305,766 results

  • Taylor Rule And Inflation Targeting: Evidence From New Zealand

    Zied Ftiti (2011-02-01)

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    New Zealand has the longest experience in inflation targeting. This policy was announced on March 4th 1989 and was put into action on February 1st 1990. In addition, New Zealand has the most clearly defined target and policy framework for achieving it. Thus, in order to conduct this policy, Taylor (1993a) defined an instrument, which is called Taylor rule. This rule applied to the US economy becomes a reference for all subsequent studies, which look for the rule or the instruments to conduct an inflation targeting policy. The New Zealand reserve bank (NZRB) has focused rather more strongly than the Federal Reserve Bank (FED) on price stability. So, we show that the Taylor rule with standard parameter didnt reflect the behaviours of the NZRB. In this paper, we try to find the best instrument, which reflects the behaviour of the RBNZ. The methodology of our paper consists in comparing some rules, like Traditional Taylor rule (TTR) and some style rules, which are different. Our methodology consists to select the best rule using both the Fisher test and the information criteria. The estimation methods depend on the result of the exogeneity, autocorrelation and heteroscedasticity. We find three important results. We show that the TTR with standard parameter used in the US doesnt describe New Zealand monetary policy. Therefore, we show that the best rule, which reflects the behaviour of the NZRB, is a forward-looking rule. Finally, an important result, which we interpreted with some discretion, that the exchange rate must be included in the rule.

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  • Analysis of alternative methods and price politic of icewine production

    V. Ostapenko; O. Tkachenko; E. Iukuridze (2017-06-01)

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    The artificial methods of must concentration were discussed in current study: the microwave vacuum dehydration, reverse osmosis and cryoextraction. The main factor of using of alternative ways is deficiently low temperatures in winter period that are necessary for freezing grapes on vine according to the classical technology. The benefits and disadvantages of using of non-classic processes to obtain sweet musts were shown. The physical, chemical and sensory characteristics of wine made from grapes previously frozen by alternative and natural ways were analyzed. Indicators influencing on price of icewines and dessert wines bottle including agricultural climatic, technological and marketing factors were determined.  Detailed indicators highlight specificity of used technology and represent consumer preferences. Producers of winemaking regions of Argentina, New Zealand, Israel, Ukraine and Australia adhere to provisions that are inconsistent with the standards of Canada and the European countries regarding the icewine output. These instruments determine the processing of grapes and parameters reflect on parameters of the finished product.

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  • Ophthalmic Combination of SurR9-C84A and Trichostatin-A Targeting Molecular Pathogenesis of Alkali Burn

    Kislay Roy; Bhasker Sriramoju; Rupinder K. Kanwar; Jagat R. Kanwar (2016-07-01)

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    Background: Alkali burn is a frequently occurring ocular injury that resembles ocular inflammation caused by eye allergies, infection, and refractive surgeries.Methods: We investigated the synergistic regenerative potential of dominant negative survivin mutant (SurR9-C84A) and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor trichostatin-A (TSA) against alkali burn and corneal haze using human keratocytes and rabbit alkali burn model (Female New Zealand white rabbits).Results: Combination of SurR9-C84A and TSA suppressed levels of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, alpha smooth-muscle actin (α-SMA), fibronectin and HDAC1, leading to apoptosis in myofibroblast cells and, showed the potential to clear the corneal haze. An insult with 0.5 N NaOH for 1 min led to neutrophils infiltration and formation of large vacuoles in the stroma. Treatments with TSA and SurR9-C84A for 40 min led to improvement in the conjunctival and corneal tissue integrity, marked by an increase in clathrin, and claudin expressions. An increase in TGF-β and endogenous survivin confirmed wound healing and cell proliferation in rabbit cornea. The blood analysis revealed a substantial decrease in the RBC, WBC, platelets, or the hemoglobin content post alkali burn. The cytokine array analysis revealed that NaOH induced expressions of IL-1α and MMP-9, which were found to be significantly downregulated (1.8 and 11.5 fold respectively) by the combinatorial treatment of SurR9-C84A and TSA.Conclusion: Our results confirmed that combination of SurR9-C84A with TSA worked in synergy to heal ocular injury and inflammations due to alkali burn and led to the regeneration of ocular tissue by increasing clathrin, claudin, survivin, and TGF-β and reversal of alkali burn by suppressing IL-1α and MMP-9 without inducing haze.

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  • The comparison between the absorption rate of rib cartilage graft with conchal cartilage graft in rabbit

    Soraya Shahrokh; Seyed Abolhasan Emami; Mohammad Javad Fatemi; Mir Sepehr Pedram; Saeid Farzad Mohajeri; Seyed Jaber Mousavi; Seyed Aboozar Hoseini; Tooran Bagheri; Shirin Araghi (2017-04-01)

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    Background: Cartilage grafts is one integral component in the various fields of plastic surgery particular rhinoplasty. Surgeons usually use from various sources, including the septum of the nose, ears and rib. Complications such deformity and reabsorbtion may be created with use of the cartilage. Area of the removal of cartilage can prevent these complications. The aim of this study was to compare the absorption rate and viability of cartilage autograft between two common donor site, the rib and the concha. Methods: This experimental study was performed on October 2014 in animal laboratory of Hazrat Fatima Hospital, Tehran, Iran. In this study, 15 New Zealand white male rabbits, weighing 2000-2500 g, approximately 12 to 16 weeks of age were used. In each rabbit, a piece of one ear and one cartilage was excised. After careful weighting of grafts, we implanted the rib cartilage graft into the left pocket and the conchal cartilage graft into the right one. After 8 weeks, the grafts were removed and weighed precisely and photography was carried out. The specimens were fixed in 10% formalin solution for histologic examination was. An example of hematoxylin and eosin staining and cut (H&E) were performed and samples of live chondrocytes and fibrosis were examined by a pathologist. Results: We lost 3 rabbits during our study. The results showed that the average weight of a graft from the ear within 2 months, but this increase was not statistically significant (P= 0.152). In the rib graft weight loss over 2 months, and this reduction was statistically significant (P= 0.009). The resorption between two group was not significant but the amount of fibrosis was more in conchal cartilage graft. Conclusion: According to the study it can be concluded that absorption rib cartilage is somewhat better results than the cartilage of the ear. More studies, in addition to cartilage implants longer human studies can contribute to more accurate conclusions.

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  • The Broad Concept Of Joint Venture: Should It Have A Fixed Legal Meaning?

    Maree Chetwin (2011-02-01)

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    What are joint ventures? What are the characteristics of a joint venture? Definitions and features of joint ventures will be considered in various jurisdictions with an emphasis on Australia and New Zealand. Should joint venture have a fixed legal meaning?

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  • International Harmonisation Of Accounting Standards: The Case For A Mandatory Requirement For The Direct Method Of Reporting Operating Cash Flows

    Christine Yap (2011-02-01)

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    Even though standard setters have now embraced cash flow statements there remains ambivalence as to the best format (i.e. direct or indirect method) for disclosing cash flow from operations. In 1987 the FASB asserted that information about the gross amounts of cash receipts and cash payments is more relevant than information about the net amounts of cash receipts and payments. Yet apart from Australia and New Zealand, most standard setting bodies, including the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB), permit a choice between the direct and indirect methods. When given this choice, the vast majority of companies have opted for the indirect method of reporting operating cash flows (OCFs). This difference in OCF presentation between jurisdictions is relevant in this era of harmonisation of accounting standards: both the European Union parliament and the Australian Financial Reporting Council have decided to set 2005 as the target date for the adoption of standards produced by the IASB. Underlying this policy of verbatim adoption of international accounting standards, presumably is the belief that adoption of standards issued by the IASB would lead to an improvement in financial reporting. Such a view was presented recently when current Australian accounting standards were criticised as being deplorable by the Chairman of the IASB, David Tweedie (Australian Financial Review, 5 August 2003, p.1). Yet by reviewing the literature on cash flow statements, this paper argues that not all Australian standards would be improved by adopting international standards. In the case of cash flow reporting, maybe the IASB should review its standard and accept the lead of Australia and New Zealand, by not permitting choice of method and mandate the direct method: surely an intended consequence of harmonisation is to narrow areas of difference and variety in accounting practice.

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  • Learning And Leadership In The New Zealand Biotechnology Industry: Innovation And Human Capital In The New Economy

    David Tweed; Judy McGregor (2011-02-01)

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    Human capital for the knowledge economy has curiously been a Cinderella topic for applied business research. This paper reports on a survey of New Zealand small and medium enterprises and is part of a wider Government-funded new economy sector analysis. The study, which utilised both a quantitative survey and qualitative theory development, examines the motivation for innovation, perceived skill shortages and managerial priorities for future development. This paper utilises the biotechnology industry to explore the competencies required for increased profitability and growth. It examines the paradox that while the new economy is people reliant and the multi-disciplinary nature of modern management includes knowledge management as a principal managerial competency, these aspects have received too little research attention. It was prompted by industry and academic acknowledgment that the primary inhibitors to progress are not technological but managerial. The findings point towards a new model of technological learning.

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  • The New Zealand Construction Contracts Amendment Act 2015 - For Better or Worse?

    David Finnie; Naseem Ameer Ali (2015-11-01)

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    Adjudication has been statutorily introduced as an alternative dispute resolution method in 14 jurisdictions including New Zealand. Whilst adjudication under the New Zealand Construction Contracts Act 2002 has been hailed a success, further refinements were proposed in the Construction Contracts Amendment Bill first published in 2013. As part of the legislative process, 48 submissions were made to the Commerce Committee. There was general support for most of the amendments, but some parties expressed concerns on some of the changes. A documentary analysis of the Amendment Bills and submissions to the Commerce Committee was made to critically evaluate the changes proposed and establish if they were improvements. The findings show the major changes proposed include (i) removing most of the distinctions between the treatment of residential and commercial contracts under the Act, (ii) extending the scope of the Act to apply to contracts for certain professional services, (iii) removing the distinction between enforcement of payment determinations and of those relating to rights and obligations, and (iv) making the enforcement process more efficient. The findings also show that during a period of over two years from when the Bill was first introduced in January 2013, one other significant improvement for retentions to be held in trust was made. A few proposals to further refine the Bill such as the suggestion to mandate retentions to be kept in a separate trust account were however not accepted. The Construction Contract Amendment Bill (Bill 97-3) was uninanimously passed during the third and final reading in Parliament on 20 October 2015 with most of the amendments coming into force on 1 December 2015, those incorporating professional services on 1 September 2016, and the retention provisions on 31 March 2017. Royal assent was given on 11 October 2015 leading to the enactment of the Construction Contracts Amendment Act 2015.

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  • PREVIEW: Prevention of Diabetes through Lifestyle Intervention and Population Studies in Europe and around the World. Design, Methods, and Baseline Participant Description of an Adult Cohort Enrolled into a Three-Year Randomised Clinical Trial

    Mikael Fogelholm; Thomas Meinert Larsen; Margriet Westerterp-Plantenga; Ian Macdonald; J. Alfredo Martinez; Nadka Boyadjieva; Sally Poppitt; Wolfgang Schlicht; Gareth Stratton; Jouko Sundvall; Tony Lam; Elli Jalo; Pia Christensen; Mathijs Drummen; Elizabeth Simpson; Santiago Navas-Carretero; Teodora Handjieva-Darlenska; Roslyn Muirhead; Marta P. Silvestre; Daniela Kahlert; Laura Pastor-Sanz; Jennie Brand-Miller; Anne Raben (2017-06-01)

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    Type-2 diabetes (T2D) is one of the fastest growing chronic diseases worldwide. The PREVIEW project has been initiated to find the most effective lifestyle (diet and physical activity) for the prevention of T2D, in overweight and obese participants with increased risk for T2D. The study is a three-year multi-centre, 2 × 2 factorial, randomised controlled trial. The impact of a high-protein, low-glycaemic index (GI) vs. moderate protein, moderate-GI diet in combination with moderate or high-intensity physical activity on the incidence of T2D and the related clinical end-points are investigated. The intervention started with a two-month weight reduction using a low-calorie diet, followed by a randomised 34-month weight maintenance phase comprising four treatment arms. Eight intervention centres are participating (Denmark, Finland, United Kingdom, The Netherlands, Spain, Bulgaria, Australia, and New Zealand). Data from blood specimens, urine, faeces, questionnaires, diaries, body composition assessments, and accelerometers are collected at months 0, 2, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36. In total, 2326 adults were recruited. The mean age was 51.6 (SD 11.6) years, 67% were women. PREVIEW is, to date, the largest multinational trial to address the prevention of T2D in pre-diabetic adults through diet and exercise intervention. Participants will complete the final intervention in March, 2018.

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  • Genetically modified organisms in light of domestic and world regulations

    Nikolić Zorica; Milošević Mirjana; Vujaković Milka; Ignjatov Maja (2007-01-01)

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    At the same time as development and registration of new genetic modification of plant species have intensified, the number of countries in which they are grown has also increased considerably. Genetically modified crops were grown in 22 countries in 2006, six of which were in European Union. Protocol on Biosafety, known as Cartagena protocol was adopted at the international level in February, 2000. Presence, but not growing of GMO in food is allowed in many countries, while in some others labeling of food origination from GMO is obligatory. Labeling is obligatory in European Union, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, Norway, Switzerland and some others. In our country the Law on GMO and sub-law acts were conceived according to EU regulative. The terms for limited use, production, trade of GMO and GMO products have been prescribed. Validation and standardization of GMO testing methods are now being implemented. It is expected that the analytical GMO methods will soon be harmonized at the international level. .

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  • Benchmarking: An International Comparison

    Greg Tower; Brenda Ridgewell (2011-02-01)

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    The study examines the impact of national research assessment exercises for the accounting and visual arts disciplines. Analysis is also made of the impact of a national research quality assessment exercise of New Zealand and UK initiatives (Tertiary Education Commission. 2004; RAE, 2001) and well as the proposed Australian RQF (2005). We find that whilst the definition of research is broad enough to include most of the activities of accounting and finance, and visual arts academia the actual measures of research performance may be problematic. The need to clearly demonstrate quality peer review is the largest hurdle especially for visual arts academics with their individualist and independent mindset. Whilst visual arts and, accounting and finance academia research performance activity was ranked low in both the UK and NZ, we conclude that that the focus on output quality and peer assessment offers a potentially broader and more accurate depiction of activity. Obtaining a balanced broader assessment of both traditional performance measures such as research publications of accounting and finance along with the more creative elements of visual arts such as exhibitions is paramount. We also make a call for more research training for both disciplines to assist them in the recognition of quality research productivity.

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  • Social Responsibility in Intra-organisational Procedures of Higher Education Institutions with AACSB Accreditation

    Andżelika Dzięgiel; Anna Wojciechowska (2016-10-01)

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    This paper aims to identify the core elements of social responsibility which have been applied in intraorganisational procedures of higher education institutions with AACSB Accreditation. The concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in entrepreneurial strategies means taking into account their social interests and environmental protection, as well as, relationships with different groups of stakeholders. In contemporary business, CSR activities are very important. Therefore, universities, especially those with prestigious accreditations, should also act in accordance with the rules prevailing in the business market. The Association to Advance Collegiate School of Business (AACSB) is a global, nonprofit membership organisation of educational institutions, businesses, and other entities. Higher education institutions with certificates represent the highest standard of achievement for business schools all over the world. For the research and analysis, there have been selected six universities from three countries: the United States, the United Kingdom and New Zealand. According to the international standard ISO 26000 dated as of 2010, social responsibility involves seven core subjects: organisational governance, human rights, labour practices, environment, fair operating practices, customer issues, community involvement and development. All these aspects were researched in intraorganisational procedures of selected higher education institutions with AACSB Accreditation. It is a comprehensive and objective comparison of several educational institutions in the world in terms of their implemented CSR activities. The results of the research show that the institutions under the study established a wide range of procedures for respecting CSR. They took into account transparency, respect to the law, human rights, labour practices and organisational governance. While they pay less attention to the environmental issues, fair operating practices and customer issues.

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  • The Mallocks of Heathstock and Horsley Down, Canterbury, New Zealand

    Harper, John (2012)


    University of Waikato

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  • A cargo of sundries: the Australasian Girle/Rosewell family

    Girle, Roderic Allen (2012)


    University of Waikato

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  • Loughran family history (includes Johnson, Kenyon, Ritchie, Carter, Byrne, Palitsch and Gerling families)

    Loughran, Mike, b. 1950 (2012)


    University of Waikato

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  • The Lesters 1875-2015: from Gloucestershire to the Matakitaki Valley, Murchison

    Pye, John (2015)


    University of Waikato

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  • A Ford family history

    Ford, Kevin (2012)


    University of Waikato

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  • The Northcott family oral history (in writing)

    Northcott, John (2012)


    University of Waikato

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  • Laurie and Gibbons families of Weymouth

    Mataga, P. D. (2012)


    University of Waikato

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  • The Stafford-Bush family: Ralph Harry and Muriel Daisy, their families, forebears and relations

    Stafford-Bush, Stephen D. (2012)


    University of Waikato

    Traces the Stafford-Bush family from the United Kingdom to India to New Zealand. The family's history in New Zealand begins with Ralph Harry Stafford-Bush, who left England on 17th April 1907 aboard the Rimutaka and arrived at Wellington, N.Z. on 4th June 1907, following in the footsteps of his older brother Lionel

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