763 results for Lincoln University, Journal article

  • Planning education and the role of theory in the new millennium: a new role for habitat theory?

    Montgomery, R. L.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    In the last two decades of the twentieth century, planning pedagogy in New Zealand responded to broader intellectual and social trends, and, arguably, indirect political pressures, with a turn or return, depending upon one’s view of planning history, to matters of process. I would describe this as a retreat rather than return. For example, the widespread rhetoric around the introduction of the Resource Management Act (RMA) in 1991 was that management would now be effects-based. Rather than formulate prescriptive or proscriptive policies, planners were to concentrate instead on guaranteeing that the process of assessing, approving or rejecting applications, handling appeals and monitoring consents was conducted in an efficient, transparent and democratic manner. Consequently, in the planning practice literature of the 1980s and 1990s and the first several years of the new millennium, the main emphasis was on best practice guides or protocols. For example, in New Zealand the 2005 Urban Design Protocol, published by the Ministry for the Environment, argues that good urban design follows the “seven ‘c’s”: context, character, choice, connections, creativity, custodianship, and collaboration. While such principles have merit, they require what I would term the eighth ‘c’: content that operationalises the principles (i.e., what actually makes for durable urban design). Disappointingly, the Urban Design Protocol shies away from saying anything about what is good versus bad urban design.

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  • An evaluation of self-governance in the New Zealand Bluff oyster fishery – the indicator system approach

    Yang, Yu Wen; Cullen, Ross; Hearnshaw, Edward J. S.; MacDonald, Ian A.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Pre-print version of journal article from Marine Policy, 2013.

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  • Assignment of measurable costs and benefits to wildlife biodiversity conservation projects

    Shwiff, S. A.; Anderson, A.; Cullen, Ross; White, P.; Shwiff, S. S.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Pre-print version of a journal article in Wildlife Research 40(2), 2013.

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  • Biodiversity protection prioritisation: a 25 year review

    Cullen, Ross

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Pre-print version of a journal article published in Wildlife Research 40(2), 2013.

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  • Interdisciplinarity in biodiversity project evaluation: a work in progress

    Cullen, Ross; White, Piran C. L.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Pre-print version of a journal article published in Wildlife Research, 40(2), 2013.

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  • It’s not what we are drinking, it’s how we are planning

    Toner, Justine

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    The devastating earthquakes of September 2010 and February 2011 have without question upset the Christchurch City way of life for all. Families and businesses, as well as the natural and built environments have been directly affected, and our social landscapes have since evolved to accommodate the visible changes. Though not perhaps seen as a priority, the Christchurch nightlife has been profoundly altered by the quakes and the once popular CBD clubbing scene has ceased to exist. The concern highlighted in this article is the way in which this has put pressure on suburban bars and the the implications of this for local residents.

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  • Closed form solution of an exponential kernel integral equation

    Verwoerd, W.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    In this note a Fredholm integral equation of the first kind with exponential expressions for the kernel and right hand side is considered. The task of finding a practically usable solution to such an equation may need more effort than following a standard procedure, even when such a procedure yields a formal solution. An apparently elegant solution as an orthogonal polynomial expansion is obtained using the standard method based on transformation to a form where the kernel is an orthogonal polynomial generating function, but this is of limited use due to slow convergence. It is shown that this can nevertheless be transformed into a closed form solution that is computationally efficient.

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  • Developing guidelines for riverfront developments for Malaysia

    Md Yassin, A.; Bond, S.; McDonagh, J.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Rivers and water are important resources for human life, the environment and national development. In Malaysia, the importance of rivers as the focal point of cities was established from the early times of civilisation and will remain so. Population growth, economic growth, urbanisation and increased technology have transformed many Malaysian river systems from water industries into non water industries. Due to these changes, the functions of riverfront areas have also changed and the current pattern of riverfront development in Malaysia now focuses more on mixed-use development and recreation. To date, numbers of riverfront development projects are being developed in Malaysia for recreation, residential and mixed-use. Unfortunately, in most cases, the developments identified are not successful, having cost effects more than their economic value. Example are increases in water pollution indexes and rates of juvenile problems. The focus of this study was to identify the attributes of riverfront development, in order to develop guidelines for riverfront development for Malaysia. The findings of this study were based on interviews conducted with Government officers, Property developers, and the Waterfront community from three case study areas (qualitative phase), and from questionnaires mailed and e-mailed to property development companies listed under Bursa Malaysia (quantitative phase). The findings identified 18 attributes to be used in assisting developers when undertaking riverfront projects in the future. The attributes identified were then recommended to be used as guidelines of best practices of riverfront development in Malaysia.

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  • Clean and green but messy: the contested landscape of New Zealand's organic farms

    Egoz, Y.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    New Zealand's 'Clean and Green' image of nature and landscape has been naturalised into the collective psyche of New Zealanders, and is continually being promoted to tourists and visitors. There is, however, a tension in this vision in the farmed landscape. While 'Clean' refers to un-polluted, pure, pristine landscape, it also has connotations of tidiness. The increasing trend towards organic farming brings an apparent contradiction to this image, as the practices of organic farming do not conform to the general tidy appearance of cultivated landscapes in New Zealand. This paper argues that landscape tastes of New Zealand farmers are underpinned by ideologies, world views and social values and suggests a framework that could provide a context for interpreting some of the meanings embodied in the New Zealand farming landscape.

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  • Improving the quality of wool through the use of gene markers

    Itenge Mweza, T.; Hickford, J.; Forrest, R.; McKenzie, G.; Frampton, C.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    This study aimed at identifying gene markers associated with wool quality traits in Merino and Merino Cross sheep using a candidate gene approach. Polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) analysis was used to identify sequence variation in the KAP1.3 and K33 genes, while agarose gel electrophoresis was used to detect length variation in the KAP1.1 gene. Two half-sib families (SL1 and SL2) were created for analysis and wool samples were collected from the mid-side region of the SL1 progeny at 12, 24 and 36 months of age, and of the SL2 progeny at 12 months of age. The association of alleles was analysed for each year of phenotypic data by an analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests, using SPSS® version 15. Analysis of each of KAP1.1, KAP1.3 and K33 genes revealed potential gene markers to select for animals with increased staple length, increased staple strength, higher yield, whiter and brighter wool. The results obtained are consistent with KAP1.1, KAP1.3 and KRT1.2 being clustered on one chromosome. Results also indicated that the keratin genes on chromosome 11 are recombining relatively frequently at recombination "hotspots". It appears as though genes coding for the KRTs and KAPs have the potential to impact on wool quality and could potentially be exploited in gene marker-assisted selection programmes in the wool industry for the rapid conversion of wool from one type to another.

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  • Warm welcome

    Egoz, Y.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Given the task of transforming Israel's Ben Gurion International Airport, designer Shlomo Aronson ditched nationalist sybolism and conveyed meaning through natural qualities. Airports are a designer's challenge. On one hand they should be highly functional machines for transit; on the other they require something beyond mere landscaping to give them individual identities.

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  • A new computational method to split large biochemical networks into coherent subnets

    Verwoerd, Wynand S.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Background: Compared to more general networks, biochemical networks have some special features: while generally sparse, there are a small number of highly connected metabolite nodes; and metabolite nodes can also be divided into two classes: internal nodes with associated mass balance constraints and external ones without. Based on these features, reclassifying selected internal nodes (separators) to external ones can be used to divide a large complex metabolic network into simpler subnetworks. Selection of separators based on node connectivity is commonly used but affords little detailed control and tends to produce excessive fragmentation. The method proposed here (Netsplitter) allows the user to control separator selection. It combines local connection degree partitioning with global connectivity derived from random walks on the network, to produce a more even distribution of subnetwork sizes. Partitioning is performed progressively and the interactive visual matrix presentation used allows the user considerable control over the process, while incorporating special strategies to maintain the network integrity and minimise the information loss due to partitioning. Results: Partitioning of a genome scale network of 1348 metabolites and 1468 reactions for Arabidopsis thaliana encapsulates 66% of the network into 10 medium sized subnets. Applied to the flavonoid subnetwork extracted in this way, it is shown that Netsplitter separates this naturally into four subnets with recognisable functionality, namely synthesis of lignin precursors, flavonoids, coumarin and benzenoids. A quantitative quality measure called efficacy is constructed and shows that the new method gives improved partitioning for several metabolic networks, including bacterial, plant and mammal species. Conclusions: For the examples studied the Netsplitter method is a considerable improvement on the performance of connection degree partitioning, giving a better balance of subnet sizes with the removal of fewer mass balance constraints. In addition, the user can interactively control which metabolite nodes are selected for cutting and when to stop further partitioning as the desired granularity has been reached. Finally, the blocking transformation at the heart of the procedure provides a powerful visual display of network structure that may be useful for its exploration independent of whether partitioning is required.

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  • Health effects associated with cell phone towers

    Cherry, N. J.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    There is a strong push from the WHO and the ICNIRP of harmonize national RF/MW exposure standards by individual states adopting the ICNIRP Guideline. This would be a good thing if the ICNIRP Guideline was set at an exposure level that provided sound protection of public health. The evidence presented here shows that the ICNIRP Guideline exposure level is set many orders of magnitude too high to accomplish this. It is based on the preconceived and long held view of Western Government Authorities that the only possible and only established biological effect of RF/MW exposure is tissue heating. This is referred to here as the RF-Thermal View. This view has been intransigently maintained in the face of compelling laboratory and epidemiological evidence of adverse health effects that would have had a chemical declared carcinogenic, neuropathogenic, cardiogenic and teratogenic for humans many years ago. This critique was originally written when the New Zealand Ministries of Health and Environment proposed to adopt the ICNIRP Guideline as the Public Health Standard for Cell Site exposures. At the same time the New Zealand RF Standards Committee was proposing to use the ICNIRP Guideline as the New Zealand RF/MW Standard. ICNIRP is the International Commission on Non- Ionizing Radiation Protection. The ICNIRP RF/MW guideline and scientific assessment was published in Health Physics, Vol. 74 (4): 494-522, 1988. This is the primary source document for this critique and will be referred to as ICNIRP (1998). The ICNIRP (1998) assessment of effects has been reviewed against the research literature cited and other published research. It is found that both the basic approach of ICNIRP and its treatment of the scientific research have serious flaws. The ICNIRP assessment is determined to maintain the RF-Thermal View and it rejects or omits all evidence that conflicts with this view. This may be termed "Constructive Dismissal" for a preconceived concept is used to inappropriately dismiss all evidence that challenges it. ICNIRP is particularly dismissive of epidemiological evidence because all existing studies involve nonthermal exposures. Hence accepting the validity of these studies would directly challenge the RF-Thermal View. In this way the approach to dealing with health effects from non-ionizing radiation was developed to follow a completely different method than for toxic chemicals, drugs or air pollution. Both the approach of ICNIRP and the assumptions made are severely scientifically challenged in this report.

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  • Identification of surf breaks of national significance

    Peryman, P. Bailey

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Surf break protection is experiencing a rapid rise in attention on an international scale. Researchers of coastal management issues and advocates for protection of the surfing environments are merging here in New Zealand too. The following is effectively an account of how this has led to the inclusion of a policy identifying surf breaks of national significance in the latest revision of the New Zealand Coastal Policy Statement (NZCPS) – the only mandatory National Policy Statement under the Resource Management Act (RMA) 1991.

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  • GaLA : globalisation and landscape architecture conference, St Petersburg, Russia, June 3-6, 2007

    Bowring, J.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Globalisation has both positive and negative effects on education and practice in landscape architecture, and was the central theme of a recent conference held at the St Petersburg State Forest Technical Academy. This is not a review of the conference itself, but rather a reflection on the issues that motivated it. The recent shifts in the political climate of Russia have created an arena in which both the positive and the negative effects became very apparent in terms of landscape architecture. It was the very spectre of the negative aspects of globalisation that inspired the conference theme, combined with the potential to enhance some of the positive aspects of international connectivity.

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  • New Zealand Diptera: no. 2 - Mycetophilidæ

    Marshall, Patrick

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Classification and description of several New Zealand species of the Mycetophilidae.

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  • Pest control for the 21st century: humane, effective tools for multiple invasive species

    Smith, D. H. V.; Eason, C. T.; Sam, S.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Invasive species have been recognised by the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) as a major threat to global biodiversity. New Zealand hasn’t escaped the significant negative impacts that invasive species such as possums and stoats have had on our endemic species, but in response to these threats we have become a world leader in the eradication of invasive species from offshore islands, and in the establishment of fenced mainland islands. Despite this, large parts of mainland New Zealand remain unmanaged. Lincoln University recently launched the Centre for Wildlife Management and Conservation (CWMC). The Centre’s vision is for increased recovery of native biodiversity through enhanced wildlife management and effective land-based conservation. A major recent achievement for centre staff and collaborators has been the registration of para-aminpropiophenone (PAPP) as a vertebrate toxin for predator control. PAPP is discussed.

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  • Application of the Pressure-State-Response framework to perceptions reporting of the state of the New Zealand environment

    Hughey, Kenneth F. D.; Cullen, Ross; Kerr, Geoffrey N.; Cook, Andrew J.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Pre-print copy of submitted article published in Journal of Environmental Management, 70(1), 85-93.

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  • UNDIE 500 – and how planners could do it better!

    Shaw, Lauren

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Most New Zealanders are familiar with the cultural affair that is the ‘Undie 500’, mainly because of the events that unfold as a result of main attractions. Images of riot police, burning couches and drunken behaviour are normally the first that flash to mind. For those that aren’t aware, or thought it was just about the couch burning and mob scenes, the Undie 500 is actually a yearly tradition (when allowed to run) that is well entrenched into the student culture of Canterbury and Otago Universities. Originally the Undie 500 was a convoy of vehicles that travelled to Dunedin in support of the Canterbury team in the Marlowe Cup Rugby match which was played between the Canterbury Engineers XV and Otago Surveyors XV. It came into its own after the suggestion to purchase a vehicle for under $500 come into effect.(ODT,2011). The decorated vans then proceed to Dunedin and, like any good road trip, had toilet and refreshment breaks en-route - they just happened to be at the many pubs along the way. Despite having been run since the early 1980s by ENSOC (The University of Canterbury Engineering Society), the event has only been heavily documented in the years that violent scenes unfolded in North Dunedin streets.

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  • Variability in yield of four grain legume species in a subhumid temperate environment. II. Yield components

    Ayaz, S.; McKenzie, B.; Hill, G.; McNeil, D.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    The effects of plant population (one-tenth of the optimum to four times the optimum populations in 1998/99 and 10–400 plants/m² in 1999/2000) and sowing depth (2, 5 and 10 cm) on yield and yield components of four grain-legumes (Cicer arietinum, Lens culinaris, Lupinus angustifolius and Pisum sativum) were studied. Seed yields were strongly positively correlated with the number of pods and seeds/m² in both years in all species. The mean seed weight and number of branches/plant were inversely related to plant population. There was a nearly six-fold reduction in the number of branches/plant as plant population increased, which was due to restricted branching, and not to branch senescence. Generally, the variation in yield components was species dependent. However, for all species the number of pods/m² and seeds/m² could be used as primary criteria for selection in a breeding programme.

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