1,614 results for Lincoln University, Thesis

  • Influence of farm dairy effluent ammonium concentrations on soil N2O emissions

    Johnston, Tony

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Nitrous oxide (N₂O) is a potent greenhouse gas (GHG) and the single-most ozone (O₃) depleting substance. Agriculture is the dominant source of anthropogenic N₂O emissions globally, and especially in New Zealand. Urine, synthetic nitrogen (N) fertiliser and farm dairy effluent (FDE) are the main sources of N₂O emissions from agricultural soils in New Zealand. Urine and synthetic N fertiliser have received considerable research attention to minimise their contribution to soil N₂O emissions due to the high N loadings and greater emission factors (EF) of these inputs. However, as the land application of Farm Dairy Effluent (FDE) is a less significant contributor to New Zealand’s overall N₂O emissions profile, research on this N-input is limited. The mass of FDE applied to land increased from, 18kt in 1990 to 39kt in 2013, and a recent increase in popularity of herd homes will further increase the mass of FDE produced. Thus, FDE requires further research. Limited data is available on the EF’s from the land application of FDE. In addition, an analysis of the literature suggests the NH₄⁺-N concentration of FDE is highly variable. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of FDE NH₄⁺-N concentration on soil N₂O emissions. A 35-day field trial was conducted, where 10 mm of FDE was applied to pasture at NH₄⁺-N concentrations of either 90, 150, 200, 300 or 400 mg NH4⁺-N L-1. The 150 and 400 mg NH₄⁺-N L-1 treatments contained 15N to monitor the fate of FDE NH₄⁺-N. N₂O gas samples were taken daily for the first week, then every 2-3 days for the remainder of the trial. Soil inorganic-N pools were monitored every 7 days. Pasture production was measured on days 19 and 35. Peak N₂O emissions occurred within 24 hrs of applying the FDE. The highest N₂O emisions were produced in the 400 mg NH4⁺-N L⁻¹ treatment averaging 65 kg N₂O ha⁻¹ day⁻¹. FDE treatments produced significantly more than the control until day 7. Emission factors ranged from 0.18 to 0.32 percent of total N applied, significantly less than the 1% currently used to calculate New Zealands GHG inventory. The emission period was relatively short due to low soil nitrate concentrations, and/or relatively dry soil conditions. Ammonium concentration is a key driver of N₂O emissions. Cumulative soil N₂O emissions increased linearly with FDE NH₄⁺-N concentration, however, it is likely this relationship may change in soils with a higher moisture content. Therefore, the use of a single relationship between the two variables for all environmental situations may not be possible. Further studies that analyse the influence of NH₄⁺-N concentrations on soil N₂O emissions, in a range of typical environments, are required to fully understand this relationship.

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  • Molecular genetic analysis of IGF1 in Romney sheep and its role in growth

    Ellis, Olivia Margaret

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    In an effort to improve livestock breeding, recent focus has been on using marker-assisted selection (MAS) to increase the accuracy of the choices made in selecting breeding stock. MAS may increase the annual rate of genetic gain in livestock by as much as 15-30%. Traits that determine the economic value of livestock are of primary concern in livestock breeding. Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 (IGF-1: also known as somatomedin C) affects young animal growth and a range of other anabolic processes in adults from a number of species, but little is known about its role in sheep. Variation in the IGF-1 gene (IGF1) has also been reported in other animal species, but once again little is known about ovine IGF1 variation. Using a polymerase chain reaction – single strand conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) approach, 50 New Zealand (NZ) Romney rams were investigated to ascertain whether variation existed in two regions (an exon 2 fragment and an exon 3 fragment) of ovine IGF1. Two PCR-SSCP banding-patterns were discovered for each region, with one or a combination of two banding patterns detected for each sheep. For each region, these patterns were named A and B, and upon sequencing a unique DNA sequence was identified. 150 lambs (obtained from the NZ Romney Progeny Test; 2007-present), that were the progeny of a single ram that produced lambs over two seasons (2007 and 2009) were investigated for the association analysis. Phenotypic data for growth and carcass traits were available for these lambs and statistical analyses (Minitab v17) were performed using stepwise regression to assess the effect of the presence or absence of the IGF1 variants on the various lamb phenotypes. In these analyses the presence of the exon 2 IGF1 A variant was associated (P = 0.049) with increased birth weight in the 2007 lambs, although this effect did not persist in the 2009 lambs, or when the data from both years was combined. For the 2009 lambs, the presence of exon 2 A was associated (P = 0.017) with an increased growth rate from birth to tailing and this effect persisted (P = 0.035) when the 2007 and 2009 lamb data was combined. Trends (0.05 < P < 0.2) were observed between the presence of exon 2 A and increased tailing weight and growth from birth to weaning in the 2009 lambs and these trends persisted when the data from the 2007 and 2009 lambs was combined. No effects were observed for the exon 3 genotypes in 2007, but in 2009, there was a trend for AA to be associated with increased tailing weight and weaning weight, with the tailing weight effect persisting when both years’ data was combined. Overall these results suggest that variation in IGF1 could be of value as a genetic marker to complement genetic evaluations for early growth in sheep.

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  • Vulnerability of transients and freedom campers in uncontrolled camping grounds: Coes and Chamberlains Fords

    Winchester, Henry

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Transient communities throughout the country are faced with the same risks as other fixed communities. However, how are these risks communicated and how vulnerable are these communities? Many families in New Zealand travel to locations their families have been visiting for generations. Within Canterbury, there are many locations where this phenonemon occurs. This research investigated Coes Ford and Chamberlains Ford, which are located along the Selwyn River in Canterbury, New Zealand. This research has three aims: first, to understand the hazards and risks that are present at both Coes Ford and Chamberlains Ford; secondly, to understand how these hazards and risks are communicated through various means; and, thirdly, based on the research, to develop a framework that improves the assessment and communication of risk to transients at Coes Ford and Chamberlains Ford and similar sites. In order to achieve these aims a review of the current hazard management literature defining risk, resilience, preparedness and vulnerability of transients, helped assist and develop the transient community vulnerability assessment framework. Along with a review of the literature, questionnaires, field observations and interviews were used to understand the hazards present and the community at each sites. The transient framework developed helped in understanding each site in regard to the makeup of each location, the hazards present and the potential impact of an adverse event. The results indicated that there were substantive differences between the Coes Ford and Chamberlains Ford communities. These were that there was a number of international visitors at both sites, with both sites having the majority of visitors from Europe. The majority of these visitors were aged between 18 and 34. The ethnic makeup of both the Coes Ford and Chamberlains Fords communities, when comparing their awareness of water quality and flooding issues, saw the Europeans the least aware of the potential of adverse events occurring, but they had the most awareness of and knew where to check if such an event was likely which could be due to the number of responders. This study concluded that the awareness of hazards in transient communities’ changes and there was a need to be aware that not all communities were homogeneous, as each transient community was different and this has been reflected in the findings of this research.

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  • Organics in New Zealand: consumer perception and purchase behaviour of organic food

    Chamberlain, Hannah M.

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of New Zealand consumer perception and purchase behaviour of organic food. Research in this area is of importance as the popularity of organic food has been increasing in New Zealand and many other countries. Many studies have investigated consumer perception of organic food in other countries, but there is limited literature available that is specific to New Zealand. Data was collected using a mixed method survey involving the mall-intercept technique and mail survey. A mall intercept survey of consumers was carried out in three locations around Christchurch, Canterbury, with a total of 97 respondents. 72 responses were obtained at the time of the mall intercepts. An additional 78 questionnaires with postage-paid return envelopes were given to consumers who did not have time to respond on the day, with 25 mail responses received. Descriptive (i.e. frequencies and averages) and inferential (i.e. one-way Anova and independent sample t-tests) statistics were used to analyse the data. This study contributes to knowledge about the perceptions and purchase behaviour of New Zealand consumers in regards to organic food. The most frequently bought organic food items are fruit/vegetables, followed by dairy and meat/eggs. The most important benefits of organic food perceived by New Zealand consumers were found to be health and well-being of current and future generations, animal welfare protection, no/minimal pesticides, no/minimal food additives and good taste. The biggest barrier to the purchase of organic food for New Zealand consumers was shown to be high price, followed by limited availability of organic food and limited choice/variety of organic food options. Except for gender, demographic factors were generally not found to have a statistically significant effect on consumer perception or purchase behaviour for organic food. The results of an independent sample T-test indicate a statistically significant relationship between gender and the importance placed on the attributes of more nutritious, health benefits, no/minimal fertilisers, no/minimal food additives and animal welfare protection. The means for these attributes suggested that they were significantly more important to women than to men. The only significant result to take note of for the effect of income would be for the attribute of biodiversity protection. The calculated means suggested that biodiversity protection was significantly less important to respondents with a high income. The attributes no/minimal pesticides and climate protection were significantly more important to the group of respondents with undergraduate degrees. The conclusions of this study indicate which attributes are the most important to consider in future research of the production of organic food for New Zealand consumers, and give an indication of the attributes that should be emphasised in the marketing of organic food in New Zealand. Key words: consumer perceptions, New Zealand, organic food, purchase behaviour

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  • The effects of winter forage crop grazing of hillslopes on soil erosion in South Otago

    Penny, Veronica May

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Agricultural development has lead to deforestation, intensification and increased erosion worldwide. In New Zealand, increasing cow numbers has led to greater demand for forage crops to feed stock off-farm in winter. Expansion of dairying on flat land has pushed wintering systems on to rolling to steep land, particularly in the Southland and South Otago regions. While the impacts of forage crop grazing on soil compaction and overland flow of sediment and nutrients has been studied, there has been no previous work done on the direct influence of this farming practice on soil transport. This study used a novel technique to quantify the volume of soil transported downslope beneath the hooves of cows that were grazing kale over the 2015 winter period. Steel ball bearings were buried in the soil prior to grazing, and the distance they had moved was determined after winter, and used to infer soil transport. A linear relationship was found between soil transport flux and slope gradient of up to 0.25 m m-1, with stock track formation on steeper slopes causing greater spatial variability of soil transport rates and non systematic dependence of soil transport hillslope gradient; further research is required to describe this relationship. The steep slope of the relationship for gradients <0.25 indicates that rapid downslope transport occurs relative to gradient under forage crop grazing. This soil transport results in erosion on convex sites, at rates that exceed soil production rates, leading to unsustainable soil loss in these areas. Soil transport under conventional cultivation was also determined in this study, using the same methodology. No linear relationship was found between transport rates and gradient. However, despite the lack of relationship, downslope soil transport rates under cultivation exceeded those under cow grazing, indicating that significant soil transport results from this practice. The combination of soil transport under grazing and cultivation allows the impact of the forage crop grazing system as a whole to be understood.

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  • Multi-scale analysis of carbon stocks and process indicators in the agro-ecosystem of Canterbury, New Zealand

    Welsch, Johannes

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Increasing interest in characterising carbon dynamics in the agricultural landscape has been driven by the clear need for greenhouse gas mitigation strategies in response to global climate change. However, little quantitative information is available about carbon stocks and processes in agro-ecosystems. Better understanding of carbon stocks and processes is of particular importance in New Zealand, where farmland occupies large areas across the country and ongoing change in farming practices, land management and intensification are affecting carbon stocks and processes and ultimately, agricultural sustainability. This study aimed to quantify and understand variation in above- and below-ground carbon stocks and processes in shelterbelts and paddocks at multiple scales within the agro-ecosystem of Canterbury, New Zealand. In an initial pilot study across four farms showed that variability in above- and below-ground carbon stocks among-farms was smaller than between shelterbelt and paddocks. Using this knowledge to determine appropriate sampling intensity, I quantified carbon stocks and processes within shelterbelts across 34 farms, focussing particularly on understanding how within-shelterbelt-scale (e.g. soil moisture, pH), shelterbelt-scale (e.g. shelterbelt type, age, and tree biomass), farm-scale (e.g. land use) and landscape-scale (e.g. soil type) factors was related to variability of these variables. Total above- and below-ground carbon pools in shelterbelts were similar for exotic and native shelterbelts (152.6 ± 131 t C ha-1 and 110.8 ± 128 t C ha-1, respectively [mean ± standard errors]), although native shelterbelts were on average half the age of exotic shelterbelts (16 and 27 years, respectively). The above-ground biomass carbon pool represented about 62% and soil carbon pool 33% in both native and exotic shelterbelts. Most variability in carbon stocks was explained at the shelterbelt scale by shelterbelt type, age and size, whereas farm scale played a minor role and soil type was unimportant. Carbon cycle processes varied primarily at the shelterbelt and paddock level. Leaf litter decomposition and microbial activity were twice as high and invertebrates were more active in native shelterbelts compared to exotic shelterbelts, and variability in these indicators were best explained by within-shelterbelt factors (e.g., soil moisture, pH, organic and labile carbon) and shelterbelt characteristics (age, biomass, and vegetation type). Therefore, above-ground shelterbelt-scale factors drive carbon cycle process indicator rates and biological activity in the Canterbury agro-ecosystem, rather than land use or landscape factors. These field data were used in GIS-based spatial carbon model which expored and evaluated a number of agricultural land use, cover and management scenarios and their impact on soil carbon stocks over the enxt 10 years (2014 – 2024) in combination with quantifying the amount of shelterbelt area needed to offset the potential soil carbon loss. While the model default settings predicted an increase in soil carbon stocks, the literature based alternative scenarios, commonly predicted a decrease of 10%, 6%, 34% in soil carbon stocks in the alternative dairy, sheep and beef and arable scenarios. This study shows that native shelterbelts in agro-ecosystems have considerable potential for increasing carbon pools and enhancing carbon cycle process, particularly as they age through time. Contrary to current assessments, this study was not able to provide definate evidence on the effect of further intensification and land clearing on carbon stocks in Canterbury. Future studies should include long-term investigation of carbon stocks and processes across a wider variety of shelterbelt and farm types.

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  • An unexpected journey: the biogeography and conservation ecology of the trapdoor spider genus Cantuaria Hogg, 1902

    Smith, Victoria Rose

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    The genus Cantuaria consists of 42 currently recognised species, all of which are endemic to New Zealand (NZ). Cantuaria spiderlings build their burrows near to their mothers, and usually remain there for life. Cantuaria’s sedentary life history is at odds with its distribution, which reaches from Stewart Island up to Whanganui. Cantuaria’s sister genus Misgolas Karsch, 1878 is found in Australia. In this thesis, I used a dated multilocus Bayesian phylogeny to reconstruct [1] when the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of Cantuaria diverged from Misgolas, and [2] the distribution history of Cantuaria within NZ. My results showed that Cantuaria and Misgolas shared a MRCA as recently as 18 million years ago, indicating long distance dispersal in Cantuaria’s biogeographic history. However, there was also evidence to suggest that vicariant geographic barriers interrupt dispersal, as species to the east and west of the Southern Alps share a most recent common ancestor approximately 5-8 million years ago. The genus appears to have originated in the southern part of the South Island, before moving gradually northwards. Cantuaria phylogenies were used to delimit species using the Poisson tree process, and 12 new species are described. Morphology and phylogeny do not concur, and geographic location combined with DNA are the most reliable methods for identifying Cantuaria species. Due to Cantuaria species’ small populations (defined as a semi-isolated individual or group of individuals) and lack of dispersal ability, I hypothesised that they would be susceptible to habitat loss and disturbance. My research investigated how different types of habitat and disturbance affect Cantuaria population presence/absence. I also assessed the threats that may be facing individual populations. A taxon that is easily susceptible to changing environmental parameters may be less likely to survive and colonise new territory after a long-distance ocean crossing. My results show that Cantuaria, surprisingly, are able to breed and reproduce in a variety of habitat types, but they are found less often in areas with very high rainfall, and in high elevation areas. Some populations appear to contain very few individuals, and may be threatened by habitat destruction. The threats to Cantuaria populations include climate change (which may increase rainfall in some areas) and urbanisation. A meta-analysis of biogeographical research from the last decade for all taxa investigated the factors that may affect a species’ biogeographic history in NZ and found no evidence to suggest that characteristics, such as dispersal ability, affect a species’ biogeographical history over evolutionary time.

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  • Production planning and costing systems in plant nurseries

    Hughes, Christopher F.

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Information provides the basis for decisions and therefore, the quality of a decision will be affected by the type and quality of information available. The information requirements of plant nursery businesses, with special reference to production planning and costing systems, were determined. To achieve this a three-stage approach was undertaken. A survey of management information systems in 343 plant nurseries was conducted. Information requirements and the types of information systems were ascertained. Nursery managers mainly use financial and accounting information systems, such as accounts payable (90%), accounts receivable (93%) and payroll (65%) with only 20% of nurseries having production labour recording systems. Most nurseries are small to medium sized businesses with 71 percent of respondents having a turnover of less than $0.5m. Seventy one percent of larger nurseries (>$1m turnover) are intending to implement additional information systems. In contrast, only 35 percent of small ( where techniques developed in manufacturing industries show potential in overcoming many information problems. The main constraints on information system development, maintenance, adoption and use were time and cost and the collection and processing of plant production field data. A system of descriptive crop labelling is suggested to overcome the data collection problem by utilising activity-based costing techniques developed in manufacturing industries, and bar codes from the retail sector. Improved production planning and control systems with linkages to a costing and accounting system are required. An activity-based costing system could be used to overcome many of the problems and reduce data collection and administrative time.

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  • Governance of small sports clubs in New Zealand: existing structures, processes and potential models

    Hill, Simon

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Sports clubs are one of the dominant sports delivery mechanisms in New Zealand, yet despite this, they have received remarkably little attention in the academic literature. This study aims to fill that gap through a case study investigation of the governance structures and processes used by four small sports clubs in New Zealand. Drawing on a case study approach utilising interviews and documentary evidence, the study found that small sports clubs in New Zealand are mostly governed, managed and operated by a group of dedicated volunteers elected or appointed to the committee by their fellow members. The governance structures that small clubs operate within has evolved from the historical ‘kitchen table’ method of operation to a hybrid model of multiple governance models and ideas. Unexpectedly, the study found that these ideas have in most cases come from the knowledge volunteers bring to the committee table, or borrowed from other clubs that are deemed successful, as opposed to utilising well documented models such as Carver's (2006) Policy Governance Model or Sport New Zealand’s The Nine Steps to Effective Governance (Sport New Zealand, 2014). Both of these resources advocate for a clear separation between governance duties, including the employment of the CEO, strategic planning and decisions over major capital expenses, and management, encompassing day-to-day operations, management of staff, business plans and purchases. However, the data collected suggests that small sports clubs are not resourced to initiate the separation of duties Carver (2006) and Sport New Zealand (2014) suggest, even though volunteer committee members in this research paper range from five to eighteen people. Instead, the clubs appear to have (unknowingly) adopted aspects of alternative models such as Mowbray's (2011) ‘third team’ approach, and Bradshaw's (2009) ‘contingency theory’. The study concludes that although there is increased pressure for clubs to professionalise their practise, there are no appropriate best practise models or methods of governance available to small sports clubs. Despite this, this study demonstrates that clubs have developed potentially successful governance systems.

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  • Human capital in the banking sector: an exploratory study of Sri Lanka and New Zealand

    Perera, R.A. Ahesha Sajeewani

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Businesses around the world proclaim their employees as being the corporation’s most valuable resource. The field of human capital (HC) is not a new one and, studies focussing specifically on HC and its importance to organisations have been published in the academic press for several decades (Amit & Zott, 2001; Barney & Wright, 1998; Wernerfelt, 1984). However, despite continuous research attention, HC remains underdeveloped and an under- researched concept (Gambardella, Panico, & Valentini, 2015; Lewis & Heckman, 2006; McDonnell, 2011). Thus, this research contributes and extends the existing knowledge on HC to provide a comprehensive understanding by exploring the following questions: “How does the banking sector define the phrase HC?” Why does the banking sector deem HC and measuring, managing, and reporting on HC to be important?” “What attributes of HC do banks measure, manage, and report?” and” How do HC and measuring, managing, and reporting on human capital information (HCI) in Sri Lanka differ from those practices in New Zealand?” A qualitative case study is employed as a research approach in this study and the banking sector is chosen as the case sector. Data is collected from 10 banks in two countries, Sri Lanka and New Zealand, via conducting interviews, and gathering information from available secondary sources. The coding process resulted in descriptive codes, categories and finally themes, which are used as a basis to build a comprehensive and interesting narrative about HC in the banking sector in a developing country, Sri Lanka and a developed country, New Zealand. This study shows that the term “human capital” is defined by the Sri Lankan banks as “a cluster of competences, diversity, engagement and values of employees” whereas, in the New Zealand context, the term “human capital” was operationalised as “a cluster of competences, values, diversity and knowledge of employees.” This study examined why banks recognised the importance of HC to the banking business, with the Sri Lankan banks in particular revealing that HC has the potential to enhance overall productivity and efficiency, assist adherence to compliance requirements, ensure banks’ survival, achieve sustainable success and enhance business performance. Except for ensuring banks’ survival, other reasons were endorsed by the banks in New Zealand. Banks’ evidence identifies categories of HC information that they measure, manage, and report. In particular for Sri Lanka, nine information categorises were identified: training and career development, resourcing, attrition and retention, compliances, employee relations, employee welfare, diversity and equity information, health and safety, efficiency, and informal information. Confirming the Sri Lankan banks’ measuring, managing, and reporting practice, the New Zealand banks also revealed that they measure, manage, and report all the above information categories except informal information, such as family background, schools attended and parents’ profession. The findings further suggest that the banks in Sri Lanka and New Zealand use these measured, managed, and reported employee information for two main purposes: internal management and external reporting. Overall, findings suggest that although some disparities existed, the importance of having HC and measuring, managing, and reporting on HCI practices in these two countries were homogeneous.

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  • Kampung / landscape : rural-urban migrants' interpretations of their home landscape. The case of Alor Star and Kuala Lumpur

    Maliki, N.

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Kampung is a pervasive concept in Malay Culture and considered counter urban in contemporary discourse. Rural to urban migration of the Malays from kampung to cities occur at an accelerated pace in urbanizing Malaysia. Rural migrants are said to remain attached to their rural kampung lifestyles and find the socio-spatial character of urban environment difficult to adapt to. Previous studies on rural kampung by anthropologists and social scientists have unpacked the socio-economic and cultural aspects of kampung Malays in rural area. My study of migrants in Alor Star and Kuala Lumpur is focused on the landscape meanings of kampung and explores how these ideas have been brought across to a city environment. I investigated the meanings and symbolic values that kampung holds to the rural-urban migrants through a ‘landscape lens’. I recorded the experiences of the rural-urban migrants in adapting to an urban landscape, identified kampung elements to which people have strong attachment with and highlighted the kampung characteristics that could be maintained or replicated in order to address the maladaptation of the migrants and enhance their urban living experience. Study participants were rural-urban migrant respondents from rural kampung in Yan, Kedah who have either moved to Kuala Lumpur or Alor Star. The case studies in the two cities were carried out using qualitative methods including photo elicitation, in-depth interviews, model mapping techniques and participant observation. Respondents provided narratives of their journey from kampung, moving to the city, and their process of adapting and settling in cities. Challenges in adaptation to city living spaces included spatial use, privacy, social relationships, safety and surveillance. My findings demonstrated that the memory of kampung plays a significant part in guiding the life of respondents in the city, and that the image of kampung is pervasive in the daily social and spatial practice of rural-urban migrants, guiding respondents’ level of adaptation and place-making in the city landscape. The use of landscape as lens was helpful in interpreting the complex and multivalent kampung meanings. Addressing a dynamic kampung idea through a landscape framework highlights the strong parallels between kampung and the early landscape concepts. The process of unweaving the meanings of kampung have illustrated that kampung ideas have the potential to inspire a landscape design language that could mitigate the harsh contrast between rural and urban Malaysia.

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  • The socio-economic consequences of tourism in Levuka, Fiji

    Fisher, D.

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    This thesis examines the proposition that the local population at a tourist destination copy the economic behaviour of tourists and learn to give economic value to the same objects and activities that are demonstrated by tourists. Levuka, the old capital of Fiji, served as the case study. It was found that decisions are based on the experiences and the cultural template of which those decisions are a part. There are many acculturating factors involved in the learning process as a subsistance-based economy becomes more monetised. The purchasing habits of tourists have little obvious effect. However, there is evidence that what is of value to tourists and what encourages them to visit the destination are not fully appreciated by many of the host population. Examples of these culturally dissimilar values are externalities such as the physical structures of the built environment and unquantifiable factors such as the ambience of the destination. It is argued that an understanding of the factors that have created cultural rules is necessary if a complete analysis of the effects of tourism is to be undertaken. This can be achieved by considering change as a process and tracing that process by examining the cultural history of the host community. Tourism should be seen as another aspect of change. The response to tourism will then be seen as a new challenge that will be met using the lessons previously learnt and incorporated into the cultural template.

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  • Stochastic modelling of contaminant transport in porous media

    Verwoerd, W.

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    The stochastic model of solute transport describes the motion of fluid elements in a porous medium as stochastic variation of the fluid velocity, produced by pore wall impacts. This gives a stochastic differential equation for fluid displacements, and solute transport is obtained as the cumulative effect over all realisations of the stochastic path. It is shown that applying Dynkin’s equation to obtain expectation values over realisations, a time and space dependent probability density for fluid displacements can be calculated. A new method is presented to calculate the evolution of solute concentration profiles from such probability densities. Applied to transport in a constant fluid drift velocity, the conventional diffusive description of the advection-dispersion equation is regained. However, with changing drift velocity e.g. in a non-homogenous porous medium, new effects emerge. A study of kinematical dispersion produced by advection is used to show that there are intrinsically stochastic effects, characterised as interaction between microscopic stochastic fluctuations and macroscopic velocity changes. This is demonstrated by analytical solution of the stochastic model for a linearly changing drift velocity. More general velocity changes are investigated by developing theoretical tools for piecewise constant and piecewise linear drift velocities. First, transmission of gaussian solute plumes through step changes in the drift velocity is shown to produce non-diffusive dispersion comparable to that found for linearly changing velocities. Approximations to the step results are developed that are simple enough to be applied for multiple steps allowing study of both a velocity staircase and velocity fluctuations about a constant average. It is shown that fluctuations enhance dispersion, and that the cumulative effect of a long series of fluctuations gives rise to a complex behaviour of dispersion with the traversal length through the porous medium, in accordance with observed behaviour commonly referred to as scale-dependent dispersivity. A particularly significant concept arising from the work is that of a natural length scale associated with velocity fluctuations, and which separates distinct short and long range dispersivity trends. To obtain full quantitative agreement with observed scale dependence over 5 orders of magnitude, the fluctuation model is extended by preserving its basic structure but taking the amplitude of the dispersion enhancement as variable. The resulting model has only a small number of parameters, largely constrained by plausibility considerations so that only one parameter is freely optimised, and explains the underlying mechanisms of the observed non-diffusive growth of dispersivity with traversal length. This explanatory aspect hinges to a large extent on the emphasis placed throughout on formulating analytical models rather than numeric ones, supported by the use of symbolic algebra software.

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  • Impact on the North Island freight infrastructure in the event of a disruption of the Ports of Auckland

    Kriel, D.

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    This research provides an investigation into the impact on the North Island freight infrastructure, in the event of a disruption of the Ports of Auckland (POAL). This research is important to New Zealand, especially having experienced the Canterbury earthquake disaster in 2010/2011 and the current 2012 industrial action plaguing the POAL. New Zealand is a net exporter of a combination of manufactured high value goods, commodity products and raw materials. New Zealand’s main challenge lies in the fact of its geographical distances to major markets. Currently New Zealand handles approximately 2 million containers per annum, with a minimum of ~40% of those containers being shipped through POAL. It needs to be highlighted that POAL is classified as an import port in comparison to Port of Tauranga (POT) that has traditionally had an export focus. This last fact is of great importance, as in a case of a disruption of the POAL, any import consigned to the Auckland and northern region will need to be redirected through POT in a quick and efficient way to reach Auckland and the northern regions. This may mean a major impact on existing infrastructure and supply chain systems that are currently in place. This study is critical as an element of risk management, looking at how to mitigate the risk to the greater Auckland region. With the new Super City taking hold, the POAL is a fundamental link in the supply chain to the largest metropolitan area within New Zealand.

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  • Challenges in integrating indigenous and state interests to advance sustainable use of forest resources: The case of the Bukidnon forestry project, Philippines

    Lorca, V.

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    The growing recognition of the importance of forests in the environment led many developed (donor) countries around the globe to provide aid or grants to developing countries for forest development projects. However, the sustainability of these forest development projects often faces uncertainty. A common problem is conflict of interests between the state, private companies and indigenous peoples, particularly in relation to land rights. Traditional aid was oriented towards neoliberal development (commercialization) which depended to a large extent on individual property rights and this can conflict with indigenous people’s customary land ownership and non-commercial use of forests. The Bukidnon forestry project in the Philippines involves, a government owned or controlled corporation assisted by the New Zealand government, establishing a demonstration commercial re-forestation project with commercial production plantation forestry. The Bukidnon Forests Incorporated (BFI) is the corporation established by the Philippines and New Zealand to achieve this goal. However, since its establishment indigenous peoples’ claims to forest land access and ownership has strengthened. This study has explored the challenges facing Bukidnon Forests Incorporated (BFI) and Ancestral Domain/Ancestral Land (AD/AL) claimants as they endeavour to achieve their respective goals. It has also looked at the concerns, needs and interests of BFI and AD/AL claimants purposely to find mutually beneficial arrangements for both parties once BFI’s current land rights expires in 2016. The results of the study indicated that successful establishment and development of a man-made forest plantation is possible in once-denuded and marginalized grassland in the Philippines. However, the government style in managing commercial forest plantation is ineffective in terms of attaining its commercial viability; the long-term sustainability of the project is also uncertain primarily because of insecure land ownership and tenure rights. Moreover, the concept of establishing a large scale industrial tree plantation is in conflict with the objectives of AD/AL claimants in terms of how their ancestral land are being developed. However, alternative institutional arrangements may offer mutually beneficial solution for both BFI and AD/AL claimants.

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  • Rural tourism in the 'Third World' : the dialectic of development : the case of Desa Senaru at Gunung Rinjani National Park in Lombok Island

    Schellhorn, M.

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    This thesis examines the effectiveness of tourism as an agent of rural development, focusing on culture and nature-based destinations in the 'developing world'. The village of Desa Senaru at Gunung Rinjani National Park in Lombok Island, Indonesia, served as a case study. Conservation agencies frequently support tourism development as a sustainable alternative to more extractive resource uses. Integrated conservation models, in particular, present 'eco'tourism as an effective instrument to enhance rural livelihoods while protecting the environment. Alongside international aid agencies, the World Tourism Organisation (UNWTO) also promotes the sector for its poverty reduction potential in 'third world' countries. Rural communities hold concomitant expectations of tourism's socio-cultural development potential. Furthermore, 'eco'tourism functions as a growing niche market for the globally expanding tourism industry and local entrepreneurs. As such it fits well into the economic rationale that underpins neo-liberal market strategies. With such a diversity of interests at stake, the question "What kind of business is tourism?" has become more complex, critical and pertinent than ever before. Informed by development theories and the sociology of tourism, this analysis focuses on the multiple dichotomies that characterise 'third world' tourism. In the case of tourism development in Desa Senaru, several paradoxical outcomes have been identified. The most profound of these is the 'social justice paradox' that describes the way tourism costs and benefits are distributed within a heterogeneous community of native residents and migrant settlers. While most of the case study's tourism attractions are part of the cultural heritage of the wetu telu Sasak hamlets, these derive few economic benefits and struggle to access the new development opportunities 'eco'tourism offers. Filtered and directed by historical political relations, several key barriers to a meaningful participation of these native people in the 'business of tourism' have been identified. These include the prevailing conditions of education, culture, ethnicity, socio-economy, location, mobility, skills and knowledge. Expectations of 'eco'tourism as a 'soft' industry analysed vis-à-vis the global biosphere effects of air transport highlight the 'eco-paradox' of international tourism. The cleavage between the poverty-focused aid policies of the New Zealand Government and an integrated conservation project, whose benefits local elites have largely captured, illustrates the 'project paradox' of rural tourism development programmes. In the 'development paradox' of cultural tourism, symbolic constructs of 'otherness' (such as 'aesthetic poverty') contrast with various development agendas; in their search for the 'real' traditional village, for example, the tourists reject all signifiers of material progress and modernity. Their curious gaze at the spiritual practices and everyday life world of the wetu telu villagers manifests opposite a recent history of state-sanctioned religious discrimination. Taken together, these paradoxical local outcomes emphasize the significance of power relations and political dimensions within the globally expanding 'business of tourism'. Ethical considerations are an important aspect of this study as they contribute towards an 'ethic of development' that, so far, has found little theoretical resonance amongst scholars of tourism studies. To operationalise the ethical concerns raised, the thesis posits a model of a holistic approach to development. This recognises tourism as a complex open system.

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  • Floral resource subsidies for the enhancement of the biological control of aphids in oilseed rape crops

    Varennes, Yann-David

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Food production is achieved by the interaction of man-made infrastructures with natural ecosystems, the latter providing soil, light, and regulating services, including biological control. However, such natural capital has been put increasingly at risk by modern agricultural practices. For example, the use of insecticide compounds can be harmful to organisms in the soil, the water and the vegetation, including beneficial insects. This thesis investigated how the ecological management of a conventional oilseed rape (OSR) cropping system can enhance the biological control of insect pests by their natural enemies, which could alleviate the use of insecticides. OSR hosts three aphid species, namely, Brevicoryne brassicae (L.), Myzus persicae (Sulzer), and Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach). In New Zealand, these three species are attacked by the parasitic wasp Diaeretiella rapae (McIntosh) [Hymenoptera: Braconidae], which completes its larval development inside an aphid body, and is a free-living organism when adult. In that stage, the wasp only feeds on carbohydrate-rich fluids, e.g. floral nectars and honeydew. Floral resource subsidies consist in the addition of nectar-providing vegetation in the habitat of parasitoids, to enhance their reproductive output, which in turn cascades into decreased pest density. This approach has known successes and failures, and its potential could be increased by a better understanding of its ecological functioning. In the introduction, this thesis lists current knowledge gaps in the ecology of floral subsidies targeted at enhancing the control of pests by parasitoids. In the second chapter, this thesis reports how nectar feeding affects the behaviour of D. rapae. It was observed that feeding on buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) enhanced ca. 40-fold the time spent searching for hosts and greatly reduced the time spent stationary. The consequences of this for the reproduction of the parasitoid, and biocontrol, are discussed. The third chapter addresses the potential competition between pollinators and parasitoids for nectar, when the latter is provided as a floral subsidies. This question is crucial because the potential effect of floral subsidies on biocontrol could be negated by if the provided nectar is consumed by pollinators. A manipulative field experiment indicated that this negative interaction is not existent or weak, although the power of the test was low. A laboratory trial presented in the fourth chapter showed that the longevity of D. rapae fed on OSR or buckwheat nectar was enhanced ca. 3-fold compared to unfed conspecifics. Feeding on M. persicae honeydew and nectar from two candidate floral subsidies enhanced longevity ca. 2-fold, indicating a lower nutritional quality. Two other plants did not cause any longevity enhancement. The value of these results with regard to the understanding of the nutritional ecology of D. rapae is discussed. The food-web of aphids, parasitoids and hyperparasitoids (fourth trophic level) living in OSR crops in New Zealand has not been documented. Understanding the composition and structure of the food-web is important to guide the implementation of floral subsidies. The fifth chapter presents a protocol for the reconstruction of food-webs, based on the molecular analysis of aphid mummies. The further use of this tool for the construction of aphid-based food-webs in general is discussed. The thesis findings are discussed in the context of OSR as an ephemeral, multi-species, spatially complex and dynamic habitat. The concept of “foodscape” is adapted to parasitoids and biological control. In its last section, the discussion integrates ecological and agricultural considerations to suggest the intercropping of a flowering plant in OSR crops.

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  • The Fair Trade and Fair Trade Organic chains for small honey producers in the Tucuman and Santiago del Estero provinces of Northwest Argentina

    Nervi, Agustin

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Argentina plays a major role in the global honey market as the world’s second largest exporter behind China. About 70% of Argentine beekeepers are small to medium-sized. Consumers from affluent markets are increasingly aware of the processes involved in the production of the food they purchase. These consumers are willing to pay premiums for goods that have socially and environmentally sustainable production methods. Certification protocols such as Fair Trade and Organic give consumers confidence that these requirements are met. However, smallholders find it difficult to access these premiums as they produce small volumes and consequently face high unit compliance, transaction and marketing costs. This qualitative study aims to understand how the Fair Trade and Fair Trade Organic honey supply chains operate in the Tucumán and Santiago del Estero provinces of Northwest Argentina. A case study method and semi-structured interviews is utilised to collect data from key respondents. The analysis follows a pattern matching logic in order to compare patterns identified in the data with those predicted by the literature. A within-case analysis is performed for each case, followed by cross-case comparisons in order to recognise the advantages, disadvantages and constraints for increased smallholder participation in the study chains. The analysis suggests that despite benefits brought by collective action and market access, the Fair Trade and Fair Trade Organic chains did not provide substantial premiums to cover small beekeepers’ compliance, transaction and marketing costs. Information and power asymmetry, biophysical risk, geographical dispersion and institutional problems raised transaction and agency costs within organisations and between producers and buyers preventing long-term, sustainable relationships. This research provides solutions to reduce these costs and improve small beekeepers’ welfare.

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  • The contribution of taewa (Maori potato) production to Maori sustainable development

    McFarlane, Turi R.

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Indigenous peoples in many countries have come under increasing pressure to engage in 'successful development' as defined by outsiders. Frequently, traditional 'Western' models for development are imposed on indigenous communities where 'success' is measured by the realisation of economic outcomes. However, the Maori participants of this research have a broader, holistic appreciation of development, whereby well-being, is strongly influenced by cultural assets, the application of Maori values, a strong sense of cultural identity and the retention and use of Maori knowledge, in addition to economic outcomes. Maori sustainable development is a term reflecting these aspirations of contemporary Maori. The dissertation explores the relationships between taewa production and contemporary appreciations of Maori sustainable development. A case study of taewa growers associated with the Tahuri Whenua national vegetable growers collective was the focus of the qualitative research. The research provided insight into the livelihood outcomes associated with taewa production and explored these within a holistic appreciation of Maori development and well-being. The research has shown that taewa production contributes towards Maori sustainable development for growers in this case study, facilitating and enhancing growers' appreciations of well-being. Growers have related the significant relationship they share with taewa as being more than just about the physical crop. Taewa are a taonga which have been passed down through generations, and facilitate an important link between the people and the land. Taewa strengthen a relationship with this most precious resource, founded in whakapapa and fostered through care and nurture. Growers in this case study have prioritised the application of traditional Maori values such as manaakitanga (hospitality, giving) and whanaungatanga (kinship, togetherness) realised through taewa production. These intangible livelihood outcomes represent integral considerations contributing towards the well-being of these growers. Tangible aspects such as the realisation of economic outcomes are also associated with taewa production, and while these aspects are not necessarily prioritised by the growers in this case study, the growers acknowledge the need to be economically sufficient and recognise the opportunities taewa production can provide. Growers recognise the positive contributions taewa production can make and are motivated to use their knowledge and experience in this area to contribute towards the well-being of future generations. Cultural assets have been shown to be particularly relevant and significant in this context. A Maori worldview relates everything through whakapapa which is the foundation of Maori identity. Therefore, culture pervades all aspects of Maori livelihoods and influences the way in which other livelihood assets can be realised.

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  • Interactions between soil biogeochemistry and native earthworms in New Zealand

    Kim, Youngnam

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Despite apparently similar burrowing and feeding behaviours to introduced Lumbricidae earthworms, native Megascolecidae, with more than 179 recognised species, have become isolated in natural vegetation remnants on the margins of agricultural land. Long-term geographic isolation has provided high endemic earthworm diversity in New Zealand, but they appear to have a poor ability to adapt to anthropogenic disturbance. Although earthworms are well known as ‘soil engineers’, there is lack of knowledge of the role of endemic earthworms in New Zealand’s soil ecosystems. The aims of the present PhD study were to identify endemic earthworm preferences for and influences on soil biogeochemistry, and to investigate interactions between the drilosphere of native earthworms and the rhizosphere of native plants. Species of earthworm, collected from native vegetation, natural remnants and restoration sites in Canterbury and on the West Coast of South Island, were identified using DNA barcoding with 16S and COI primers. Thirteen endemic and nine exotic species were identified and, of these, eight abundant earthworms were selected for this study: 5 endemic taxa identified as Deinodrilus sp.1 (epigeic), Maoridrilus transalpinus and Maoridrilus sp.2 (anecic), Megascolecidae sp.1 and Octochaetus multiporus (endogeic), and 3 exotic species: Eisenia fetida (epigeic), Octolasion cyaneum and O. lacteum (endogeic). Both endemic and exotic earthworms preferred agricultural soils to a native forest soil. Ryegrass litter was preferred to litter of native plants, although Coprosma robusta was also favoured by endemic earthworms. There was more preference for less acid soil than for high organic matter soil. Earthworm species could also be separated on the basis of their effects on soil biogeochemistry, in terms of organic matter consumption, nutrient mineralisation, soil microbial biomass and greenhouse gas emissions from the soil. Earthworm inoculation of soils increased more mobile forms of the key nutrients N and P, and emissions of N2O and CO2 from an agricultural soil. Lesser differences were found between native and exotic earthworms than between functional (burrowing) groups. Native earthworms increased growth of plants, including L. perenne, and had a marked interaction with root morphology of two native species of tea tree (Leptospermum scoparium and Kunzea robusta). They also stimulated microbial activity in rhizosphere soil. An anecic species, M. transalpinus, enhanced rates of root nodulation of a native leguminous shrub (Sophora microphylla), enhancing critical concentrations of nitrate, but also reducing nitrous oxide emissions. Maoridrilus spp. enhanced plant productivity in biosolids-amended soils, but raised some potential environmental concerns through increased N2O emissions in <50 % biosolid treatments. They also significantly increased ammonium and nitrate in soil, microbial activity and soil concentrations of soluble copper. The results showed that endemic earthworms could play a critical role providing soil ecosystem services in New Zealand’s production landscapes. Novel habitats within agricultural management systems provide an important refuge for threatened species conservation. Enhanced restoration of native vegetation into agricultural landscapes will enhance the dispersion and sustainability of communities of native earthworms. An integrated understanding of plant growth and microbial communities with earthworm functionality is essential for effective management of soil biogeochemistry and to inform ecological restoration on former agricultural land.

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