305,339 results

  • The Impact of Digital Platforms on New Zealand Firms’ Entry Strategies: The Case of Alibaba

    Jin, Huijun

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The advent of digital platforms has changed the way in which Asia-Pacific firms conduct international transactions, condensing time and geographic distance (Manyika, Lund, & Bughin, 2016). However, the impact of digital platforms on firms’ internationalisation strategy, and in particular entry strategy, is under-researched in current International Business literature. This study aims to explore how digital platforms in China, and specifically the digital platforms of Alibaba Group, impact New Zealand small and medium-sized (SMEs) companies’ entry strategies in the Chinese market. Empirical data were collected from four New Zealand companies through semi-structured in-depth interviews. The results of this study suggest that digital platforms impact these firms’ entry strategies through easing entry barriers to some extent, particularly in helping overcome resource constraints and obtain access to networks. However, the participating firms still required local staff as a key part of successful market entry. Therefore, it is concluded that while digital platforms can help alleviate some entry barriers traditionally faced by SMEs, limitations in human resources still impose challenges on firms in seeking internationalisation in China.

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  • Development and Examination of In-browser GPU Accelerated Cryptography

    Win, Dajne

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    Many of us use encryption frequently whether realising it or not; it is the active yet often invisible element keeping our information and data safe. Despite this, many of us underestimate the value of encryption in our daily lives. Schneier (2016) explains encryption is instrumental in protecting identities, governments, lawmakers, law enforcement, military, critical infrastructure, communications networks, power grids, transportation, and everything else we rely on in society. “As we move to the Internet of Things ... encryption will become even more critical to our personal and national security” (Schneier, 2016). Understanding the ever-changing threat landscape, predicting potential trends, and current security issues are the core roles of the security researcher. The process of establishing frameworks helps mitigate risks of the critical reliance on encryption. One of the challenges encryption faces is it is inherently computationally intensive and therefore slow. Due to mobile devices' focus on performance over security, it is vital to find methods to accelerate modern encryption algorithms to preserve information security in the future. Previous research has successfully investigated the use of hardware to accelerate encryption algorithms. Algorithm accelerators have used Graphics Processing Units (GPU) for many years and have proven these to be effective for parallel workloads. An advantage is that GPUs are already part of most computer systems, making them a fertile area for research into hardware performance. However, previous research has been limited to system specific compiled code. This research explores the ability to perform acceleration on any modern browser through a scripted programming language. The selection of NTRUEncrypt for this experiment was due to its suitability towards acceleration, protection against quantum computers and as an alternative to RSA or Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC). A pure JavaScript and GPU accelerated version of NTRUEncrypt were developed. The Three.js library was selected to utilise the latest version of WebGL in modern browsers and reduce development time. OpenGL ES 1.0 compatible shaders then replaced the addition and convolution operations of NTRUEncrypt, utilising the system GPU for processing. Performance comparison of encryption and decryption between NTRUEncrypt.js and NTRUEncrypt-GPU.js was then performed. Polynomial convolution at the highest security settings was 1.6 times faster on the GPU compared to the Central Processing Unit (CPU). However, results from this experiment show NTRUEncrypt-GPU.js failed to accelerate the NTRUEncrypt cryptographic algorithm. Furthermore, comparisons within this research showed JavaScript was up to 80 times slower than C, C++, and Java. Future research into accelerated cryptography would provide further knowledge, understanding and open new opportunities for improvement to information security. While NTRUEncrypt-GPU.js failed to accelerated NTRUEncrypt using currently available standards, preliminary testing using Compute Shaders proved successful and warrents further investigation.

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  • Using DGHostTM To Determine the Hosting Capacities of Low Voltage Networks

    McNab SJ; Lemon S; Crownshaw T; Strahan R; Le Quellec I; Miller A (2017)

    Conference Contributions - Other
    University of Canterbury Library

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  • A comparative study evaluating the clinical efficacy of skin tapes versus silicone gel for the treatment of posttrauma scar in the rabbit model

    Chih-Chien Wang; Juin-Hong Cherng; Shyi-Gen Chen; Tsai-Wang Huang; Leou-Chyr Lin; Ru-Yu Pan; Yi-Hsin Chan; Chih-Hsin Wang (2014-01-01)

    article
    Directory of Open Access Journals

    Background: Skin tape and silicone gel are two common over-the-counter preparations used to enhance the cosmesis of keloids and hypertrophic scars of posttrauma wounds. This animal study was performed to determine the clinical efficacy of skin tape versus silicone gel in subjects with scars. Materials and Methods: Three New Zealand rabbits that received total 12 incision wounds which two incision wounds on one ear side and subsequent primary suturing were studied. Stitches were removed after 1 week. Silicone gel was applied right upper side of the rabbit′s ear directly on surgical incision wounds, and skin tapes were also applied left upper side of the rabbit′s ear directly on another surgical incision wounds after 1 week of surgery. The lower incisions in both ears were covered with sterilized gauze and served as controls. We compared two experimental groups at binaural with using Vancouver Scar Scale, Manchester Scar Scale, and The Stony Brook Scar Evaluation Scale. These are widely used in clinical practice and research to document change in scar appearance. Results: We describe a rabbit model for incisional wounds and scarring outcome measures. The results of scar measuring devices demonstrated that skin tape reduced scar formation as well as silicone gel. Conclusions: The results of cosmetic demonstrated that skin tape reduced scar formation as well as silicone gel. However, the economical and effective materials were the important subject that suffices for clinical requirement. The application of these scar prevention devices to reduce scar formation after surgical incision is worthy of future investigation. Moreover, skin tape may represent a low-cost alternative and low scar formation for closure of surgical incisions.

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  • Oral Administration of Tualang and Manuka Honeys Modulates Breast Cancer Progression in Sprague-Dawley Rats Model

    Sarfraz Ahmed; Siti Amrah Sulaiman; Nor Hayati Othman (2017-01-01)

    article
    Directory of Open Access Journals

    Breast cancer has been recognized as the leading cause of death in women worldwide. Research has shown the importance of complementary and alternative therapies in cancer. In this study, we investigated the antitumoural therapeutic effects of Malaysian Tualang honey (TH) and Australian/New Zealand Manuka honey (MH) against breast cancer in rats. Thirty syngeneic virgin female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were induced by the carcinogen 1-methyl-1-nitrosourea (MNU) 80 mg/kg. The treatment started when first palpable tumour reached 10–12 mm in size by dividing rats into following groups: Group 0 (negative control); Group 1 (positive control); and Groups 2 and 3 which received 1.0 g/kg body weight/day of TH and MH, respectively, for 120 days. The data demonstrate that cancer masses in TH and MH treated groups showed a lower median tumour size, weight, and multiplicity compared with the nontreated positive control (p<0.05). The antitumoural effect was mediated through modulation of tumour growth, tumour grading, estrogenic activity, and haematological parameters. Our findings demonstrate that systemic administration of TH and MH increases the susceptibility of expression of proapoptotic proteins (Apaf-1, Caspase-9, IFN-γ, IFNGR1, and p53) and decreases the expression of antiapoptotic proteins (TNF-α, COX-2, and Bcl-xL 1) in its mechanism of action. This highlights a potential novel role for TH and MH in alleviating breast cancer.

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  • In vitro and in vivo evaluation of carbonate apatite-collagen scaffolds with some cytokines for bone tissue engineering

    Sherman Salim; Maretaningtias Dwi Ariani (2015-01-01)

    article
    Directory of Open Access Journals

    Background: Collagen is regarded as one of the most useful biomaterials. We tried to combine collagen and carbonate apatite (CA) with some cytokines in order to enhance bone formation ability. In this study, we found that CA-collagen sponge (CA-CS) was a possible candidate of newly graft material for bone formation. Materials and Methods: CA-CS was fabricated by the following procedure. One wt% of pig hide collagen solution (Nippon Meat Packers. Inc., Tokyo, Japan) was neutralized with 0.1 N NaOH, and then mixed immediately 243 mg apatite powder with 0.06 M carbonate contents. After centrifugation at 1500 rpm for 10 min, excess water was removed, and the mixture was packed into Teflon molds (5.0 mm × 2.0 mm). Each 10 µg of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rh-BMP2) were involved in these sponges. Then these scaffolds frozen at −80°C for 2 h and dried in a freeze dry machine for 24 h. CA-CS without cytokines were also prepared as a control. Mouse osteoblast-like cell (MC3T3-E1) proliferations in these scaffolds were investigated by 3-day in vitro cell culture using MTT assay examination. Ten New Zealand rabbits (weight: 3–3.5 kg) were used in this in vivo study. After 3 weeks of placement, the scaffolds, rabbits were sacrificed, and bone formation in the sockets was evaluated histologically and histomorphometrically. Results and Conclusion: By histological observation and measurement of bone area ratio, CA-CS with cytokines showed higher bone formation ability (bFGF/CA-CS: 50.7 ± 7.3%, rh-BMP2/CA-CS: 54.2 ± 5.0%) than other groups. From the limited results of this study, it is suggested that CA collagen scaffolds with some cytokines may become an attractive scaffold for bone regeneration.

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  • Circular Migration as Climate Change Adaptation: Reconceptualising New Zealand´s and Australia’s Seasonal Worker Programs

    Christine Brickenstein; Gil Marvel Tabucanon (2013-12-01)

    article
    Directory of Open Access Journals

    This paper looks into an aspect of adaptation, namely the role of the circular migration as climate change adaptation. It focuses on two of the Pacific region’s recently well -known seasonal labor schemes, Namely Australia’s Seasonal Workers Program (SWP) and New Zealand ‘s recognized Seasonal Employer Scheme (RSE), and asks if beyond the current goals the schemes May be reconceptualsed as adaptation programs responsive not only towards developmental and economic Concerns but the wider (and interconnected With the first two) climate change challenges. According to MacDermott and Opeskin, labor mobility schemes, for the sending country focus on the “development perspective “such as (a) Employment Opportunities, (b) Regular benefits of Remittances and (c) skills enhancement, while receiving countries country can meet the challenges posed by labor shortages in seasonal industries where “a reliable workforce is lacking”.

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  • Through the long corridor of distance: Space and Self in Contemporary New Zealand Women’s Autobiographies by Valerie Baisnee

    Amanda Williams (2015-05-01)

    article
    Directory of Open Access Journals

    Review of Through the long corridor of distance: Space and Self in Contemporary New Zealand Women’s Autobiographies by Valerie Baisnee

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  • Unintended Sunburn: A Potential Target for Sun Protection Messages

    Geraldine F. H. McLeod; Anthony I. Reeder; Andrew R. Gray; Rob McGee (2017-01-01)

    article
    Directory of Open Access Journals

    New Zealand (NZ) has the highest melanoma incidence rate in the world. Primary prevention efforts focus on reducing sunburn incidence and increasing sun protective practices in the population. However, sunburn from excessive ultraviolet radiation (UVR) remains common. To reduce sunburn incidence, it is important to examine those individuals who experience unintended sunburn. This study aims to use data from the NZ Triennial Sun Protection Survey to describe respondents who were not intending to tan but were sunburnt after outdoor UVR exposure. Information on sociodemographics, concurrent weather conditions, sun protection attitudes and knowledge, and outdoor behaviour was also collected. The results showed 13.5% of respondents’ experienced unintended sunburn during the survey weekend but had not attempted to obtain a tan that summer. Respondents who reported unintended sunburn were more likely than others to have been near water and in unshaded areas, used sunscreen, had higher SunSmart knowledge scores, had lower positive attitudes towards tanning, and were outdoors for a longer duration with less body coverage. As sunburn was unintended these respondents’ outdoor sun protective behaviours may be amenable to change. Future public health initiatives should focus on increasing sun protection (clothing and shade) and reducing potential barriers to sun protection.

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  • Making Mathematics Learning More Engaging for Students in Health Schools through the Use of Apps

    Helen Willacy; Nigel Calder (2017-04-01)

    article
    Directory of Open Access Journals

    This paper reports on an aspect of a case study of four 11-to-13-year-old students of a Regional Health School (RHS) in New Zealand, using apps on their own mobile devices as part of their mathematics programs. It considers the issue of engaging students in mathematical learning when they are recovering from significant health issues. The paper examines the influence of apps on these students’ engagement with mathematical learning through the facilitation of differentiated learning programs. The research design was a case study with semi-structured interviews, questionnaires and observation used to generate the data. A number of themes arose from the data including both the positive and negative influences of apps on student engagement and the influence of apps on facilitating differentiated learning programs. The results indicated that using apps for mathematics had a positive influence on student engagement for most students. The positive student engagement seemed to be partly due to the apps’ ability to support differentiated learning.

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  • Eradication of invasive predators on seabird islands

    Dunlevy, PA; Ebbert, SM; Russell, James; Towns, DR (2011-09-08)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Direct impacts of seabird predators on island biota other than seabirds

    Drake, DR; Bodey, T; Russell, James; Towns, DR; Nogales, M; Ruffino, L (2011-09-08)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Impacts of introduced predators on seabirds

    Towns, DR; Byrd, GV; Jones, HP; Rauzon, MJ; Russell, James; Wilcox, C (2011-09-08)

    Book item
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Design foundations: Towards a model of style grammar in creative drawing

    Sweo, Jennie (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    A style grammar is a principled rule set that governs the organization of very complex ideas. It allows for the examination of underlying structures which are often times obscured. Style grammars have been developed for many fields such as writing, fashion and architecture but to date there is no style grammar for creative drawing. The research identifies the necessary visual features and core traits associated with each feature towards developing such a model for creative drawings. Then operational measures are defined using the computer to extract and measure the core traits of those features towards developing a model of style grammar in drawing. These visual features include line, tone, and depth. Core traits include line length, line width, line expressiveness, local tone, global tone, texture, pattern, outline, shape, and position. A multidimensional scaling (MDS) using input from 27 subjects, 10 art experts and 17 novices, supported the overall list of visual features and added the dimension of smudge to the list. A second MDS sort discusses issues with images and large art categorical sorts from the standpoint of both human perception and machine measures that were obtained using feature extraction. It was concluded from the results of the second MDS that large art categories were too broad to be useful in evaluating measures to develop the model. Further analysis was run using only drawings from three artists, two impressionists to compare similarity and one expressionist for dissimilarity to determine if the machine measures of the core traits of the visual features were able to differentiate smaller groupings of consistent drawing styles. Using the computer allowed for systematic and objective procedures to be used to obtain measures. The multinomial logistic regression showed high significance for all the traits except marginal significance for line length and no significance for depth. Binomial logistic regressions run on each pair of artists showed high significance for all the traits except depth. The combined positive results of the first MDS card sort and the binomial and multinomial regression analysis provide proof of concept and offer strong support towards the development of a model of style grammar for creative drawings. Implications for teaching drawing using the identified visual features and core traits are offered. The outcomes and analysis provided in this research currently support a general practice rule in design reuse and intelligent borrowing that suggests first smudge, then depth, then tone, and then line quality are the most significant elements to use for style comparison. Discussions for future research including improved measures and other types of perception testing are provided towards further development of the model.

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  • Resource legislation amendments 2017 fact sheet series

    (April 2017)


    Ministry for the Environment

    This page contains links to 16 fact sheets that give an overview of 2017 resource legislation amendments. Read more

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  • Planning tracks summary comparison

    (April 2017)


    Ministry for the Environment

    This document compares the standard, streamlined and collaborative planning process. Read more

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  • Streamlined planning process application form

    (April 2017)


    Ministry for the Environment

    This non-statutory application form is to help councils that wish to request a streamlined planning process under section 80C of the RMA. It includes the information requirements that are set out in clause 74 of Schedule 1.   Read more

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  • Checklist for councils

    (April 2017)


    Ministry for the Environment

    This checklist outlines mandatory changes enacted through the Resource Legislation Amendment Act for councils to implement through their resource management processes. Read more

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  • Joint reserve exchange - RMA process initiation flowchart

    (April 2017)


    Ministry for the Environment

    This process map is to help council consent staff to determine whether a joint process can be applied to a reserve exchange request with a plan change or resource consent application under the RMA. Read more

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  • From subject to device, history as myth in action : the evolution of event from mythic processes as revealed in Waterfront Dispute fiction

    Matthewson, Claire C. (1986)

    Post-doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    This analysis of selected New Zealand works defends the evolving function of history as fiction-material. It is intended to establish that purpose and treatment alter, as time further separates the writing and the event. The general change is one of development from subject to device properties. In tracing history's evolving role and treatment in fiction, analysis identifies history's eventual source - shown, in fiction, to be mythic and subjectively conceptual.

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