225 results for Lincoln University, Report

  • Results of the Westland petrel satellite tracking programme 1995 season

    Freeman Amanda, N. D.; Wilson Kerry Jayne

    Report
    Lincoln University

    Three male Westland petrels, Procellaria westlandica, with chicks were tracked by satellite between 11 August and 19 September 1995. The flights are illustrated in the accompanying maps. The results show the importance of the continental slope to breeding Westland petrels. They also show that a breeding bird can complete a long distance flight ranging up to 800km from the colony. Although the tracked birds did spend some time in the vicinity of hoki trawlers, they also foraged over a far greater area than that worked by the fishing fleet.

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  • Morepork (Ninox novaseelandiae) distribution and conservation on Banks Peninsula

    Pohnke, C.; Evans, A.; Bowie, M. H.

    Report
    Lincoln University

    The morepork (Ninox novaeseelandiae) project on Banks Peninsula was initiated in July 2014 and is expected to continue until 2017. The aim of this project led by the Banks Peninsula Conservation Trust (BPCT) is broadly to identify the habitats occupied by morepork and based on those findings, improve predator control in targeted areas as well as prohibiting the use of toxins. This work will contribute to improving the breeding and survival success of morepork and therefore increase their abundance in a fragmented and modified habitat on Banks Peninsula.This project successfully combined the use of several data collection methods to create a comprehensive spatial distribution map. Morepork appear to be wide-spread, but patchily distributed across the peninsula, and the number of individuals may still be relatively small. Additional research is required to detect their presence in more remote locations. The morepork monitored in Kaituna Reserve were foraging outside of the reserve, which suggests that small remnants are not sufficient to maintain a breeding pair. These birds did not successfully breed despite the presence of fertile eggs. Defining suitable morepork habitat may not mainly depend on the presence of predators and food sources (small rodents). Additional research is required to identify what characteristics determine the quality of a morepork habitat. The use of nesting boxes, as well as predator control may increase their survival rate.

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  • A re-evaluation of potential rodenticides for aerial control of rodents

    Eason, C.; Ogilvie, S.

    Report
    Lincoln University

    Rodent control is carried out extensively in New Zealand to protect the native fauna and flora. This review outlines the advantages and disadvantages of different rodenticides as alternatives to sodium fluoroacetate (1080), and their suitability for aerial application. It includes existing rodenticides and those in the registration ‘pipeline’, as well as those that are not currently available in New Zealand. In the short to medium term, the focus for aerial baits should be on those compounds already registered in New Zealand or other countries. Aerial brodifacoum baiting is appropriate in isolated situations, but is not suitable for repeated use on the mainland, as brodifacoum is highly persistent and will bioaccumulate. Diphacinone has been registered for field use in New Zealand and the US Environmental Protection Agency has recently registered it for aerial control of rodents for conservation purposes; therefore, this is a logical first choice for control in New Zealand. Cholecalciferol is the next best option, as there is no secondary poisoning and thus there would be lower risk to non-target bird species; this is currently registered for field use as a rodenticide in bait stations. The third option is cholecalciferol in combination with coumatetralyl, which should be more effective than cholecalciferol alone, and the fourth is zinc phosphide. In the longer term, the preferred alternative to 1080 would be a novel, humane red blood cell toxin, related to para-aminopropiophenone (PAPP). PAPP is an attractive new pesticide that is being developed for stoat (Mustela erminea) and feral cat (Felis catus) control; however, the rodenticidal potential of this class of compounds still remains to be determined. Availability and registration status could influence this priority list in the future. A strategy to manage mice (Mus musculus) and sustain rat (Rattus spp.) control needs to be flexible and integrate non-anticoagulant and anticoagulant use.

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  • The conservation status of invertebrates in Canterbury

    Pawson Stephen, M.; Emberson Rowan, M.

    Report
    Lincoln University

    This report uses a species-based approach to identify invertebrates that are threatened / endangered, and, in some cases, needing short- or long-term management to ensure their survival. The aims of this project were to: Collate available information on threatened invertebrates in Canterbury (including that from Molloy & Davies (1992) and Patrick & Dugdale (2000)); Raise awareness of groups of invertebrates previously not considered and provide a revised list of species considered to be threatened; Provide some measure of the conservation status of these threatened species and thus set priorities for action; Provide location, biology, taxonomic and ecological information, where available, and highlight areas where further research is necessary. Unfortunately some groups, for example nematodes and terrestrial gastropods, have been excluded due to resource constraints, or a complete lack of information when compiling the list.

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  • Land-surface recharge and groundwater dynamics - Rakaia-Ashburton Plains

    Thorley, Michael J.; Bidwell, Vince J.; Scott, David

    Report
    Lincoln University

    The purpose of the report is to advance the technical understanding of the groundwater system and inform resource management decisions in the Rakaia-Ashburton Plains area. The report also aims to provide information for stakeholders about possible groundwater system responses to various irrigation development scenarios. The scenarios evaluated in the report include: converting borderstrip irrigation to spray irrigation across the Ashburton-Lyndhurst Irrigation Scheme (ALIS); and increasing groundwater sourced irrigation across the Rakaia-Ashburton Plains area. The report recommends resource management strategies for managing the risk of irrigation development in the area. The report has been written in the context of applications to take groundwater for irrigation beyond the current allocation limit. However, the report is not intended to provide an audit or assessment of effects of these applications. This study describes the occurrence of groundwater across the Rakaia-Ashburton Plains, and uses an eigenmodel to explore the relationship between climate, abstraction, and dynamic groundwater behaviour. Estimates of irrigated area and land-surface recharge (LSR) are provided for sub-areas of the Rakaia-Ashburton Plains. Descriptions of groundwater occurrence and dynamics are provided in the context of local recharge sources. These datasets are subsequently correlated by calibrating the eigenmodel, and predictions of future abstraction and LSR scenarios provided using the eigenmodel. LSR, river recharge, and groundwater abstraction are water budget components which influence the dynamic behaviour of the groundwater system. The dynamic responses of groundwater levels reflect influences such as sporadic and seasonal LSR, damped responses to LSR, steady river recharge effects and groundwater abstraction. Some groundwater level records in the Rakaia-Ashburton Plains area show long-term declining trends, others do not. A pattern of higher piezometric head nearer the rivers and decreasing piezometric head toward the centre of the Rakaia-Ashburton Plains area was found. The increasing piezometric head around the rivers reflects significant local river recharge sources compared with LSR. Down plains of State Highway 1 piezometric heads reflect relatively low vertical hydraulic gradients compared with those up plains. A soil moisture water balance model was used to estimate LSR under dryland and spray irrigation conditions. A modified approach was applied to estimate LSR occurring across the ALIS to represent border-strip irrigation and to take account of records of the volume of water delivered to the scheme from the Rangitata Diversion Race (RDR). Estimates of the proportions of border-strip and spray irrigation LSR over time were considered together with conveyance efficiency and by-wash flows. The additional LSR caused by the ALIS is significant when compared with other areas. Irrigated area is an important factor when estimating LSR as rainfall recharge through the soil increases under irrigation. Very little information is currently available about irrigation water use, or about areas actually irrigated. Three sources of information have been used to estimate irrigated area: 1) areas listed as irrigated in the Environment Canterbury RMA Database; 2) land parcels associated with consents from the Environment Canterbury RMA Database; 3) remote sensing. Considerable differences were found between these three sources. The eigenmodel method characterises an aquifer in terms of a set of conceptual groundwater reservoirs. This method quantifies the dynamic behaviour of groundwater storage and groundwater discharge in response to time-series of recharge. Recharge includes that from land surface, rivers and pumped abstraction. There is consistency between the eigenmodel method and the more conventional numerical groundwater models; however, the eigenmodel method enables significant model simplification and accessibility. Using the eigenmodel, the recharge component from the ALIS is shown to be significantly “propping up” groundwater levels in the vicinity of and down gradient of the ALIS command area. As more efficient irrigation practices develop within the ALIS, it is likely that some groundwater users will face reduced reliability or even dry bores depending on their proximity to the ALIS. To minimise piezometric head reductions arising from more efficient irrigation, surface water supply for irrigation should be used over the widest area possible to minimise groundwater pumping demand and maximise the additional recharge of rainfall via soil percolation. Managed aquifer recharge options could also be investigated to augment groundwater levels currently “propped up” by border-strip irrigation. Groundwater development scenarios were tested using the eigenmodel. The scenarios looked at the change between status quo and full irrigation development. The scenario testing showed that the effect on piezometric head due to fully irrigating areas down-plains of State Highway 1 would be less than full development above SH1. This is due to a combination of system dynamics and higher levels of current irrigation sourced from groundwater coastwards of SH1. Further groundwater development coastwards of SH1 is expected to have less of a cumulative effect on piezometric levels than development up-plains. Therefore, the preferred source for irrigation development up-plains of about SH1 should be surface water, not groundwater. Arranging irrigation supplies in this way will provide higher productivity yields whilst minimising the piezometric response in the groundwater system. All groundwater takes will contribute to a reduction in coastal discharge from the groundwater system. Therefore, if further groundwater is developed and/or if surface water irrigation is made more efficient, additional resource management measures are recommended. Such measures could include: developing a coastal monitoring and trigger level system; managed aquifer recharge; up plains trigger levels for deep wells; improving water use and irrigated area information.

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  • Estimating nitrate-nitrogen leaching rates under rural land uses in Canterbury

    Lilburne, L.; Webb, T.; Ford, R.; Bidwel, V. J.

    Report
    Lincoln University

    Over the last two decades, agricultural production in the region has grown as a result of the increasing use of inputs, such as fertilisers, supplementary feeds and irrigation water, accompanied by the conversion of plantation forests and areas of extensive sheep and beef grazing into dairy farms. At the same time, there is increasing evidence that Canterbury’s freshwater resources are becoming degraded as a result of increasing inputs of nutrients, bacteria and sediment from these changing land uses (ECan 2008). If these land use changes continue under current management practices, modelling studies suggest that nitrate-N concentrations in shallow groundwater are likely to continue increasing in the future (Di & Cameron 2002; Bidwell et. al. 2009). Faced with this pressure on the region’s water resources, Environment Canterbury is reviewing its approach to managing the cumulative effects of land use, especially diffuse nutrient inputs, on water quality. Initially, Environment Canterbury undertook a preliminary study to examine the effects of agricultural land uses on water quality between the Rakaia and Waimakariri rivers (Di & Cameron 2004). More recently, the Canterbury Mayoral Forum (2009) commissioned modelling at a regional scale to assess the potential changes to water quality as a result of concern over the consequences of intensifying agricultural land uses in the region (Bidwell et. al. 2009 ). The Proposed Natural Resources Regional Plan set measurable water quality objectives for surface waters and groundwaters addresses point source discharges and sets limits for nutrient losses from irrigated properties in inland areas of Canterbury. However, the plan did not include provisions to adequately address the cumulative effects of nutrient loads from intensifying land uses and multiple point-source discharges. To remedy this problem, Bidwell (2008 & 2009) proposed an allocation approach, based on a “first in first served” basis to address the effects of nitrate-N discharges on shallow groundwater in relation to drinking water quality. A consent application to use water for irrigation would be assessed against existing land uses within a predetermined distance from the property where the proposed activity was going to take place. The discharge of nitrate-N from the proposed activity would be assessed in combination with the estimated nitrate-N leaching from land uses within the “area of interest.”

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  • Option and existence values for the Waitaki catchment

    Sharp, B. M. H.; Kerr, G. N.

    Report
    Lincoln University

    This report examines two economic concepts - option and existence values - which can be used to value natural resources. It discusses how these could apply in the Waitaki catchment.

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  • The groundwater resources of the Canterbury plains

    Mandel, S.

    Report
    Lincoln University

    The N. Z. A. E. I. has a particular responsibility in undertaking research and development in the agricultural engineering aspects of water supply, irrigation and drainage, and into the development of water resources for agriculture on a national basis. Throughout the past decade both the Institute and the Agricultural Engineering Department at Lincoln College have made a series of contributions towards the solution of New Zealand problems in soil and water engineering. These problems are becoming progressively more urgent as the pressures of both agricultural and non-agricultural use on this strictly limited resource intensify. The current state of knowledge regarding the overall water resource has been evaluated by Dr Huber in his report "Water Resource Development for Expanded Irrigated Agriculture on the Canterbury Plains", which was published as Paper No. 11 in the current series. In the latter Dr Huber has identified some thirty specific research needs which together would provide the further information necessary for optimum water resource development. A key part of this programme is the assessment of the potential role of groundwater in future irrigation projects on the Canterbury Plains. The current report, which is based upon analysis of the available data together with field investigations, interpreted in the light of his extensive experience, confirms that groundwater has an important part to play in the future development of the Canterbury Plains. The three aims of this report are: (a) to evaluate the available information on groundwater; (b) to identify unsolved problems of practical importance; (c) to suggest lines of investigation that should be pursued for an efficient "optimal" utilization of groundwater for expanded irrigation in the Canterbury Plains.

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  • The biological control of Pea Root Rot and damping off on lettuce by effective microorganisms.

    Merfield, C. N.; Walter Monika; Daly Mike, J.

    Report
    Lincoln University

    Pea root rot Aphanomyces euteiches is an important pea (Pisum sativum) disease world wide. Previous trials with suppressive composts had shown a suppression of pea root rot by up to 57 percent. A verified bioassay was used to measure the level of biological control offered by two concentrations of effective microorganisms (EM) (a commercial mixture of microorganisms including yeasts, fungi, bacteria and Actinomycetes), with water and water + molasses controls, against three inoculation levels (0, 5x102, 5x103 spores/ml) of Aphanomyces euteiches zoospores. There was no significant difference between the EM treatments, water or water + molasses. There was a highly significant difference in infection levels between the three zoospore inoculum levels. Previous trials with composts have indicated that the presence of Acremonium spp., Fusarium spp., and Paecilomyces spp. improved disease suppression in the composts while Penicillium spp. increased disease development. This may have a bearing on the failure of EM to control pea root rot. Control of damping off in organic production systems is difficult, due to the prohibition of synthetic fungicides. A successful biological control agent would be of considerable benefit for organic agriculture. A trial was set up to evaluate the potential of EM for control of damping off in lettuce. Soil, with a history of high levels of damping off, from the Biological Husbandry Unit at Lincoln University, Canterbury, New Zealand, and a control of commercial seed raising mix was placed into 7.5 cm pots and planted with ten lettuce seeds (Lactuca sativa, cv. Red Sails). Treatments were EM at standard and double strength, water + molasses, water, bokashi (a compost fermented with EM), and bokashi plus EM. The peat based seed raising compost received a water treatment and EM treatment. A very low rate of emergence of lettuce seedlings in all treatments appeared to be caused by high temperature dormancy. The trial was repeated in lower temperatures without success. The number of weed seedlings from the first trial were analysed but no clear trend was apparent. Keywords. Effective microorganisms, EM, lettuce, Lactuca sativa, pea, Pisum sativum pea root rot, Aphanomyces euteiches, biological control, damping off.

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  • Overcoming barriers to Maori inclusion in the appropriate use of 1080 : final report

    Ogilvie, S.; Ataria, J.; Waiwai, J.; Doherty, J.

    Report
    Lincoln University

    Sodium monofluoroacetate (Compound 1080) is used in New Zealand for the control of introduced pests, including possums and rabbits. This is the final report of a research programme aimed at empowering Maori to access research information on the impacts of 1080 on non-target species, ultimately allowing Maori to have a greater role in the appropriate use of 1080. The research reported here was undertaken between August 2005 and May 2006.

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  • The Hurunui Waiau Zone Implementation Programme as a collaborative planning process: A preliminary review

    Memon, A.; Duncan, R.; Spicer, A.

    Report
    Lincoln University

    The objective of this report is to provide a preliminary assessment of the development of the Hurunui Waiau Zone Implementation Programme as a collaborative planning exercise to progress the implementation of the Canterbury Water Management Strategy (CWMS) in the Hurunui Waiau catchments. This report builds on an earlier study (Lomax, Memon and Painter, 2010) on the development of the CWMS as an innovative collaborative regional strategy to address exacerbating conflicts over the allocation and management of freshwater resources in the Canterbury region in New Zealand. Past attempts to satisfactorily address these concerns within the framework of the Resource Management Act 1991 statutory planning regime have encountered significant barriers. The formulation and implementation of the CWMS is expected to overcome these barriers by having adopted a collaborative governance model. This report reflects upon and presents observations of the Hurunui Waiau Zone Implementation Programme process. As such, it flags for the Canterbury Regional Council a number of issues which have emerged from this valuable learning experience and concludes with a number of questions drawn from our observations for consideration by the CRC with zone committees and other stakeholder groups and recommendations for research.

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  • Environmental performance indicators for groundwater

    Bright John, C.; Bidwell Vince, J.; Robb Christina; Ward Jonet, C.

    Report
    Lincoln University

    The purpose of this report is to strengthen the groundwater section of the proposed set of Environmental Performance Indicators for monitoring air, freshwater, and land. The development of these indicators is described in a discussion document, Environmental Performance Indicators - Proposals for air, fresh water, and land (MfE, 1997), and their purpose is for monitoring progress towards achieving the environmental goals specified in the document, Environment 2010 (MfE, 1995). The review process that followed publication of the proposed indicators concluded that the groundwater section required strengthening.

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  • Groundwater management tools : analytical procedure and case studies

    Bidwell, Vince J.

    Report
    Lincoln University

    This report addresses an issue of groundwater management that was identified by regional council staff, as part of a project conducted by Ministry of Agriculture & Forestry and the Ministry for the Environment for encouraging and ensuring effective and efficient water allocation in New Zealand. The issue is how to manage groundwater allocation under conditions of increasing abstraction and imperfect, but developing, knowledge of the resource. The overall objective is to maintain sustainability of the groundwater resource in terms of acceptable environmental effects. The first part of this report is a draft Best Practice Guideline, which sets the context of the nature of the groundwater resource, quality and availability of data, and an appropriate resource management approach. A recommendation from the water allocation project was that an adaptive approach to groundwater management was required, and that there was a need for appropriate analytical tools to support this approach. A companion report addresses the origin and philosophy of adaptive management in water resources. The second part of the report is concerned with the development and demonstration of a suitable analytical method, and guidelines for its implementation, which supports the recommended adaptive management strategy. The "eigenmodel" method is concerned primarily with the amount of water stored in an aquifer, and how this responds to recharge and abstraction. The resulting information about groundwater levels can be related to environmental effects such as low flow in streams, for example. It is a "whole aquifer" approach and does not purport to be suitable for detailed investigation of local effects caused by abstraction stresses. These problems require other well established modelling techniques, and their compatibility with the eigenmodel method is discussed. The issue of sparse data is addressed by the simplicity of the analytical format, which enables identification of fundamental properties of aquifer storage, sometimes from only one observation well record. Implementation of the procedure is ideally suited to spreadsheet software. These simple models can also be expressed in a form that incorporates continual monitoring of groundwater levels for "real-time" forecasting as decision support for adaptive management. Several demonstrations with observed data from two aquifer systems are presented to illustrate the capabilities of the procedure.

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  • Causal mapping of ARGOS dairy farms and comparisons to sheep/beef farms

    Fairweather, J.; Hunt, L.; Rosin, C.; Campbell, H.

    Report
    Lincoln University

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  • Christchurch City destination benchmarking survey 2001 final report

    Tourism & Leisure Group Ltd

    Report
    Lincoln University

    Prepared by The Tourism & Leisure Group Limited for Christchurch and Canterbury Marketing.

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  • A tolerance range approach for the investigation of values provided by Te Waihora/Lake Ellesmere.

    Hearnshaw, E.; Hughey, K.

    Report
    Lincoln University

    This report develops and applies a tolerance range approach for investigating the set of values provided by the shallow lake ecosystem, Te Waihora/Lake Ellesmere. A tolerance range refers to the extent to which a selected species (representing an indicator of a value) can continue to produce and reproduce in the long-term for a particular environmental condition critical to its survival. The set of values provided by Te Waihora/Lake Ellesmere that are investigated in this report include: the Lake Margin Vegetation Value, the Birdlife Value, the Agricultural Livestock Value, the Native Fishery Value, the Ngāi Tahu Value and the Trout Fishery Value. Indicator species, which are a few selected species that represent a value, were determined by experts for each of the values, so that it becomes possible to consider all values without having to account for the myriad of possible species found on the lake. Critical environmental conditions or controlling factors that determine the survivability of indicator species for each of the values were also established and weighted by experts. Finally, tolerance ranges for each indicator species were elicited by experts for each controlling factor. From this information tolerance range indices were calculated on a zero-to-one scale for each indicator species in relation to each controlling factor. The calculated tolerance range indices established the degree of tolerance for each indicator species for that particular controlling factor considered. These tolerance range indices were then multiplied by the weights given to controlling factors in order to establish weighted indices. From these weighted indices, which were then summed, it was established that the Lake Margin Vegetation Value, the Agricultural Livestock Value and the Trout Fishery Value are the most vulnerable to further losses. Accordingly, this tolerance range approach was able to investigate all values considered, yet provide systematically and quantitatively developed insights using only a limited amount of critical information for determining the present vulnerability of values provided. The determination of the present vulnerability of values provided by Te Waihora/Lake Ellesmere is important in understanding where lake management is required for all values to be preserved along sustainable pathways.

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  • Agricultural waste manual

    Vanderholm, Dale H.

    Report
    Lincoln University

    Published by NZAEI on behalf of New Zealand Agricultural Engineering Institute, Pork Industry Council Board, Dairy Division, Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries.

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  • Tourism and recreation in New Zealand’s natural environment: a bibliography and research synthesis

    Booth, K. L.; Mackay, M.

    Report
    Lincoln University

    The bibliography provides a comprehensive catalogue of publications relevant to commercial and non-commercial recreation and tourism activities which are dependent upon the countryside, protected areas, the coast and waterways, marine areas, natural features and/or species.

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  • Influence of natural reflective mulch on Pinot noir grape and wine quality

    Creasy, Glen L.; Perez, Gerardo Leal; Crawford, Michelle; Ibbotson, Leonard; Tompkins, Jean-Marie; Creasy, Kirsten; Wells, Gilbert; Nicol, Isabelle; Harrison, Roland; Sherlock, Robert R.; Hider, Richard; Gladstone, Phil; Kavanaugh, John; Finn, Tim; Sutherland, Andrew; Stean, Graeme

    Report
    Lincoln University

    SFF Environment Report - August 2006 contains supporting information for the same project.

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  • Attitudes and barriers to water transfer

    Morgan, Matthew J.; Robb, Christina; Harris, Simon

    Report
    Lincoln University

    Report prepared for Ministry for the Environment.

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