751 results for Lincoln University, Journal article

  • Phylogenetic congruence of lichenised fungi and algae is affected by spatial scale and taxonomic diversity

    Buckley, H. L.; Rafat, A.; Ridden, J. D.; Cruickshank, R. H.; Ridgway, H. J.; Paterson, A. M.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    The role of species' interactions in structuring biological communities remains unclear. Mutualistic symbioses, involving close positive interactions between two distinct organismal lineages, provide an excellent means to explore the roles of both evolutionary and ecological processes in determining how positive interactions affect community structure. In this study, we investigate patterns of co-diversification between fungi and algae for a range of New Zealand lichens at the community, genus, and species levels and explore explanations for possible patterns related to spatial scale and pattern, taxonomic diversity of the lichens considered, and the level sampling replication. We assembled six independent datasets to compare patterns in phylogenetic congruence with varied spatial extent of sampling, taxonomic diversity and level of specimen replication. For each dataset, we used the DNA sequences fromthe ITS regions of both the fungal and algal genomes fromlichen specimens to produce genetic distance matrices. Phylogenetic congruence between fungi and algae was quantified using distance-based redundancy analysis and we used geographic distance matrices inMoran's eigenvector mapping and variance partitioning to evaluate the effects of spatial variation on the quantification of phylogenetic congruence. Phylogenetic congruence was highly significant for all datasets and a large proportion of variance in both algal and fungal genetic distances was explained by partner genetic variation. Spatial variables, primarily at large and intermediate scales, were also important for explaining genetic diversity patterns in all datasets. Interestingly, spatial structuring was stronger for fungal than algal genetic variation. As the spatial extent of the samples increased, so too did the proportion of explained variation that was shared between the spatial variables and the partners' genetic variation. Different lichen taxa showed some variation in their phylogenetic congruence and spatial genetic patterns and where greater sample replication was used, the amount of variation explained by partner genetic variation increased. Our results suggest that the phylogenetic congruence pattern, at least at small spatial scales, is likely due to reciprocal co-adaptation or co-dispersal. However, the detection of these patterns varies among different lichen taxa, across spatial scales and with different levels of sample replication. This work provides insight into the complexities faced in determining how evolutionary and ecological processes may interact to generate diversity in symbiotic association patterns at the population and community levels. Further, it highlights the critical importance of considering sample replication, taxonomic diversity and spatial scale in designing studies of co-diversification.

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  • Planning education and the role of theory in the new millennium: a new role for habitat theory?

    Montgomery, R. L.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    In the last two decades of the twentieth century, planning pedagogy in New Zealand responded to broader intellectual and social trends, and, arguably, indirect political pressures, with a turn or return, depending upon one’s view of planning history, to matters of process. I would describe this as a retreat rather than return. For example, the widespread rhetoric around the introduction of the Resource Management Act (RMA) in 1991 was that management would now be effects-based. Rather than formulate prescriptive or proscriptive policies, planners were to concentrate instead on guaranteeing that the process of assessing, approving or rejecting applications, handling appeals and monitoring consents was conducted in an efficient, transparent and democratic manner. Consequently, in the planning practice literature of the 1980s and 1990s and the first several years of the new millennium, the main emphasis was on best practice guides or protocols. For example, in New Zealand the 2005 Urban Design Protocol, published by the Ministry for the Environment, argues that good urban design follows the “seven ‘c’s”: context, character, choice, connections, creativity, custodianship, and collaboration. While such principles have merit, they require what I would term the eighth ‘c’: content that operationalises the principles (i.e., what actually makes for durable urban design). Disappointingly, the Urban Design Protocol shies away from saying anything about what is good versus bad urban design.

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  • Proposal to build Portside Apartments and Albion Apartments at 44 London Street Lyttelton

    Hunt, S.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    The issue of development and/or protection of cultural heritage causes conflict. Lyttelton Township, which is well known for its quirky variety and style of buildings and strong heritage values, has to work through this issue at the moment with the proposal of two new apartment buildings in the zoned Town Centre. This article outlines the proposals and discusses some of the issues surrounding the development.

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  • Biodiversity protection prioritisation: a 25 year review

    Cullen, Ross

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Article published in Wildlife Research, September 2012 (online).

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  • An evaluation of self-governance in the New Zealand Bluff oyster fishery – the indicator system approach

    Yang, Yu Wen; Cullen, Ross; Hearnshaw, Edward J. S.; MacDonald, Ian A.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Pre-print version of journal article from Marine Policy, 2013.

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  • Assignment of measurable costs and benefits to wildlife biodiversity conservation projects

    Shwiff, S. A.; Anderson, A.; Cullen, Ross; White, P.; Shwiff, S. S.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Pre-print version of a journal article in Wildlife Research 40(2), 2013.

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  • Biodiversity protection prioritisation: a 25 year review

    Cullen, Ross

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Pre-print version of a journal article published in Wildlife Research 40(2), 2013.

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  • Interdisciplinarity in biodiversity project evaluation: a work in progress

    Cullen, Ross; White, Piran C. L.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Pre-print version of a journal article published in Wildlife Research, 40(2), 2013.

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  • Using DNA barcodes to investigate the taxonomy of the New Zealand sooty beech scale insect

    Ball, S.; Armstrong, K.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    It is currently proposed that there are two species of honeydew-producing sooty beech scale insects (Ultracoelostoma spp.) in New Zealand. It is thought that U. brittini lives exclusively on trunks of southern beech (Nothofagus spp.) trees, while U. assimile occurs mainly on branches. This study aimed to confirm this habitat specialisation by using a molecular genetic approach. We sequenced the c. 650 base pair DNA 'barcode' region of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) from specimens collected from Mount Grey/Maukatere (North Canterbury), Greymouth, and the Nelson Lakes region. Although the COI sequences supported the existence of two species, there was no evidence of the two species specialising on trunk or branch microhabitats. The excess sugar that these insects excrete as honeydew is an important energy source upon which many native birds and insects depend. Further geographic sampling is needed to determine the distribution and extent of sympatry of the two species detected in this study, which might have implications for forest management decisions.

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  • It’s not what we are drinking, it’s how we are planning

    Toner, Justine

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    The devastating earthquakes of September 2010 and February 2011 have without question upset the Christchurch City way of life for all. Families and businesses, as well as the natural and built environments have been directly affected, and our social landscapes have since evolved to accommodate the visible changes. Though not perhaps seen as a priority, the Christchurch nightlife has been profoundly altered by the quakes and the once popular CBD clubbing scene has ceased to exist. The concern highlighted in this article is the way in which this has put pressure on suburban bars and the the implications of this for local residents.

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  • Closed form solution of an exponential kernel integral equation

    Verwoerd, W.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    In this note a Fredholm integral equation of the first kind with exponential expressions for the kernel and right hand side is considered. The task of finding a practically usable solution to such an equation may need more effort than following a standard procedure, even when such a procedure yields a formal solution. An apparently elegant solution as an orthogonal polynomial expansion is obtained using the standard method based on transformation to a form where the kernel is an orthogonal polynomial generating function, but this is of limited use due to slow convergence. It is shown that this can nevertheless be transformed into a closed form solution that is computationally efficient.

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  • Case Study analysis on supplier commitment to added value agri-food supply chain in New Zealand

    Lees, N. J.; Nuthall, P.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    The aim of this research is to identify what attracts suppliers to be committed to long-term supply relationships in agri-food supply chains where suppliers are required to consistently deliver to high product specifications. It also looked at what factors determined suppliers ongoing commitment and how to build strong enduring relationships. Semi structured interviews were undertaken with suppliers from New Zealand agri-food exporting companies. The main factors that attracted suppliers to these supply chains were; increased price certainty, premium prices and relationship quality. Many suppliers wanted to break away from the agricultural commodity cycle, which they saw as disconnected from customer demand, and characterised by price volatility. They saw themselves as better than average producers with the ability to produce high quality products. They valued the relationship with the companies they supplied as this gave them access to premium markets where they would be rewarded for their effort. There was a high level of trust in these relationships and this was built on openness and transparency in communications and confidence in the character of the company personnel. The success of differentiated agri-food supply chains requires capable and committed suppliers. Companies that are developing a differentiated strategy need to identify suppliers who have the ability to produce high quality products and want to be involved in a customer focused supply chain enables them to access to premium markets.

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  • Confirmation of co-denitrification in grazed grassland

    Selbie, D. R.; Lanigan, G. J.; Laughlin, R. J.; Di, H. J.; Moir, J. L.; Cameron, K. C.; Clough, T. J.; Watson, C. J.; Grant, J.; Somers, C.; Richards, K. G.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Pasture-based livestock systems are often associated with losses of reactive forms of nitrogen (N) to the environment. Research has focused on losses to air and water due to the health, economic and environmental impacts of reactive N. Di-nitrogen (N 2) emissions are still poorly characterized, both in terms of the processes involved and their magnitude, due to financial and methodological constraints. Relatively few studies have focused on quantifying N 2 losses in vivo and fewer still have examined the relative contribution of the different N 2 emission processes, particularly in grazed pastures. We used a combination of a high 15 N isotopic enrichment of applied N with a high precision of determination of 15 N isotopic enrichment by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry to measure N 2 emissions in the field. We report that 55.8 g N m -2 (95%, CI 38 to 77 g m -2) was emitted as N 2 by the process of co-denitrification in pastoral soils over 123 days following urine deposition (100 g N m -2), compared to only 1.1 g N m -2 (0.4 to 2.8 g m -2) from denitrification. This study provides strong evidence for co-denitrification as a major N 2 production pathway, which has significant implications for understanding the N budgets of pastoral ecosystems.

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  • "Specimens liberally studded with gold": The mining history of a remote Otago Valley

    Carpenter, L.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Hills dotted with adits and shafts, the moonscape of old sluice workings and the untidy piles of mullock that mark a former quartz mine are all typical elements in a landscape shaped by a gold rush. In Otago the prevalence of such landscapes means that for many places, the full history detailing gold yields, mining enterprises, technologies employed and the miners that worked them, are largely lost or forgotten by locals.

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  • Nature in its essence

    Egoz, Y.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Shelley Egoz, landscape architect, considers whether the Baha', World Centre gardens, Haifa, Israel is symbolic of the religion's relationship with nature. The earth is but one country, and mankind its citizen, is the teaching of the Bah'ullah (The Glory of God), the spiritual founder of the Baha'i faith in mid nineteenth century Iran. The gardens of the Baha'i World Centre in Haifa, Israel, express that philosophy through an extremely meticulous and retentive aesthetic.

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  • Future proofing the biosecurity of New Zealand

    Hulme, P. E.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Biosecurity is widely viewed by industry to be critical to the economic prosperity of New Zealand. This article is an overview of the challenges this country faces in preventing and managing pest, weeds and diseases. The next 10 years will see dramatic changes in how scientists, industry and the general public contribute to the biosecurity system. These changes should lead to a more efficient and coordinated approach, but they will also increase uncertainties about the way we predict and respond to the future risks we might face.

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  • Habitat manipulation to mitigate the impacts of invasive arthropod pests

    Jonsson, Mattias; Wratten, Steve D.; Landis, Doug A.; Tompkins, Jean-Marie; Cullen, Ross

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Pre-print copy of a journal article published in Biological Invasions, 12, 2933-2945.

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  • The art of process

    Vance, M.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    This article outlines the process undertaken to design the Dunedin Botanic Garden entranceway by an artist-led team. The development of the entranceway as a sculptural piece has provided an enduring cultural statement, a rigorous process and a strong precedent for the future involvement of artists in public places.

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  • Seasonal variation in the impacts of brushtailed possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) on five palatable plant species in New Zealand beech (Nothofagus) forest

    Pekelharing, C. J.; Frampton, C. M.; Suisted, P. A.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    The seasonal variation in possum browse and foliage cover of five possum-preferred species was quantified and studied in northern Westland, New Zealand over a 24 month period. Four of the five species (Pseudopanax simplex, P. colensoi, Aristotelia serrata, and Elaeocarpus hookerianus) showed marked seasonal patterns in both browse and foliage cover, with maximum browse evident in winter/spring when foliage cover was at a minimum. There was very little browse and no seasonal pattern in foliage cover for the fifth species, Pseudopanax crassifolius. In the season of maximum browse there were significant negative correlations between browse and foliage cover for the four impacted species suggesting that the changes in foliage cover were caused by possum browsing. Mortality was highest in the two most heavily browsed species (P. simplex and P. colensoi). This seasonality in possum browse needs to be accommodated when designing long-term surveys of possum impacts.

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  • Distribution and spread of environmental weeds along New Zealand roadsides

    Sullivan, J.; Williams, P.; Timmins, S.; Smale, M.

    Journal article
    Lincoln University

    Most non-native weeds and other naturalised plants are in the early stages of invasion into New Zealand landscapes. For this invasion to be controlled, even partially, it is important to understand the dominant routes, mechanisms, and rates of weed spread across landscapes. With their linear corridors of disturbed habitats, roadsides are thought to play a large role in the spread of some weeds. We used both new surveys and existing data to assess which of the 328 environmental weeds listed by the Department of Conservation are most frequently found on roadsides, where, and whether distribution patterns are consistent with linear dispersal. We also analysed historical survey data for relationships between reserve weediness and proximity to roads. We surveyed 340 plots of 100-m-long stretches of roadside across four regions and found between 2 and 19 environmental weeds per plot; 128 species in total (Chao estimate 148). Especially abundant were agricultural species (weeds and cultivated), species that have been naturalised for well over 50 years, and species that disperse externally attached to vertebrates. While we purposefully sampled within 10 km of town limits, we found no strong effect of distance from town on roadside weed richness, including richness of just ornamentally sourced weeds. Instead, number of houses within 250 m and presence of an adjacent house or other residential structure were both important, as was presence of woody vegetation on and adjacent to roadsides. Reserves adjacent to roads had significantly higher weed richness than reserves further from roads, although the causal mechanisms are unclear. Our results suggest that while roadsides include suitable habitats for most environmental weeds, distributions are patchy and roads show little sign of acting as linear dispersal corridors, instead largely reflecting neighbouring land uses. As such, roadside weeds should best be managed as part of the wider landscape.

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