59 results for 1900, Conference paper

  • Clients’ motivations, perceptions, expectations and satisfaction levels: The New Zealand mountain guiding industry

    Carr, Anna M (1997-11)

    Conference paper
    University of Otago

    Mountain guiding has been offered as an activity for tourists to New Zealand for over a century. In the late Nineteenth Century European guides, accompanying clients, introduced techniques to New Zealanders working at the first Hermitage Hotel at Mt Cook who then chose mountain guiding as their profession. Guides today continue a tradition based on experience, skills and knowledge that enables them to operate as successfully as the mountains will allow. The New Zealand Mountain Guides association (NZMGA) has a qualification framework, certification and safety standards that are internationally recognised by the International Union of Mountain Guides (UIAGM). Companies offer year-round activities such as heli-skiing, avalanche courses, glacier walks, trekking, mountaineering and rock climbing courses, ice climbing and high guiding. The latter ranges from high altitude tramping, e.g. the Copland Pass, to ascents of major peaks in New Zealand or overseas in Europe, Nepal, South America, Alaska and Antarctica. Issues faced by the NZMGA include competition from overseas companies, concession procedures, maintaining traditional markets and seeking new ones, access to Mt Cook/Aoraki under Treaty claims, increased aircraft noise affecting product quality and potential conflict with other user groups. Over the 1997/98 summer climbing season the writer will conduct research focussing on the clients of NZMGA guides.

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  • Guided mountaineering clients in New Zealand’s Southern Alps

    Carr, Anna M (1997-12-02)

    Conference paper
    University of Otago

    Carr, A.M. (1997). "Guided Mountaineering in New Zealand's Southern Alps" in J. Higham and G.W. Kearsley (eds.), Proceedings of trails, tourism and regional development. Centre for Tourism and IGU, University of Otago at Cromwell, New Zealand, 2-5 December 1997, 23-32.

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  • Taking it slowly with managed care - Invited address in a workshop on Managed Care for Mental Health: International Experiences and the New Zealand Direction, Schizophrenia Fellowship National Conference, Christchurch. September 5-7. 1997

    Bridgman, Geoff (1998)

    Conference paper
    Unitec

    Managed care arose from a need to contain the escalating health costs of the insurance and litigation based US health system, which were rising at rates of more than 10% a year through the early 1990S. It is described as the application of market forces to health. It is an insurance based system in which health management organisations (HMOs) provide cover for illness through a range of preferred providers who discount their services partly on the basis of restricting the options for care relating to particular illness groups. The heart of the managed care system is the utilization review in which the cost-effectiveness of the options for care are analysed, resulting in the more wasteful options being eliminated. Utilization review studies have found as much as a quarter to a third of all medical services performed are of little or no benefit to patients. Utilization reviews have also shifted the emphasis of care towards preventative approaches. While managed care initially resulted in increases to the cost of health care it began to be very effective in 1994 (only a 6.5% increase in national costs) with managed care group health care costs falling by 1.1% and remaining flat in 1995. A recent newspaper report describes the "inexplicable" buoyancy of the US economy, with one commentator saying that the reduction in health care insurance costs was a major contributor. A majority of US citizens have their health insurance paid by their employer, and about half the US population (135 million people) is enrolled in a managed care system. The US government expects to save $250 billion through the implementation of managed care.

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  • Feedback model for an insect circadian clock

    Lewis, Robert D. (1988)

    Conference paper
    The University of Auckland Library

    An open access copy of this article is available and complies with the copyright holder/publisher conditions. Hemideina thoracica is a nocturnal orthopteran insect which exhibits clear circadian locomotor rhythmicity in constant conditions. Analysis of the free-running rhythms leads to the hypothesis that the underlying clock mechanism has two major interacting components, one responsible for the overt locomotor rhythm, and another whose output is not directly related to locomotor activity. A model comprising two linked populations of feedback oscillators accounts for much of the free-run liability seen in the real data.

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  • Statistical modeling of speech feature vector trajectories based on a piecewise continuous mean path

    Thomson, Mark M. (1995)

    Conference paper
    The University of Auckland Library

    An open access copy of this article is available and complies with the copyright holder/publisher conditions. One of the key tasks in speech recognition based on statistical methods is the calculation of the class conditional probability density. This paper presents a new statistical model of the trajectories of speech feature vectors. In this model each vector is assumed to correspond to a point on a mean path that consists of a number of concatenated straight line segments. The model characterizes both the deviation of the trajectory from the mean path and the deviation from the mean rate at which the vectors move through the vector space in a way that avoids the conditional independence assumption implicit in hidden Markov modeling. The model is formulated using a state space approach in which the state vector consists of only two elements. These represent the position on the mean path corresponding to the present observation vector and the rate at which points on the mean path are moving through the vector space. A method for estimating the parameters of the model using the Expectation Maximization algorithm is presented

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  • The maternal, fetal and postnatal somatotrophic axes in intrauterine growth retardation.

    Oliver, MH; Bloomfield, FH; Harding, JE; Breier, BH; Bassett, NS; Gluckman, PD (1999)

    Conference paper
    The University of Auckland Library

    Both the maternal and fetal somatotrophic axes are closely linked to fetal substrate supply. Nutritional insults at critical stages of fetal development may lead to permanent reprogramming of the relationships between these factors. The consequences of reprogramming during fetal life may be harmful to metabolic, endocrine and cardiovascular homoeostatic mechanisms in postnatal life. The exact mechanisms that lead to reprogramming during fetal life need thorough investigation before effective strategies to deal with this problem can be devised.

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  • Agent and web-based technologies in network management

    Wren, Matthew J.; Gutierrez, Jairo A. (1999)

    Conference paper
    The University of Auckland Library

    An open access copy of this article is available and complies with the copyright holder/publisher conditions. A close look at agent and Web-based technologies and their use in the management of networks is the main theme of this paper. An analysis of how this area has changed substantially, resulting in new difficulties and challenges for information systems professionals is provided. The components of network management, including people, information; the network infrastructure, systems and network management, and their interactions are looked at initially. The changes that have occurred in this area will be outlined by this analysis, and the resulting problems and complexities described. From this point the potential role for agent technology in providing some degree of solution is explored. This exploration also considers some of the negative implications, and introduces a model proposed as the basis of an integrated agent and Web-based network management environment

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  • Performance evaluation of a multiple-cell CDMA radio system

    Sathyendran, A.; Sowerby, K.W.; Shafi, M. (1994)

    Conference paper
    The University of Auckland Library

    An open access copy of this article is available and complies with the copyright holder/publisher conditions. A statistical method for evaluating the performance measures of the base to mobile link of a multiple-cell CDMA system is presented. Specifically, techniques and expressions for estimating the short term average bit-error-rate (BER), service reliability and link availability are developed. The link performance is estimated for a mobile at the vertex of multiple adjacent cells. In the analysis, the system is assumed to employ coherent BPSK modulation and direct sequence spreading and the received signals are assumed to undergo Rayleigh fading, log-normal shadowing and frequency selective fading. The effects of power control and error correction are also investigated

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  • Agent-supported information retrieval for natural language

    Loerch, Ute; Guesgen, Hans W. (1999)

    Conference paper
    The University of Auckland Library

    An open access copy of this article is available and complies with the copyright holder/publisher conditions. This paper addresses issues in using modeling techniques for a multi-agent system, which adapts and extends existing object-orientated (OO) representation techniques for parsing natural language. After concentrating on the main problems of natural language information retrieval, we focus on the details of the applied agent-orientated modeling techniques and assume a passing familiarity with OO modeling and representation techniques. In addition to the above, we discuss the utility of having a matchmaking agent which can reason over agent capabilities to recommend agents for specific tasks, where the capabilities and requirements are defined using a common service ontology. This ensures that the semantics of matching agent capabilities remains the same across the multi-agent system

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  • Generalised outage probability and BER estimation using dual protection margins

    Gurr, Helen; Sowerby, Kevin; Williamson, Allan (1994)

    Conference paper
    The University of Auckland Library

    An open access copy of this article is available and complies with the copyright holder/publisher conditions. The design of tomorrow's mobile communications systems will require accurate mathematical tools for estimating the performance of potential system configurations. Ideally these tools will be easy to apply and be based upon parameters that can be estimated by a simple appraisal of the propagation environment. In this paper a general outage probability technique for considering the effect of noise and cochannel interference on reception reliability is presented. The technique is used to assess the compatibility and applicability of previously published techniques as that either treat noise as cochannel interference or consider a minimum detectable received signal threshold. A simple yet accurate threshold-based technique is described and used to predict bit error rates (BER) for a variety of conditions. Specifically, outage probability is used to accurately predict average BER

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  • Enhanced methods of fuzzy logic control

    Li, H.X.; Gatland, H.B. (1995)

    Conference paper
    The University of Auckland Library

    An open access copy of this article is available and complies with the copyright holder/publisher conditions. A simple fuzzy three-term controller is introduced in this paper. A small modification of the conventional FZ-PI control can greatly improve the performance without using acceleration error. A normal two dimensional rule base is used, keeping the control structure simple. The effectiveness of this control method is shown by computer simulation

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  • Visualisation of object oriented program execution

    Hosking, John G. (1996)

    Conference paper
    The University of Auckland Library

    An open access copy of this article is available and complies with the copyright holder/publisher conditions. An environment for visualising object oriented program execution providing concrete and abstract views of program structure and behaviour is described. Of particular novelty are dynamic views using a road map metaphor

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  • EPROM cell with a magnesium electronic injector

    Kong, Sik On; Kwok, Chee Yee; Wong, Sai Peng (1995)

    Conference paper
    The University of Auckland Library

    An open access copy of this article is available and complies with the copyright holder/publisher conditions. By using Mg as the tunnelling electrode for an EPROM cell, it is shown in a control experiment that the tunnelling current is much enhanced while the tunnelling field is much reduced after a sintering procedure in which Mg reacts with the SiO2 dielectric. Potentially, this may lead to faster programming, lower programming voltages and better programming endurance. An experimental EPROM cell has been made and has demonstrated programmability

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  • Non-linearity measure of a problem's crossover suitability

    Mason, Andrew (1995)

    Conference paper
    The University of Auckland Library

    An open access copy of this article is available and complies with the copyright holder/publisher conditions. For any problem with an unknown fitness function, justification of an evolutionary algorithm as a research method necessarily relies upon conjectures about that fitness function. This paper formulates apparent crossover partition coefficients (a generalisation of Walsh transforms) and uses these to develop a new model of crossover non-linearity ratios. Experimental runs demonstrate that this theory can offer insights into the apparent tractability of problems under crossover

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  • Performance of a speech-data PRMA system in an in-building environment

    Orange, M.D.; Sowerby, K.W.; Coulson, A.J.; Butterworth, K.S. (1997)

    Conference paper
    The University of Auckland Library

    An open access copy of this article is available and complies with the copyright holder/publisher conditions. The performance of an in-building speech-data PRMA system employing frequency reuse is determined via computer simulation. Propagation measurements (at 1.8 GHz) made in the building in which the PRMA system is assumed to operate, are included in the analysis. Significant variations in performance are found to exist over the coverage area. Optimum system performance is obtained by allocating the entire bandwidth to each floor (i.e., complete frequency reuse) and re-transmitting any packets that are corrupted by cochannel interference. This significant result suggests that packet access schemes such as PRMA can provide an alternative to TDMA and CDMA based future wireless networks

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  • Distributed transaction management scheme for multidatabase systems

    Ye, Xinfeng; Keane, John A. (1995)

    Conference paper
    The University of Auckland Library

    An open access copy of this article is available and complies with the copyright holder/publisher conditions. Transaction management in a multidatabase system must ensure global serializability. Local serializable execution is, by itself, not sufficient to ensure global serializability, since local serialization orders of subtransactions of global transactions must be the same in all systems. In this paper, a distributed transaction management scheme is introduced. The scheme maintains the autonomy of the local database systems. It is free from global deadlock and guarantees fairness in the execution of the transactions in the system

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  • Fault tolerant model for a functional language parallel machine

    Ye, Xinfeng; Keane, John A. (1995)

    Conference paper
    The University of Auckland Library

    An open access copy of this article is available and complies with the copyright holder/publisher conditions. The paper describes a fault tolerant model for a functional language parallel machine. The model is transparent to the user and ensures successful execution of programs in the presence of hardware failure. The model is based on data replication. It takes advantage of the properties of the functional languages. The recovery scheme can be carried out simultaneously on all processors and occurs while “normal” program execution is in progress. Thus normal execution suffers less performance degradation than with other approaches

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  • ION architecture for robot learning

    Qualtrough, Paul (1995)

    Conference paper
    The University of Auckland Library

    An open access copy of this article is available and complies with the copyright holder/publisher conditions. It is claimed that one of the main reasons why the development of intelligent robots has been slower than expected is that machine learning has been seen as an “add on” feature-one to be placed in the higher and later-developed levels of robot architectures. A case is made for incorporating machine learning at the earliest possible stage, and relying on it as the primary method of developing robot controllers. An architecture is proposed to support this approach

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  • On the investigation of radiowave propagation mechanisms for future wireless communications services planning

    Neve, M.J.; Rowe, Gerard B.; Sowerby, Kevin W.; Williamson, Allan G. (1996)

    Conference paper
    The University of Auckland Library

    An open access copy of this article is available and complies with the copyright holder/publisher conditions. The global move towards mobile wireless communications is necessitating the development of efficient spectrum utilisation strategies. Effective spectrum sharing is a key issue, and requires an understanding of the mechanisms by which radiowaves propagate in real environments. A research project on radiowave propagation modelling for future wireless communications services being undertaken within the Radio Systems Group at The University of Auckland, New Zealand is described. A programme of experimental measurements of scaled building models (at appropriately scaled frequencies) is being performed to gain insight into the mechanisms by which radiowaves propagate in real environments. Several results are presented to illustrate the use of the technique

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  • Effect of receiver capture and cochannel interference on PRMA

    Orange, M.D.; Sowerby, K.W. (1996)

    Conference paper
    The University of Auckland Library

    An open access copy of this article is available and complies with the copyright holder/publisher conditions. The performance of a speech-only cellular PRMA system is analysed in an interference limited Rayleigh faded environment. The inter-cell interference present in such a system can significantly increase the probability of packet loss as well as reduce the overall system utilisation. In this paper an ideal 2-branch signal/interference ratio selection diversity scheme has been shown to be effective in combating the level of inter-cell interference. A cellular PRMA system with a cluster size of 4 was found to be the most efficient, in terms of system utilisation and number of users per cell able to be supported

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