2,873 results for 1900, Masters

  • Principal appraisal : fluxion and abatement : a grounded theory of principal appraisal in a small selection of New Zealand schools : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Educational Administration at Massey University

    Strong, Neville G. L (1998)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the circumstances in and around the principal appraisal process in five New Zealand primary schools. An outcome of this investigation was to generate a theoretical explanation of what was happening in this appraisal process. Data were gathered from five principals and their appraisers through a questionnaire and an interview. Through a constant comparative analysis of the data, a basic social process was discovered that consisted of four conceptual categories labelled as metamorphosis, metamorphic reaction, adaptation and palatableness. These categories were linked into a core category labelled fluxion and abatement. Fluxion and abatement is a conceptual statement of a continually changing appraisal process that has been grappled with and abated in a meaningful way by the appraisal participants. That no school site, of principal appraisal development and implementation, closely resembles another, is testimony of the fluxion and abatement theory. That schools are still talking of adaptation to the latest metamorphosis of professional standards and that a palatableness state is some time, even years, away, strengthens the theory produced in this study. These findings have important implications for a number of areas of school operation. The first is leadership. Will the school site strengthen or move away from a collaborative model of leadership? The study argues for a supportive board of trustees to the principal, who should engender a transformational leadership style. These collaborative approaches will see schools as educative communities rather than managed organisations. The second implication is in teaching and learning. Principals, working with their staff, need to have refined the meaningful data on what is happening in teaching and learning within their schools. The third implication is the principal appraisal process. This process should be used as a purposeful tool to achieve and produce evidence of the other stated implications. The last implication, school effectiveness, is the prospective outcome of such a principal appraisal process.

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  • The production and consumption of history : a discourse on heritage and nostalgia in the 1990s : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Geography at Massey University

    Brown, Annette Margaret (1998)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The dialectic of history as an ideology and history as a commodity can underpin a discourse on the production and consumption of history as heritage and nostalgia in the 1990s. History as an ideology is erased from the dominant space of representation, by history as a commodiy; therefore, history as an ideology needs to be discussed separately from history as a commodity even though they are not independent categories; this is because they are mutually constitutive of each other. The processes and structures that underwrite this dialectic, Capitalism and Modernity, produce different outcomes in different places and at different times; outcomes such as the cabinets of curiosity during early modernity, modernist and postmodernist museums, heritage sites such as country houses, a shopping mall and a disneyfied theme park arranged around a historic locale and the gentrification of some parts of the inner City of London. These objects of history are produced, reproduced and consumed by social actors in different places and at different times. The production and consumption of history as an object does not explain why these particular outcomes exist in the places and the times that they do. These outcomes need to be explained, and can be explained, by using a dialectical methodology. Such an explanation would look at the underlying processes and structures of Capitalism and modernity.

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  • Tourism in the Manawatu : an analysis of spatial patterns in the demand for and supply of motel accommodation : a thesis ... for the degree of Master of Arts in Geography at Massey University

    Devi, Vijaya (1981)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The study concerns one form of accommodation, the motel, in the Manawatu, a non-key tourist area in New Zealand. Initially prompted by a claim that Palmerston North, the regional centre, was losing out on important conference custom because of a shortage of accommodation, the study considers this question and proceeds to both describe and analyse motel characteristics in the region. Description includes salient characteristics of moteliers, motels and clients obtained from a questionnaire survey conducted in May 1980. Spatial variations in the characteristics are accounted for in terms of centre types: regional, subregional, market and recreation centres. The theory of hierarchical diffusion and the concept of central places are used in an attempt to explain the location of motels. Findings showed that a large proportion of tourist traffic comprised transient tourists; the shortage of accommodation at Palmerston North appeared to be seasonal rather than absolute; accessibility in terms of visibility did not influence profit and some measure of 'amateurism' was evident in motel management. Time constraints and the limited area of study, however, could have influenced these general findings. It is suggested that transit tourism may be important in other non-key tourist areas, most obviously in the Waikato because of its similarity to the Manawatu, and that further study of this overlooked aspect of tourism seems worthwhile.

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  • The Whalemen of Foveaux Strait, 1829-1850

    Irwin, Cecil H (1948)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Description: iii, 187 p. [9] leaves of plates : ill., diagrs., maps. Notes: Original lacks p.160. Thesis (M. A.)--University of Otago, 1948. Microfilm. 1 reel microfilm (negative).

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  • He kupu tuku iho mo tenei reanga : Te ahua o te tuku korero

    Higgins, Rawinia Ruth (1999)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    170 leaves ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department: Māori, Pacific and Indigenous Studies. "March 1999."

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  • W. E. Gudgeon : his contribution to the annexation of the Cook Islands.

    Currie, Ernest Rowland (1963)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    v, 90 leaves ; 30 cm. Bibliography: leaf iv-v.

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  • The history of the early gold discoveries in the Province of Otago, 1851-1863.

    Jefcoate, Harold Oliver (1922)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Bibliography missing.

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  • The Southland province of New Zealand in the days of Dr. J.A.R. Menzies (Superintendent, 1861-1864).

    Dreaver, A. R. (1929)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    59 leaves, [25] leaves of plates :ill. (some col.), col. maps ; 25 cm.

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  • Public perceptions, gang "reality" and the influence of the media : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Psychology

    Green, Alexandra (1997)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This research was designed to address the hypothesis that there is a wide disparity between how the public perceive gangs and the 'reality' from the gang's perspective and; that in part, the New Zealand media are responsible for this difference, portraying a negative image of gang members. Sixty members of the Horowhenua public and seven gang respondents were interviewed. The small sample size of the gang respondents made it impossible to statistically compare the two groups. Analysis was carried out on the spoken discourse of the public and gang respondents and the printed discourse of the news media. Chi square analysis was used on the public respondent sample. Demographic characteristics of the public respondents such as gender, ethnicity and employment status resulted in observable differences in the public's perceptions of gangs. In particular, feelings of having a gang resident in their neighbourhood, estimates on the number of people involved with gangs in New Zealand and perceptions of the media accuracy in reporting about gangs. Previous contact with a member of a gang was also found to influence respondents' perceptions of media accuracy. Increasing the sample size is likely to clarify these findings. Ethical and practical implications in conducting research on gangs are discussed and suggestions for future research are identified. Some practical implications of the present findings are mentioned.

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  • Te mahi kaipaipa i waenganui i nga tamahine Maori : nga ahuatanga e pa ana ki enei tawaitanga = Young Maori women and smoking : knowledge, attitudes, initiation and maintenance : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    Orbell, Claire Rachel (1995)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Cigarette smoking leads to many of the most harmful diseases of our time. The prevalence of smoking is excessively high amongst young Maori women. Most research has focused on knowledge of the health consequences associated with smoking, and attitudes toward cigarette smoking. Teaching individuals of the health consequences of smoking and attempting to change individuals' assumed positive attitudes toward smoking have been the basis for smoking prevention and cessation programmes Recent research suggests these programmes are ineffective in preventing or eliminating smoking. The process of initiation into cigarette smoking is not well understood. Also, the maintenance of cigarette smoking after initiation is not well understood. This is a mixed method study with young Maori women participants. The study includes both smokers and non-smokers. Non-smokers are almost always excluded from research into smoking but are a valuable source of information on smoking. A quantitative methodology was employed and a questionnaire developed to investigate young Maori women's knowledge and attitudes toward cigarette smoking. A qualitative methodology was used and a semi-structured interview developed to explore young Maori women's thoughts, feelings and experiences of initiation and maintenance of cigarette smoking. The aims of this study are to assess participants' knowledge of the health consequences of smoking and participants' attitudes toward smoking. The study also explores participants thoughts, feelings and experiences of smoking with an emphasis on the initiation and maintenance of smoking behaviour. Results indicate participants possess good knowledge of the health consequences of smoking. Participants were found to possess negative attitudes toward smoking. However, smokers were found to have more positive attitudes toward smoking than non-smokers. These findings are consistent with previous research. Results also indicate that social factors play the greatest role in both initiation and maintenance of smoking in young Maori women. Recommendations for future research and practical suggestions for prevention and cessation programmes are made.

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  • New Zealand television : what are the benefits of state ownership of television in a commercial world? : the public service broadcasting debate continues -- : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts (Social Sciences) in Media Studies at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Wyatt, John (1999)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Faced with the possible sale of our free-to-air state broadcaster Television New Zealand to overseas media interests, this thesis argues a firm case against sale, and sets out to create further public interest and comment. Television is valuable more for its programme content than its ability to raise revenue. Starting with the premise that television has a unique role as a mass communications medium in creating social reality, discussion centres on how ideas of cultural identity, democracy, sovereignty, and national identity are articulated and supported through locally-made, creative and diverse programming; and how this is strengthened in having the state broadcaster take a leading part in setting a high standard in the service provided. The tensions created by economic globalisation of media products are examined, especially in relation to how small nation-states such as New Zealand encounter a deterritorialisation of social identity arising through rapid technological advances and media processes which ignore national state and cultural boundaries. The origin of state television in New Zealand is documented, particular emphasis being given to legislative control, financial performance and the effect that organisational structure has on the content, diversity and standard of programmes scheduled. Maximising the financial performance of TVNZ through saturation advertising is questioned, and the recent polarising debate by politicians, commentators, and the public on the merits or otherwise of state ownership of TVNZ is covered in detail. A comprehensive study of the ABC and SBS in Australia is included, which informs an alternative proposal for TVNZ based on significant restructuring. This thesis concludes TVNZ should be retained in government ownership, but with TV1 guided by a charter which moves its prime function away from commercial imperatives. TV1 should concentrate on developing a broadcasting service dedicated to programmes which contribute a sense of national identity, and which reflect the cultural diversity and aspirations of all New Zealanders. To assist in these goals TV1 would be publicly funded to provide daily primetime ad-free 'windows' used to schedule programmes in line with its charter. TV2, and a range of industry mechanisms, would be used to ameliorate the ratio of tax-payer funding.

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  • Healthful housing : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Sociology at Massey University

    Lynch, Kathleen (1999)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This study researched the housing needs of incipiently homeless low-income households in Auckland. In particular it examined how the compromises and sacrifices low-income households must make to procure housing jeopardises their ability to promote and maintain health. Health within this study was defined holisticly including physical, mental, spiritual and family aspects as well as the dimension of ontological security. The participants were comprised of three groups: housing workers, community health workers, and most importantly the households in housing need. All participants were or had been connected with Monte Cecilia Emergency House. The role of the state, past and present, in assisting low-income households to obtain accommodation was examined. Particular consideration was given to changes which have occurred in the lost-cost rental sector through the move to market-level rents for state housing, and the introduction of a targeted, abatable accommodation allowance. The participants' stories demonstrated an increasing and serious level of unaffordability of rental housing. This had brought about both immediate and long-term detriments to health due to living in over-crowded accommodation and / or a residual post-rent income insufficient to maintain an adequate standard of living. Tangata Whenua and Tagata Pasifika were disproportionately affected by unaffordable housing. The need for a return to income-related state housing was high-lighted. Recommendation was also made regarding the urgent need of a comprehensive survey of housing need, both urban and rural.

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  • Structural, tectonic and climatic control of the fluvial geomorphology of the Manawatu River west of the Manawatu Gorge

    Fair, Eileen Eleanor (1968)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The Manawatu River is one of the major rivers of the North Is1and of New Zealand, draining a catchment of 2,296 square miles. The river is over 120 miles long and is one of the few rivers in the world to rise on one side on an axial mountain range, flow through the range and enter the sea on the opposite side. (See Fig.1.) The Manawatu River, rising on the eastern flanks of the Ruahine Range flows south to the 'Dannevirke Depression' (Lillie, 1953, 89) where it Joins the northeastwards-flowing Mangahao, Mangatainoka and Tiraumea Rivers. These rivers with catchments on the eastern side of the Tararua-Ruahine Range, drain an elongated basin which extends from north of Dannevirke to south of Eketahuna. They join the Manawatu River in the Dannevirke Depression then flow westwards across the Tararua-Ruahine Range in the Manawatu Gorge to the Kairanga alluvial plain. Although only one-third of the river's catchment lies to the west of the axial range, the river here has an attenuated course of 63 miles, a little more than half its total length. Between February and April 1967 the writer completed a preliminary study of the terraces along the Manawatu River, between the Manawatu Gorge and the river mouth at Foxton. Investigations revealed that the best terrace development existed on the ten miles between the Gorge and Palmerston North whereas, in the lower reaches, terrace development is limited by prevalence of flooding, the swampy nature of the terrain and the progradation of the coastline. The unstable sand dunes of the coastal belt have also masked most of the terrace series in the lower reaches of the river.

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  • Direct and correlated responses to selection for high or low ultrasonic backfat depth in Southdown sheep : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Agricultural Science in Animal Science at Massey University

    Ramirez, Jose Solis (1988)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Divergent selection was employed to establish high and low lines for liveweight-adjusted backfat depth (LABF) assessed ultrasonically in Southdown sheep. The selection lines were initially constituted from several sources with stock brought-in during the first three years of the experiment (1976-1978). These first years were used to evaluate ultrasonic equipment for measuring backfat depth. The lines were closed in 1979. Data analysed in this study were collected over 8 years (1979-1986) representing, approximately 2.66 generations. Selection was practised in two stages, with a preliminary selection based on the first LABF on the rams and ewes, and a final selection based on an average of all measurements assessed throughout the year for the rams only. Direct selection for high or low backfat depth resulted in the 1986 born animals in the high line having about 1.69mm (59.6%DEV) and 2.00mm (49.57%DEV) thicker backfat than the low line in the rams and the ewes, respectively. The responses to selection per unit of cumulated selection differential were in most cases high. Due to prior selection and difficulties in assessing the selection pressure, it was concluded that these regressions poorly represented the selection process. Correlated responses to selection for and against backfat depth were generally small. However, consistent positive correlated response were observed in liveweight-adjusted height and length (LAH and LAL) over the selection period. These responses imply a negative genetic correlation between these traits and backfat depth . This finding was in agreement with the published literature. Phenotypic correlations were calculated within-trait between-days and between-traits within-days. Correlations were pooled within-trait following tests of homogeneity. The within trait values were generally moderate to high and they were in agreement with the values reported in the literature. The between-traits correlation values were generally low, but were consistently negative for LABF-LAH and LABF-LAL, and consistently positive for LAL-LAH . Repeatability estimates, using the within-trait combinations, were also in agreement with the literature and suggested a moderate to high repeatability for LABF and LAH. Repeatability estimates for LAL were low to moderate and they were slightly smaller than the values reported in the literature. Estimates of the heritability of LABF varied with method used. The paternal half-sib method resulted in low values (0.14 to 0.19) while dam/offspring method gave moderate values (0.29 to 0.43) . Corresponding heritability estimates for LAH and LAL were about 0.31 and -0.14, respectively. These values were smaller than other results quoted in the literature. It was concluded that truncation selection on LABF reduced the genetic variability of these traits, although not to the same extent as for LABF. It was concluded that divergent selection for LABF was effective, resulting in lines with significantly different backfat depth at the same liveweight. Furthermore, selection for low LABF led to significantly longer and taller animals.

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  • Feed value of tagasaste (Chamaecytisus palmensis) for goats and preferential browsing activities by goats and sheep in multi-species shrub/pasture conditions : a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the degree of Master of Agricultural Science in agronomy

    Pande, Rameshwar Singh (1990)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The objective of the thesis work was to investigate the feed value and diet selection of tagasaste foliage vs lucerne hay chaff; browsing activities in mixed conditions of tagasaste shrub/pasture; and the preference ranking for forage shmbs species including tagasaste in multi-shmb/pasture conditions by goats as well as sheep. 1. Two eiperiments were carried out in The Animal Physiology Unit, Massey University and Grassland Division DSIR, Palmerston North. A) Indoor experiment: to evaluate DM intake, feed selection, digestibility, chemical compositions of tagasate foliage and lucerne hay. B) Outdoor experiment: to evaluate browsing activities of goats on mixed conditions of tagasaste shmb and pasture and goat behaviour. 1.1 DM intake, in- vivo OMD, in- vitro OMD and body weight change were similar for both tagasaste foliage and lucerne hay groups. DM intakes were 33.37 ± 1.64 (g/kg BW/day) for tagasaste foliage and 26.49 ± 2.22 (g/kg BW/day) for lucerne hay. In - vivo DMD were 70.42 ± 1.35 % and 66.94 ± 1.35 % for tagasaste and lucerne hay chaff respectively. Similarly, in- vitro DMD were 62.48 % vs 66.63 % for tagasaste and lucerne hay group. Tagasaste leaves only were higher in in - vitro DMD compared to stems only. In- vitro DMD of leaves were 69.29 % whereas for stems were 47.45 %. Tagasaste foliage and lucerne hay chaff were similar in Nitrogen (3.16 vs 3.21 % DM); NDF (45.89 vs 45.39% DM); ADL (7.10 vs 6.76% DM). But ash content in tagasaste foliage was less than half that of lucerne hay (5.18 vs 11.92 % DM). Goats selected most leafy parts of the tagasaste foliage, which were high in Nitrogen content and digestibility but lower in NDF and lignin than the feed offored. In the feed refusal of tagasaste foliage Nitrogen content was 2.52 % DM; and NDF and ADL were 55.1% and 9.0% respectively. However, such type of selectivity were not distinct while feeding on lucerne hay chaff, possibly due to its homogeneou$· nature. During the indoor measurement periods body weight change were 0.026 ± 0.008 (kg/day/kg BW) and 0.036 ± 0.008 (kg/day/kg BW) for tagasaste foliage and lucerne hay group respectively. 1.2 Goats spent more time on browsing on tagasaste foliage than grazing on pasture. Percentage of activities on browsing observations were 36.0 ± 2.08 % compared to 22.2 ± 2.08% for grazing and 41.7 ± 2.08% on idling. Goats browsed tagasaste foliage up to 1.5 m height. Bipedal stance was frequently observed. Goats ate dead bark of tagasaste branches particularly towards the end of the experiment period when there was no more foliage to browse. The use of artificial shelter was rare, instead of that they selected open and relatively dry places for night camping. Overgrazing might be harmful for better performance of tagasaste plants. Body weight changes in mixed conditions of tagasaste shrub /pasture conditions were higher than in indoor conditions while feeding either on tagasaste foliage or lucerne hay chaff as a sole diet. In shrub/pasture conditions body weight change was 0.133 ± 0.02 (kg/day/kg BW) and 0.122 ± 0.02 (kg/day/kg BW) for the two groups. 2. In the second trial preference for browsing by goats and sheep in multi-shrub species and pasture conditions including tagasaste, preference ranking for shrub species, and overlap of browsing activities between goats and sheep were evaluated in DSIR, Ballantrae Hill Station. The tested species were six leguminou~ shrubs includii:ig tagasaste, three non leguminous shrubs and two erect grass species. Leguminous species: tagasaste (Chamaecytisus palmensis (Christ) Hutch.), broom (Cytisus scorparius (L)Link.), tree medic (Medicago arborea L.), black locust (Robinia pseudocacia L.), gorse (Ulex europaeus L.), short spine gorse (Ulex europaeusL.). Non leguminous species: tauhinu (Cassinia leptophylla (Frost.F.)R.Br.), ceanothus (Ceanothus griseus (Trel.) Me Minn.), and manuka (Leptospermum scorparium J.R.et, G.Frost.). Erect grass species: toetoe (Cortaderiafulvida (Buchan) Zotov.), pampas (Cortaderia selloana Schult) Asch.& Graeb.). 2.1 The browsing activities of goats were high compared to sheep. Goats and sheep ranked shrub species differently, but the differences were not extreme. Similarly, proportional utilizations of shrubs were higher in goats compared to sheep. Overlap of browsing activities for shrub species was higher in summer and autumn than in winter. Goats spent 44.67 ± 1.3 % of activities on browsing compared to 11.56 ± 1.3 % of sheep. Grazing activities between goats and sheep were 48.57 vs 80.49 ± 1.3 %of total observation respectively. Similarly idling activities were 6.76 vs 7.95 ± 1.3 %for goats and sheep respectively. Low idling activities during the two hours record period might be due to the overnight fasting of the animals. 2.2 The most intensively browsed species were tree medic, tagasqste and ceanotlius by goats as well as sheep. Among the other species goats preferred gorse and short spine gorse compared to other shrub species while sheep preferred black locust and broom. Less preferred species were pampas, tauhinu, toetoe and manuka. Utilization of these species was higher by goats than by sheep. A comperison between these results and those of Lambert et al., (1989) indicated that there were some difference in estimates of preference made under indoor and outdoor conditions. The results indicate the potential of common grazing with goats and sheep especially in shrub/pasture conditions, in the absence of shrubs incorporation of tagasaste in goat farming systems could be useful .

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  • Bull beef systems for Wairarapa hill country : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Agricultural Science at Massey University

    Journeaux, Philip Ross (1987)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the viability of a number of bull beef production systems integrated with sheep, within summer dry and summer wet Wairarapa ·hill country environments. This was achieved by construction of a spreadsheet feed budget simulation model, based on representative wairarapa pasture growth and animal production data. The model balanced feed requirements over fortnightly periods, with unconsumed feed transferred between periods subject to allowances for senescence and decay. Gross margin analysis was used to investigate the financial profitability of the systems examined, including the base sheep policies used. A survey of commercial sheep/bull beef hill country farmers within the Wairarapa was carried out to verify the assumptions made in model construction and to identify practical problems/opportunities. Several off- farm factors were then considered (eg supply of bulls, availability of killing capacity, United States beef market) in terms of their on-farm impact and the outlook for bull beef, over the next 2-3 years. Following analysis of the survey and off-farm data, several farmers were re-visited individually, and then a follow-up group meeting was held, to discuss the results of the model and survey analysis. The study showed that there are a number of bull beef systems which are viable and profitable on Wairarapa hill country, and that the number of bulls farmed on hill country is likely to increase in the future. while some farmers were achieving levels of production indicated feasible by the model, many were producing below these levels. There is therefore considerable opportunity to increase meat production and profitability on these farms. There is also considerable opportunity, in terms of the supply of bulls, for the bull beef industry to expand within New Zealand, although there are some market uncertainties which could hinder this. The overall conclusion from this study is that the production of bull beef offers considerable scope to increase the profitability of North Island hill country farming, and that this industry will continue to expand.

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  • The segmental sensory innervation of the skin of the sheep : a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Veterinary Science from Massey University

    Kirk, Edwin James (1967)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The interest in the segmental basis of cutaneous sensory innervation evinced by the ancient Greeks was developed into a major contribution to experimental biology by the studies in man and animals by Sherrington, Head and Foerster. The present study is one of a number of more recent investigations of the dermatomes in animals from which a great deal of comparative information has been obtained. The particular significance of a study of the functional anatomy of the sheep in relation to veterinary medicine has been discussed. The experimental work described in this thesis involved particular consideration of the following 1. The features of the topographical anatomy of the vertebral column of the sheep which were found to be of importance in the experimental procedures. 2. The value of the "remaining sensibility" technique as a means of defining the dermatomes of the sheep. 3. The use of figurines and photographs in the schematic representation of the experimental results. 4. The justification for basing the definition of the dermatomes largely on the responses to pinch stimuli. 5. A discussion of the features of the dermatomes of the sheep in relation to embryological development and the observations which have been made in other species. 6. The changes in muscle tonus in the limbs which followed section of the dorsal spinal nerve roots or damage to the spinal cord. 7. The aberrations in feeding, defecation, micturition and respiration produced by various dorsal root sections. 8. The major pathways in the spinal cord followed by the primary afferent fibres, as revealed by the Marchi technique. 9. A general consideration of the significance of studies such as the present, and their possible extension to include deeper somatic or visceral structures. Details of the dorsal root sections undertaken have been provided in an appendix.

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  • The computer as an agent of inclusion : a study of current practice : a thesis submitted as partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Education (Special Education), Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Kearney, Alison (1999)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis investigates the nature and extent of computer use for learners with special needs and the context in which they are used. It investigates and documents the practices and beliefs of teachers who believe the computer to be an effective tool for including learners with special needs in regular class settings. The research addresses a number of problems associated with the use of computers in this field. First the lack of critical debate over the use of computers to facilitate the inclusion of learners with special needs in New Zealand schools. Second, while the computer has the potential to overcome many barriers faced by these learners, arguably, this is not always happening and in some cases, the computer can erect other barriers to inclusion. Finally, while it is known what the computer can do for learners with special needs, clarification is still needed on how to do it. The research explores these issues through the perceptions of the teacher who has a vital role to play in the successful use of computers for learners with special needs. The research is designed over two phases. It involves a purposive sample of teachers who have a learner in their class with a Ministry of Education funded computer for reasons of special need. Phase one uses a survey method in which a questionnaire is the vehicle of data collection. Phase one is divided into two parts: (a) the nature and extent of computer use by learners with special needs and the beliefs and practices of the teachers. (b) a comparison of the beliefs and practices of those teachers who believe the computer to be an effective or very effective tool for the inclusion of learners with special needs into regular classes with those teachers who do not believe computers to be effective in this role. Phase two employs a form of ethnographic research where semi structured interviews are used to collect data from six teachers who believe the computer to be an effective tool for inclusion. A analysis of the nature and extent of computer use reveals that most teachers feel confident and competent in implementing computer technology for the learner in their class, and believe that the computer has many advantages. It is less clear however, whether these advantages are being utilised. Most learners were funded through the Ongoing Resourcing Scheme, and the majority had more than 21 teacher-aide hours per week. They used their computers for less than once hour per day and predominantly in the areas of English and Mathematics. Most learners had an IEP, and the computer was written into that plan. The teachers who believed the computer to be an effective tool for including learners with special needs in regular classes identified a number of common beliefs and practices. A belief and commitment to the concept of inclusion, and the importance of integrating the computer into the regular curriculum, (including assessment and the Individual Education Process,) as well as the computer philosophy of the school were significant findings of the research. In sum, the research provides: • an overview of the nature and extent of computer use by learners with special needs, • identifies the beliefs and practices of teachers who belief the computer to be an effective tool for the inclusion of learners with special needs and • highlights ways in which the teacher, the computer and the environment in which it operates might best accommodate the needs of learners with special needs in inclusive ways.

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  • Strong in their spirits : women managers in the social services : a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Social Work

    Hawken, Dianne Barbara (1996)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    And where the words of women are crying to be heard, we must each of us recognise our responsibility to seek those words out, to read them and share them and examine them in their pertinence to our lives (Lorde, 1980: 15). Social services world-wide is a predominantly female profession with mainly female clients, yet is primarily managed by men. Although internationally there is considerable literature on women in management the main focus has been on how women can adapt to fit in to the male world of management. In Aotearoa New Zealand there has been little research on women in social services management. This qualitative study examined the experiences and practice of eight pakeha women, mainly middle managers, in a number of social service agencies in Aotearoa New Zealand. The thesis sought, by listening to their voices, to illuminate how they experienced organisational life and how they managed. The women in management literature was analysed within a framework that combined management theory and feminist theory (Padgett, 1993), management in the social services was explored, and research studies on women in human service management were examined. In this study the women managers' experiences fell into two distinct areas: their struggles and their strengths. The women felt "out of kilter" with the organisational culture and the current managerial climate. This was partly explained by feminist theory as being the result of the genderedness of organisations within our patriarchal society. The recent organisational changes through the implementation of managerialism in the social services was another significant factor. Juxtaposed to their struggles, were the strengths of the women, their skills, qualities and practices. They were competent managers with distinctive styles of operation. Drawing from the literature and the findings, four key feminist management practice principles were identified that offered an inclusive, transformational, woman-centred and service-oriented way of managing.

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  • Structure and dynamics of alluvial forest in the Pohangina Valley : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Botany

    Lusk, Christopher Harley (1984)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Species' population structures and replacement patterns are quantitatively described from intensive sampling of forest on alluvial surfaces of three ages. Observations and evidence from a range of other sites are incorporated to assist in tracing the development of forest on alluvial surfaces of the study area, and in examining factors influencing this development. Cockayne's postulate that: " ... the most important principle underlying succession in New Zealand forests is the relation of the different species to light." is investigated with respect to the study area. A Relatively even-aged totara-dominant dense podocarp stands have developed on floodplain surfaces made available by progressive channel down-cutting and lateral migrations. On older surfaces these first generation stands are replaced by forests dominated principally by the angiosperms tawa, titoki and mahoe. On a terrace surface c.2,000 - 3,000 years old, forest variation appears attributable to dynamic processes as well as differences in site drainage. On mesic sites tall tawa-dominant forest prevails, although recent windthrows have produced low groves of mahoe and other small angiosperms, and also apparently stimulated some podocarp regeneration. On xeric terrace sites, titoki and rewarewa dominate the canopy. Low densities of podocarps on the mesic terrace sites attest to very sparse regeneration after the demise of the dense first generation stands. The discontinuous size class distributions of podocarp species on these sites appear at least partially attributable tc speradic regeneration following major windthrows. Podocarp densities are higher on the terrace xeric sites, regeneration of matai and totara apparently being favoured by the lower vegetation density and higher understorey light levels. On these sites matai shows an all - sized stable population structure, and a cyclic discontinuous replacement of totara seems possible. Seedling growth experiments showed both totara and kahikatea to be less shade-tolerant than two large angiosperm species (titoki and pukatea, respectively) typically seen to be replacing them in old growth forests on their respective sites. Except on the terrace xeric sites, light levels measured in forest understoreys were mainly below the compensation point experimentally estimated for totara seedlings. These findings confirm that regeneration of kahikatea and especially totara is likely to be very infrequent in old growth forest on these sites. Cockayne's postulate does not completely explain species establishment patterns within these forests. However, the findings of this study lend support to his interpretation of "light relations" as the primary influence on successional trends, and suggest that regeneration of kahikatea and especially totara is likely to be largely disturbance-dependent.

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