81,271 results

  • Investigation into the conservation of the regulatory pathways controlling flowering time

    Safavi, Manda (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Flowering is a prerequisite for crop production and its timing needs to be optimized to suit local conditions. In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, several flowering pathways regulate FT, a highly conserved protein known as florigen. FT is expressed in the leaves under long day conditions and moves to the shoot apical meristem to induce flowering. For flowering to occur, FLC - the major repressor of FT - needs to be suppressed by the prolonged winter cold, allowing FT to be expressed in the spring once the day length is long enough. This project set out to investigate the genetic regulation of flowering time in non-Arabidopsis model plants. Unlike FT, which is a universal floral promoter, a role for FLC has only been established within the members of the Brassicaceae family. To elucidate whether FLC-like genes control flowering time in plant families other than the Brassicaceae, Nicotiana benthamiana was used as a model plant belonging to the Solanaceae (tomato) family. To distinguish FLC-like genes from the other MADS-box genes, 10 amino acid residues were identified which are only conserved between FLC-like proteins, and are not conserved in other MADS-box sequences. Based on the conserved residues, two FLC-like sequences were identified in N. benthamiana. To discover whether these could function to regulate Arabidopsis flowering time, transgenic Arabidopsis lines were produced over-expressing NbFLC-like genes. A late-flowering phenotype was observed in the transgenic plants that suggested a conserved floral repressing function for NbFLC-like genes. Although the roles of the NbFLC-like genes could not be tested endogenously, two other genes - NbFCA and NbFPA - were investigated, as their homologues in Arabidopsis repress FLC. The late-flowering phenotypes of the knock-down Nbfca and Nbfpa RNAi mutants revealed that NbFCA and NbFPA contribute to the promotion of flowering time. Based on qRT-PCR analyses, it was appeared that unlike their counterparts in Arabidopsis, these genes potentially promote flowering through the activation of NbFT, rather than through the down-regulation of NbFLC. However, RNA-seq analyses of the Nbfca and Nbfpa RNAi lines indicated that FCA regulates NbFLC-L1 through alternative splicing. While FLC-like genes were identified from a range of plant families, there do not appear to be any FLC-like genes in legumes. As FLC plays a key role in the vernalization process, the lack of its homologues in legumes suggests that the process of vernalization might have involved an alternative mechanism. Our laboratory has recently identified a novel gene from the model legume Medicago that we hypothesize may have obtained an FLC-like function. In this study the up-regulation of this gene in response to prolonged cold, and its down-regulation in the subsequent warm temperatures, was identified by qRT-PCR analyses. Its up-regulation preceded the upregulation of MtFTa1 suggesting a potential function as an upstream regulator of MtFTa1 in the vernalization process. By studying knock-out mutants, the MtFD gene was identified as a downstream gene of MtFTa1 in the promotion of flowering time. Moreover, various candidate transcription factors from other organisms were identified as potential trans-activators of MtFTa1, MtFTb1 and the FT-derived ncRNA promoters, by transient assays. Amongst them, members of the DOF family were identified as novel regulators of these genes which have not been previously reported. Overall, this study provided further evidence that the floral repressing function of FLC-like genes is potentially conserved outside the Brassicaceae family. Evidence (NbFCA and NbFPA) suggested that the function of some components of the autonomous pathway may be conserved in N. benthamiana, although they may have diverged regulatory mechanisms. In Medicago, the vernalization-response of the FT-derived ncRNA and its potential function upstream of MtFTa1 suggested an alternative mechanism, independent of FLC.

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  • The Influence of Water Scarcity and Drought on the Lindis River, Central Otago.

    Loft, Jessie (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Water scarce situations are a critical issue in water resource management. Water scarcity can be exacerbated by drier than usual conditions (such as drought), and separating the effects of water scarcity and drought can be difficult. This study investigates the relative importance of water scarcity and drought on the availability of water in the Lindis River (Central Otago, New Zealand). The Lindis catchment is a tributary of the Clutha River and frequently becomes disconnected in the summer months. To determine the extent to which these extreme low flows are driven by abstractions versus the naturally dry conditions that occur in summer, a two-step hydrological modelling procedure was employed. First, the HBV-Light hydrological model was developed for the upper Lindis. This model is then applied to the lower Lindis, to provide an indication of what ‘natural’ flow should be in the lower catchment. Comparison of the modelled (natural) river flow record with the observed (anthropogenic + natural) river flow record suggested that summer river flow in the lower Lindis is substantially lower than it would be in the absence of human abstraction. Anomaly analysis indicates that the ‘natural’ Lindis River would not disconnect from the Clutha River from January-March, and would only have rare short disconnection events in December and April, in comparison to their frequent occurrence in reality. As such, the results of this study have the potential to provide vital information for the on-going management of flow in this catchment.

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  • Exploring grassroots leprosy organisations : is social inclusion and empowerment possible for members? : case studies in Ethiopia and China : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Development Studies at Massey University

    Duff, Isabelle (2005)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis explores reasons for the recent emergence of grassroots leprosy organisations and through case studies of two such organisations, ENAELP in Ethiopia and HANDA in China, shows that varying measures of social inclusion and empowerment are achievable by members working collectively and in solidarity. Two major factors contributing to the emergence of these organisations are the common experience of leprosy plus the failure of welfare programmes, both of which provide significant impetus to members for collective action. The key to success for a grassroots leprosy organisation is recognising the importance of operating with a participatory development approach which attributes equal importance to processes and results, cultivating a strong sense of ownership by members and opening the way to the empowering journey of self-determination. While some international anti-leprosy organisations cling to assumptions that decision-making and self-determination by leprosy affected people for themselves is not possible, others strongly support these grassroots endeavours. Although leprosy has been a scourge and a source of fear for thousands of years with social exclusion and disempowerment resulting for millions of people, this thesis concludes that grassroots leprosy organisations have the potential to transform historical perceptions of the disease. In addition, these organisations provide opportunities for leprosy-affected people to demonstrate how they wish society to regard and consider them. This thesis did not take a static view of social inclusion and empowerment, but rather analysed changes in terms of how they are moving towards these two inter-related goals. There is no doubt that movement towards both social inclusion and empowerment is occurring, showing that the finest struggles with the best results are those fought by oppressed people themselves (Freire, 1989).

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  • Fluoride inhibition of wine yeasts : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degress of Master of Science in Microbiology at Massey University

    Clayton, Miranda Gaye (1997)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Stuck or slowed fermentations are costly in time and money to winemakers. There are many variables that can interrupt fermentation. One of the lesser known factors is the effect of fluoride on grape juice fermentations. Winemakers in California have had problems with slow or stuck fermentations with grapes that have been treated with the insecticide Cryolite, which contains fluoride. A selection of 6 yeasts, 3 commercial strains and 3 natural strains, commonly associated with winemaking were used in this study. Preliminary experiments investigated a wide range of fluoride challenge with different pH and cell densities on solid and liquid media. The effectiveness of fluoride was compared between sodium fluoride and Cryolite, as the fluoride source. The effect of fluoride was more potent with sodium fluoride, as the fluoride source. The minimum inhibitory concentration of fluoride for the yeast strains was recorded. The most sensitive commercial yeast was Saccharomyces cerevisiae RS1, the most resistant commercial yeast was Saccharomyces bayanus RS2. The most sensitive yeast overall was Hansenula saturnus AWRI-354. The next stage examined the effect of fluoride on the selected yeast in small scale grape juice fermentations. Within this investigation the effect of different media sources and heat treatments was included. Fluoride concentrations reflected levels of fluoride found in grape musts and wines. During this study we found that the effect of fluoride on yeasts is increased with lower pH and lower cell densities. The effect of fluoride on yeast growth and fermentation was also strain dependent.

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  • Flower and fruit development in processing tomatoes : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Horticultural Science in Vegetable Production at Massey University

    Julian, Anthony Peter (1990)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Processing tomato crops are mechanically harvested from a single destructive harvest. The timing of this harvest to coincide with the maximum yield of factory grade fruit is of considerable importance to the efficiency of the field operation. There is a lack of information regarding where the factory grade fruit is produced on the plant and for how long the yield of factory grade fruit is maintained at its maximum level in the field. Two experiments were carried out in the Manawatu using the processing cultivars Castlehye 1204 Improved and UC 82B. The first experiment determined the time of flowering of all the flowers on the plant, the trusses in which these flowers were to be found and the position of these trusses on the plant. 132 days after planting all the plants were harvested and the number and position on the plant of the flowers which set fruit was determined. A normal distribution was found to satisfactorily describe the relationship between the number of flowers reaching anthesis and time. Plants on average carried up to 37 trusses. 65% of the yield was carried on the first 10 trusses to flower with 95% of the yield carried on the first 20 trusses to flower. The efficiency of trusses in producing fruit varied from 66% with the earlier flowering trusses down to negligible levels. Plants had up to 8 main order laterals and together with their attached sub laterals each carried from 4-5 trusses. The efficiency of flowering decreased with the position of the truss up the lateral. It was suggested that the competition between trusses for assimilates is far more important within laterals than between laterals. These results have implications for both crop management and plant breeding programmes. In the second experiment 9 successional destructive harvests were carried out commencing at the first sign of coloured fruit. Ethryl was not applied to the crop. The yield of red and factory grade fruit was found to peak sharply over time. The normal distribution curve was found to satisfactorily describe the relationship between time and the yield of both red and factory grade fruit and fruit numbers of these grades of fruit. Harvesting one week earlier or one week later than the optimum harvest date resulted in a loss of factory grade fruit of from 10-15 tonnes per hectare. The major cause for this rapid fall in yield from the optimum was due to an increase in the yield of red rotten fruit. In fact over half of the total number of fruit had rotted by 136 days after planting. This included a significant number of green fruit. The magnitude of this loss was only apparent because successional harvests were carried out. The total yield of fruit (all grades) was maintained over a considerable period as the loss in fruit numbers was balanced by the increase in mean fruit weight of the crop. The mean fruit weight of fruit did not increase once they had coloured. The percent soluble solids of red fruit decreased the week following any significant amount of rainfall. In the light of this research the effect of ethryl on the maturity characteristics of processing tomato crops needs to be re-examined by the use of successional harvests. Reliable techniques also need to be developed to predict the time of optimum harvest as these results suggest that it is much shorter than is commonly thought. The importance of fruit rots in reducing yields and thus effecting the length of the optimum harvest period is also apparent and is another area of research which requires further study. In the first experiment, the Normal Distribution Curve was found to describe the frequency of flower anthesis versus time relationship in two processing tomato cultivars; Castlehye 1204 Improved and UC 82B. Early fruit setting flowers acted as a strong sink as 90% of the final yield was carried on the first 18 trusses. Yield contributing trusses followed a pattern of increasing distance from the root system the later they flowered. Competition for photosynthate was mainly within laterals but also there was some between lateral competition. Flower trusses exhibited decreasing efficiencies in producing red fruit the later first flower anthesis occurred on the flower truss. In the second experiment, the yield of Factory Grade tomato fruit from the same two processing tomato cultivars peaked sharply over time. Harvesting one week earlier or later than the optimum harvest date resulted in a Factory Grade yield loss of up to 10-15 t ha-1for both cultivars. The Normal Distribution Curve was found to describe the relationship between Factory Grade fruit weight and number over time for both cultivars. Both red and coloured fruit weight were also found to follow the Normal Distribution. Over half of the total number of fruit rotted by 136 days after planting. Percentage Soluble Solids of red fruit decreased as rainfall increased in the week preceding harvest, with the converse also shown to apply.

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  • Exploring the effect of group polarisation on perceived invulnerability in general aviation pilots : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Aviation at Massey University

    Lee, Seung Yong (2008)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Although both perceived invulnerability and group polarisation are well known psychological phenomena, there has not been any research conducted to examine the effect of group polarisation on the level of perceived invulnerability amongst general aviation pilots. Two studies were conducted to measure the level of perceived invulnerability amongst general aviation pilots and to test whether the level of perceived invulnerability was affected due to group polarisation. The first study tested 34 pilots. Although the majority of the pilots exhibited perceived invulnerability, there was no evidence suggesting that low level group interaction induced group polarisation leading to an increase in individual's level of perceived invulnerability. The second study examined 78 pilots. Although the majority of the participants displayed perceived invulnerability, there was no evidence suggesting that high level group interaction resulted in group polarisation leading to an increase in individual's level of perceived invulnerability. There was no evidence that the two experimental manipulations (low group interaction and high group interaction) differed in effectiveness, as the effect size between studies I and II did not significantly differ. Although it is of some concern to general aviation safety that the majority of the pilots in both studies exhibited perceived invulnerability, the level of perceived invulnerability does not appear to be increased by a group polarisation effect. The latter finding is consistent with safe operations, having found no evidence that multi-crew operations lead to increased levels of perceived invulnerability. In addition to the implication of the current findings, limitations of the present study, possible areas for further research and recommendations are presented.

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  • Expression, purification and characterisation of recombinant peptide:N-glycosidase F. : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Biochemistry at Massey University

    Loo, Trevor Stephen (2000)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    PNGase F (Peptide-N4-(N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyl) asparagine amidase F) is an amidohydrolase isolated from the extracellular medium of the Gram-negative bacterium Flavobacterium meningosepticum. The 34.8-kDa enzyme catalyses the complete and intact cleavage of asparagine-linked oligosaccharide chains from their associated proteins. A T7 promoter-based E. coli expression system was developed in which PNGase F was expressed as a fusion protein with a leader sequence from the ompA gene. The hexa-histidine-tagged PNGase F was correctly processed and exported to the E. coli periplasm and had a calculated molecular weight of 36.2 kDa. A single step purification using immobilised metal affinity chromatography yielded 8 mg of pure protein per litre of culture. The sequence of the PNGase F coding region from the CDC strain 3352 of F. meningosepticum was found to differ from a published sequence from another strain of the bacterium (ATCC 33958) in 57 positions. These differences between the two strains result in eight amino acid substitutions, which are mostly conservative in nature and are on the surface of the protein. Moreover, three potential N-glycosylation sites not present in the ATCC strain 33958 were detected in CDC strain 3352. The recombinant enzyme has similar characteristics of the native enzyme with a pH optimum of 8.5 and is strongly inhibited by Ag+, Cu2+, Fe3+ ions but not by sulfhydryl-targeting agents such as DTT and NEM. This indicates inhibition by these ions is probably through interactions with a histidine residue at position 193 that may be involved in substrate recognition or catalysis. The specific activity of the native PNGase F is about four times that of the recombinant protein which may be contributed to inhibition by components of the CompleteTM protease inhibitor tablets used in the enzyme preparation or due to modifications for cloning and purification. Using a discontinuous assay and a non-labelled 11-mer ovalbumin-derived glycopeptide as substrate, a rough estimate of the Michaelis constant (Km) for the recombinant PNGase F was determined to be 2.1 μM. An intriguing observation with the activity assays was the apparent product inhibition of enzyme activity and the inhibitor may be either peptide and/or glycan components, which require further investigations into the cause of the inhibition.

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  • Genotyping of human and animal isolates of Giardia intestinalis : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Microbiology at Massey University

    Kwan, Errol Stephen (2002)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Giardia intestinalis is an important protozoan parasite that infects humans and animals. It has been suggested that cattle may be a major source of human Giardia infection so a dairy farming region of New Zealand was investigated. This thesis uses three molecular methods to genotype G. intestinalis isolates obtained from human and animal faecal specimens collected in the Waikato region of New Zealand, to determine if giardiasis is a zoonotic disease. Random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprinting techniques were initially assessed for their ability to genotype G. intestinalis isolates. "Clear cut" evidence of zoonosis could not be established by either method, due to a low sample number. To determine the stability of the G. intestinalis genome an axenic culture of G. intestinalis trophozoites was stressed with toxic levels of metronidazole and the survivors, following a number of passages, were examined using AFLP and RAPD analysis. The DNA fingerprints were compared to those of the original wild-type with the results being indicative of an unstable G. intestinalis genome. A third molecular method was employed, which amplifies a portion of the tandemly repeated ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Each cyst contains 512 head to tail tandem repeat copies of the rRNA gene made up of both conserved and variable regions. The use of nested primers increased the sensitivity and specificity of the PCR reaction allowing the amplification of a 505bp rDNA fragment. DNA sequence analysis and alignment of the amplified products facilitated the comparison of G. intestinalis isolates. The relationship of the sequence data was generated and displayed using Splitstree software indicating that zoonosis did occur.

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  • Factors affecting the soil binding capacity of the root systems of some populus and salix clones : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Botany at Massey University

    Hathaway, Robert L (1973)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Man-induced changes in the vegetation of New Zealand over the last century have resulted in large areas of actively eroding land, both in the steeplands which still retain a form of forest cover, and in large areas of moderate to steep hill country cleared for pastoral use. By 1941, the seriousness of the problem had been recognised, and Catchment Authorities were constituted, under the auspices of the Soil Conservation and Rivers Control Council, to undertake river and erosion control programs. Many techniques were used in erosion control work, but most emphasis has been placed on the planting of trees, largely Populus and Salix species. The planting of trees has proven to have a beneficial effect on counteracting erosion by slumping and gullying, both in retired areas and in those still grazed. It may be assumed that this effect is due primarily to the reinforcing and binding effect of their root systems. The reduction of soil moisture by evapotranspiration is considered to be of secondary importance, as water loss from these deciduous trees is very low in winter, which is the period of maximum soil moisture content and thus maximum instability. In the past, the selection of poplars and willows for erosion control purposes has been based on the growth and characteristics of the shoot of the tree, while almost nothing was known of the root systems. Variations in morphology and strength of root systems obviously are important factors in the selection of the most suitable species or varieties for soil stabilisation purposes. Objectives of the study The primary objective of the study was to Investigate the morphology, anatomy, and soil binding capacity of the root systems of a representative number of Populus and Salix clones, in order to determine whether any of the clones were likely to be superior for soil stabilisation purposes, and to determine which characteristics of the root systems were most important for this purpose, as a basis for the selection of improved varieties.

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  • Findings ways to survive : 24 (Auckland) Battalion and the experiential learning curve : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Defence and Strategic Studies at Massey University

    Connor, Pete (2006)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    For many years New Zealand's military historiography has been dogged by the myth New Zealanders were natural soldiers. James Belich believes that this myth had its origins in the Boer War, where Social Darwinism, attempts in New Zealand to forge a national identity, as well the British moral panic about the declining physical attributes of their fighting men, all collided and placed the New Zealand soldier up on a pedestal as an example of the moral fitness of New Zealand, and a validation of the notion that New Zealand was a 'Better Britain'.1 (James Belich, Paradise Reforged: A History of the New Zealanders from the 1880s to the Year 2000, Auckland, Allen Lane Penguin Books, 2001, pp.97-98, 104-105. ) Despite the trauma experienced by thousands of New Zealanders who witnessed combat during the First and Second World Wars, the public refutation of this myth by high profile soldiers such as Major-General Howard Kippenberger, and attempts by historians to try and dispel this myth, it continues to be repeated and as recent as 2004 the television documentary programme, The Khaki All Blacks, was expounding this argument, whilst John Thomson's 2004 book Warrior Nation, promotes such a myth in a subtle form.2 (David Crerar and Steven Orsbourn, Khaki All Blacks, Auckland, Oxygen Television, 2004: John Thomson, Warrior Nation: New Zealanders at the Front 1900-2000, Christchurch, Hazard Press, 2000.) This thesis will address this myth by examining 24 (Auckland) Battalion's experiential learning curve: That is, how did 24 Battalion acquire military experience and knowledge, both from internal Battalion sources, as well as from external agencies and then disseminate that knowledge and experience to prepare for military operations? While it is difficult to quantify an intangible value such as 'experience', enough information can be derived from a number of sources that can give an overall picture of the patterns of experience and the changes of experience levels during three periods of 24 Battalion's life. These three case studies are the lead up to the Greek Campaign (February 1940 to February 1941), the Second Battle of El Alamein (September and October 1942) and finally, the Third Battle of Cassino (January and February 1944). These three periods assess how prepared the personnel of 24 Battalion were for upcoming operations and what preparations, both through formal process such as training, and informal processes like a buddy system, were utilised to overcome perceived deficiencies. Finally 24 Battalion's actions in the three subsequent periods of operations are then studied in detail so the question can be asked, what impact did experience and the acquisition of military knowledge have on 24 Battalion's primary infantry role?

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  • Genetic diversity of Dothistroma pini in New Zealand : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Molecular Genetics at Massey University

    Hirst, Paul (1997)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Dothistroma pini is an important pathogen of Pinus radiata, New Zealand's major exotic forest species. This study was undertaken to elucidate the genetic background of New Zealand's D. pini population as part of a research program which aims to reduce its overall effect. Two major sampling strategies were devised and undertaken. The first involved collection from within an NZFRI field trial in which five year old host clones were available that had been scored for resistance to D. pini over a period of three years. This collection was designed to test the hypothesis that genetic differences would be seen between "resistant" and "susceptible" hosts. The second collection tested the hypothesis that polymorphisms would be observed between samples from geographically isolated regions, and that more variability would be seen between these regions than within any of them. For this study, samples were collected in a "hierarchy of populations" approach from three New Zealand forests: Kinleith, Kaiangaroa and Golden Downs. Additional samples for analysis included four D. pini samples which were isolated during the 1960's, and DNA obtained from a Guatemalan isolate of the teleomorphic form, Mycosphaerella pini. PCR amplification using 32 RAPD and 5 RAMS primers revealed no polymorphisms within two sets of five D. pini samples designed to be representative of the New Zealand population. Amplification was repeated with a larger number of D. pini samples using five RAPD and two RAMS primers, again showing no differences between any of the isolates and proving that the two sets of five samples were indeed representative of the population. However, differences were seen between D. pini and the isolate of M. pini with all primers used. RFLP analysis of the ribosomal DNA showed no differences among five D. pini isolates, but revealed polymorphism between M. pini and D. pini. RFLP analysis of tthe miochondrial DNA produced a universal hybridisation pattern in all isolates. Growth studies supported the molecular data, showing no differences between the isolates of D. pini. Morphological differences between D. pini laboratory cultures were observed, but these do not appear to correlate with any permanent genetic rearrangement. As a result of these studies, it was concluded that the genetic diversity of D. pini in New Zealand is very low and that all isolates examined appear to be of a single strain.

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  • Factors contributing to effective language laboratory use in New Zealand tertiary institutes : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Japanese at Massey University

    Nesbitt, Dallas (1998)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This study focuses on how language laboratories in New Zealand tertiary institutes can be used more effectively. The language laboratory is an excellent tool of learning which can be used to aid the development of both listening and speaking skills as well as a range of competency skills. Clear guidelines for use and management of this complex equipment with focus on full integration with classroom language teaching are not currently available to users of the language laboratory. The issues are: Our ability to use the language laboratory to its full extent Our ability to effectively manage the language laboratory Our ability to keep pace with the changing nature of language teaching Our awareness of the value of the language laboratory as a learning aid. The importance of the language laboratory to our teaching programmes Self-paced student-centred learning versus teacher control Discussion of the above with particular emphasis on training, preparation of materials, organisation and management, and integration with the classroom, help provide basic guidelines for improved language laboratory use and a basis for future research and debate.

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  • Immobilization of lactase to Perloza cellulose resins : a thesis was presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Chemistry at Massey University

    Yu, Min (2000)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    A bead cellulose matrix, Perloza, was chemically modified by two attachment chemistries to prepare inexpensive resins for immobilization of lactase. A commercial product, the base-activated matrix Eupergit C was studied for comparison. Three types of Perloza (Perloza 100 MT, Perloza 200 MT, Perloza 500 TM) were activated by epichlorohydrin (ECH) to achieve different activation levels. The best result for lactase immobilization was gained at low activation level (activated at 2% NaOH) for two attachment chemistries. The first attachment chemistry studied was that lactase immobilized directly to ECH activated Perloza. The second chemistry again used ECH activation and followed by attachment of the 6-amino caproic acid (ACA) spacer arm and then the lactase. In the first chemistry, Perloza 100-ECH-Lactase obtained the highest activity 11.4 NLU/g (wet resin) over Perloza 200-ECH-Lactase and Perloza 500-ECH-Lactase (40 hours immobilization). In the second chemistry, Perloza 200-ECH-ACA-Lactase retained the highest activity 30.9 NLU/L (wet resin) over Perloza 100-ECH-ACA-Lactase and Perloza 500-ECH-ACA-Lactase. Overall the best results were obtained for the ECH-ACA resins. This best of these results showed about 3 times better immobilization than without ACA spacer arm. The activity of immobilized lactase on Eupergit C obtained was 124~131.3 NLU/g (wet resin) for 24 hours immobilization. Although this result is about four times greater than Perloza, Perloza is a much cheaper matrix. In the storage stability studies, both Perloza and Eupergit C immobilized lactase showed a sharp drop in activity initially within 1 day, then activity loss leveled out. Perloza 200-ECH-ACA-Lactase retained 82% of its original activity after 9 days storage. However, Eupergit-Lactase only retained 39% of its original activity after the same storage period. This result indicated that Perloza 200-ECH-ACA-Lactase may possess much better storage stability than that of Eupergit-Lactase. Studies on the inter-relationships between pH. temperature and Perloza immobilized lactase using the substrate (ONPG) indicated that maximum hydrolysis was attained at pH 6.5-7.2 and over a temperature range of 30-42°C. No shift in the pH and temperature optima in comparison to free enzyme was observed as a result of the process of immobilization of lactase on Perloza for both attachment chemistries. The pH-activity curve of Eupergit-Lactase shifted towards more acidic pH values in the pH optimum in comparison to free lactase. The temperature optimum of Eupergit-Lactase shifted towards higher temperature compared to free lactase. This study showed that Perloza has potential for the large scale use as a matrix of lactase immobilization.

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  • Gender, goals and attributions : a study of form two and form five students : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Social Science at Massey University

    Loveridge, Judith (1986)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Gender differences for causal attributions were investigated in an interview, employing a methodology which allowed for the subjective construction of the situation by the student. The questions addressed students' own school work in science and reading. The interviews were conducted with 51 form two students (28 females and 23 males) and 57 form two students (28 females and 29 males). Predictions regarding differences between males and females were made in terms of goals in learning, causal attributions, and the relationship between goals of learning and attributions. Other variables addressed included students' self-perceptions for performance, views on the function of schools and why people go to school, and their perceptions of the gender-specificity of science and reading, as school subjects. Overall, there were no consistent significant differences in the responses given by males and females. Form two and form five students differed in the frequency with which they described particular activities as successes and failures. The discussion of the findings addressed their implications for findings from previous studies that have used rating scales, the proposed role of attributions in mediating gender differences and the implications for future research in the area.

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  • Facilitating a blended learning community : a collaborative approach to professional learning : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Education at Massey University

    Bell, Heather (2009)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis has researched the question of "How can blended learning communities be facilitated to support the professional learning of inservice teacher educators?" Inservice teacher educators work to build teacher capability with the ultimate goal of raising student achievement. This relatively small group of people work across large geographical areas and are having increasing difficulty meeting the demands of the teachers. In addition, inservice teacher educators' contact with teachers is often less frequent than is desirable to ensure sustainable shifts in practice. However the growth in internet-based collaborative tools has meant that different ways of communicating are being created at exponential rates. Due to the natural limitations on inservice teacher educators' work, innovative ways of sustaining the professional development they provide are becoming increasingly important. The action research project described in this thesis has investigated one of these innovative approaches; not towards shifting teacher practice but focusing rather on improving the practice of the inservice teacher educators themselves. Five inservice teacher educators known as Isteam (Inservice teacher educators at Massey) formed a professional learning community to investigate the use of blended learning communities which use a combination of both face to face and online learning environments. While this thesis discusses how blended learning communities can be facilitated to support the professional learning of inservice teacher educators, Isteam themselves investigated the potential of using both blended learning communities to support the professional learning of teachers they worked with. Isteam met physically face to face on regular occasions and carried on their learning virtually between meetings through an easily modifiable webpage environment known as a wiki. This thesis discusses how these two environments wove their relative strengths together to build the professional learning of Isteam in ways that far exceeded the possibilities of using one or other learning community on its own. Research findings indicate that blended learning communities require early phases of building knowledge and social relationships, and that developing pedagogical capability relies on these building blocks to be in place first. Blended learning communities worked most effectively to improve the professional learning of inservice teacher educators when the facilitator: 1. Provided a range of online and face to face opportunities for inservice teacher educators to build their professional knowledge and gain confidence and competency in using online collaborative technologies, particularly in the early phases of the community's development. 2. Engaged inservice teacher educators in a range of online opportunities, including non task-related activities, to develop social relationships and get participants 'talking' comfortably online. 3. Challenged inservice teacher educators to use their growing knowledge and social relationships as platforms for critically reflecting on their professional learning and practice issues. As a result of these findings, the inservice teacher educators involved in this research project are now strengthening the communities they have already established to ensure they grow to their full potential, and are mentoring other colleagues to develop their own blended learning communities in response to requests for help. Blended learning communities have piqued the interest of inservice teacher educators at Massey as having powerful potential to embrace the demands of working in the 21st century.

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  • An investigation into the mass media consumption of rural New Zealand adolescents : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Education at Massey University

    Kedzlie, Michael Liam (1999)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Adolescent New Zealanders are experienced, knowledgeable and fascinated consumers of the Mass Media. This case study based thesis investigated the mass media consumption of a sample group of Year 12 and year 13 rural secondary school students, living in the North Island of New Zealand during the winter of 1998. The thesis examined the sample groups consumption patterns, across a range of mass media formats and products, with reference to discerning any social class, gender and ethnic differences amongst their consumption patterns and preferences. The theoretical basis for the thesis stemmed from the writings of Pierre Bourdieu's notion of 'Cultural Capital'. The thesis broadly asked, how much mass media does the sample group consume, and what are the reasons behind this level of consumption? Comparisons of the sample group in this case study were made with previous New Zealand and Overseas adolescent media consumption studies. The thesis also drew from a range of further media research completed by Rosengren et al (1994), Steele and Brown (1995) and Holt (1998). The sample group were found to be enthusiastic consumers of mass media products, particularly those from the United States. American television programmes, recording artists, films, and videos were overwhelmingly popular, greatly overshadowing local New Zealand forms of the mass media. Considerable differences were found in the consumption of popular music styles, film and video genres, and computer based media technologies amongst gender, ethnic and socio-economic groups. Overall the sample group of rural adolescents allowed the mass media to assume a significant role in their individual lives as a way of coping with the physical and social isolation; gaining an understanding of and developing meaning from the wider world; and creating their own personal identities and values. High levels of mass media products derived from the United States are consumed by the sample group. This has raised the question; should producers and distributors of youth orientated mass media in New Zealand attempt to right this content imbalance, or should the emphasis be put into developing for our youth the critical skills to make informed media consumption choices using the platform of our education system? It is hoped that this thesis will provide media educationalists and analysts, an insight into how and why the mass media has achieved a place of huge significance in the lives of our New Zealand youth.

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  • Evolving concepts of moral education, 1970-1985 : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Education at Massey University

    Weir, Kama (2001)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Moral education is a complex and contested area of curriculum in New Zealand schools. This thesis examines the moral education debate from 1970 to 1985 and argues that much was achieved before the 'reforms' of the late 1980s diverted energy and time to other matters. The first part of the thesis introduces the debate by outlining theoretical considerations, historical influences, and social, economic and political contexts. The main thrust of the thesis explores different aspects of the debate through the reports, courses and conferences of the 1970s. The final section of the thesis examines the significance of developments in health education between 1980 and 1985 to the moral education debate.

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  • The evolution of Adolf Hitler's Weltanschuung : a critical study of his rhetoric, 1920-1926 : a thesis presented in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in History at Massey University

    Read, Carolyn (1997)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis tests the "orthodox perception" that Adolf Hitler was driven by a Weltanschauung which remained fundamentally constant from the outset of his political career. It argues that his theories and concepts underwent continual change and development. The evolution of the Nazi leader's world view is traced by examining his thoughts and reactions as expressed in his rhetoric during the period from 1920 to 1926, the era of his so-called "political apprenticeship". In order to demonstrate how Hitler's Weltanschauung evolved eight facets of his ideology are examined. These themes: the emphasis the Nazi leader placed on current event topics, the parliamentary system, the use of propaganda, the principle of leadership, the Nazi leader's equation of Jews with Marxism, his theory of Lebensraum, his belief in Aryan supremacy, and the role of faith, were selected either because of the prominence given to them in Hitler's own rhetoric, or because historians repeatedly identify them as central facets of his world view. This thesis establishes that acceptance of the received wisdom is an oversimplified means of explaining the genesis of Hitler's world view. The Nazi leader's ideology developed according to his own personal experiences as well as the political, economic, and social climate of the era. Hitler's Weltanschauung was far from complete at the outset of his political career and, in fact, some aspects first developed with the writing of his political autobiography, Mein Kampf.

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  • Contact killing of bacterial pathogens on metallic copper : a thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Microbiology at Massey University, Auckland, New Zealand

    Liu, Sha (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) are a serious health concern worldwide. Currently in New Zealand, about one in ten patients admitted to hospitals will acquire an infection while receiving treatments for other medical or surgical conditions. An emerging strategy for HAIs prevention is to use self-sanitising copper surfaces on items commonly touched in hospitals, which can provide sustained protection against microbial contamination. This is due to the fact that a wide range of microorganisms can be rapidly killed on copper in a process termed “contact killing”. However, the mechanisms of copper-mediated contact killing are not fully understood; and moreover, the potential of bacterial pathogens to develop resistance to metallic copper has so far not been examined. Here we hypothesize that bacteria are predominantly killed by a burst release of toxic copper ions resulted from chemical reactions between surface components of bacterial cell and metallic copper. To test this copper ion burst release hypothesis, we isolated and phenotypically characterized small colony variants (SCVs) derived from the two most common nosocomial pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Consistent to our expectation, SCV mutants overproducing exopolysaccharides (EPS) are more rapidly killed than wild type on the surfaces of pure copper (99.9% Cu) and brass (63.5% Cu). Similar results were obtained with a panel of mutants with altered production of cell surface components (EPS, lipopolysaccharides, capsules, flagella and pili) in a non-pathogenic model organism of Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25. Next, a unique approach of experimental evolution was used to assess the potential emergence of bacterial resistance to metallic copper. Specifically, P. fluorescens SBW25 was subjected to daily passage of sub-lethal conditions on the surfaces of brass. After 100 daily transfers, the evolved strains had a slight increase of survival rate on brass; but importantly, ~97% of cells can still be killed on brass within one hour. Taken together, our results clearly indicate that the rate of bacterial killing on copper is largely determined by surface components of a bacterial cell, providing support for the copper ion burst release hypothesis. Our primary data of experimental evolution showed that bacteria have limited ability to evolve resistance to metallic copper.

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  • Seeking the image-maker : an evaluation of Plato's account of negation and falsity in the Sophist : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Philosophy at Massey University, Manawatu, New Zealand

    Herbert, Simon David (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This paper will explore Plato’s metaphysical account of negation and falsity as outlined in Sophist, and evaluate some scholarly responses to it. It attempts to determine how the Forms interact when we say that something is not, or say something that is false. In order to achieve this we begin by examining the notion of a Kind (genos) that Plato seems to introduce in Sophist. This term is widely assumed to be synonymous with Form (eidos); we shall argue that the evidence does not support this, on the grounds that Plato seems to be using Kinds in a new way in Sophist, even though he has used the word genos before. Second, we consider the question of how a Form or a Kind may be said to have parts, and finally we evaluate some scholarly interpretations of negation and falsity, both on their own merits and in light of what we believe Plato’s purpose in seeking an account of negation and falsity has been. We propose some changes to an existing interpretation in order to make it fit more closely the results of our analysis of Kinds and the parts of Forms and so to more closely suit Plato’s requirements.

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