertiary students in Fiji?

    Mudaliar, Lakshmin Aashnum (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis examines the case of Fijian youths’ increasing demand for higher education in order to explore the brain gain theorem. Its primary aim is to understand how past emigrants’ experiences shape the education decisions and emigration intentions of tertiary students in Fiji. This is achieved through semi-structured interviews with Fijian youths as well as an examination of policy and media reports. The research questions through which these aims are achieved are: Why do Fijian students enter higher education? Do Fijian students intend to migrate, and if so, why or why not? And what are the constraints and obstacles to Fijian students’ emigration intentions? The central conclusion of this thesis is that the brain gain effect is present in Fiji because half of the student-participants responded to the incentive effect, defined as the prospect of migration raising the expected returns to higher education, which is created by two distinct cultures of migration and three of the Fijian governments’ initiatives. The strength of their social ties determined whether they had perfect or imperfect information about the constraints and obstacles to their emigration intentions which in turn, determined the type of brain gain effect Fijian communities may be experiencing. In this thesis, the relationship between emigration and human capital formation is understood through the notion of the brain gain effect, defined as prospect of migration leads to a higher average level of education per individual in origin countries. Existing empirical studies have employed quantitative methods to establish the correlation between past emigration rates and current enrolment rates. The significance and novelty of this thesis lies in its adoption of qualitative case study methods in which real people were asked what they are doing and why, thus bringing us closer to a causal understanding of the relationship between higher education and emigration. In addition, by including ethnic and skill-level variables in the research design, this thesis shows that those remaining behind after upskilling may be some of Fiji’s ‘best and brightest.’

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  • Ice dynamics of the Haupapa/Tasman Glacier measured at high spatial and temporal resolution, Aoraki/Mount Cook, New Zealand

    Lui, Edmond (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Glaciers are among the clearest of signals for anthropogenic climate change and their retreat is considered symptomatic of the observed warming since the start of the 20th century from anthropogenic sources (Mann et al., 2004). New Zealand has 3,100 mountain glaciers, with those in the Southern Alps experiencing losses of 34% since 1977 and a decline in volume of 51 km3 in 1994 to 41 km3 in 2010 (NIWA, 2011). The direct impact of increasing atmospheric temperatures on glaciers is well understood (Chinn, 2012) through its effects on the melt and accumulation rates (Kirkbride, 2010; Purdie, 2011; Chinn, 1997; Oerlemans, 2001). However lake calving glaciers such as the Tasman Glacier exhibit different behaviour and are suggested to be at least partially decoupled from climate forcing (Benn et al., 2007). Here, I present a temporally and spatially complete study of Haupapa/Tasman Glacier, Aoraki/Mt. Cook over three years to investigate the ice dynamics at the terminus. I used oblique photogrammetry at high resolution for data acquisition and adapted computer vision algorithms for correcting this oblique view to a real-world geometry. This technique has been rarely used (Murray et al., 2015; Messerli and Grinsted, 2015; Ahn and Box, 2010; Harrison et al., 1986 and Flotron, 1973) but owing to its cost-effectiveness and high data yields, it is becoming an increasingly powerful methodology favoured by glaciologists. During the 3 year study period, Tasman Glacier terminus retreat rate Ur was 116 ± 19 m a⁻¹ (2013-2014), 83 ± 18 m a⁻¹ (2014-2015) and 204 ± 20 (2015-2016). A strong seasonal pattern was evident in the calving events. Three major calving events occurred over the study, one occurring in the summer of 2013 and two in the summer of 2016. The latter two events are responsible for the elevated Ur in 2015-2016. These events were characterised as distinct large-magnitude calving (usually as a large tabular iceberg) which continued to drift and break up in the lake for weeks to months. Three large calving events accounted for 47% of the total surface area loss for the 38 month study period with the remaining surface area loss from 2nd order calving including notching at the waterline and the spalling of lamallae of ice from surface fractures, and ice-cliff melt. During the spring/summer months of 2014 and 2015 there was no large buoyancy driven calving event such as those seen in 2013 and 2016, but there were many smaller-magnitude calving events. Smaller-magnitude events were less frequent in winter months as compared to summer months. Ice flow in winter has been shown to be less than in summer (Horgan et al, 2015). While seasonal temperatures and changes to the basal water pressure are linked to these observations, it is also likely that the relatively faster ice flow in summer/autumn could be influencing the rate of 1st and 2nd order calving mechanisms. Overall, the calving rates were calculated as 171 ± 18 m a⁻¹ (2013-2014), 136 ± 17 m a⁻¹ (2014-2015) and accelerated to 256 ± 20 m a⁻¹ in the last year (2015-2016). My results show that almost half of the ice loss at the terminus comes from large, infrequent calving events and that retreat rates for 2015-2016 were high compared to the historic record but the area loss is lower than it has been because of the relatively narrow terminus.

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  • A History of Video Games

    Metuarau, Tuakana (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This research begins with the premise that while video-games have become a pervasive cultural force over the last four decades, there is still a dearth of educational and historical material regarding the emergence of video game home consoles and their content. Games have an extensive history, dating back to early radar displays and oscilloscopes of the 1960s (Tennis for Two, 1958) and early home video game consoles of the 1970s (Magnavox Odyssey, 1972). From the JAMMA (Japanese Amusement Machine and Marketing Association) arcade standard of the 80s to the high powered processors of Sonys PS4, video games have come a long way and left a wealth of audio-visual material in their wake. Much of this material, however, is archived and engaged within a traditional manner: through text books or museum exhibitions (Games Master, ACMI 2015). Through interactive design however, this data can be made easily comprehensible and accessible as interactive data-visualisation content. This design research project explores processes of data visualization, interactive design and video game production to open up video game history and communicate its developmental stages in a universally accessible manner. Though there has been research conducted utilising game engines for visualizations in other fields (from landscape architecture to bio-medical science) it has rarely been used to visualize the history of gaming itself. This visualization (utilising the Unreal Engine and incorporating historical video content) creates an accessible preservation and catalogue of video game history, and an interactive graphical interface that allows users to easily learn and understand the history of console development and the processes that lead video games to their current state.

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  • Introducing remote printing into the publishing industry of a small, remote economy: The case of New Zealand

    Fabling, Timothy (2017)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This research investigates the expected effects on developed business models of introducing remote printing technology into the New Zealand book publishing industry. Remote printing technology will both address and improve on the constraints of geographical proximity and market size, enabling the New Zealand book publishing industry to collectively grow and experience future prosperity. Aspects of technological innovation and consumer behaviour are examined to explore issues surrounding geographic proximity and supply chain inefficiencies. Criteria are developed using Just-In-Time (JIT) theory and Supply Chain Management (SCM) to evaluate where remote printing technology might best be integrated in the New Zealand book publishing industry’s supply chain. The mutual effects between remote printing technology adoption and the expected effects on business models are evaluated, identifying which model is expected to provide the most significant benefits in a New Zealand context. A case study of six New Zealand book industry respondents was conducted. Qualitative data was collected in semi-structured interviews with members associated within different sectors of the New Zealand book publishing industry. The interview data was supplemented with secondary data sources, including publicly available information about the New Zealand book industry. A within-case and cross-case analysis was performed around the research identified above. By evaluating developed business models and assessing which model/s effectively address the New Zealand context, remote printing offers brick-and-mortar booksellers the ability to better compete with offshore online booksellers. The expected effects remote printing technology will have on the New Zealand book industry are presented. A major contribution to this study is that remote printing technology could in fact have a revolutionary impact on the New Zealand book industry, compared to what has been previously considered.

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  • Phase manipulation of speech using FIR digital filters

    Stephen, R. D. C. (1987)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Three related investigations involving the fields of FIR digital filters, phase manipulation of speech, and speech coding via bandwidth compression are reported. The first investigation is aimed at providing a means of generating the impulse response coefficients of a non-linear phase FIR digital filter. Existing methods of designing linear-phase filters are discussed and compared from a defined common comparison base. The methods available for designing non-linear phase filters are examined. An existing linear phase design method is extended to the non-linear phase case and shown to be useful. The required impulse response length in the presence of non-linear phase is studied. Particular emphasis is placed on "random phase" filters and their generation because they are required by the second investigation. The second investigation examines in detail the ramifications of phase randomising a speech signal. The analytic zero representation of speech which forms the underlying base on which the discussion, and answers, are based is elucidated. The technique of using a non-linear phase FIR filter is shown to be feasible and as a minimum, offers at least the same level of performance as a very early reported technique. Significant differences in the behaviour of male and female speech is demonstrated. The third and final investigation reports some early and incomplete experiments on a radically different approach to achieving band width compression and expansion of a signal. The technique is referred to as "phase unwrapping". It is based on the application of a linear phase FIR digital filter in an adaptation of the traditional convolution relation. The motivation and validity of the basic idea is outlined and justified via application of the procedure to simple sinusoids and one experiment using real speech. The fundamental problem to be overcome is identified and the basis of a possible means of solution indicated.

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  • After the Party: The Hollowing of the Antarctic Treaty System and the Governance of Antarctica

    Hemmings, A.D. (2010)

    Conference Contributions - Other
    University of Canterbury Library

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